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Violent Video Games Don't Cause Kids to be Violent
Do violent video games cause young people to become violent after playing the video games? This has been a hot topic of debate in the United States for several years. There are valid opinions on both sides of the issue, but this paper takes the position that violent video games do not cause kids to be violent.
The Literature on Video Games -- Pros and Cons
The ebsite ProCon.org has assembled a "pro" and "con" list of explanations with reference to the question of whether or not violent video games cause kids to be violent. This paper will use a few of the pro-versus con arguments prior to listing other reasons why it is fair to say violent video games do not cause kids to become violent.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, among the most highly influential law enforcement organizations in…
Gallagher, Michael D. "Video Games Don't Cause Children to be Violent." U.S. News.
Retrieved April 11, 2012, from http://www.usnews.com. 2010.
ProCon.org. "Video Games: Do violent video games contribute to youth violence?" Retrieved
April 11, 2012, from http://videogames.procon.org . 2012.
In D.A. Gentile (Ed.), Media violence and children. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishing. [the authors of this book contend that learning comes from repetition. The fact that the violent games require violent acts to be played over and over again creates an ideal learning situation. But what the players are learning is antisocial behavior and the idea that violence is a good way to resolve conflict.]
ockenbury, S.E. & ockenbury, D (2003). Psychology, New York: Worth Publishers. [the researchers argue that even a small amount of violent behavior triggered by seeing it in TV or video games is unacceptable for society and that video game violence should be regulated.]
ough, K.J. & Erwin, P.G. (1997). Children's attitudes toward violence on television. The Journal of Psychology, v.131, July, 411-15. [the researchers asked 316 children, age 11-16, to answer 47 questions. They found that attitudes toward violence were linked to how many hours…
Hockenbury, S.E. & Hockenbury, DH (2003). Psychology, New York: Worth Publishers.
Hough, K.J. & Erwin, P.G. (1997). Children's attitudes toward violence on television. The Journal of Psychology, v.131, July, 411-15.
Sherry, J. (2001). The effects of violent video games on aggression: A meta-analysis. Human Communication, Research, 27, 3, 409-431.
Violent Video Games Lead to Behavioral Problems
On 24 January 2011, a terrorist or a group of terrorists bombed the Moscow International Airport Domodedovo which killed thirty seven people and wounded almost two hundred. hile law enforcement agencies were looking for the perpetrators, Russian state-supported English-language news media Russia Today pointed at an unlikely culprit: a video game. The video game criticized by Russia Today was Call of Duty: Modern arfare 2, which, as the article suggested, could have inspired the terrorists that bombed the Domodedovo Airport. The article noted that a game segment called "No Russian" urges the players to take hostages and shoot at civilians in a fictitious Moscow airport, and that for Russians the scenes of the game became "a shocking reality" ("Moscow Airport Terror Mirrors Video Game"). Many people dismissed the claim by saying that terrorists did not need a video game to get inspired for…
"Moscow Airport Terror Mirrors Video Game," Russia Today, 25 January 2011. Web. 5 May 2011 .
Anderson, Craig A., and Karen E. Dill. "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78.4 (2000): 772-790. Web. 7 May 2011 .
The variables of situational input (like current violent media exposure) affect hostile behavior via the impacts they have on the individual's current interior state, characterized by cognitive, sentimental, and stimulation variables. Hostile media maximizes aggression by instructing the observers the way to be violent, through priming hostile cognitions (as well as formerly learned hostile scripts and hostile perceptual schemes), by escalating provocation, or by making a hostile emotional state. Long-term results are also involving learning processes. From childhood, human beings study how to interpret, perceive, respond and judge events, both in the social and physical environment. Different types of knowledge organization for these tasks are developing with time. They have their basis on daily observations of other people and also the connections with other people. Every episode of violent-media is fundamentally one additional learning trial. When these structures of knowledge are rehearsed and practiced over time, they get more compound,…
Anderson, C.A., Anderson, K.B., & Deuser, W.E. (1996). Examining an affective aggression framework: Weapon and temperature effects on aggressive thoughts, affect, and attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 366 -- 376.
Anderson, C.A., Deuser, W.E., & DeNeve, K.M. (1995). Hot temperatures, hostile affect, hostile cognition, and arousal: Tests of a general model of affective aggression.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 434 -- 448.
Anderson, C.A., & Carnagey, N.L. (2009). Causal effects of violent sports video games on aggression: is it competitiveness or violent content? Journal of Experimental Social
Banning/Restricting the sale of Violent Video Games to Minors
Persuasive Speech Outline Template
This speech uses problem-solution organization.
The average age of the audience is between 30 and 55 years of age with ages ranging from 14 to 59. There is roughly an even balance
of males to females; the main ethnic background is Caucasian.
Some of the audience members are still in high school, some do not work outside the home, and some work full time jobs. Most are from conservative religious backgrounds. As to this speech topic, most of the audience members are of childbearing age or have children themselves. This speech is given during the late afternoon.
Banning or restricting the sale of violent video games
To inform my audience of the dangers of selling violent video games to children, and persuade them to support legal action against merchants who…
1. Kent, Stephen. (2001). The ultimate history of video games. Roseville, CA: Prima.
Anderson, C.A,, and Gentile, (2006). Violent video games; the effects on youth and public policy implications. In D. Singer (Ed.), Handbook of children, culture, and violence (pp. 244-246). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Anderson, C.A. et al. (2008). Longitudinal effects of violent video games on aggression in japan and the United States. Pediatrics, 122(5), 1067-1072 .
4 "Legislation." Retrieved from http://www.independentratings.org/legislation.html.
Quite to the point, television, film, pop music and video games share in common a proclivity to promote that which yields prosperity. Thus, there is little regard from the computer gaming industry for indications that "a meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults." (Anderson & Bushman, 353)
In spite of this, revenue for video game produces revolves on role-playing titles such as orld of arcraft, which promotes fantasy world combat, simulation games such as Grand Theft Auto, which glorifies violence and antisocial behavior, Halo, the simulated first-person shooter game, and Madden Football, which portrays in detail the often brutal sport of football.
Connecting absorption of such media with the commitment of violent crimes remains a challenge however. Famously, the two minors responsible for the massacre at the Columbine High School in 1999 were noted for playing such…
Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.
