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Violence in Media Contribute to Violent Behavior in Children?
In this day and age, the media is part and parcel of most people's lives in such a way that there is an interaction with media in different forms each day. People access media for many reasons, some of which are to gather information, to be entertained and in order to advance their education. In today's media, violence has become a common feature, raising fears of what the impact of this might be. This issue is prevalent all around the world today and has been accessed by people of all ages, races and religions. Questions have been raised as to the effect this violence has had and will have on the viewer (Hinkley, et al., 2014). Media can be accessed in various forms, including television, radios, films, games and the internet. All these mediums have a potential to affect people's lives,…
Bushman, B. J., Gollwitzer, M., & Cruz, C. (2015). There is broad consensus: Media researchers agree that violent media increase aggression in children, and pediatricians and parents concur. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4, 200-214. doi:10.1037/ppm0000046.
Ferguson, C. J. (2015). Does Media Violence Predict Societal Violence? It Depends on What You Look at and When. Journal of Communication 65, E1 -- E22. doi:10.1111/jcom.12129
Ferguson, C. J., Olson, C. K., Kutner, L. A., & Warner, D. E. (2014). Violent video games, catharsis seeking, bullying, and delinquency: A multivariate analysis of effects. Crime & Delinquency, 60, 764-784. doi:10.1177/0011128710362201
Greitemeyer, T., & Mugge, D. O. (2014). Video games do affect social outcomes: a meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 578-589. doi:10.1177/0146167213520459
y identifying with the crowd, the individual is freed from responsibility for his or her actions, and thus is more likely to engage in violent behavior (or at a minimum, feels more comfortable engaging in said behavior). However, this does not fully account for violent crowds, because even if individuals gain anonymity through the crowd and thus are free to engage in violent behavior, one must explain just how this violent behavior is instigated and transmitted through the crowd, because although there is a positive connection between anonymity and violent or unethical behavior, one cannot go so far as to say that anonymity causes this behavior. Instead, one may look to a topic in bio-mechanics that, while usually reserved for discussions concerning birds or machines, actually goes a long way in explaining how violent crowds can form, or how previously nonviolent crowds can transition rapidly.
"Flocking" is a term first…
Beck, E.M. And Timothy Clark. "Strangers, Community Miscreants, or Locals: Who were the Black Victims of Mob Violence?" Historical Methods 35, no. 2 (2002): 77-83.
Felson, Richard B. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22,
Hodge, Joel. "Why do Humans Commit Violence?" Compass 45, no. 3 (2011): 3-12.
It is believed that violent offenders operate from a self-centered framework with little, if any, regard for the feelings and well-being of others (Lim, Day & Casey, 2011). By contrast, sociological theories examine the risk factors for violent personality development which include harsh social and environmental issues such childhood abuse and/or neglect, victimization, social exclusion, lack of education, and extreme poverty (MacDonald, Haviland, & Morral, 2009). Poor parenting and the negative influence of certain peer groups may also contribute to violent behavior. An example of this would be violent gang culture among young urban males. For those already at risk, the conditioning and positive sanctioning of violence within the peer group can lead to criminal behavior that persists throughout one's life. Evidence suggests that the proclivity for violent crime increases under harsh living and social conditions.
Cultural and developmental experiences are often at the heart of the "nature vs. nurture"…
Lim, L., Day, a., & Casey, S. (2011). Social Cognitive Processing in Violent Male Offenders. Psychiatry, Psychology & Law, 18(2), 177-189. doi:10.1080/13218711003739490.
MacDonald, J.M., Haviland, a., & Morral, a.R. (2009). Assessing the Relationship between Violent and Nonviolent Criminal Activity among Serious Adolescent Offenders. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 46(4), 553-580.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Rhee, S.H., & Waldman, I.D. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 490-529.
The significance here, of course, is that the government will continue seeking ways to streamline care and services, and that if a foster care program is clinically proven to be beneficial in deterring criminal behavior amongst Native American juveniles, there will be an increased tendency to remove youngsters from their homes and Native American families in lieu of enforced foster care. This would be consistent with the liberty the government has exercised in removing Native American children from their homes since the 19th century.
It is, therefore, incumbent upon the Native American communities to exercise their own preventative and interventions aimed at curbing and resolving juvenile criminal behaviors. It is the only alternative to what is today the only way that society can continue to remove Native American children from their family and Native American communities.
Eddy, J.M., Whaley, .B., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The Prevention of…
The term signature aspect is used to refer to unique behavior that is exhibited by the criminal that is peculiar to that particular criminal though may not be necessary in committing the crime. One of the most common signature aspects is the calling card, or tattooing of the dead bodies, use of excessive force, leaving notes behind and many more. These are not necessary in killing of victims but are a sign of claiming the crime (John E. Douglas, 2011).
The components of crime classification that I learnt about and are central in the crime classification are finding out the defining characteristics of the crimes and the crime scenes, this will be instrumental in telling the motive behind the crime and in the case of multiple motives, the most outstanding will guide the profiling. The other component is victimology which is the complete history of the victim which will help…
Anthony Lantosca, (2006) IAFEI: The truth about Deception Detection. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.iafei.com/deception-detection/
Encyclopedia of mental Disorders, (2012). Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Retrieved February 11,
2012 from http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Hare-Psychopathy-Checklist.html
Hwakins, (2012). The Baseline Killer. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/predators/baseline-killer/1.html
Quite to the point, television, film, pop music and video games share in common a proclivity to promote that which yields prosperity. Thus, there is little regard from the computer gaming industry for indications that "a meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults." (Anderson & Bushman, 353)
In spite of this, revenue for video game produces revolves on role-playing titles such as orld of arcraft, which promotes fantasy world combat, simulation games such as Grand Theft Auto, which glorifies violence and antisocial behavior, Halo, the simulated first-person shooter game, and Madden Football, which portrays in detail the often brutal sport of football.
