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Origin of HIV the Mystery of HIV

Words: 6006 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35184502

Origin of HIV

The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus

SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.

Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients

with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
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Shopping as an Addiction

Words: 2280 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71025576

Addictive Virus" -- later to become the thirteenth chapter of their bestselling book Affluenza -- John De Graaf, David ann, and Thomas H. Naylor engage in a highly rhetorical comparison of addictive shopping to physical addictions such as alcoholism and drug addiction and behavioral addictions like compulsive gambling. It becomes clear shortly into their paper that their purpose is largely alarmist and moralistic, rather than medically or therapeutically intended: none of the authors has any medical or psychiatric credentials. I hope by addressing three aspects of their paper -- their rhetorical strategy, their shifts in focus, and in particular their examples presented as evidence, particularly their closing example -- that I may show the ways in which their thoughts actually confuse rather than clarify issues of behavioral addiction.

The title alone of the essay gives, in miniature, a fair taste of De Graaf et al.'s rhetorical strategy: the phrase "the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyer, Peter J. "The Deliverer: A Pizza Mogul Funds a Moral Crusade." The New Yorker Feb 19, 2007. Accessed 10 Feb 2011 at:  http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/02/19/070219fa_fact_boyer#ixzz1DejZemmm 

De Graaf John, Wann, David, and Naylor, Thomas H. "The Addictive Virus." In Maasik, Sonia and Solomon, Jack, Signs of Life in the U.S.A.: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. Sixth Edition. New York: Beford St. Martin's, 2008. 71-5.
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Transmission and Symptoms of the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51472344

S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated.

In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the CDC, influenza a is found in many different animal products. These products include, ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. According to the CDC, "Wild birds are the primary natural reservoir for all subtypes of influenza a viruses and are thought to be the source of influenza a viruses in all other animals. Most influenza viruses cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds; however, the range of symptoms in birds varies greatly depending on the strain of virus." These symptoms can provide wide spread fatalities among wild animals.

Influenza B, circulate widely through human interaction. Symptoms include runny nose, sore throat, coughing, congestion, and nausea. More importantly, in regards to transmission, if an animal such as a pig is infected with a human…… [Read More]

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HIV AIDS on American Society What

Words: 3463 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33384543

HIV / AIDS on American Society

hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).

The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging. (2011). Older Adults and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from  http://www.aoa.gov .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). What is HIV? Retrieved August 26, 2013,

From http://www.ced.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). What Persons Aged 50 and Older Can Do.
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Batteries Including the Rechargeable Ones

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 98614705

Nano particles and nano tubes are on the small scale of a virus, which is why the living organism is crucial for downsizing the materials that are customarily used in portable rechargeable batteries. The new batteries will be more powerful and also prove less taxing on the environment. Manufacturing the virus-assisted batteries will also be more efficient and safer, as no solvents are needed to manipulate them and engineers do not have to use high heat or resort to high-pressure procedures. Instead, only water is necessary.

Although prior research has revealed ways to genetically manipulate viruses to create a material suitable for the anode of a battery, the most recent research revealed ways to use viruses for the cathode of the battery too. The first genetic manipulation revealed the potential for the virus to cover itself in nano-particles of iron phosphate. The most recent research showed that this genetic manipulation…… [Read More]

Reference

Barazesh, Solmaz. "Viruses Could Power Devices." Science News 175(9). Retrieved April 25, 2009 from  http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/42454/title/Viruses_could_power_devices
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Etiology Symptoms Prevention and Treatment HIV

Words: 1764 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15431072

Etiology

Symptoms

Prevention and Treatment

HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004  http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html 

Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004.  http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html 

Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004.  http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html 

Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
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Data Collection and Analysis Memo

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64651244

Symantec

The anti-virus software company Symantec (NASDAQ symbol: SYMC) makes Norton antivirus software, one of the industry's leading anti-virus programs. This paper investigates how Symantec fares against Network Associates, Inc. (the makers of MacAfee anti-virus software) in terms of the relationship between revenue and computer virus outbreaks, as well as overall averages. Specifically, stock quotes for Symantec and Network Associates will be compared post-virus outbreak for each of these four major outbreaks: 1) Blaster, Category 4, August 12, 2003, 2) SoBig, Category 4, August 22, 2003, 3) Bugbear, Category 4, October 2, 2002, 4) Klez, Category 4, April 25, 2002, and 5) Sircam, Category 4, July 24, 2001. Ultimately, there is a small decrease in stock price for both Symantec and Network Associates the day after a major virus outbreak occurs.