Harding, a. (2009). Violent Video Games Linked to Child Aggression. CNNHealth. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/family/11/03/healthmag.violent.video.kids/index.html
Video Games and Violence
The level of integration of video games into the culture of the youth in the United States could not be clearer. One estimate stated that ninety-seven percent of twelve to seventeen-year-olds played a video game in 2008 (ESA, 2009). These figures suggest that virtually everyone in that specific demographic play video games. The economic result of the demand for video gaming has resulted in over an eleven billion dollar industry (2008) which is continually expanding (ProCon, N.d.). However, many of these games contain graphic violence and sexual content that deemed in appropriate for this demographic.
It is argued that this violence in the digital world can cause a host of negative implications in real life as well. hen children are exposed to violence then this can work to desensitize them to the use of violence and violence can even be perceived as an acceptable way to…
Anderson, C., Sakamoto, A., Gentile, D., Ihori, N., Shibuya, A., Yukawa, S., . . . Kobayashi, K. (2008). Longitudinal Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression in Japan and the United States. Pediatrics, 1067-1072.
ESA. (2009, May). Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry. Retrieved from Entertainment Software Association: http://videogames.procon.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Video Games on Children
Owing to the advent of digital media over the past few decades, technology has taken over many dimensions of the world and given the media a 360 degree turn by entirely switching the way it previously worked. The computer era not only changes the way transactions were done, documents were prepared, statistical tools were used and made the world global but it also changed the way sports and games were played. It converted the physical playground into a virtual one to quite a great extent and now, computer video games have become an increasingly important phenomenon of today for the entertainment of kids who now believe in virtual playgrounds (Anderson, Gentile, & Katherine E, 2007).
Every new change brings its pros and cons with it, and he computer era was a boom towards the video game industry which is still a significant use of computers…
Franciss, M., & Subramanian, A. This Is Not Just a Game Anymore. Mumbai: Diligent Media Corporations Ltd. 2012.
Anderson, C.A., Gentile, D.A. & Katherine E. Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. Oxford University Press. 2007.
Associated Press. Monitoring video game violence - Expert's advice to. Ontario: The Guelph Mercury. 2006.
Billings Gazette, The (MT). Studies show children get hooked on addictive. The Billings Gazette 2011.
Violence in Video Games
Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content?
Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content.
"It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play.
Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games
Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence
Body Paragraph 3: Sociological implications and blaming
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution insists that citizens of the U.S. have the right to free speech. This Amendment has been utilized by artists from a wide variety of genres and talents to preserve their right to express themselves and prevent any form of censorship. Most calls for legislation regarding censorship have actually come from the parents of America's youth. Rather than take responsibility for…
Anderson, Craig (2003). "Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions."
Psychological Science Agenda.
Benedetti, Winda. (2008). "Playing the Blame Game." MSNBC. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23204875/
Chalk, Andy. (2007). "Inappropriate Content: a Brief History of Videogame Ratings and the ESRB." The Escapist.
Violence in Video Games
Unlike movies, video games are not regulated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is ironic because there are a wealth of studies indicating children do not distinguish between fantasy and reality in a gaming environment (Ferguson, 2011). Simply put, the more time children, adolescents and teenagers spend playing a video game the more they see their reality as the gaming environment (Boyle, McLeod, ojas, 2008) (Hartmann, Vorderer, 2010). To argue that games are not as powerful of an influence on children is ridiculous, yet ironically the FCC regulates who can see a movie by its content alone and has refused to take action on games (Soh, Tan, 2008). In June, 2011 the Supreme Court struck down a California law that fined retailers $1,000 for each occurrence or infraction of selling or renting violent games to anyone under the age of 18 (Lemmens, Valkenburg, Peter, 2011).…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.
Boyle, M., McLeod, D., & Rojas, H.. (2008). The Role of Ego Enhancement and Perceived Message Exposure in Third-Person Judgments Concerning Violent Video Games. The American Behavioral Scientist, 52(2), 165.
Beth Snyder Bulik (2008, May). Despite recession, video-game industry shows massive growth. Advertising Age, 79(20), 6.
Cliff Cheetham (2008, April). Marketing strategies in the gaming community.
Violence in video games and the role of culture.
The video game industry is a multi-billion dollar industry representing about $9.9 billion dollars in retail sales in the U.S. alone in 2004 (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). In this paper, video games refer to electronically controlled games played on any platform including console units, computers, internet, hand-held devices or various technology toys. In recent years, video games have redefined leisure activities among children as studies conducted in U.S. estimated that 99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games (Whitaker and Bushman, 2009), with children age 2-7 years spending an average of 3-5 hours a week playing games, while 8th and 9th grade students spend an average of 9 hours per week (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). According to Whitaker and Bushman (2009), violence in video games is also commonplace with violent content available in over 85% of video games.
Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annu Rev Psychol, 53, 27-51.
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1679-1686.
Dill, K.E., & Dill, J.C. (1998). Video game violence: A review of the empirical literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3(4), 407-428.
Funk, J.B., Buchman, D.D., & Germann, J.N. (2000). Preference for Violent Electronic Games, Self-Concept, and Gender Differences in Young Children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(2), 233-241.
Classical Experiment on Violence in Video Games
I a design a classical experiment Violence video games, Elements include: • Identify components • What research question? • What hypothesis? • How select subjects assign a group? • How conduct experiment? Describe procedures.
Design of a classical experiment on Violence in video games
The game will involve the use of the following apparatus. They include;
A video game for example, a Nintendo 64 game system
Appropriate game cartridges, including one violent video game (wrestling) and one nonviolent video game (basketball). In the wrestling game, the human violence should be prevalent in that the object of the game is to punch, kick, and use blunt weapon and other wrestling moves to subdue the opponent. While, the basketball (NBA LIVE '99), game is meant to have no violence since the player is not supposed to hurt the opponent and if it happens, the…
Funk, J.B. (2005). Children's Exposure to Violent Video Games and Desensitization to Violence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(3), 387-404. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2005.02.009
Uhlmann, E., & Swanson, J. (2004). Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 41-52. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.10.004
Technology has emerged and pervaded the lives of many people as it becomes more advanced and more a part of society. A good and prominent example of this is video games. Even with the leisure and perceived positive effects of video games, their effect on the brain is a cause for concern among many in the scientific and academic communities. While many of the effects could absolutely be good, there are other effects that could be bad with age and stage of brain development being important factors to keep in mind.