Connecting absorption of such media with the commitment of violent crimes remains a challenge however. Famously, the two minors responsible for the massacre at the Columbine High School in 1999 were noted for playing such…
Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.
Harding, a. (2009). Violent Video Games Linked to Child Aggression. CNNHealth. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/family/11/03/healthmag.violent.video.kids/index.html
Violent vs. Non-Violent evolution
Violent revolutions and non-violent revolutions began to unfold with great regularity after the 1400's, 1500's and 1600's when much to most of the world became colonized by the Dutch, the French, the British and the Spanish. Both the United States and modern-day India became free from the same ruling country, that being Great Britain. However, the differences are quite stark when one gets beyond that similarity. Even though violent revolutions are often required or at least quicker, the independence of India in the 1940's proved that non-violent revolution can be equally effective, albeit tumultuous in its own right.
Great Britain at one time controlled most of the world, it seemed, along with Spain, France and a few other countries. Indeed, the land now owned by the United States was, at one time or another, controlled by the British, the French, the Spaniards and their descendants…
Violent TV Effect on Kids
Effects of Violent TV Programming and How to Impose Limitations to Exposure
"Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?" By the American Psychological Association (APA) provides an introspective view into how violence on television affects children and presents an argument that exposure to violence should be monitored. Alternately, Tim Goodman provides an argument based upon personal opinions and observations in which he defends television programming and shifts the blame of exposure onto the individual. Both articles provide an insight into violence on television and what can be done to limit exposure to said violence.
In "Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?," the American Psychological Association provides evidence that supports their claim that exposure to violence on television has a negative impact on children, provided these children are exposed to violent television programming. According to…
Cases of violent children have become rampant prompting a lot of research and studies directed towards unravelling the reason behind violence, some of which are extreme at such tender ages. The author gives an example of two children who launched a violent attack in their school killing a teacher and four little girls. The motive suggested for one of the child's behavior is that he was jilted by a girl. These two children were only thirteen and eleven years old. This is quite a young age for a child to exhibit such extreme violent behaviors, they were so young yet they killed with a finely honed sense of premeditation. If I was a child psychologist like the author I would definitely be inspired by this event trying to make sure I found out the exact cause of violent behaviors as such in children who are very young. The author…
Jonatha K., (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflection of Violent Children. Balantine Books.
As explained by Gelles and Strauss in their works, "With the exception of the police and the military, the family is perhaps the most violent social group, and the home the most violent social setting, in our society. A person is more likely to be hit or killed in his or her home by another family member than anywhere else or by anyone else." (Gelles & Straus, 1985, p. 88). Therefore it is evident from this theory that the social connections and settings can impact upon a person's conduct and emotions and could force them to act violently, proving this theory to be true in explaining the biological connection with criminal behavior.
Another biological theory mentions that the gender differences, especially in cases of men, generate strings of violent reactions to the opposite gender. This theory argues that the natural superiority instincts in men push their brain functions to act…
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.
Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1985). In Crime and the Family. Springfield, U.S.: Thomas.
Behavior therapy uses rewards or reinforcements to create positive behaviors in order to replace destructive behaviors. Desensitizing is an important part of this type of therapy, where the patient confronts something they have been unable to deal with, such as a fear or anxiety, and gradually learns to become desensitized to the problem, which eliminates the negative behavior (Editors, 2006).
Basically, both therapies give the patient ways to deal with problems in their lives. The basic different between the two therapies is how they address and handle these problems. Psychotherapy attempts to give the patient ideas and tools to help them master their problems and reactions to problems, while behavioral therapy attempts to fully eliminate unwanted behaviors by desensitizing and behavior modification.
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. etrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. etrieved…
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. Retrieved from the Anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com Web site: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/articles/conventional/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_techniques.php12 March 2007.
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…
Butterworth, F. (1998, July 26). Why the South's murder rate is so high. The New York Times on the Web. ( http://www.nytimes.com )
Capra. F. (1996). The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Carlson, N.R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., & Bowdle, B.F. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.
Controlling Violent Health Care Patients and Employees
This is a paper discussion on the identification and control of violence amongst health care patients and employees. It has 11 sources.
An Introduction to Violence
Violence has become a common feature of our society found in every area of the nation from quiet neighborhoods in the suburbs to the urbanized cities of the U.S. To make the matter worse, the media including radio, TV, private cable networks, have become a part of the culture that promotes the concepts of violence, if there is no violence exhibited in either every day programs then these programs, including those of children are presumed to be a failure. Hence, it would not be wrong to assume that our entire culture has been virtually gripped in a sphere of violence to which there is no end.
This culture of violence continues despite the fact that the sociologists…
Erickson L. Williams-Evans SA. Attitudes of emergency nurses regarding patient assaults. J Emerg Nurs. 2000; 26(3):210-215.
Felton JS. Violence prevention at the health care site. Occup Med. 1997; 12(4):701-715.
Hegal MT, Ferguson RJ. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to reduce aggressive behavior following traumatic brain injury. Behav Modif. 2000; 24(1):94-101.
Levin PF, Hewitt JB, Misner ST. Insights of nurses about assault in hospital-based emergency departments. Image J. Nurs Sch. 1998; 30(3):249-254.
The learning atmosphere in schools have changed drastically over the years and the schools which were once considered safe are becoming sites of bullying, violence and anti-social activities, Presently the school administration and also the teachers are under tremendous pressure for ensuring a safe, disciplined and effective learning environment, enabling students to acquire academic and social skills that would equip them in academic achievement and assist them in the overall development of the students. This recent increase in the pressure is greatly due to the increasing incidences of violence in the schools and played up by the media and the challenges faced by the teachers in deciding the most appropriate disciplinary measures to set the problem student back on the learning path. This brings to light the changing profiles of teachers, from that of good academicians to that of a versatile educator-cum-counsellor-disciplinarian, capable of guiding his students through…
Gresham, F.M. (1998). Social skills training: Should we raze, remodel, or rebuild? Behavioral Disorders, 24, 19-25.