One of Symantec's main competitors in terms of industry anti-virus software is McAfee, a business unit of Network Associates,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Forbes.com. Symantec Stock Seen With More Than 25% Upside, 02.26.04, 12:27 PM ET. 01 March 2004.  http://www.forbes.com/markets/2004/02/26/0226automarketscan06.html?partner=yahoo&referrer= 

Yahoo Finance. Company Profile: Symantec. 01 March 2004.  http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=SYMC 

Yahoo Finance. Competetors: SYMC. 01 march 2004. SYMANTEC CORP (NasdaqNM:SYMC) Quote data by Reuters

 http://finance.yahoo.com/q/co?s=SYMC
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HIV Infection and Its Implications

Words: 2318 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8730084

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Description of the communicable disease

Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…… [Read More]

References

Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/ 

Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2 

Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.

CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Contagious Disease and Its Impact

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85723854

, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.

In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).

In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cavendish, M. (2007). Diseases and Disorders (p. 328). Marshall Cavendish.

Groseth, A., Feldmann, H., & Strong, J.E. (2007). The ecology of Ebola virus. Trends in Microbiology, 15(9), 408-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2007.08.001.

Petersen, W. (1995). Outbreak. Warner Bros. Pictures.

Preston, R. (2009). Panic in Level 4 (p. 230). Random House, Inc.
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Effects of Having Herpes

Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50596058

herpes simplex viruses. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face and is often referred to as labial herpes. It is the most common herpes simplex virus and is usually acquired in childhood. y adulthood, up to ninety percent of individuals will have antibodies to HSV-1. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or genital herpes is sexually transmitted and is usually associated with genital ulcers or sores -- however individuals may harbor HSV-2 and not have developed any symptoms. Genital herpes can also be caused by HSV-1, but this is not as common. Up to twenty-thirty percent of U.S. adults have antibodies against HSV-2.

This paper discusses the effects of both labial and genital herpes in terms of typical consequences and more severe complications that are less likely to arise.

Labial Herpes

The first time a person is infected with HSV-1, he…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cold Sores." WebMD Health. 08 Apr. 2003.  http://my.webmd.com/content/healthwise/117/29189.htm?lastselectedguid= {5FE84E90-BC77-4056-A91C-9531713CA348}

Herpes Infections: Symptoms and Treatment." The University of New Mexico Student

Health Center. 08 Apr. 2003.  http://www.unm.edu/~shc1/herpes.html .

Herpes Simplex Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." 1UP Health. 08 Apr. 2003.  http://www.1uphealth.com/health/herpes_simplex_info.html .
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Changing Face of AIDS the

Words: 801 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47555103

.the absence of any agreement about how HIV causes AIDS, the only evidence that HIV does cause AIDS is correlation. Just as there are cases of AIDS [4,621 cases recorded in the literature, 1,691 of them in the U.S.A.] without HIV, there are cases of HIV-positive persons who remain healthy for more than a decade and who may never suffer from AIDS. It is even possible that some rare strains of HIV exist that are benign...Some homosexual men in the U.S. who have been infected with HIV for at least eleven years show as yet no signs of damage to their immune systems." (Thomas, Mullins, Johnson, 1994)

These long-term survivors must be studied to "ascertain whether something unusual about their immune systems explains their response or whether they carry an avirulent strain of the virus," yet another as yet unclassified and mutated strain. (Thomas, Mullins, Johnson, 1994) but there is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Radetsky, Peter. (Jan. 1993) "Are there any more out there? - previously undiscovered viral sources of AIDS - Aids - 1992. Discover. Retrived 5 Dec 2004.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1511/is_n1_v14/ai_13670056 