One factor that clearly aggravates the situation of people playing video games and it might or does affect the brain is the fact that the younger people who still have the development of their brains in motion. As such, verifying whether or not there are effects on cognition and that development of the brain structure is an important item…
The more violent teens might also be more apt to wear black rather than white t-shirts, but that does not mean that the act of wearing a black t-shirt makes a teen more predisposed to act violently.
The authors of another study did attempt an experiment that would suggest causation rather than mere correlation. In an experiment involving 210 college students, students who played a violent video game were more likely to 'punish' the opponent by inflicting a noise blast upon the opponent of greater intensity and for "a longer period of time" than did students who played a nonviolent video game (illenz 2009). However, the idea that inflicting a loud noise upon an opponent after playing a loud, noisy video game is analogous to committing acts of physical violence in the real world also seems like a tenuous causal argument.
illenz, Pam. (2009). Violent video games can…
Willenz, Pam. (2009). Violent video games can increase aggression. American Psychological
Association (APA). Media Release. Retrieved August 8, 2009 at http://www.apa.org/releases/videogames.html
video games have on short-term memory. esearchers normally study action games, but quest/puzzle games were also included in this study, to allow for direct comparison of different game types along with a control group. In this research, we looked at three different types of short-term memory, the visual-spatial dimension, verbal and numerical. We examined some correlations between improved memory and video game usage. However, not all of the null hypotheses were confirmed in this study, meaning that there is room for future study. In particular, it has been established that quest/puzzle games are correlated with higher visual-spatial and verbal short-term memory, but it has not been determined if differences between baseline abilities amount the study participants might have influenced this result. This, therefore, would be one avenue for future study that has been opened up. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge with respect to the influence that…
Amladi, S., Andrist, S., Ducommun, M. & Leabo, L. (no date). Using action video games to train working memory in students with working memory deficits. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~sandrist/pdf/MBE_FinalPaper.pdf
Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. Cyber Psychology and Behavior. Vol. 10 (4) 552-559.
Anderson, C. & Bushman, B. (2001). Effect of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, psychological arousal and prosocial behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 12 (5) 353-359.
Applebaum, L, Cain, M., Darling, E. & Mitroff, S. (2013). Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alternations in visual sensory memory. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://people.duke.edu/~mitroff/papers/13_AppelbaumCainDarlingMitroff_APP.pdf
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to support this theory -- several prominent school shootings have been ostensibly linked to video game playing -- but real scientific evidence is also emerging that suggests a more subtle but similar effect. In one study, college-age participants who had spent time playing olfenstein 3D, a first person shooter computer game, "punished" their opponents by subjecting them to loud noises of high intensity more frequently and for longer periods of time than participants that had played a non-violent computer game. In the words of Dr. Craig Anderson, one of the psychologists and researchers who conducted the study, "violent video games provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations."
Basically, time spent playing violent video games is time spent learning life skills that could be detrimental and counter-productive in real world situations, and could even replace more socially valuable skills sets…
American Psychological Association. "Violence in the Media - Psychologists Help Protect Children from Harmful Effects." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://www.psychologymatters.org/mediaviolence.html
Gunter, Barrie. The Effects of Video Games on Children. Wiltshire: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd., 1998.
Jenkins, henry. "Congressional Testimony on Media Violence." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/jenkins_ct.html
Kirsh, Steven J. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. London: Sage Publications, 2006.
Additional studies show these effects last." (Ibid) the following statistics are stated in the study of Walsh, Gentile, Walsh and ennett (2005) relating to the parent's belief and the actuality as reported by their child.
Differences between parents and children reports related to video games
How often does a parent/do you:
Play computer or video games with you/your child?
Talk to you about the video games you play?
Help decide what video games you may buy/rent?
Have to ask permission before playing video games?
Does your family have rules about how much you may play?
Does your family have rules about when you may play video games?
Source: Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & ennett (2005)
IV. The Future of Video Gaming
Positive applications for learning have emerged from video gaming capabilities. A Computer Research Association report entitled: "Cyberinfrastructure for…
Fischer, P.; Guter, S.; Frey, D.; Kubitz; J. (2007) Virtual Driving and Risk Taking: Do Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Cognitions, Affect and Behaviors" Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied 2007 Vol. 19 No. 1 12031. American Psychological Association 2007.
Walsh, D.; Gentile, D.; Walsh, E.; Bennett, N. (2006) 11th Annual MediaWise Video Game Report Card. National Institute on Media and the Family, 28 Nov 2006. Online available at http://www.mediafamily.org/research/report_vgrc_2006.shtml .
Ainsworth, S.; Honey, M; Johnson, WL; Koedinger, K.; Maramatsu, Pea, R.; Recker, M. And Weimar, S. (2005) Cyberinfrastructure for Education and Learning for the Future: A Vision and Research Agenda. Computing Research Association. Online available at http://www.cra.org/reports/cyberinfrastructure.pdf
Gaming Advances as Learning Tool: For Some Educators, Computer Games are Serious Business" eSchool News Online. Available at http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showStory.cfm?ArticleID=6799 .
Video games: Are video games morally dangerous?
One of the most controversial forms of new technology is that of video games. Authors such as Grant Tavinor have lauded video games as unique pieces of 'interactive' art while opponents of video games such as Stephanie Partridge have condemned video games' violent images and the fact that they encourage the viewer to distance him or herself from the consequences of those actions. There is concern that because of their all-absorbing, interactive nature, video are uniquely 'dangerous' for the user, which for their proponents is actually what makes them so fascinating.
Tavinor clams that in additional to the artistic component of the video game experience, video games are themselves art because of their 'gaming' component. If various games such as chess have been called 'art' throughout the ages because of their use of dynamic strategy and what they demand of the viewer, why…
Sexism in Video Games
Video game characters are iconic in youth popular culture. Their influence goes far outside of the realm of the game, so that even youth who do not play games are exposed to video game characters. For example, it is common for products to use video game characters in their marketing campaigns when targeting young adults. Moreover, it is not unusual for there to be an overlap between video games and other forms of popular culture. Video games may be spun off into books, cartoons, films, and television shows. There is nothing inherently wrong with the presence of video game characters in so much youth-oriented popular culture. However, while video games may seem like harmless fun, it is important to understand the content of those video games and the message that content sends to young players, in order to understand the potential negative impact of these games.…
Cass Communications. "Student Robert Parungao Finds Video Games Rife with Stereotypes."
Arts Wire. 13 May 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
Dill, Karen. "Do Anti-Social Video Games Foster Sexism and Violence against Women?