Grusec, J.E. (1982). The socialisation of altruism. In N. Eisenberg (ed), The Development of Prosocial behavior, 135-57.New York: Academic Press
Hartup, W.W. (1996) The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67, 1-13.
Horner, R.H. & Sugai, G. (2002). Overview of Positive Behavior Support. Paper presented at the 2002 Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children, New York.
attitude influences behavior. The writer argues that one's attitude can influence one's behavior, regardless of the outcome. Negative attitudes bring forth negative or destructive behaviors, while positive attitudes bring on positive behaviors according to the author's research. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The classified ads are filled with position announcements that read "Positive attitude need" or upbeat personality a plus." One only has to look on a dating service to see how many people are looking for and claiming to be "optimistic personalities." These elements are indicators of how important attitude is in society today. People who are upbeat and positive in their attitude tend to draw people to them. Those who are negative in attitude tend to push people away. The question then becomes, "Does attitude impact or effect behavior?" According to the field of psychology it does. One of the classic signs of major…
The effects of hardiness, police stress, and life stress on police officers' illness and absenteeism.
Public Personnel Management; 12/22/1992; Hammontree, Monty
Brand loyalty: the link between attitude and behavior.
Journal of Advertising Research; 11/1/1996; Rubinson, Joel
Mottern (2008) writes that Dr. William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice.
People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of making progressively better choices with regard to fulfilling one's fundamental needs. A choice will then be "good" if it brings one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs in a harmless manner (both to ourselves and others). A less effectual or "bad" choice would be one that fails to bring one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs, or one that…
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
Current essay is a discussion of the antisocial behavior disorder amongst adolescents. The author critically reviewed studies on the topic. The literature suggests that neighborhood and peer holds a great influence as regards antisocial behavior amongst adolescents. Previous research has confirmed socialization experiences outside of the family shape what goes on inside of the family. Also there is possibility that peer and neighborhood characteristics are related to parenting and family relationships. Presence of violence in neighborhood may cause stress among parents resulting in poor parenthood quality.
Mediating Effects of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
The importance of socialization contexts outside of the family has been well documented. In particular, neighborhood (e.g., violence, collective efficacy) and peer relationship (e.g., relationship quality, peer deviancy) factors both have been linked to a number of adolescent outcomes, such as self-esteem, academic…
Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K.A., Melhuish, E., & the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team (2006). Neighborhood deprivation, school disorder and academic achievement in primary schools in deprived communities in England. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 127-136.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Capaldi, D., DeGarmo, D., Patterson, G.R., & Forgatch, M. (2002). Contextual risk across the early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J.B. Reid, G.R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (p.123-145). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chapple, C.L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly,22, 89-106.
Risky Behaviors in Adolescents
Adolescents engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors in this day in age. Youth engage in activities that put them at risk for serious injury, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and chronic disease, such as heart disease and cancer ("Despite improvements," 2004). Risky behaviors that adolescents undertake can include but are not limited to substance use, unprotected sex and sexual promiscuity, failure to use seatbelts and helmets, violent behaviors, etc. On addition, problems with school work has been linked to cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement in weapon use and violence. Also, frequently "just hanging out" with friends has been associated with smoking and substance abuse. Having close friends who drink or smoke also puts youth at a higher risk factor for engaging in those behaviors (Carpenter, 2001). This paper will discuss how risky behaviors of adolescents can lead to serious diseases, a tragic accident,…
Axmaker, L. (2003-2004). Risky behaviors can lead to serious diseases. Retrieved April
24, 2005, from Wellsource Website: http://vanderbiltowc.wellsource.com/dh
Carpenter, S. (2001, January). Teens' risky behavior is about more than race and family resources. Monitor on Psychology, 32, 1. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from PsychNET database.
"Despite improvements, many high school students still engaging in risky health behaviors." (2004, May 20). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, p.1
violence in the media can create violent behavior in children and teens. Many studies show that watching violent media, such as video games, films, and even the television news can cause violent behavior in children and teens, and that behavior can continue into adulthood.
Several different studies have indicated that violence in the media can produce violent and aggressive behavior in children and teens. Two researchers note, "In the past decade, media-effects researchers have progressively reached consensus that exposure to television violence can result in aggressive behavior" (Greene & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, a fifteen-year study by the American Psychological Association (APA) also showed that both men and women are affected by media violence, and that adults who watched this media as children tended to be more violent, and convicted of more violent crimes (Partenheimer, 2003). In the past decade, violence has become much more common in the media, as…
Editors. (2009). Children and media violence. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the MediaFamily.org Web site: http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_vlent.shtml .
Greene, K., & Krcmar, M. (2005). Predicting exposure to and liking of media violence: A uses and gratifications approach. Communication Studies, 56(1), 71+.
Partenheimer, D. (2009). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009, from the American Psychological Association Web site: http://www.apa.org/releases/media_violence.html.
Psychosocial background of these rapists is inclusive of physical as well as verbal abuse which can be from both or one of the parents. Abuse-based background is seen in more than 56% of the rapists in this category. More than 80% of the rapists belong to divorced households; most of these are adopted or have spent their childhood in foster care. elationships of these rapists with women in the past have failed or did not work based on which hostile feelings have developed against the opposite sex.
Background profiling on rapists has shown that these normally are raised in single parent households with increased issues. Additionally they grow up being physically as well as verbally abused facing sexual deviances. The children facing these conditions are the ones that clearly show tendencies towards sexual promiscuity. In the case of adults, it has been seen that they are married later in…
Girod, J.R. (2004). Profiling the Criminal Mind: Behavioral Science and Criminal Investigative Analysis. Iuniverse Inc.
