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Religious Image as Depicted by Three Different Artists:
The Virgin Mary in Renaissance art
Portraits of the Virgin and Christ Child began to proliferate in Florence during the Italian Renaissance. There was "a new demand for devotional images on a domestic scale" (Botticelli, Virgin and Child with an Angel). hile epic religious portraits remained in vogue in some quarters, in others a new vision came to the forefront that stressed the Holy Family as a family, not merely as divine beings. The sense of the human-divine connection being closer than was conceptualized in the Middle Ages was made manifest in art, particularly when showing Christ at his youngest and most vulnerable.
However, the development of the 'religious domestic' took time to fully unfold in the ideology of the era. For example, the early Renaissance artist Masaccio is well-known for his portraits of the Virgin Mary. However, his work is heavily…… [Read More]
This may well have been intentional, because since the statue was moved from its original location, no one knows in what position it was before (Michelangelo pp). The artist might have intentionally deformed it if it was to be housed in a high place in order to balance human sight aberration, yet much of the Madonna's size is concealed in the drapery, thus, the figures look quite natural (Michelangelo pp). Michelangelo limited the marks of the crucifixion to very small nail marks and an indication of the wound in Jesus' side and the imprints of the nails in the feet do not penetrate to the underside of the foot (Michelangelo pp).
Some say that the youthful appearance of the Virgin symbolized purity, which others attribute it to Michelangelo's passion for Dante's Divine Comedy, where in the third cantica, Paradise, in a prayer for the Virgin Mary, St. Bernard says, "Virgin…… [Read More]
" Patriarchy perpetuates its crimes through "denial, tokenism, obfuscation and reversal" and traps its victims (particularly the women) in the semantic web of lies which, in the words of Daly, "constitutes the reality of the Foreground, and obscures ultimate reality, which is the Background." She advises women to take a leap of faith to break free from the necrophilic embrace of patriarchy to dis-cover their true human potential and "reclaim their primordial power, their gynergy, in order to spin new, gynocentric and biophilic realities."
Utopian Society of the Future:
Another controversial theory advanced by Daly in her book, Quintessence, describes a utopian society of the future, on a continent populated entirely by women, where procreation occurs through parthenogenesis, without the participation of men. She further asserts, "If life is to survive on this planet, there must be a decontamination of the Earth. I think this will be accompanied by an…… [Read More]
The shift from Byzantine or Medieval art to the early Renaissance is perfectly demonstrated by examining the change in depictions of the Virgin Mary and the baby Jesus, or Madonna and Child, over time. hat we see is a gradual tendency toward realistic depictions of human form, as a way of making religious art less remote and decorative, and more immediately related to actual human experience.
e can begin with the thirteenth-century Byzantine icon of the Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne. The painting is, in some sense, a highly stylized representation of a familiar image. The figures of mother and child do not really seem to exist in real space: for example, the gold leaf that is used for the flat backdrop behind the Madonna and Child is also used (in a decorative but not particularly realistic fashion) to highlight the folds of the Madonna's garments. here…… [Read More]
One cannot help but see the foreshadowing of Jesus' birth in Ruth's determination to travel to Bethlehem, upon the conviction that it will be blessed by the Lord.
Like Ruth's tale, the story of Esther tells of a woman's strength, conviction, and loyalty to the Jews. Esther's husband Ahasuerus is tangentially involved in a plot to kill the Jews, mirroring the Roman persecution of Jews during Jesus' time. Ruth risks her own life to rescue the Jews, while Mary gives her son for the protection of the Jews. The paper will investigate the significant contrast between the story of Esther and the story of Mary; Esther's protection of the Jews results in the death of thousands of Gentiles, while Mary helps bring a message of peace. The stories also both involve rulers attempting to kill Jews.
The dissertation will also compare Mary to Rebecca. One of Rebecca's remarkable features is…… [Read More]
Knowledge comes as Mary Helen becomes aware of the fact that she is unwelcome in certain places, like the local movie theater, because of her race.
Questions about the reading
1. Catholicism plays an important role in the novel. Are people such as the women called "The Three Trinidads" who compete as to who can offer the most prayers to God and Father Muller who hates dancing but loves the beach hypocrites? Does their form of rationalization reflect badly upon the faith? (Compare these images with the author's mother at her young brother's funeral).
2. The story is told through the eyes of a child, but the author is much older. How does Ponce use irony to add humor and also pathos to her tale?
3. Food and cooking play an important role in the tale in its depiction of women What does it mean that the humble but loving…… [Read More]
This seems to be of approximately the same period with Virgin and Child gazing diametrically away from the viewer seeming to be absorbed in their own thoughts. The same reflective smile plays on Mary's lips, and she is dressed in similar royal garb. This time her hands are peeking out from her cascading robe, her face and figure is fuller, and the Child, still solemn, seems slightly more infant-like. In both pictures, he seems more earnest than the mother. Mary is still erect, though slightly more bent by the shoulders than the other. She has the same regal pose, although this position has been slightly relaxed in both images. The throne in the last image too has been replaced in this one by a bench that is decorated with insignias. The Child, here too is perched on Mary's knee.