Research on Sexist and Pro-Rape Attitudes among Gamers." Wordpress. 2008. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
Violence in Video Games
The cultivation of violence in video games: causal or correlational?
Studies on media effects have always included the influential role that television and new media technologies such as the computer and Internet (ICTs). With the proliferation of both mass media, there is greater penetration of its content to children and the adolescent youth, who are frequent TV watchers and ICT users. Among the concerns of parents and scholars about the proliferation of this mass media is its unintended effects -- the cultivation of violence and development of violent behavior of the child through TV and ICT content. Focus is especially given to the youth who actively engage in video gaming, either through the TV, computer, or Internet. Parents and mass media research claim that video games harness an individual's violent behavior, resulting to aggressiveness and development of hostile attitude towards other people.
In this paper, the…
Brody, M. (2001). "Playing with death." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, (16)11.
Gaziano, C. (2001). "Towards a broader conceptual framework for research on social stratification, childrearing patterns, and media effects." Mass Communication & Society, (4)2.
Lynne Eagle, L., S. Bulmer, and A. de Bruin. (2003). "Marketing communications implications of children's new electronic media use: a survey of parental opinions and perceptions." Journal of Marketing Communications, (9)3.
Wagner, C. (2004). "Aggression and violent media." Futurist, (38)4.
For instance, an outcast child has a high possibility of gaining his/her social stand only because he/she is devoted to playing video games (Marino n.p.). In addition, as the evolution of the high-tech devices continues, the involvement of the children in playing video games gives them the high opportunity and assistance necessary in releasing their frustrations and stress in a safer manner and in a controlled environment hence a chance to manage any hostile characters rather than encouraging them. For instance, a child who do not play video games frequently, can significantly benefit from releasing stress by spending approximately 15 to 20 minutes in playing video games (Marino n.p.). Moreover, the change in technology by it self is a good thing for the children generally as there is a continual development of video games that bring new challenging tasks/characters that enhance more thinking and creativity (Robers, "positive effects of video…
Marino, Jonathan. Positive effects of video games, article base. 28 March 2009. Web. 19 April
Robers, James. The positive effects of video games on children. Associatedcontent.com. 8
January 2010. Web. 19 April 2010.
e. those that are contrary to the intent of the marketing material) are taken (Wesley & Barczak 2010). Psychological knowledge has allowed this balancing act in video game marketing to be much more finely tuned than it would be otherwise.
The first three principles discussed herein relate to the efficacy of various marketing efforts, and the considerations that must be taken into account in order for marketing to reach the people intended and be responded to in the desired manner. When it comes to the ethical principles of marketing it is less about direct efficacy and more about the overall social benefit and cultural values being upheld in marketing materials and efforts. The ethics of marketing are essentially limiting factors on the types and precise design of marketing materials that can be utilized for a given product or industry, but viewing them only as limitation does not really…
Carroll, R. (2010). "Video games business and marketing,." Accessed 8 August 2010. http://vgbm.blogspot.com/
Global Media. (2010). Principles of marketing. New York: Global Media.
Higgins, L. (2009). Principles of marketing. Accessed 8 August 2010. http://www.principlesofmarketing.com/
KnowThis. (2010). "Consumer buying behavior." Accessed 8 August 2010. http://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/consumer-buying-behavior/
Violence in Media Contribute to Violent Behavior in Children?
In this day and age, the media is part and parcel of most people's lives in such a way that there is an interaction with media in different forms each day. People access media for many reasons, some of which are to gather information, to be entertained and in order to advance their education. In today's media, violence has become a common feature, raising fears of what the impact of this might be. This issue is prevalent all around the world today and has been accessed by people of all ages, races and religions. Questions have been raised as to the effect this violence has had and will have on the viewer (Hinkley, et al., 2014). Media can be accessed in various forms, including television, radios, films, games and the internet. All these mediums have a potential to affect people's lives,…
Bushman, B. J., Gollwitzer, M., & Cruz, C. (2015). There is broad consensus: Media researchers agree that violent media increase aggression in children, and pediatricians and parents concur. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4, 200-214. doi:10.1037/ppm0000046.
Ferguson, C. J. (2015). Does Media Violence Predict Societal Violence? It Depends on What You Look at and When. Journal of Communication 65, E1 -- E22. doi:10.1111/jcom.12129
Ferguson, C. J., Olson, C. K., Kutner, L. A., & Warner, D. E. (2014). Violent video games, catharsis seeking, bullying, and delinquency: A multivariate analysis of effects. Crime & Delinquency, 60, 764-784. doi:10.1177/0011128710362201
Greitemeyer, T., & Mugge, D. O. (2014). Video games do affect social outcomes: a meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 578-589. doi:10.1177/0146167213520459
violence in the media can create violent behavior in children and teens. Many studies show that watching violent media, such as video games, films, and even the television news can cause violent behavior in children and teens, and that behavior can continue into adulthood.
Several different studies have indicated that violence in the media can produce violent and aggressive behavior in children and teens. Two researchers note, "In the past decade, media-effects researchers have progressively reached consensus that exposure to television violence can result in aggressive behavior" (Greene & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, a fifteen-year study by the American Psychological Association (APA) also showed that both men and women are affected by media violence, and that adults who watched this media as children tended to be more violent, and convicted of more violent crimes (Partenheimer, 2003). In the past decade, violence has become much more common in the media, as…
Editors. (2009). Children and media violence. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the MediaFamily.org Web site: http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_vlent.shtml .
Greene, K., & Krcmar, M. (2005). Predicting exposure to and liking of media violence: A uses and gratifications approach. Communication Studies, 56(1), 71+.
Partenheimer, D. (2009). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009, from the American Psychological Association Web site: http://www.apa.org/releases/media_violence.html.
People can tell the difference between a violent television show and reports of violence on the news, and are more upset by reports of real violence, even though those reports are less graphic than fictional representations. Therefore, the media does not desensitize people to violence.
Finally, while media portrayals of violence have gotten more graphic, society itself has not become more violent. On the contrary, the channels for discussing that violence have simply become more accessible. For example, the American South during slavery and Jim Crow were replete with violence against African-Americans, but, because that violence was institutionalized and acceptable, there were few media portrayals of that violence. As a greater range of behavior has become unacceptable, it has become included in reports of violence, but the upswing in reports does not necessarily correlate with an increase in actual incidents.