Thomas, Charles M. & Kary B. Mullins, Phillip E. Johnson. (Jun. 1994) What causes AIDS? it's an open question." Reason. Retrived 5 Dec 2004

Reason.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1568/is_n2_v26/ai_15473457/pg_2 

Science News. (Mar. 15, 2003) "Protective virus ties up HIV docking sites." Science News. Retrived 5 Dec 2004.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_11_163/ai_99187011
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Applying Troubleshooting Methodologies Component 1

Words: 1783 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60821060

"

Analysis of esults:

The Disk Cleanup Tool should be part of normal maintenance on computers. The buildup of obsolete files overtime can cause degradation of your computer. After running disk clean up unneeded files were deleted which gave improved system performance.

Troubleshooting Tool 3: Virus scans

Tool Overview:

Having an up-to-date anti-virus software is an integral part of keeping your computer running smoothly. Simple steps should be taken to ensure your anti-virus is running properly. Ensure definitions are up-to-date by running live update regularly and have scheduled virus scans.

Tool Usage:

The following steps overview how to use Symantec Endpoint Protection:

1. Select Start (All Programs (Symantec Endpoint Protection (Symantec Endpoint Protection.

2. The status of "Your computer is protected." Should be displayed. If it is not, take the listed actions on screen to turn on protection. Select the "Live Update" button on the left-side of the screen.

3.…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (August 3, 2011). How to make a computer faster: 6 ways to speed up your PC. Retrieved from http://www.microsoft.com/atwork/maintenance/speed.aspx

Broida, Rick. (April 15, 2009). Disable Vista's Scheduled Disk-Defragmenting. Retrieved  http://www.pcworld.com/article/163215/disable_vistas_scheduled_diskdefragmenting.html 

Mitchell, Bradley. (May 13, 2010). Can't Connect to the Internet? Retrieved from  http://compnetworking.about.com/od/internetaccessbestuses/tp/fixing-cant-connect-to-internet-problems.htm 

O'Donnell, Bob. (January 1, 2005). PC Hardware Troubleshooting Tips. Retrieved from  http://www.everythingcomputers.com/pc_hardware_trouble.htm
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Customer Inserts His Her Name Explain How HIV

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75376293

Customer Inserts His/Her Name

Explain how HIV infects CD4+ cells?

The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus which belongs to a group of viruses known as the retroviruses. HIV causes in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) by infecting the cells of the human and uses up all the energy inside the cells which is required for the growth and development of human cells. AIDS is a fatal disease in which the immunity system of the human body is destroyed due to which the body becomes vulnerable to various infections and also the weakness of the body's immune system also allows other diseases to attack the body. Once a person is infected with HIV, this virus feeds on the energy present in the cells and multiplies in the white blood cells. White blood cells are the ones which build up the immune system and when they are weakened by the HIV…… [Read More]

References

McClatchey, Kenneth D (2002). Clinical Laboratory Medicine. 2nd. Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Rose, Hamilton (2002). Manual of Clinical Immunology. 6th. Edition, ASM, 2002.

Whiteside, Alan (2008). HIV / AIDS: A Very Short Introduction. Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA; 1st edition. ISBN-10: 0192806920.
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Impact of AIDS on African Development

Words: 2794 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39638956

AIDS on South African Development

Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS

Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.

Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:

Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
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Biology Qs Microbes Exist All

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89102749

Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).

10)

There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]

Reference

CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009.  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Siv Phylogeny in Western Gorillas Siv in

Words: 1715 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20834533

SIV Phylogeny in Western Gorillas

SIV in Western Gorillas

Phylogenetic Analysis of SIV in Western Gorillas

In order to better understand how SIV is transmitted Takehisa et al. (2009) undertook several experiments to determine the phylogenetic relationship between SIVgor and SIVcpz. These experiments depended primarily on sequence homology comparisons, a commonly-used and well-accepted approach for determining phylogenetic relationships.

The specific aims are as follows:

Whole genome sequence homology comparisons will be performed between different strains of SIVgor, SIVcpz, and HIV-1, to establish the relative similarity and thus reveal phylogenetic relationships.