Both Infant and mother seem to have their hands extended. The…… [Read More]
Women's choice lead a celebate life, remain a virgin, a rejection societal expectations? A conclusion drawn thesis question. I attaching suggested books citation. Essay 12 pages length counting citations bibliography.
Was a Women's choice to lead a celibate life or remain a virgin a rejection of societal expectations?
The role of women in the society has been widely debated throughout the history of both philosophical thought and social sciences. Women have a particular place in society since ancient times and there are clear indications, in the religious literature, that women have had specific views and opinions regarding their own place in the society. In this context, the current research discusses the choice of women to lead a celibate life or keep herself a virgin and whether this choice was a reaction to societal expectations and social pressures. The perspective of the research analysis is focused on Christian traditions from the…… [Read More]
BIOGRAPHY -- Hans Memling
Hans Memling was probably born between 1430 and 1440 in the Main region of Seligenstadt, Germany, even though he is usually said to be from Finland. Historians But in all honesty, little seems known about his early years. Some stories suggest that he was injured in a military conflict associated with Charles the Bold, with the result that he was admitted to a religious care setting. In the hospital, it is said that he received extraordinary care that both enlightened his spiritually and invested in him a desire to use his talents to return thanks to those who saved his life. While newer evidence suggests these stories are mostly just self-serving for the organizations themselves, they likely came about because they allowed his caregivers to associate themselves with the artist who would eventually be tagged "the best in Christendom" because of his portrait and…… [Read More]
This course changed my concept of what it meant to be a Christian in three fundamental ways, all focused on what it means to me to be a Christian in modern society, rather than on the theological underpinnings of Christianity. This course helped me realize that Christianity is not merely a system of belief, which is how many people conceive of religion. Instead, Christianity must be a combination of action and belief. However, it also made me more committed to some of the fundamental underpinnings of Christian theology, which I had admittedly abandoned in my own desire to equate being a Christian with being a good person and trying to do the right thing. However, reading this book, I came to the realization that I was failing to embrace all of Christianity. Just as it is necessary, but not sufficient, to be a good person in order to honestly…… [Read More]
Both the statues serve the purpose of transmitting the idea that Virgin Mary and Christ the baby are the owners of absolute wisdom. One however is highly majestic and monumental while the other is simpler. Both of them communicate fundamental Christian values. They both have a similar dark colour which suggests the dark ages in which they were created. In both cases the virgin is depicted as protective. In one case the interaction is very strong between the child and the virgin, while in the other one both figures interact with the viewer through their frontal position.
In both cases virgin Mary acts as a supportive element, whether she is the one who holds the desired answer or the very throne for her son. Both of the statues are conceived in a manner which allows them to be cult objects, subject to processes of devotion.
All in all it can…… [Read More]
Venus in Art
Introduction to Venus and Aphrodite:
Throughout history, Venus has long been a source of inspiration for artists. Her representation of love and beauty has been captured in various mediums, from the visual arts of paintings and sculpture to music and drama; Venus has served as a universal symbol of beauty and has embodied the secrets of love. Central to understanding how artists have been able to use her as such a representation of love and beauty, is understanding Venus and Aphrodite's roles in history and Greek mythology.
Venus is an ancient Italian goddess closely associated with fields and gardens and later identified by the Romans with the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite. Although the question as to how Venus came to be identified with so important a deity as Aphrodite remains unanswered, Venus' identification with Aphrodite is certain and because of this is often depicted in art.…… [Read More]
For Mary and Colin, Martha is the greatest example of motherhood and helps both of them to live as peaceable as possible in the manor house. There is also Dr. Craven, the brother of Archibald and uncle to Colin, who watches over Colin during his illness and who hopes to inherit the manor if and when Colin dies. Lastly, there is Saidie, Mary's ayah or nursemaid/nanny who abandons Mary to the cholera, hoping that she dies along with her parents. Of course, there are other characters like Mrs. Medlock and Phoebe, but these are only secondary figures that do not play real important roles in Mary's life.
Two of the most important events in the Secret Garden are Mary leaving India and her discovery of robin redbreast and the secret garden. In the first event, when the cholera epidemic breaks out and every member of her family, along with all…… [Read More]
John La Farge is often referred to as one of the most "innovative and versatile American artists of the nineteenth century" and "the most versatile American artist of his time," a true Renaissance spirit that was not afraid to experiment in different areas of paintings and with different techniques. One look at works such as "The Great Statue of Amida uddha at Kamakura, Known as the Daibutsu, from the Priest's Garden," painted during his trip to Japan, will gives us the impression of a personality that transcended boundaries, approached new cultures and civilizations and remained an icon for art in the 19th century.