Holmes, M.R., and Holmes, S. (2002). Profiling violent crimes: an investigative tool. Edition 3. Sage.
Innes, B. (2003). Profile of a criminal mind: how psychological profiling helps solve true crimes. Reader's Digest.
Jacobs, D. (2011). Analyzing Criminal Minds: Forensic Investigative Science for the 21st Century: Brain, behavior, and evolution. ABC-CLIO.
Crimes are classified as felonies or misdemeanors. Felony refers to serious crimes such as rape, murder, violent robbery, while misdemeanor refers to lesser crimes such as theft, fraud, or unlawful carrying of weapons.
2. eview the crimes of John Wayne Gacy. Classify his crimes and explain the classification. Examine each component of the classification modeling the examples used in the text. Use what you can find in published articles, interviews, and scholarly information on the web. Make sure to reference your sources.
John Wayne Casey was the notorious serial killer who was guilty of murdering at least thirty three young males between 1972 and 1978 in Chicago. His victims were males aged from twelve to their mid-twenties. His court trials began in 1980 after physical evidences pointed to his guilt and he had admitted to killing over thirty persons and burying them under his house. The prosecutors insisted that Gacy…
Bell, R., & Bardsley, M. (n.d.) John Wayne Gacy, Jr. TruTV. Retrieved from: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/gacy_1.html
Crime classifications and definitions (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://public.getlegal.com/legal-info-center/types-of-crimes
Description of sex offender criminal offenses (n.d.) the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Retrieved from: http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/index.cfm?metaSection=About&metaPage=sotrcdsoco#cp
Hawkins, K. (n.d.). The Baseline Killer. TruTV. Retrieved from:
Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.
2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…
Barreto, Steven. Bullying and Harassment Stop When Parents Help Break the Silence. 2005.
23 May, 2010
Batsche, G.M., & Knoff, H.M. "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools." School Psychology Review, 22.6 (1994): 165-174.
Crime analysis and crime investigation are the methods by which criminologists study and prevent crime. Violent crimes pose multiple dangers to the public. Violent crimes are often complex and require resources to understand how the crime was committed. Criminology studies not only how crimes are committed, but also the study of the criminal behaviors and personalities of the criminals who commit violent crimes. Criminology has been made exceptionally popular in the late 20th century and early 21st century in many television dramas. The increase in attention to criminology and criminologists has influence the interest in criminology as well as influence the development of criminologists' tools and methods. This paper will examine the violent crime of murder briefly and offer insight as to methods by which the crime can be analyzed.
Criminologists studying murders and murderers absolutely use prescriptive interviews. Interviewing murderers has become part and parcel of…
Kiefer, M. (2010, August 4). New 'Baseline Killer' details emerge Tuesday in court testimony. The Arizona Republic. Available from
"The Manson Snyder Interviews." Web. Available from
Doing this ensures early identification of an unknown crime hence, the adoption of proactive approaches against it. Achieving this relies on the establishment of a positive relationship between the police and the truck drivers (U.S., 2001).
Establishing park watch in the community also helps in preventing violent crime since it addresses a wide range of criminal acts. The program aims at enlisting the users of the park and neighbors to take the responsibility of watching over the parks. Significant evidence shows that involving the youth in activities that involve them in building the community reduces the rates of violent crimes in the community. Engaging the youth in different activities such as cleaning the parks and recreational spaces creates a healthy environment that attack a variety of economic activities. Through this, the unemployed youth acquires alternative source of income contributing to the minimization of violent crimes caused by youth unemployment. Other…
Gilligan, J. (2001). Preventing violence. New York: Thames & Hudson.
Texas Department of Criminal Justice Community Justice Assistance Division (2014). Battering Intervention and Prevention Program (BIPP) Accreditation Guideline. New York: Texas Department of Criminal Justice.
Workplace Violence Prevention. (n.d.). FBI. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from
People can tell the difference between a violent television show and reports of violence on the news, and are more upset by reports of real violence, even though those reports are less graphic than fictional representations. Therefore, the media does not desensitize people to violence.
Finally, while media portrayals of violence have gotten more graphic, society itself has not become more violent. On the contrary, the channels for discussing that violence have simply become more accessible. For example, the American South during slavery and Jim Crow were replete with violence against African-Americans, but, because that violence was institutionalized and acceptable, there were few media portrayals of that violence. As a greater range of behavior has become unacceptable, it has become included in reports of violence, but the upswing in reports does not necessarily correlate with an increase in actual incidents.
Violence exists in societies without violent media. In addition, viewers…
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)
Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co
Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
What seems clear is that while not all criminality is stable, those people who begin offending at relatively young ages are generally those who are lifelong offenders. In this way, it can be said that some criminality is stable over time.
The stability of criminal behavior can have a significant impact on criminal justice policy. When rehabilitation efforts proved largely unsuccessful, there was a conservative swing back towards incarceration to drive down crime rates. While incarceration does not have the blanket effect of reducing crime rates, it does reduce crime rates when high-rate offenders are incarcerated. "Moreover, the incarceration of high-rate offend-ers is cost-effective, meaning that the financial cost of keeping them locked up off-sets the costs of the crimes they would commit if free. The same cannot be said of locking up low-rate offenders" (Wright et al., 2008). There is the idea that understanding the stability of criminal behavior…
Wright, J.P., Tibbetts, S.G., & Daigle, L.E. (2008). Criminals in the making. Thousand Oaks:
Sage Publications Inc.