SIVgor sequence will be examined for evidence of recombination. Should a recombination signature be found, it can be used to help search for the most recent common ancestor.

There are multiple strains of SIVcpz infecting chimpanzees from central and eastern Africa, and previous research has shown these strains are geographically-specific. SIVgor sequence comparisons with SIVcpz strains isolated from wild chimpanzee…… [Read More]

References

Takehisa, Jun et al. "Origin and biology of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in wild-living Western Gorillas" Journal of Virology 83.4 (2009): 1635-1648. Web. May 8, 2011.
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Misperception of Science Is That

Words: 345 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 25785716



2. Scientists avoid using the terms "true" and "the truth" because they are too absolute. Science does not aim to give absolute knowledge. Instead, the scientific method relies on the senses and on experiments by creating hypotheses and testing them. Also, science is based on the five senses. The terms "true" and "truth" do not acknowledge the limitations of the five senses. Scientists understand that the body of knowledge created by science has changed over the years because of the development of better instruments to measure and gather data. The human senses might not change much, but the reliability of the senses change as instruments become more sophisticated. Scientists are constantly striving to improve the reliability of their observations and so can never claim to know the "truth." The five senses can point to what seems to be true, but scientists work with objectivity. Truth is a subjective issue, which…… [Read More]

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Nursing Case Study

Words: 1425 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 93800722

Nursing Case Study

Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study

The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.

The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.

The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…… [Read More]

References:

1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.

2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.

3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from- http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/icg-guidelinesindex.htm .

4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
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Attitude Against Spam Together With

Words: 311 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58437571

But this email will be from a recognizable company, rather than obvious Spam, so they will open the email. Such emails may even be welcome, if the subject heading proclaims a discount or a special offer for the return consumer.

Consumers may also be receptive to email that is not merely advertising. Consumers who are part of a target group, as a result of their past Internet purchases or because they agree to be part of a special 'rewards' program, may enjoy subscribing to an emailed newsletter of information and special promotions. A Borders consumer may eagerly open an email that offers an interview with his or her favorite offer, and a 20% off coupon for that author's new book.

Such forms of email marketing, even in the age of viruses and Spam, show that email marketing is not dead. In fact, such targeted and selected campaigns may be more…… [Read More]

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Children With AIDS Population Demographics the Centers

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15225793

Children with AIDS

Population Demographics

The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…… [Read More]

References

Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.

Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.

Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
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Chemical and Biological Terrorism

Words: 3146 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22730564

Chemical and Biological Terroism

Biological and Chemical Terrorism Prevention

The United States Government has identified the potential of chemical, biological, radiological and/or nuclear (termed CBN) terrorism, especially after the September 11 attacks. They have been concerned ever since Sarin was used in a Tokyo subway (Aum Shinrikyo in 1995) and the anthrax case (in November 2001). The chances of terrorists resorting to these agents in warfare are pretty high considering their advantages over conventional methods. Most organizations fighting terrorism are not equipped well enough to detect such chemicals. A closed container can help most of them escape discovery. The low cost involved in their production increases the dangers manifold. Since most of the above agents affect the human body directly, they are essentially more efficient than conventional warfare.

Chemical weapons have four major classifications. Choking agents are aimed at being fatal and are easily accessible. Phosgene is one such industrial…… [Read More]

References

Khan, A. Levitt, A. Sage, M. (2000). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. 7-19. Retrieved From  http://www.southernnevadahealthdistrict.org/download/epi/mmwr-plan.pdf 

Ashraf H. European dioxin-contaminated food crisis grows and grows [news]. Lancet

1999;353:2049.

Khan, A. Swerdlow, D. Juranek, D. (2001) Precautions Against Biological and Chemical Terrorism directed at Food and Water Supplies. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497290/pdf/11571403.pdf
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Public Policy on People With AIDS

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95659724

Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's

Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.

Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.

Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.
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Malware Since the Earliest Days

Words: 1957 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9444607

However, nothing can be done until the malware actually occurs. With all the different viruses, worms and Trojans, how can security managers possibly predict what malware will occur next? In contrast, a behavioral rule defines legitimate activity in a system. Any activity not matching the profile will cause the security product to be triggered. As rules are not specific to a particular type of attack, they can block malicious behavior without having to recognize the precise attack used. Thus, there is additional protection against new attacks as they emerge. It is to effectively prevent any unauthorized applications, including malicious code and Trojans. or, it could protect a webserver by making it impossible for anyone to access the webserver to change the files and limiting the risk of a hack (Franklin, 2002).

However, the dilemma comes how many rules should the system have? The security manager must decide between an effective…… [Read More]

References Cited

Bowyer, K.W. (2003). "Living responsibly in a computerized world." Ethics and Computing. New York: IEEE press.

Control Guard. http://www.controlguard.com/index.asp

Franklin, I. (November 26, 2002) "Entercept Security Technologies: Rules or signatures?

The best method of prevention." Toolbox. Retrieved from website September 16,
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Avian Bird Flu the Avian

Words: 2335 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64467397



The risk to humans is generally low, however during any outbreak of Avian Flu among poultry, there is always a possible risk to humans who have contact with the infected birds and surfaces contaminated with excretions from the infected fowl (Avian1). The current outbreak of H5N1 among poultry in Asia and Europe is an example of a bird flu outbreak that has caused human infections and death (Avian1). In rare instances, limited human-to-human spread of H5N1 virus has occurred, however transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person (Avian1). Because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that the H5N1 virus could mutate and infect humans with a strain that could easily spread from one person to another (Avian1).

Furthermore, according to the CDC, because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Avian1 Influenza. Retrieved November 01, 2005 from Centers for Disease

Control and Prevention Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Genital Herpes Is Another Type

Words: 2657 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26443995

Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Social Health Association. (1998), Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.

Fleming DT, et al. (1997), Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. NEJM; 337:1105-11.

Gandhi, M. (February 2006), Division of Infectious Diseases, VeriMed Healthcare Network UCSF, San Francisco, CA.

Genital Herpes," (May 2005), Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179/DSECTION=8
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Policy Analysis Critique Rationale for the Chosen

Words: 3283 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5406651

Policy Analysis Critique

ationale for the chosen policy

Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).

It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…… [Read More]

References

Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.

Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.

Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.

Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.
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Herpes An Insidious Disease of Modern Times

Words: 3406 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37785685

Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times

Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).

In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.

There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…… [Read More]

References

ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health

Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html

CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.

28, October 2004,  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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How to Various Pathogens Impact Their Host Plants

Words: 1095 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83068200

evolution of plant viruses. All five peer-reviewed articles are related because they all delve into the evolution of plant viruses.

Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plan viruses, Gutierrez, et al., 2013. Plants use insects as the vectors for the spread of viruses. Insects historically go from one plant (host) to another; but recent evidence shows that viruses in plants, as they evolve, can actually have an influence "vector physiology and behavior" (Gutierrez, 2013). There is the possibility that insect "stresses" -- while feeding on plants -- may cause "major switches" in the way viruses evolve in plants (Gutierrez, 610).

The researchers found that "numerous plant viruses" can be and are transmitted by not just one insect, but by several insects. For example one species of aphids probes into a plant and another aphid species also makes "test probes"; this creates a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Garcia-Arenal, F., and Fraile, A. (2013). Trade-offs in host range evolution of plant viruses. Plant Pathology, vol. 62, 2-9.

Gutierrez, S., Michalakis, Y., Van Munster, M., and Blanc, S. (2013). Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plant viruses. Functional Ecology, vol. 27, 610-622.

Rojas, M.R., Hagen, C., Lucas, W.J., and Gilbertson, R.L. (2005). Exploiting Chinks in the Plants' Armor: Evolution and Emergence of Geminiviruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43(1), 361-383.

Syller, J. (2014). Biological and molecular events associated with simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by invertebrate and fungal vectors. Molecular Plant Pathology, 15(4),
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Public Health information

Words: 2455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584020

What are Bacteria and Viruses?

The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Causes

Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…… [Read More]

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air traffic

Words: 28110 Length: 102 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 54322150

air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).

In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]

References

Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2  (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at:  http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html  (Accessed: 28 November 2011)