orn in New York City, in 1835, John La Farge studied with William Morris Hunter at the beginning of his career as a painter. In 1856, he benefited from a trip to France, where he familiarized himself with the most notable artists in art history. Visiting the…… [Read More]
Technology in the Modern Age
Technology's Attempts to Address the Human Need in the Modern and Post-Modern Ages
Literary rouping One: The crisis of World War I and the lie of a technology's ability to sustain the human body and soul
as!" With this one word, Wilfred Owen's poem "Dulce Et Decorum Est" encompasses the sense of failure that many soldiers felt, regarding the promise of technology, throughout the duration of the First World War and during its immediate aftermath. In the previous era of capitalist industrialization, technology was seen, as part of the progressive movement and mechanized progress, as life giving and life-sustaining. However, the lie, in Owen's poem, of the value of technology, runs just as deep as the lie that it is sweet to die for one's country. The innovations of technology simply yield new ways for humanity to destroy other humans, based on arbitrary national groupings.…… [Read More]
Caravaggio: Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi -- "The Calling of St. Matthew"
Caravaggio has painted a Baroque masterpiece that depicts the reality of being a tax collector at the moment when Matthew is called by Christ to be a disciple. He looks up from the table where the "seedy" business of money collection is taking place and has an almost "incredulous" look in his eyes -- as if to say, "You want me?" Few people notice the presence of Our Lord -- the scene is dark -- but split down the middle, with Christ's emergence drawing the line between the light and the dark. A shaft of light falls on St. Matthew.
The video is very informative and gives a good take on the situation, providing context for the painting both as Caravaggio painted it and as it hangs in the chapel. The presenters discuss the significance of…… [Read More]
Boehm, Deborah A. "Our Lady of Resistance: the Virgin of Guadalupe and contested constructions of community in Santa Fe, New Mexico." Journal of the Southwest. March 22, 2002. Retrieved November 27, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bowen, Jennifer A. "Our Lady of Guadalupe: New devotional site dedicated to Mary at Our Lady of Snows." Belleville News-Democrat. September 4, 2005. Retrieved November 27, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Coleman, Patty. "Guadalupe caught in clerical struggle." National Catholic Reporter.
June 14, 1996. Retrieved November 27, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Edwards, Bob. "Commentary: Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico."
Morning Edition: National Public Radio. January 4, 2002. Retrieved November 27, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
The gift of Guadalupe." U.S. Catholic. December 1, 1999. Retrieved November 27
2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Lyden, Jacki. "Profile: Torch run to celebrate Our Lady of Guadalupe comes to New
York from…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
She has an earnest love for the purity and perfection of the Virgin Mary, but she is overcome by her own immaturity in expressing her love. Finally, the Prioress desperately wants the world to consider her as pious, devout and worthy of respect and dignity. However, she exudes an amount of prejudice and anger not befitting a lady who is devoted to love and mercy. To assess the character of the Prioress is quite difficult indeed; her character, as presented by Chaucer, is much like that of most ordinary humans. The prioress has some admirable and endearing virtues that many wish to emulate and some character defects that prevent her from being of maximum service to god and her fellow men and women.
Ames, Ruth M. God's Plenty: Chaucer's Christian Humanism. Chicago: Loyola
University Press, 1984.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales: The Prioress' Tale. Online Accessed 17
Ocober…… [Read More]
The image of Mary's fingers embedded into the flesh of the child almost appears as sculptured image, thanks to the use of color separation. In addition, the glossy enamel of the panel furthers the illusion of movement within the three-dimensional shape (Marx, "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague").
Still further representations of Bohemian influence of the architecture of Prague can be seen within the Church of Virgin Mary Victorious in Prague. The building, built in 1611 as the Holy Trinity Church, was reworked in 1636 as Mary Victorious. The church is a resounding example of Bohemian art within architecture. Originally based on oman architecture, the structure was renovated to represent a more Bohemian culture ambiance. Introducing a single-nave layout, typical of the Bohemian simplicity, the church brought a sense of anti-reformation. The rebuilding also included a paneling of the frontage of the structure with traditional Bohemian artworks of…… [Read More]
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
There are a bevy of similarities that exist between the tales of the wife of bath and the prioress in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. The similarities largely pertain to the circumstances in which these individuals tell their tales. They are both women, and each are telling a tale to other pilgrims in which there presumably is both entertainment as well as ecclesiastical value in the subjects. However, a close analysis of these two particular stories reveals that despite the similarities between them, the differences between them are more pronounced. Although both tales emphasize various elements of satire, characterization, and tone, it is clear that the principle distinction between them is that the wife of bath's tale is ultimately secular while the tale of the prioress is ecclesiastical in nature.
An analysis of the characterization in both of these stories readily proves this thesis. One point of…… [Read More]
For instance, there is the story of some Soviet scientists who drilled into hell. Another is the story of an English fisherman who was swallowed by a whale, "hence proving the story of Johah," was debunked upon research by many, who found no evidence to support it. The story dates from 1907 and the widow of the captain made the statement "There is not one word of truth to the story," as her husband never had the experience (New Life 2007).