Violence exists in societies without violent media. In addition, viewers…
Cases of violent children have become rampant prompting a lot of research and studies directed towards unravelling the reason behind violence, some of which are extreme at such tender ages. The author gives an example of two children who launched a violent attack in their school killing a teacher and four little girls. The motive suggested for one of the child's behavior is that he was jilted by a girl. These two children were only thirteen and eleven years old. This is quite a young age for a child to exhibit such extreme violent behaviors, they were so young yet they killed with a finely honed sense of premeditation. If I was a child psychologist like the author I would definitely be inspired by this event trying to make sure I found out the exact cause of violent behaviors as such in children who are very young. The author…
Jonatha K., (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflection of Violent Children. Balantine Books.
Video Games and Their Effect on Children
Video Games were first introduced in the 1970s and rapidly caught on as a major leisure activity especially among children within a decade. Children these days spend more time watching TV or playing video games than any other activity save sleeping. Since video games are a relatively recent phenomenon research about its effects on children cannot be considered conclusive. However, most studies so far indicate that video games can have both positive and negative effects on children depending on the time spent in the activity and the type of video games played.
The Positive Effects
Most early researches in the effect of video games on children indicated that they had an overall positive effect on children.
Introduction to Computers
Video games were a friendly way to introduce children to the use of computers and improved their hand-eye co-ordination. Some older studies also indicated…
Cesarone, Bernard. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest. 1994-01-00. [Available Online] December 6, 2002 from http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed365477.html
Clements, David. "Video violence too close to the real thing." Sterling News Service [Available Online] December 6, 2002 from http://www.media-awareness.ca/eng/med/home/artvidgm.htm
Mitchell, Edna. "Video Games Visit Harvard Yard." September 1983. Antic Vol. 2, # 6.
Available Online] December 6, 2002. http://www.atarimagazines.com/v2n6/videogames.html
Goldstein, Jeffrey 1999 'The Attractions of Violent Entertainment', Media Psychology, vol.1, no.3, pp. 271-282.
The core idea of this article is that majority of researchers only concern themselves with effects of violence in mass media, neglecting the question of why the audience is attracted to violent entertainment in the first place. The author describes the attractions of violent entertainment, based on a project supported by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation (HFG).
This article fits into a lot of different categories on violence such as the violence in movies and video games. There is plenty of literature that dives into this subject matter but appears to tackle this subject matter. Other articles makes the point at that violence is basically the foundation of a lot of films, TV movies, and not to mention even action series. To take it even further, violence is repeatedly identical with "action." For the reason that…
Cantor, J. (., 1998. Children's attraction to violent television programming. In J.Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Goldstein, J., 2009. The Attractions of Violent. Media Psychology, 34(7), pp. 271-282. .
Guttmann, A., 2008. The appeal of violent sports. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford.
In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?
External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).
If boys are found to be…
Maxfield, Michael G., and Earl R. Babbie. Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009.
To these kids playing video games is an extracurricular activity and they don't see any reason to do anything else.
The major problem with this is that the incidence of childhood obesity in the U.S. is three times higher than it was 40 years ago. esearch shows that the increased use of technology by children during leisure time has transformed play from what used to be more physically active to sedentary. Children are often engaged in an environment that exposes them to food advertisement that encourages even more caloric consumption. Despite the linkage between technology and sedentary behavior, no consistent policy exists at the federal level that articulates government's role to address this issue (Campbell, Gilmore, McGinty, Pickering and amos, 2009).
A new study shows that every hour that a child plays video games or watches television may double their risk of obesity. This is not the first study to…
Campbell, Casie, Gilmore, William, McGinty, James, Pickering, Jennifer and Ramos, Joseph.
(2009). Minimizing Technologies' Contribution to Childhood Obesity. Retrieved March 2,
2010, from Web site: http://wmgilmore.iweb.bsu.edu/technology_assessment.html
Do violent video games contribute to youth violence? (2010). Retrieved March 2, 2010, from Pro
while the parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). This helped the researchers obtain information regarding the behavioral abnormalities, hyperactivity, inattention, ADHD, etc.
Statistical analysis of the gathered information clearly revealed an increase in inattentive behavior (p ? 0.001 for both Internet and console video games) and ADHD (p = 0.018 and 0.020 for console and Internet games, respectively). The researchers also concluded that students who engaged in video gaming for more than an hour showed significantly lower academic performance with (Grade point average (GPA), p = 0.019 and 0.009 for console and Internet games, respectively). The association between the time spent on playing video games and the YIAS (p < 0.001), was clearly evident indicating the development of video game addiction among the subjects who played for more than one hour daily [Philip and Terry, (2006)]. This study shows that children playing video games may…
1) Online Education, 'Video game Statistics' Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.onlineeducation.net/videogame/
2) NIMF, 'Effects of Video game playing on Children', Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_effect.shtml
3) Jerald J. Block, M.D., 'Issues for DSM-V: Internet Addiction', Am J. Psychiatry
165:306-307, Mar 2008, Available online at, http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/165/3/306
The focus of this proposal is to use the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test whether the video games influence behavior. There has been a general public concern on the risk factor of video games on the youth's behavior especially children under 18 years of age. Science Daily (2013) shows that video games are the risk factors to aggression and criminal behavior. Despite this assertion, there still a paucity of valid and reliable academic research on the risk factors of video games on behavior. This proposal attempts to fill the gap by using ANOVA to test whether the video games influence behavior.
Do video games influence the aggressive or criminal behavior?
ANOVA is an appropriate statistical test for the proposal because it will be used to test for a significant difference of two means. Using the ANOVA for the proposal, the researcher will be able to produce valid…
Jackson, S.L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Office of the Surgeon General. (2001).Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. USA.
Science Daily (2013). Violent Video Games Are a Risk Factor for Criminal Behavior and Aggression, New Evidence Shows. Science News.