Hipster Consumer Behavior
Following the publication of Norman Mailer's essay, "The White Negro" in 1957, the term "hipster" has become part of the American lexicon. The image of hipsters has changed in fundamental ways since that time, though, and marketers interested in this segment are therefore faced with some significant challenges in fine-tuning their marketing mixes to appeal to young adults who define themselves as hipsters or who are attracted to the image for other reasons. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning hipster consumer behavior, including a background, a description of the lifestyle branding theoretical foundation that can be used to formulate marketing initiatives, and the findings that emerged from the research. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Although adults of any age may be regarded as "hipsters," this category is commonly regarded as…
Clark, L.S. (2007). Religion, media, and the marketplace. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Fabre, J. (2005). Smart nursing: How to create a positive work environment that empowers and retains nurses. New York: Springer.
Greif, M. (2010, November 15). A hipster's paradise: In the late 1990s, a down-at-heel 'hood in New York's Lower East Side became an enclave for rich white kids. New Statesman,
The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…
Belal, H.M., Shirahada, K., & Kosaka, M. (2013). Value Co-Creation with Customers through recursive approach based on Japanese Omotenashi service. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1), 28-28.
Kim-Shyan Fam, Waller, D.S., Ernest Cyril, d. R., & He, J. (2013). Advertising dislikeability in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(1), 144-161.
Gloria, a.M., Wulf, C., & Mullen, H. (2013). Internet marketing to 50+ generations in the UK and France. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 45.
Marieke, d. M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85.
" (in Carr, 2005) Violation of privacy issues is a concern and Epstein (2002) makes the suggestion that incoming students be asked to sign a release enabling administrators to initiate actions should their behavior cause concern or seem erratic.
The work of anyard (2008) entitled: "Measurement and correlates of prosocial bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence" reports a study that examined the effects of gender and specific personality characteristics on bystander attitudes and behaviors. Findings of the study are stated to have been "…consistent with previous findings in that prosocial behaviors were higher among individuals with greater knowledge of sexual violence. Those who perceived higher effectiveness as a bystander were more willing to practice prosocial behaviors, and reported a greater number of actual behaviors." (anyard, 2008)
The work of Alan D. erkowitz entitled: "The Social Norms Approach to Violence Prevention" states that social norms research "…suggests that most males…
Bibliography. Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Online available at: www.edc.org/hec/socialnorms/.
Berkowitz, a (2003B). Applications of Social Norms Theory to Other Health and Social Justice Issues. Chapter 16 in HW Perkins (Ed). The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, Clinicians, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass
Fabiano, P, Perkins, HW, Berkowitz, a, J Linkenbach & C. Stark. (2003) Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence Against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach. Journal of American College Health, 52(3):105-111.
Gottfried, MGS (2002). Perceptions of Others' Masculinity Beliefs: Conforming to a False Norm? Presented at the 110th Conference of the American Psychological Association, August 22-25, Chicago. Kilmartin, CT, Conway, a, Friedberg, a, McQuiod, T, Tschan, P & Norbet, T. (1999) Using the Social Norms Model to Encourage Male College Students to Challenge Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Male Peers. Paper Presented at the Virginia Psychological Association Spring Conference, Virginia Beach, VA.
Perkins, HW. (2003). The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, Clinicians, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
Causes of Criminal Behavior
Although crimes have been committed since times immemorial, a systematic study of the causes of criminal behavior (or why crimes are committed) is a relatively recent phenomenon. Various theories have been put forward and numerous research studies have been conducted to better understand the criminal mind in order to prevent or reduce crime. It is, perhaps, a tribute to the complexity of the human brain that most of these theories remain just "theories" with little evidence to support definite and irrefutable patterns of criminal behavior. This is not to suggest that all theories of "criminology" are worthless -- most of them do provide useful insight into the criminal mind and at least partially explain the reasons why crimes are committed by certain individuals. In this paper we shall explore some of the theories of criminal behavior that have attempted to throw light on the causes of…
Bardsley, Marilyn. "David Berkowitz"-Son of Sam. Crime Library. 2003.
Courtroom Television Network Website. November 28, 2003 http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/berkowitz_6.html
Bell, Rachel. "Ted Bundy -- A Time of Change" Crime Library. 2003
Courtroom Television Network Website. Courtroom Television Network Website. 2003
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…
Burton, J. (1965). International Relations, a General Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Burton, J. (1979). Deviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Thus, the television shows, or their producers would have us think, do not actually promote violence and sexual promiscuity, they simply depict it as part of the reality of the particular people they chose to show on their programs.
The problem, however, comes with what such depictions teach those people for whom identity is yet to be determined - our youngest boys and girls. Before MTV's the Real orld, popular culture's images of boys and girls was managed through a scripted experience - a lens that showed only what the writers, directors, producers, and television executives wanted you to see. Therefore, shows gave people what other people thought they should and would like, and nothing else. hat reality shows have capitalized on is a hunger for the non-scripted, for the spontaneous, for the unpredictable. and, as society is still managed by people who were brought up by people who generally…
Adams, N.G. (2005, Spring). Growing Up Female. NWSA Journal, 206(6).
Clark, T. (2008, March 24). Let's Misbehave. Multichannel News, p. 14.
Mantilla, K. (2003, Aug-Sept). Boys Girls will be Boys. Off Our Backs, 48(8).
Moss, L. (2007, June 25). The Good Fight. Multichannel News, 28 (26), p. 20.
Co-Occurrence of Substance Use-Behaviors in Youth
Co-occurrence of Substance Use Behaviors in Youth
Author Biographies: Biographical information of the authors is not made available in the research bulletin. A search online indicates that Carl McCurley shares a passion for analyzing and improving outcomes for court-involved children, youth and families that he was able to apply in the Models for Change program at the National Center for Juvenile Justice. McCurley, Director Administrative Office of the Courts/Washington State Center for Court esearch (WSCC). McCurley joined the Administrative Office of the Courts in 2007As the newly hired WSCC director, he sought to broaden the Center's work, expanding beyond the customary focus of court operations to analyze the courts' impact on the lives of those they served.