This example is one that might explain how many stories came about in the days before written history. As there were no experts to research and bring forward the truth about such matters, it would be easy to make claims and pass along information that sounded reasonable and believable, or even contain miraculous events. ith no proof needed, all a story-teller would need would be an appreciative and believing…… [Read More]
Islam venerates Mary highly and gets its concept of female fidelity from her (Finazzo).
hile Islam venerates the Virgin (indeed, the Koran is very high in its praise), it is this author's opinion that the rest of the Koran's attitudes toward women is so negative that it very much outweighs this. Ahmed needs to examine to what extent Mohammed "missed the boat" (so to speak) with regard to his treatment of women and whether or not this reflects a difference between the Mecca and Medina strains of the Islamic Sharia. The Sharia tends to follow the later Medina sayings and these are much more radically conservative ("Living Islam"). It is this creeping conservatism that is not really explained by Ahmed, as we can see in Islamic fundamentalist circles today. hile things were not as radical in 1992 when she wrote the book, it is disappointing that she does not explore…… [Read More]
In fact, for the most part the events were a secret to virtually everyone in the world except for a few trusted confidants. At 42, von Bingen records that she was instructed by heavenly forces to begin writing down the content of her visions but still refused to do so out of humility. In time, the overwhelming forces that directed her life demanded her compliance and she acquiesced. ith the sanction of Pope Eugenius, von Bingen recorded detailed accounts of the visions. The writings of her visions are contained in the Book of Life's Merits and the Book of Divine orks and serve as the inspiration for many of her additional works.
One final inspiration that is worthy of note comes from the time that von Bingen spent in the anchorage studying under Jutta von Spanheim. The deeply reverent and focused experience no doubt led to von Bingen's music possessing…… [Read More]
Both Duccio di Buoninsegna and Fra Filippo Lippi paint the Christian Madonna and child scene. Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels" is rendered on wood with tempera and gold leaf. It is rounded at the top, and was the center part of a triptych that was completed in about the year 1440.[footnoteRef:1] Also in tempera and gold leaf on wood is di Buoninsegna's "Madonna and Child." Candle damage at the bottom of the wood panel suggests that the painting was "used for private devotion."[footnoteRef:2] Buoninsegna's painting was completed in the year 1300, almost one hundred and fifty years prior to Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels." The two depictions of mother Mary and baby Jesus share similar themes, and in both the mother is holding the child. However, the composition of the two paintings is strikingly different and symbolizes their respective religious histories. [1: "Fra…… [Read More]
Giuliano Bugiardini and Roger Van Der yden
There can be little doubt that Art as a medium has been used to influence the viewpoints of any time; as a medium Art has been used as propaganda, to induce a certain ideology in people, and to even educate the masses, since Art doesn't limit itself by any barrier of language. It is free for all to see and be inspired from, depending only on how they connect with the piece itself!
Biblical Art has been one of the most popular themes, whose origin can be traced to the end of the second century (Farber n.d.), and which remained a prominent theme in the work of many artists up till the end of Renaissance, a period when man became the center of the universe rather than God! But how can such a change in the thinking of the Renaissance Period make any…… [Read More]
Masaccio, Fra Angelico, and Filippino Lippi
The Renaissance was a dynamic time in which religion, artwork, and new styles, thoughts and concepts regarding perspective and expression intertwined and impacted one another. The effect was an explosion of new talent, new advancements in painting, and new horizons achieved. This paper will show how this was achieved by examining three works from three influential Renaissance painters -- Masaccio, Fra Angelico and Filippino Lippi.
Masaccio's The Tribute Money (ca. 1420) is a perfect illustration of the complex formula of Renaissance religious symbolism and naturalistic beauty that characterized the works of art at this time. It tells the narrative story found in Matthew 17:24-27 in which Jesus and His disciples come to Capernaum and are told that they must pay the tribute. Jesus asks Simon Peter whether the children of the king or strangers pay the tribute. Peter answers that strangers pay it.…… [Read More]
Marie De France
Courtly Love, Holy Love: Lovers in a hostile world of oppressive marriages and social conventions use love as escape from oppressive material world and a way of accessing the divine in the secular sphere of feudal obligation and sexuality
According to the essay upon the "Rules of Courtly Love," an introduction to one of the Lais of Marie De France, the concept of courtly love often revolves around the image of an idealized image of a pure, untouchable young woman, usually married out of social obligation to an older lord, whom is idolized from afar by a younger, poorer, or less socially desirable man. The relationship between the married woman and the unmarried man is supposed to parallel the distanced yet intimate sensibility that exists between a human being and the divine, or more specifically within the medieval, Christian concept, between a Christian believer and the Virgin…… [Read More]
In Genesis 3:15, God said, "I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring. He will bruise your head, and you will bruise his heel." According to some biblical experts, this is an oblique reference to the coming of Messiah.
This is taken by many as one of the earliest Messianic prophecies describing Satan's brief victory over the Messiah and the Messiah's ultimate victory over Satan. It is mentioned here because the offspring (Messiah) is described as being of the woman (Eve). This is extraordinary as the nation of Israel has always been patriarchal; people are mentioned in terms of their fathers, not their mothers. Because of this, many see this verse as also being a prophecy of Messiah's birth through a virgin
Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus)
The Book of Genesis also makes reference to the importance of the lineage or the heritage…… [Read More]
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…… [Read More]
His father agreed to teach him music if he would marry his daughter. The man agreed, but the girl was so ugly that they never spoke. They continued to learn music with the father's strict teaching. The man leaves and does not marry the daughter. She is coming to the river to purify herself and to rid herself of desire. The narrator in the story is at the same river to rid him of worldly desires, just as the daughter is trying to.