There have been numerous attempts to intervene in determining the target groups for such video games by the policy makers. More precisely, legislative acts have been undertaken in several states that would limit the purchase of video games by minors (Thierer, 2003). However, such initiatives are against the First Amendment of the Constitution and were therefore rejected. Despite the fact that such an option may have reduced the number of video games purchased by minors, it may not have had the desired results largely because not all video games are violent. Indeed additional care should be provided to limit violent video games from influencing children and young adults, but the total ban of video game purchasing by minors would not have reached the desired result. Minors could have requested an adult to purchase such video games and it would have only pushed children of thinking of different methods to acquire…
Gentile, D.A. (2007). Violent Video Games as Exemplary Teachers: A Conceptual Analysis. Institute of Science and Society. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
Rudon, T. (2011). 10 Benefits Of Video Games. Retrieved from SelfGrowth.com: http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/10_Benefits_Of_Video_Games.html
Thierer, A.D. (2003, Jan 23). Regulating Video Games: Must Government Mind Our Children? Retrieved Sept 4, 2011, from Cato Institute: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=11521
hat impact does media violence have on society? How are children affected and how are adolescents affected by violence portrayed in movies, television, video games and in other forms? This paper reviews and critiques peer-reviewed articles that address the subject of media violence from several perspectives -- and takes positions on the arguments and research presented in those scholarly articles.
There is ample empirical research available to back up the assertion that violent video games, movies and television programs have a negative impact on young people. It is the thesis of this paper that ultimately the responsibility for guidance vis-a-vis violent media is not on schools or law enforcement but in fact is on the shoulders of parents.
The Influence of Media Violence on Youth
An article in the Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Anderson, et al., 2003) flatly asserts that there is "…unequivocal evidence that media…
Anderson, Craig A., Berkowitz, Leonard, Donnerstein, Edward, Husemann, Rowell L.,
Johnson, James D., Linz, Daniel, Malamuth, Neil M., and Wartella, Ellen. (2003). The
Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest,
Trees take in carbon dioxide (which includes pollution in the air) and give off oxygen so we can all breathe, and so God's plan can be carried through. The teaching of values, morals, and discipline must be part of the program for a Catholic teacher, and also the involvement of parents brings the school, the Church, the children and the families together in a fellowship of learning and praying.
As was mentioned earlier in this section, involving parents in their children's learning activities is a powerful way to keep our faith strong and growing in the context of education and Christianity. This is particularly poignant because on page 9 of the "Our Catholic Schools" one of the major issues facing Catholic education is the "…inadequate home and parish involvement with schools," and we can mitigate this problem by working closely with children to get them inspired enough so they want…
Dall, Mary Doerfler. (2000). Children Discover the Mass. Notre Dame, in: Ave Maria Press.
Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Ontario's Catholic Schools. (2007). Our Catholic Schools 2006-2007 / Summary Report.
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…
Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions
Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.
Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20050610/media-violence-may-affect-childrens-minds
Anderson et al. (2010) conclude that indeed, violent video games do increase the likelihood for aggressive behavior. How well to deal with violent behavior remains one of the most significant challenges we face in the modern society. This is more so the case given that unlike a couple of years ago, access to weapons that could compromise public safety has today become relatively easy. We only need to look at the recent school shootings to catch a glimpse of the escalating problem of violent behavior. While blame cannot be apportioned entirely on violent video games, research has shown that the said games do indeed have an impact on violent behavior most particularly amongst children. The relevance of exploring measures available to rein in the problem in this case cannot hence be overstated.
To begin with, parents should play an active supervisory role when it comes to the purchase and utilization…
Anderson, C.A., Ihori, N., Bushman, B.J., Rothstein, H.R., Shibuya, a., Swing, E.L., Sakamoto, a. & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review. American Psychological Association, 136 (2), 151-173. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/bul-136-2-151.pdf
Hill, G. (2001). A Level Psychology through Diagrams. New York: Oxford University Press.
Are Video Games to Blame for Violence and Violent Crimes in Teenagers?
Over the past few months there has been an increase in awareness of crimes and violent acts by teenagers, arguably stemming from their interactions with video games. In one particular case as reported by ABC News in September, two teenage boys in Tennessee accidentally murdered Aaron Deneau on Interstate 40 when they took a shotgun and started to recreate their own version of Grand Theft Auto 3 - a game that involves crime and gun violence. The Deneau family have filed a case against the makers of Grand Theft Auto 3, claiming that violent games like it should not be made because they encourage crime and violence in teenagers. I believe that while video games may have an affect on the people who play them, they are not solely responsible for violence in teenagers or indicative of…
meeting class, wrote subject relationship violence media (attached 'First Paper') . hen revisit thoughts, changed? How materials semester complicated, deepened, reinforced, transformed understand relationship violence media, sense matters? Draw SPECIFIC articles terms concepts materials show process development.
Violence in relationship with the media
hile society has experienced significant progress during recent years, the masses continue to be obsessed with diverse concepts such as sex and violence. The media exploits people's obsessions by using these respective concepts whenever it gets the chance to do so. hile there is much controversy with regard to the effect that this has on the masses, it is generally accepted that many have trouble filtering information and are negatively affected as a consequence of being bombarded with information promoting violence.
hile many are inclined to say that the media simply provides society with stories that have nothing to do with the real world and that cannot…
Al-Taee, Nasser, "Representations of the Orient in Western Music: Violence and Sensuality," (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2010)
Andersen, Robin, "Consumer Culture and TV Programming"
Bagot, Martin, "GTA 5 torture row: Teachers slam scenes of extreme violence in most expensive game ever," Retrieved from http://www.mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/staying-in/video-games/gta-5-torture-row-teachers-2278689
Best, Jessica, "GTA V: Violent dad throttles girlfriend who asked him to stop playing game hours after its midnight release," Retrieved from http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/gta-v-violent-dad-throttles-2334297
The major concern is the effect of violence, due once again, to studies that show a connection between watching violence and participating in it. For example, Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted as study in which they determined that playing violent video games can "engender hostile expectations, leading one to expect that others will respond aggressively" (p. 1679).
The Grand Theft Auto series of video games has undoubtedly been a major instigator in the backlash against the gaming industry. Not surprisingly, most parents are not too thrilled about the idea of their children taking on the persona of a character who commits crimes to earn rewards, and runs over prostitutes so he doesn't have to pay them. There was also a major parental backlash against the PS2 game Bully before it was released, because parents assumed that it would glorify bullying. The frenzy turned out to be unfounded as the game…
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679 -- 1686.
Gunter, B., Harrison, J. & Wykes, M. (2003) Violence on television: Distribution, form, context, and themes, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Rekulak, J. & Spangler, B. (2006) Let's Paint the '90s, Quirk Books
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
validity, and for school administrators Goldstein's points should be discussed and debated. Goldstein suggests that without violating students' privacy rights, instructors / teachers nationwide need to be far more alert to weirdness, aggressiveness, "creepiness," Nazi-related hatefulness, "Fierce racism" and homophobia.