Howard N. Snyder is considered to be the foremost expert on juvenile justice data, policy, and is now employed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics,…
Malgarini, M. (2005, November). Efficient sample design and weighting methodologies: Analysis of key issues and recommendations. [Paper presented at the Joint European Commission - OECD Workshop on International Development of Business and Consumer Tendency Surveys in Brussels on November 14 -- 15, 2005, for the Task Force on Harmonisation of Survey Operation and Technical Design}. Retrieved http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/12/37/35493506.pdf
Monitoring the Future. Retrieved http://monitoringthefuture.org/purpose.html
Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior -- Part II
Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior
Each question must be 300 words long.
Look carefully and honestly at some of your own age, gender, ethnic, cultural beliefs, and/or attitudes and discuss how such factors may impact your functioning in the work of responding to psychopathy.
I feel fortunate to have taken classes in college that have allowed me to meet and mix with people who are quite different from me in terms of age, ethnicity, cultural beliefs, and mindset. In addition, I participate in community activities that bring me in contact with people who come from different socio-economic and religious groups. My own family has experienced quite a few change-ups from what my parents' and my grandparents' generation experienced. Academically, I have studied about variables that contribute to the development of psychopathy in vulnerable people, and I believe I have a robust understanding of mental…
E. Conflict Resolution
Conflict resolution is inclusive of several specific steps which are stated to include:
(1) Fact finding: Identify all individuals who are affected by the behavior and get complete history about the patterns of physician's behavior, preferably in writing (assuring the complainant about confidentiality). Identify probable risk to all affected individuals including patients and the organization itself. Make sure and document this step.
(2) Meetings: meeting comes when manager has got the most complete knowledge about the issue and its consequences. It is advised to plan for the meeting beforehand. Set the agenda for the meeting, communicate about the issues and how it is affecting staff and the workflow, and what is expected or desired. listen, listen, listen to the physician (sometimes just listening itself resolves the issue or gives you an idea about what to do). Stay focused on the issue, don't send mixed messages…
Bartholomew K. Ending Nurse-to-nurse Hostility. Marblehead, MA: HealthPro, 2006.
Brown D. At med schools, a new degree of diversity. Washington Post; June 1, 2007:A1.
Early P, Soon C, Soon a. Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Stanford University Press, 2003.
Ford, John (2010) Contextualizing Disruptive Behavior in Health Care as a Conflict Management Challenge (nd) Conflict Management Practice Notes. Online available at: http://johnford.blogs.com/jfa/2009/03/contextualizing-disruptive-behavior-in-health-care-as-a-conflict-management-challenge.html
Capital Requirement and Risk ehavior
Arab African International ank
Midan ElSaray El Koubra, Garden City Caoro
The research will mainly dwell on the capital requirements and risk behavior of banks, more in particular the credit risk. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the relationship between capital requirements and the risk behavior of banks in Egypt
more in particular the Arab African International ank, which is the case study for this research. Secondly, the research will seek to investigate the impact of capital regulation on the banking behaviors and particularly on the levels of credit risk of banks operating in Egypt
The findings of the research show that there is negative relationship between capital requirement and banks' risk behavior; the findings also show there is empirical evidence to prove that capital regulations have a negative impact on credit risk of banks levels of credit risk of banks…
Aggarwal, R. And K. Jacques, (1998), a Simultaneous Equation Estimation of the Impact of Prompt Corrective Action on Bank Capital and Risk, New York, 12-23
Avery, R.B. And A.B. Berger, (1991), Risk-based capital and deposit insurance reform, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 847-874
Berger, A.N., Herring R.J. And Szego, G.P. (1995), the Role of Capital in Financial
Institutions, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 19, 393-430.
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.
Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.
Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.
Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
The media is one of the most intense factors to influence people's personalities, with the audience often being inclined to follow what they see in the news. The American public, especially, spends a large time watching television, and, during the time that the T.V. is open, people watch hundreds of violent scenes. All things considered, the media encourages aggression and controls the way in which people's personalities are being shaped.
Scientists still have a long way to go until they will properly determine which are the exact factors influencing anti-social behavior. Most probably, time will solve the problem, and, in a few decades, people will be able to comprehend the ways in which genetics and environmental factors act on the human mind.
1. Laura A. Baker, Serena Bezdjian, Adrian Raine. (2006). "Behavioral Genetics: The Science of Antisocial Behavior." Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 69.
Laura A. Baker, Serena…
1. Laura A. Baker, Serena Bezdjian, Adrian Raine. (2006). "Behavioral Genetics: The Science of Antisocial Behavior." Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 69.
Laura A. Baker, Serena Bezdjian, Adrian Raine. (2006). "Behavioral Genetics: The Science of Antisocial Behavior." Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 69.
Desmond Morris does an excellent job of defining his topic and then constructing and creating logical divisions of analysis concerning the various types of territorial behavior. Before analyzing and evaluating the various types of territorial behavior, Morris defines territory as an owned space which is defended when an individual is attacked or threatened. According to Morris, individuals are rarely driven to physical fighting in defense of their territories, but they will fight if they are pushed to the limit. Examples of such defense mechanisms are the invading army encroaching on national territory (i.e., Osama bin Laden and Afghanistan); the gang moving into a rival district (i.e., the continuing turf wars between the Bloods and Crips); the trespasser climbing into an orchard; the burglar breaking into a house; the bully pushing to the front of a line; and the driver trying to steal a parking space. All of these…
Mental Illness and Crime
Virginia Tech is a prestigious private university on the east coast of America that might forever be associated with the skewed actions of one man. Seung-Hui Cho was a fourth year student at Virginia Tech and was responsible for the deadliest rampage this university has ever seen. Born in South Korea in 1984, it was eight years later that Cho received permanent residency in the United States. In the wake of such extreme violence and tragedy, people can't help but ask themselves if something could have been done instead to prevent this act of violence or if these actions could have been predicted in some manner. This is particularly true given the fact that Cho was ordered by a judge to receive mental health care in 2005. This paper will take a look at the relationship between mental illness and serious crimes.