The moral of this story is that music and its spiritual connection is better than any earthly desire. e see the same portrayal of music and spirituality in Dante's work as well. Music is used in Dante's work to signal the reader that something wonderful and beyond normal human experience is happening. Music is used to set the mood in Dante's work. For instance, the use…… [Read More]
William of Occam formulated the principle of Occam's Razor, which held that the simplest theory that matched all the known facts was the correct one. At the University of Paris, Jean Buridan questioned the physics of Aristotle and presaged the modern scientific ideas of Isaac Newton and Galileo concerning gravity, inertia and momentum when he wrote:
...after leaving the arm of the thrower, the projectile would be moved by an impetus given to it by the thrower and would continue to be moved as long as the impetus remained stronger than the resistance, and would be of infinite duration were it not diminished and corrupted by a contrary force resisting it or by something inclining it to a contrary motion (Glick, Livesay and Wallis 107)
Thomas Bradwardine and his colleagues at Oxford University also anticipated Newton and Galileo when they found that a body moving with constant velocity travels distance…… [Read More]
He is both likeable and credible in his delivery. His topic is one that arouses anger in many, because their faith does not allow them to see his truth. Is it only Sagan's truth? This analysis illustrates that through clear presentation, concise case building, appeal to emotion on a familiar level, and common values, that the truth belongs to everyone. He does not profess to have all the answers. The author simply points to the consequences of ignorance in the past and the possible penalty of ignorance for the future. He allows for counter argument and refutes each with clearly defined logic. He does not allow for organized religion, but he does allow for spirituality. He writes, "hen we recognize our place in an immensity of light-years and in the passage of ages, when we grasp the intricacy, beauty, and subtlety of life, then that soaring feeling, that sense of…… [Read More]
It can be presumed that in any dogmatic definition to come the pope will never act without the fullest consultation with the Church, as is seen to-day with regard to the Assumption of the Virgin. This however does not alter the fact that from 1854 as de facto date and from 1870 as the date de jure, the pope is the normal organ of dogmatic definition for the Church. (Miegge, 1955, p. 130)
Church doctrine as a bond of communion, as an expression of piety, as the development of a confession of faith, forms the conception of dogma in the history of religion. "It has been said with reason that the doctrine of the Last Judgment was at once "the care and also the consolation of the Middle Ages." (Petry, 1956, p. 334) Doctrine is the written expression and beliefs that as proposed in the Bible. One does not speak…… [Read More]
Myrna Colley-Lee was a collector of art who traveled the world to enhance her collection. She was a pioneer of Black Theater and Costume design and established the SonEdna organization that promotes literary arts. Reflections is a personal story of her discovery of African-American life and community; including 50 works of art including painting, paper, photography and fabric. The works are on tour from 2013 to 2015 (International Arts and Artists, 2013).
One of the more interesting works in this collection was Barefoot Prophet by James Van Der Zee. This is a silver gelatin print from 1929, an older style of photography. Van Der Zee (1886=1983) was an African-American photographer best known from his portraits of New Yorkers. He was active in the Harlem Renaissance, the resurgence of Black artistry during the 1920s-1940s in New York City. He was known for experimenting with double exposures, retouching negatives and the manipulation…… [Read More]
Twelve-Step Program to Escaping Dante's Hell
Dante's The Inferno paints an incredibly vivid picture of what Hell is like. The journey Dante undertakes in order to progress past his 'lost' stage and escape Hell can be likened to the 12-Step Program a recovering alcoholic must complete in order to finally escape from the clutches of drinking to excess. This paper endeavors to explore Dante's journey through the perspective of this 12-Step Program. y going through each step, one can witness the introspective and emotional self-examination Dante goes through, with a little help from his support group, in order to get out of Hell.
The first step that every recovering alcoholic must take involves the process of admitting his or her problem. Alcoholics must acknowledge that they are helpless when battling their addiction and they must admit that this addiction to drink has wreaked havoc on their lives to the point…… [Read More]
Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam
The Creation of Adam (1512) as conceived and depicted by Michelangelo represents a significant moment in art history because it brings a humanistic style of expression and sense of realism to the art world that had not existed prior. The work is focused almost exclusively on the Body as a subject. The two figures—God the Father and Adam—represent the majesty of the human anatomy in its ideal form: muscular, flexible, unique, authentic, poised, admirable, beautiful and proportional. In the painting, God is mostly draped with a thin cloth; Adam is completely nude and his position (reclined with one knee propped up while he stretches backwards and reaches forward languidly) suggests one of royalty being wakened after a long slumber. Indeed, the idea that Adam is like royalty is one that Michelangelo infuses into the scene giving the painting its high-minded rapturous quality, which is much in…… [Read More]
The Wikipedia web site defines "art" as a "generic term for any product of the creative impulse," while Encarta Encyclopedia considered this concept as "the product of human creativity in which materials are shaped or selected to convey an idea, emotion, or visually interesting form." These definitions are related in the study of eight web sites, all of which center on the subject of (various forms of) art:
The Hubbard Street Dance Chicago (HSDC) web site (http://www.hubbardstreetdance.com/home.asp) centers on and provides an overview about street dancing through providing information about different institutions and centers that offer street dancing tutorials, competitions, other street dance-related events.