Students that have obsessive video game habits -- with a daily dose of violent games like "Grand Theft Auto" -- are potentially antisocial individuals that need to be watched (hiteman, 2013). There is ample evidence in the literature that impressionable young men and boys that play the most violent video games are living in a violent world of their own (Jaslow, 2013). Those working towards the prevention of homicidal violence in Germany's schools have employed anti-bullying programs and the "Leaking Project," which mirrors what Goldstein proposals; this should be studied by American school leaders (Leuschner, 2011). Also, those troubled students, known to be suffering from depression -- such as the…
Harwood, V. (2011). Connecting the Dots: Threat Assessment, Depression and the Troubled
Student. Curriculum Inquiry, 41(5), 586-593.
Klebold, S. (2009). "I Will Never Know Why." The Oprah Magazine. Retrieved January
24, 2014, from http://www.oprah.com.
The video game Fortnite, which was originally released July 21, 2017, has become increasingly popular over the last two years. In fact, it is not an exaggeration to say that Fortnite is the video game of the summer of 2019. Children of all ages, but especially younger children, have spent their summers playing this video game. However, many adults, especially older generation adults, really do not understand what the Fortnite fuss is about. This tutorial covers the basics of Fortnite. It answers questions like: what is Fortnite; how do you get Fortnite; how do you play Fortnite; and what is a Fortnite tracker? It also discusses commonly used terms, such as battle royale, Fortnite skins, Fortnite costumes, and Fortnite dances. Finally, it discusses the impact of Fortnite on society and on the development of the children who play it.
Even people who do not play video games…
media consumption and subsequent behaviour?
Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.
The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…
Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.
Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]
Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.
Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.
On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…
Gentile, D.A. And Sesma, A. (2003) Developmental Approaches to Understanding Media Effects on Individuals. Online available at http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~dgentile/106027_02.pdf
Nevins, Tara (2004) The Effects of Media Violence on Adolescent Health. Physicians for Global Survival, Canada, Summer 2004. Online available at http://pgs.wemanageyour.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/effectsofmediaviolence_final.pdf
Anderson, C. et al. (2003) The Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. VOL. 4, NO. 3, December 2003. Online available at http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf
The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).
Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…
Ahn, J. (2011). Digital Divides and Social Network Sites: Which Students Participate in Social
Media. Jounral of Educational Computing Research, 45(2), 147-63.
Anderson-Butcher, D., et.al. (2010). Adolescent Weblog Use: Risky or Protective. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work, 27(2), 63-77.
Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Publications.
Super-violence is a new term that defines violence in a grand and exaggerating way. (Klare 16) Seen as an era of constant warfare and violence, it has made its way into entertainment and media. hether it is chopping the heads of people and seeing the blood from their bodies gush like champagne fountains or seeing throats slit by children, today's media has taken on a new level of violence that thanks to visual effects and special effects makeup, shows just how intense the public has become in their quest for savagery. But why does the public desire more and more violence in their stories? hat turn will this take in the future?
The recent invention and use of virtual reality just may be the way people will participate in the increasingly violent nature of media. Through virtual reality people can feel as though they are right in the middle of…
Cornell University, Are Moral Actors Moral, Or Does Moral Action Make An Actor Moral? 1st ed. Cornell University, 2016. Print.
1st ed. Cornell University, 2016. Print.
Klare, Michael T. "The Era of Super-Violence." MERIP Reports 111 (1983): 16. Web.
Lee, Tae Kyoung and Michael A. Shapiro. "The Interaction of Affective Dispositions, Moral Judgments, And Intentionality In Assessing Narrative Characters: Rationalist And Intuitionist Sequences." Communication Theory 24.2 (2014): 146-164. Web.
scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.
Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.
Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…
Attraction to Violence in the Media
Violence on Films and in Television
Filmmakers Technique to Grab the Audience
Violence Made to Swindle the Viewers
Making Violence Funny
It is clear that one of the worthy changes in the social environment today is the advent and fullness of television. In this new setting, television, radio, videos, movies, computer networks and video games, have presumed central roles in people's day-to-day lives. Rather it be good or bad, it seems that the mass media are having some kind of a huge impact on people's standards, beliefs, and behavior. Regrettably, the consequences of one specific element of the mass media exposure has for the most part damaging effects on those that are watching' and others' health. There is much Research evidence that has been accumulating over a lot of ears that being exposed to violence on television and in video games does…
Bishop, R. A P.J., 2006. Violence. Theory, Culture & Society. Theory, Culture and Society, 23(3), pp. pp.377-385..
BJ., B., 2007. Moderating role of. Journal . Pers. Soc.Psychol, 23(4), p. 950 -- 60.
Bushman BJ, H.L., 2008. Effects of televised violence on aggression.In Handbook of Children and the Media. In: Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 223 -- 54.
Bushman, B. A A.C., 2001. Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts vs. media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(7), pp. pp.477-489..
Also stated in their findings was that exposure in the laboratory of video games that were 'graphically violent...increased aggressive thoughts and behavior (2000:1) Also stated in this report is that other studies conducted by Anderson and Gentile give indication that videogames "have a strong effect on aggression..." particularly in children.
3. Coleman, Loren (2004) The Copycat Effect Paraview Publishing. Online available at http://www.paraview.com/coleman/index4.htm.
According to Coleman, the copycat effect has been a result of media coverage of events such as school shootings. Coleman brings to light how media affects culture within a society.
4. The Culture of Commercialism (2006) Media Awareness Network Online available at http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/ethics/rr_culture_commercialism.cfm.
This work states that "advertising projects false images commercialism distorts our culture by turning every event into a reason to consume.... [and that]...advertising perpetuates stereotypes..."
5. Digital Beginnings: Young Children's Use of Popular Culture, Media and New Technologies Popular Culture and Media Literacy: Research…
Five schools were randomly assigned to receive violent video games and five received non-violent programs. They then compared the number of violent incidents within the schools in the two groups over a 4-month period.
Independent variable: Violent or non-violent games
Dependent variable: Number of violent incidents
c. Are panhandlers more violent at night? To find out, the researcher spends his weekends in a downtown location near bars and restaurants in a location that city leaders have described as a "problem" area. He dresses as a tourist in a loose fitting shirt and becomes one of the crowd. At the same time, he observes and compares the number of panhandling incidents, counts loud confrontations, and compares day-versus night-time.