• How often are…
Apa.org, (2014, April 21) "Mental Illness Not Usually Linked to Crime, Research Finds."
Retrieved from: apa.org, http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2014/04/mental-illness-crime.aspx
What is key about both of these quotations is the loss of identity that is endemic to both of them. The cadets who have survived the fourth-class system and who inflict ritualistic violence in the form of hazing on others have lost something of their true "selves," something that was stripped away to lead them to believe that they could rightfully engage in this sort of behavior to inflict pain upon others. Therefore, the cadets who are guilty of said violence are perpetuating it because they have lost their own identities through disassociation -- in much the same way that Seth lost most of the moments of his life to this same phenomenon.
In conclusion, several of Stout's ideas about disassociation both apply to and help explain the tradition of obedience in the violent, misogynistic rituals that take place at the Citadel. The similarities between the effects of disassociation and…
"Approximately 27.5% of college women reported experiences that met the legal criteria for rape," even though some of them were not necessarily aware that the actions to which they were subjected satisfied such a definition (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ).
According to the FBI, which defines violent crimes as "murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault," an "estimated 1,246,248 violent crimes occurred nationwide" in 2010 (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ). There is obviously a great deal of overlap between the characteristics of populations that commit sexual assault and violent criminals, due to this definition. It should also be noted that although persons who commit violent crimes are disproportionately male and young (the example of stereotypes being validated by statistics); whites commit more such crimes -- 54% vs. 45% versus African-Americans. Also, "numbers also vary widely depending on the crime, with blacks responsible for more murders…
Bartol, C. & Bartol, a. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. Prentice Hall.
Family violence statistics. (2002). BJS. Retrieved:
Hodgins, S. & Muller-Isberner, R. (Eds.). (2000). Violence, crime, and mentally disordered offenders: Concepts and methods for effective treatment and prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons
The more violent teens might also be more apt to wear black rather than white t-shirts, but that does not mean that the act of wearing a black t-shirt makes a teen more predisposed to act violently.
The authors of another study did attempt an experiment that would suggest causation rather than mere correlation. In an experiment involving 210 college students, students who played a violent video game were more likely to 'punish' the opponent by inflicting a noise blast upon the opponent of greater intensity and for "a longer period of time" than did students who played a nonviolent video game (illenz 2009). However, the idea that inflicting a loud noise upon an opponent after playing a loud, noisy video game is analogous to committing acts of physical violence in the real world also seems like a tenuous causal argument.
illenz, Pam. (2009). Violent video games can…
Willenz, Pam. (2009). Violent video games can increase aggression. American Psychological
Association (APA). Media Release. Retrieved August 8, 2009 at http://www.apa.org/releases/videogames.html
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Two of the schools in the current study have active GSA's which may account for the acceptance of LGBT students at these schools.
Procedures for anonymous reporting (Fear of retaliation)
As stated above, fear of retaliation was the major barrier to reporting according to the findings in this study. It is recommended that school develop safe, anonymous reporting procedures such as that described above. In addition, students must feel that retaliation will be addressed and every attempt will be made to protect the student from retaliation, both inside the school and outside the school. Perpetrators must be informed that retaliation will carry serious consequences and that administrators will follow through. Students must be told that any discussion of disciplinary actions discussed among students will cause further disciplinary actions to be instituted.
The schools involved in the current study are known as being very gay-friendly. Two of…
Understanding why crime occurs requires an appreciation for the complexity of human behavior. Behavior is not determined by one factor, but rather influenced by a host of interrelated factors. Modern biological theories in criminology differ from previous theories in that they examine the entire range of biological characteristics, including those that result from genetic defects (those that are inherited) and those that are environmentally induced. In addition, theories developed since the 1980s do not suggest that biological characteristics directly cause crime. Instead, researchers argue that certain biological conditions increase the likelihood that an individual will engage in some antisocial behavior that can be defined as criminal (Fishbein, 1990). Modern theories increasingly focus on the interaction between biological characteristics and the social environment, rather than looking solely at the effects of biology.
his paper explores the research regarding genetic causes or pre-dispositions to criminal behavior and examines the evidence which…
Thornberry (1987) incorporates social learning theory, social bonding, cognitive theory, and social structure theories of criminal behavior to explain delinquency. Thornberry sees delinquency activities as changing over time. As youths enter adolescence, their bonds to their parents and social institutions are said to weaken. Peer groups become more important to them.
If these young people reside in socially disorganized environments, they are at high risk to have weak social bonds and peers who engage in deviance. Adolescents who are from more stable environments may engage in deviancy (they are, after all, adolescents), but their actions are better controlled by stronger social bonds and associations with peers who engage in more conventional behaviors.
Thornberry sees delinquent behaviors as influenced by age. As young people enter their late teens, the influence of peers gives way to perceptions of their roles in society. Thornberry
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…
Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/
Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.
Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
Student Philosophy of Behavior
It is necessary for instructors to meet the individual needs of their students, particularly when these students have special needs such as learning differences or other potential disabilities. The pedagogue must discuss any concerns regarding a student's behavior with his or her family, and then attempt to provide an environment in which these concerns are anticipated daily and steps are taken to ensure that disadvantageous behavior is minimized. It is necessary to do so in order to not interrupt the learning process of others.
Jackson - Student Description
Jackson is a four-year-old boy who is highly autonomous, opinionated, and somewhat circumscribed in his social interactions with others. He is fairly astute and generally cognizant of what is expected of him and is able to understand and communicate with others excellently -- when he so desires. However, he can be extremely loud, rude and even violent when…
Borremans, E., Rintala, P., Kielinen, M. (2009). Effectiveness of an exercise training program on youth with Asperger Syndrome. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity. 2(2), 14-25.