The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. (http://www.warholfoundation.org) showcases the not only the works of Andy Warhol, but also functions as a venue for artists to take advantage of grants and art projects that would be beneficial for their development/improvement as visual artists.…… [Read More]
Search of Jesus of Nazareth
The Four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John are four of the most controversial books in what makes up what we know as the modern Bible. They are the first four books of the New Testament and depending upon the view of the interpreter, form the basis of the modern Christian religion itself. There are two conflicting views of the four Gospels. The first is the fundamentalist view, which takes the incredible happenings contained in these books on faith. They contend that the miracles performed are indeed factual and literal accounts of the events that transpired. The other view is the historical-critical view of the four Gospels. This view presents the happenings in the four Gospels as a type of myth. It takes the viewpoint that the happenings are allegorical, or political satire, as opposed to being factual accounts of the events and that Jesus…… [Read More]
Dante's Poetic Revelation Of His Own New Life In Vita Nuova
The main thrust of the primary narrative thread or 'plot' of Dante's Vita Nuova, or "New Life," is of the love of the poet for the beautiful Beatrice. Beatrice was a woman from Dante's social circle who was holy and beautiful in her manner and countenance. Yet she married another man. Despite this, Dante continued to adore Beatrice from afar, after seeing her and falling in love with her at first sight when both of these poetic protagonists were children. Even though his passion could only take place from a worshipful distance. Dante continued to love Beatrice as his adored poetic and spiritual muse, even after the poet wed another woman, and Beatrice remained faithfully wedded to another man.
The thematic progression of Dante's Vita Nuova is not simply about love. Overall, it tells of the narrator's coming to…… [Read More]
Peter Mullan's 2002 movie The Magdalene Sisters depicts the dark side of Irish culture, church, and history. From the late nineteenth to the late twentieth century, the Sisters of Mercy in Ireland ran profitable asylums for women. The laundry businesses allowed the convents to earn money while keeping socially scorned women behind bars. Yet far from being a place of spiritual refuge, the Magdalene laundries often became torture houses closely resembling concentration camps. As Mullan shows, spirituality was completely superceded by cruelty, greed, torture, and manipulation. The brutality shown on screen reveals a chilling behind-the-scenes glimpse of what actually did occur regularly in Magdalene asylum laundries.
The culture that supported such institutions was an inherently sexist one, as many of the interred women committed no offense other than having shamed their families or being attractive. Although a fictionalized account, The Magdalene Sisters shows what mental and physical abuse…… [Read More]
The author of this report is to answer a series of questions about the Byzantine Empire and their practice of iconoclasm. A series of questions shall be answered to that end. The first question is why Leo III installed iconoclasm in the first place and what his motivations were. The second question will be why Constantine V continued the policy. The third question asks whether iconoclasm was a continuation of a few between the orthodox and monophysite Christians. The fourth question asks whether iconoclasm helped paved the way for the Papal/Frankish alliance and the eventual coronation of Charlemagne. The fifth question asks why Leo V newly imposed iconoclasm, the sixth asks for a definition of the roles of Irene and Theodora, the seventh asks about the impacts of Iconoclasm on the Empire from a religious/artistic/cultural standpoint and the eighth asks about the questions that are/were raised…… [Read More]
As the light changes during the course of a day, the colors change as well; reds and yellows get more brilliant at noon, blues become brilliant as the light fades in the afternoon. All the while, the pictures tell important stories or symbolize truths. Light radiating through glass adds life, beauty, is transcendent, and spiritual connections become apparent.
The above rather elaborate description is cited at length in order to provide insight into the way that stained glass windows and ornamentation can evoke a spiritual and 'transcendent' quality that is particularly in keeping with a religious context such as a church. As referred to in the previous section, the use of stained glass is also strongly related to the Christian symbolism of light. As Web ( 2007) states, "A light philosophy ("God is light") was expressed, and it was thought that light reflected on earth is the closest we can…… [Read More]
An even older mythological source for the reverence of compassionate maternal figures, however, comes out of the culture in which Mother Theresa practiced, rather than from the Christian tradition she lived by. This is the figure of Durga, one of the many incarnations of Kali, the Mother Goddess of the Hindu religion.
Alternatively, Kali and the many other forms of the goddess are seen as emanating from Durga (Rajhans, par. 3). According to this view, Durga is supreme power of the Supreme Being, the force of all creation, preservation, and destruction of the world (Rajhans, par. 1). This latter element does not fit with Mother Theresa, but the first two are essential qualities that she possessed and portrayed, and which were the primary foundations of her mythological status. This also illustrates the complexity of Hindu mythological and religious figures; at times, the separate functions of the Mother Goddess are seen…… [Read More]
She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.
Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe
Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.
Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…… [Read More]
Dichotomous views of women's roles complicated the Queen's personal life. On the one hand, she was expected to bear an heir; on the other she was better off as a Virgin Queen. As a political ruler, Elizabeth played what was typically a man's role: just as male actors would play female roles on stage, Elizabeth played a man. Levin points out the "serious" problem with Elizabeth's dual male/female role: "she herself was both ruler and potential producer of the heir," (p. 89). Moreover, as s female Elizabeth lacked the legitimacy automatically afforded to a King. "Elizabeth was queen to a people unused to female rule," and Elizabeth could have emasculated the throne had she not so adroitly assumed the image and persona of a man (p. 90). The monarchy was more than just a political position; the monarch was, in Elizabethan times, a divine symbol and role model.
Levin argues…… [Read More]
However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.
On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…… [Read More]
Roman mosaics were more frequently used to adorn the floors, and thus used less glass, gold, and elaborate materials. Perhaps the most famous Byzantine mosaics are those found in the Hagia Sophia, the most famous church in Eastern Christianity. On the South Gallery or Catechumena is displayed a depiction of Christ, Mary, and St. John the Baptist known as the Deesis. Christ's "face is strikingly realistic and expressive…All [figures] are set against a golden background" ("Byzantine art," Art Lex, 2010). Of almost equal fame are the glittering, gold mosaics of Ravenna's holy buildings. "Ravenna's most famous Byzantine mosaics are of an emperor, his empress and their retinues. On one wall of the choir of San Vitale in Ravenna, built for Justinian and consecrated in AD 547, the emperor stands with crown and a golden halo" (Gascoigne 2001). Although the ostensible purpose of the structure is a holy one, the Emperor…… [Read More]
Secondly, even the beginning of the film presents an African motif. The drums that open the scene are representative for the ancient tribal singing and dancing. The same drums are present in Cullen's poetry, revealing a deep African symbol. Moreover, the drums also make the passage from the contemporary life in which the film is first set, to the imaginary and ancient time of slavery.
The characters are as well particularly chosen. For instance, Joe, a white skinned slave is important for pointing out the traditional individual that tries to escape his past, through all means possible. He rejects his mother, who is the embodiment of the African spirit, he worships a white God, Virgin Mary, and in the end, he takes on a position that implies behaving in a similar manner as the white oppressors.
Joe's mother, Nunu, represents in the film the symbol of the African heritage. She…… [Read More]
unnamed narrator of Naguib Mahfouz's short story is looking for a man Zaabalawi, what Zaabalawi represents to him, what Zaabalawi wants from him and what the illness is of which the narrator complains. Also, we will discuss how Mahfouz describes each character and how their perceptions of Zaabalawi reflect their own personalities. In addition to this, we will examine what the characters' traits have in common, as well as how they are different. In essence, the most interesting aspect of teaching the meaning of this story is to realize that at its root the story is mystical and to understand it one must travel into the spiritual badlands of mysticism that unite all religions. It is in this wilderness that the narrator has any hope of finding meaning for his senseless loss. Death, the greatest malady of humanity is also its greatest mystery and requires special revelation to endure and…… [Read More]
Moniru Ravanipur's "Satan's Stones" is a short story in a collection of short stories of the same name. The story is set in the remote regions of Iran where it explore facets of relationships in contemporary Iranian life, particularly ever-shifting relations that can be found in the rural villages. This story represents a literary experimentation and a new style in Persian fiction in the vein of "magical realism." The fundamentalist Iranian government has banned "Satan's Stones." Its openly frank explorations of these relationships in Iranian society offends the majority of Islamic leaders in the modern Islamic Republic of Iran.
hile the literary style in "Satan's Stones" is an issue, a much deeper one is the evocation of the Iranian past, particularly a non-Islamic Zoroastrian Persian past that antedates the Islamic period and with an eclectic folk magical tradition that flourished during times in Iranian history when the Shiite…… [Read More]
The second structural element used by Gaudi as a source of inspiration was the skeleton, the structure on which the entire construction relied. It is a fact that Gaudi studied both shells and animals' skeletons before proceeding to build his own structure for the construction. The Casa Milla, for example, shows previous studies of shells and a significant resemblance with them.
Perhaps one of the best examples of how Gaudi used biological elements around him as sources of inspiration comes from one his own stories, the way he created the donkey, from the "Flight into Egypt" ensemble, "carved in stone at the entrance of the big portal." Everything, including Joseph and Mary, had been inspired from people that Gaudi had met in the streets of arcelona. The donkey itself was a problem, so that the architect made an announcement seeking a donkey from which a plaster cast could be made…… [Read More]
In The Inferno, Beatrice is more the goal to which the poet aspires as he passes through Hades, and later through Purgatorio before reaching Beatrice in the ideal Paradise.