Independent variable: day or night
Dependent variable: number of panhandling incidents and loud confrontations
d. Is income level related to attitudes toward stiffer sentences for gun crimes? To find out,…
This article addresses why children and adolescents may become violent, what factors influence them, what are the signs, and what preventive measures work in society's attempts to end violence among children and adolescents. In our society today, many parents have become irresponsible, not only allowing their children to immerse themselves in violent video games and movies but also causing a lot of violent behavior among their children by having unhealthy marriages, abusing their children, and becoming alcohol and drug addicts. This problem needs to be addressed, and therefore I found it important to include into my blog.
The last material I decided to include into my blog is an article by a professor of education who talks about the connection of toys to violence. This article points out that we often look at violence in media, TV, the Internet as causes of violence among Americans but we rarely…
As they will fully engage in the learning experience through immersion, children learn to link goals and roles.
Technology-Based Learning Techniques
DGBL's interactive learning techniques range from an general memorization to complicated, sophisticated problem. Common benefits include, but are not limited to:
Through repetition, along with feedback, students receive valuable practice.
Students learn by doing.
Students learn from their mistakes. Sometimes, when a student makes an error, he/she must return to the start and begin again.
Students experience goal-oriented learning, which in turn, motivates them to attempt to conquer their challenges.
Students engage in discovery learning and "guided discovery," along with solving problems.
Students complete task-based learning as they solve a series of increasingly, more difficult problems or challenges.
Students are offered guidance and modeling to help them learn and improve their skills.
Students reason during question-led learning sessions.
Students engage in and role-playing activities, and reflect upon actions, a…
Theory Methodology and Human Development
Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following
Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis.
The impact that video games, as a form of media entertainment, have been a matter of concern for politicians, parents, and legislators. However, the results generated from the scholarly literature are not in agreement; researchers continue to disagree about the impact that video games have on people.
Analyze three research problems (i.e., subordinate questions) that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated.
For purposes of this research, a quantitative research design is utilized.
What is the relationship of playing video games to increased levels of obesity?
Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & Bennett (2006, p. 2) found that "children who spend more time playing video games are heavier, and are more likely…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: People, places and environment (4th ed.)
Brown RIF. (1991) Gaming, gambling and other addictive play. In Kerr JH, Apter MJ, eds. Adult play: a reversal theory approach. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 101 -- 18.
Brown RIF. (1993) Some contributions of the study of gambling to the study of other addictions. In Eadington WR, Cornelius JA, eds. Gambling behavior and problem gambling. Reno: University of Nevada, pp. 241 -- 72.
Perry, J.A., & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: An introduction to social science (12th ed.)
.....media contribute to violence?
Some research has shown that the media contributes to the emergence and exhibition of violent behavior in young people, or at least the desensitization to violence. The American Psychological Association summarizes the body of literature and claims that at the very least, extensive exposure to violent imagery can desensitize a child to violence ("Television and Video Violence," n.d.). Other research may reveal a more causal relationship between exposure to violence in the media and violent behavior. For example, a meta-analysis of 15 different studies has shown "evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior," (Kaplan, 2012). This does not mean that all people who are exposed to media violence will exhibit violent behavior or aggression, but that care must be taken when children are…
TV & Internet
Mass media technology has become omnipresent in our society. It is not uncommon for children to now be raised with personal electronics, constant television and an overall barrage of sensory stimulus. Moreover, electronic devices are becoming the main means of communication for the younger generation, which can challenge their ability to relate to others. While many in the media have called into question the impacts of these socio-technical changes, others point the benefits that technology offers, and note that change is inevitable and the negative effects are overblown. This paper will take a look at the effects of television and Internet consumption on the young generation.
There are a number of different influences the have been hypothesized for children based on their exposure to television and the media, none more prevalent than the argument that children are exposed to much more violence throughout their childhoods than…
AAP. (2011). Children, adolescents, obesity and the media. Pediatrics. Vol. 128 (1) 201-208.
Castillo, M. (2013). Parents' TV time may be the biggest influence on kids' viewing habits. CBS News. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/parents-tv-time-may-be-the-biggest-influence-on-kids-viewing-habits/
Donnerstein, E. (2010). The media and aggression: From TV to the Internet. University of Arizona. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.sydneysymposium.unsw.edu.au/2010/chapters/DonnersteinSSSP2010.pdf
Harris, J., Speers, S., Schwartz, M. & Brownell, K. (2012) U.S. food company branded advergames on the Internet: Children's exposure and effects on snack consumption. Journal of Children and the Media. Vol. 6 (1) 51-68.
" One of those characteristics is being obese, and the stigma of being way to overweight leads to being "...sort of a screen through which all aspects of the person are viewed" (Henslin, 141).
FOUR: What Maher has stated over and over in his book is that there need to be changes made at the highest level of government. That's not likely of course with Bush but seeing Barack Obama's surge in the polls gives those wanting change new hope.
But in fact, talking about Obama's ascendancy, it has been true through the years that making those important changes upset the apple carts of powerful people. In The Social Reality (Chapter One) it is explained that when changes are needed that appear to threaten the powerful (such as demanding the use of clean energy instead of oil) those powerful interests "attack" back. On page 3 of The Social Reality it…
Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Maher, Bill. (2002). When you ride ALONE you ride with bin Laden. Beverly Hills:
New Millennium Press.
Since the results of these efforts to date have been mixed, it is important to see if there may be some truth to these arguments concerning the harmful effects of technology-based activities such as social media on young people, and these issues are discussed further below.
The Internet and the Dumbing Down of Society
The adage that "the more things change, the more they stay the same" is no longer true according to Evgeny Morozov. riting in Prospect magazine, Morozov (2010) argues in his essay, "Losing our minds to the web" that, "The internet is damaging teenagers' brains and our ability to think. But the web's real dangers lurk elsewhere" (1). Like any other muscle, Morozov and like-minded critics of technology maintain that the Internet has caused young people's brains to weaken because they are not being "exercised" enough by traditional standards. In this regard, Morozov emphasizes that, "There's no…
Corry, G. "Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions." 2011. Cenage Learning. Electronic. February 2011. .
Morozov, E. "Losing Our Minds to the Web." 22 June 2010. Prospect Magazine. Electonirc. February 2012. .
Richtel, M. "Growing Up Digital, Wired for Distraction." 21 November 2010. The New York Times. Electronic. February 2012. .
"United Breaks Guitars." 2010. You Tube. Electronic. February 2012. .