Santhana, S.P. (2014). Social communication intervention for an adult with Asperger Syndrome: experiences, perspectives and challenges. Perspectives on Language Learning & Education. 21(1), 29-37.
Page 1 of 4
Learning fairly quickly about Alan's violent act, throughout the play the entire play, the reader always faces the most important question that arises from the lines of the book: "why does Alan blind the horses
In order to be able to answer this question, the play needs to be approached from two different points-of-view. The first one would be the real world, a world where such an act is not only not blamed, but fully not understood and catalogued as a psychiatric problem. On the other hand, we have the "equus" world, created by the author to support such acts. As Peter Shaffer himself states, equus "creates a mental world in which the deed could be made comprehensible"
Hesther gives the best overall evaluation of what the real world thinks of the act: "the boy's in pain ... That's all I see"
. This is an obvious reaction that many…
1. Shaffer, Peter. Equus. Penguin Books.
Shaffer, Peter. Equus. Penguin Books. Page 9
Ibid. Page 65
Criminal behavior and recidivism has been a very contentious issue over the last decade. esearch continues to garner massive support related to methods to better help offenders matriculate into society. Juvenile behavior is one of the more pressing issues within society. Juvenile behavior is particularly important as habits formed in early years are directly correlated to behavior in later years. esearch has also indicated that children or juveniles influenced by criminal activities at an early age, are more likely to commit crimes in their adolescent stage. Although a litany of methods have been devised to combat juvenile criminal behavior, results have been mixed. ecent incidents with school shootings, robberies, and vandalism indicate that juvenile criminal behavior is still profound. One interesting aspect regarding juvenile behavior is that violent acts committed by juveniles have actually decreased over the past decade. However, many juveniles are often sent to court and prosecuted as…
1) Bazemore, G., & Feder, L. (1997a). Rehabilitation in the new juvenile court: Do judges support the treatment ethic? American Journal of Criminal Justice, 21, 181-212.
2) Sickmund, M. (2004). Juveniles in corrections. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
3) Snyder, H. (2005). Juvenile arrests 2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Goldstein, Jeffrey 1999 'The Attractions of Violent Entertainment', Media Psychology, vol.1, no.3, pp. 271-282.
The core idea of this article is that majority of researchers only concern themselves with effects of violence in mass media, neglecting the question of why the audience is attracted to violent entertainment in the first place. The author describes the attractions of violent entertainment, based on a project supported by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation (HFG).
This article fits into a lot of different categories on violence such as the violence in movies and video games. There is plenty of literature that dives into this subject matter but appears to tackle this subject matter. Other articles makes the point at that violence is basically the foundation of a lot of films, TV movies, and not to mention even action series. To take it even further, violence is repeatedly identical with "action." For the reason that…
Cantor, J. (., 1998. Children's attraction to violent television programming. In J.Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Goldstein, J., 2009. The Attractions of Violent. Media Psychology, 34(7), pp. 271-282. .
Guttmann, A., 2008. The appeal of violent sports. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford.
Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000
Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/content/ForeignPolicy/chomskyglobeterr.cfm
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.
Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564344/Terrorism.html
According to the Oxford ibliographies research, there is not one specific definition of "nonstate actors" that fits all situations. Nonstate actors are defined in relation to international law, because they are "…often able to impact legal values and must accordingly be regulated" (Santarelli, 2005). Throughout history, nonstate actors have "impacted international law" and they have also participated in "international legal processes," which is why Santarelli believes there should be more study of nonstate actors. One scholar claims that nonstate actors include "all entities" that are different from states; or are entities that are operating outside the legal jurisdiction of the government. That definition would include think tanks in the U.S. On the one hand and violent, bloodthirsty extremists such as ISIS, the Taliban and al Qaeda on the other hand (Fisher, 2014).
A typical nonstate actor can also be viewed as a nongovernmental organization (NGO); examples of NGOs…
Arquilla, John. "Of Networks and Nations." The Brown Journal of World Affairs. (2009).
XIV (1). Accessed December 27, 2014, from EBSCO.
Axworthy, Thomas, and Dean, Ryan. "A Scan of Existing Arms Control Treaties with Lessons Learned. Interaction Council. (2011). Accessed December 27, 2014, from http://www.interactioncouncil.org .
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code." (2006):
In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?
External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).
If boys are found to be…
Maxfield, Michael G., and Earl R. Babbie. Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009.
media consumption and subsequent behaviour?
Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.
The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…
Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.
Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]
Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.
Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
The article points out through close comparisons that there are marked differences between the impulsive and ritual offender. The most prominent difference is the extreme planning and preparation with regard to the fantasy dimension that characterizes the ritual offender. " He is the offender who invests great amounts of time and effort into he planning and rehearsal of his offences. " (Hazelwood R.R. And Warren J.I. p. 272) While his underlying motivation is power and control, the essential difference in this type of offence is the complex level of cues and perceptions that form an integral part of the sexual offence as well as the level of violence.
The article succeeds in explicating this particular type of criminal in terms of the central behavioral characteristics of this type of crime. The fantasy life of the ritual offence is identified with various aspects of his character. These include the following behavioral…
Fedoroff, J.P., & Moran, B. (1997). Myths and Misconceptions about Sex Offenders. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 6(4), 263+. Retrieved August 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Hazelwood R.R. And Warren J.I. The Sexually Violent offender: Impulsive or Ritualistic. ( 2000) Aggression and Violent Behavior. 5(3)..pp. 267-279.
Jenkins, P. (1994). Using Murder The Social Construction of Serial Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Windlesham . (1987). Responses to Crime (Vol. 3). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.