Many of the elements of courtly love, which Dante expresses elsewhere with reference to his beloved Beatrice, are evident in this epic work as well. For example, Beatrice and the Virgin Mary are the two women who send Virgil to guide the poet through the Inferno, and this also adds luster to Virgil as a spiritual guide as Dante adheres to the Italian, Christian view of women, a school touched by sentiment and by the elevation of women to a high place. Beatrice is the ideal woman who is held in highest esteem by Dante. She is his symbol of all that is high and beautiful, and her selection of Virgil does him credit. Virgil is to be his guide through…… [Read More]
Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer
Chaucer appears to create the Wife of Bath shine intentionally from the rest of the characters in the novel; she has been possibly one of his most controversial figures since her contradictions as to what she states and just what she does. The writer's formation of her character offers one significant objective which has been to surprise his readers. Chaucer chooses to consider each and every bad attribute that ladies were thought to have in those times and also the outcome has been Alisoun. This kind of vivacity and boldness had been seldom observed in female fictional figures of that era (Oberembt 287).
The Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales had been written towards the end of the Fourteenth century, however it was left incomplete. It has been setup as numerous stories within one story. The primary frame has been a travelling crowd…… [Read More]
On the surface, Hinduism and Christianity could not be much more different. Ancient Hinduism offers a colorful pantheon of playful deities, some of which assume animal characteristics such as Hanuman and Ganesh. Stemming from its Jewish roots, Christianity presents a much different view of the origin and structure of the universe. Christian cosmology is more tightly ordered than that of Hinduism. Strictly monotheistic, Judaism imparted a mistrust of pagan polytheism to Christianity. Christian deity is unitary but also triune, in the worship of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Herein lies the strongest connection between worship in ancient India and worship in early Christianity. Hinduism, like Christianity, has a triune God concept. The Hindu God Brahma is the Supreme God, but God has three manifestations as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Each of these gods has its own expression and role in the Hindu cosmology. hereas Brahma is…… [Read More]
Human Figure in Art
The Ognissanti Madonna by Giotto, from around 1310. Tempera on panel. Located at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
Giotto's work is relevant of the transition period between Cimabue's work in the 13th century, with profound yzantine influences, including in the figures, and the Early Renaissance of the 14th century in Italy. Stokstad (2004) notes the influences of Cimabue in this work by Giotto, including in terms of the symmetry of the painting. The Ogissanti Madonna is also relevant for that transition, particularly through the touches of realism that Giotto exercise here, including elements such as the marble throne on which the Madonna sits. The entire painting also surprises through its three-dimension depiction.
The human figure here is severe and serious, dominating the painting. It is very large in comparison to the other figures, perhaps to support its central role in the work (it is also in…… [Read More]
Dead (Dia de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday that is also celebrated around the world in other countries where Hispanics are located, such as North America, Brazil, Spain, etc. Its roots are located both in the oman Catholic observance of All Saints and All Souls Days in November and in the pagan customs of the Aztecs who celebrated worship of the Mictecacihuatl, the Queen of the Underworld. In recent times the Day of the Dead has taken on a more nationalistic meaning than the traditional associations of spirituality (Masses and prayers offered for the dead) of oman Catholicism. In fact, Day of the Dead celebrations were unheard of in Mexico before the 1900s. Prior to the evolution of the early 20th century, much of Mexico celebrated only the Catholic All Saints and All Souls Days and resisted any celebration by nationalistic or pagan sects of the Day of the Dead,…… [Read More]
Hemingway's " Hills Like White Elephants"
Two people romantically involved, arrive at a crossroad. Hemingway creates the perfect setting for this kind of situation: a small railroad station, placed between two railways, in a desert like scenery. A range of big white barren hills no one could ignore, borders one side of this scenery. The big city will be their destination if they both decided they should continue their journey together and board that train. The window is small: the train only stops there for two minutes. The girl, as the author calls her in the beginning, is pregnant. A new life would change everything. The unexpected pregnancy means the baby will add a new dimension to what they had been experiencing together, which is travelling without a worry about anything or anyone else, but their own happiness and well-being. Nothing new. There are endless rows of couples who go…… [Read More]
Treatment of omen in Mexican Culture
The choices for women have, across both time and space, almost always been far more constrained than the choices of men. They have in fact all too often been reduced to a single pair of opposing choices: The pure or the corrupt, the white or the black, the chaste or the sexual - the virgin or the whore.
Mexican culture is certainly not exempt from this tendency to place women on one side of this dichotomy or the other, but in the case of Mexican images of women this division of the female half of the population into the chaste, good woman and the terrible promiscuous one becomes complicated by issues of race (and racial purity), by the historical condition of colonization and post-colonization, by the partial displacement, partial incorporation of native belief systems by Catholicism.
These many complications and elaborations of this essential…… [Read More]
Michelangelo most probably wanted viewers to understand the connection between Jesus and Mary. Also, he did not want his sculpture to look unnatural, especially considering that a woman holding an adult male in her arms appeared to be abnormal. One might also be inclined to consider that the artist wanted people to acknowledge the fact that Jesus' death made it possible for them to see that he was vulnerable. In addition to depicting Jesus as a teenager, Michelangelo made Mary look as if she were still in her early twenties, this being an attempt to highlight the fact that she was pure and incorruptible.
Michelangelo was typically accustomed to leaving his works unsigned, but he made an exception for the Pieta. According to a story, Michelangelo overheard people saying that it was the work of another artist and could not stand knowing that another individual was appreciated for his artwork,…… [Read More]