Overall, the spread of this virus is always of alarm to Tennessee state health officials. This paper will provide background information on the H1N1 virus and analyze the complications which occurred during the 2010 outbreak in Tennessee.
Nature of the Problem
Swine flu (H1N1) or Spanish flu as it was once called, originated in the 1700's. Prior to 1918 it was known that humans caught the disease on occasion, but the actual root of the disease was known (Zimmer, 2009). In 1918, however, the disease appeared simultaneously in both humans and swine. This strain of H1N1 resulted in 30 million casualties due to the severe respiratory issues caused by the virus (Zimmer, 2009). The connection was further proven in 1933 by Robert Shope who cured test pigs infected with the disease by injected the sick animals with human serum containing the flu antibodies (Garcia-Sastre, 2006). This breakthrough was a vital…… [Read More]
human papilloma virus and the description of epidemiology as it relates to the virus. Steps and methods of epidemiology have been discussed in detail alongside statistical data for demographics taken from surveillance records. Moreover, research data have been taken as vital assistance to compliment the study of this research paper and to prove results with evidences from researches (Duncan, 1988).
Statistics have been taken from World Health Organization for the rate of occurrence and risk factors involved with the diseases caused by the virus. Epidemiology cannot be defined unless its steps and methods are explained (Fletcher & Fletcher, 2005). The epidemiology for papillomavirus diseases includes descriptive methods of epidemiology and in this paper; the focus has been made on describing the process steps with respect to papillomavirus. There are five steps, which define how the epidemiology process is carried out; keeping in mind one of the two approaches of the…… [Read More]
" (Science Daily, 2008) it is related that these testing and diagnosis of West Nile in horses assist in the identification of where the disease is spreading and helps in the decision concerning whether to vaccinate horses in an area. Dr. Magnarelli states that the information used in this testing " is useful in confirming the epidemiology of the virus, determining when it arrived in certain areas and how it spreads." (Science Daily, 2008) the following illustration shows West Nile Virus (2008) in State with Equine cases with the total number of cases as of September 2, 2008 being 42.
West Nile Virus in 2008 (States with Equine Cases)
Total number of cases September 2, 2008
Source: United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (2008)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
West Nile Virus in horses requires diligent preventive factors because horses are more prone to become infected with…… [Read More]
est Nile virus was first detected in the estern Hemisphere in 1999 and during the last few years has spread cross the North American continent into all forty-eight continental states, seven Canadian provinces, throughout Mexico (est). Moreover, the virus has been detected in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, and El Salvador (est). According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 15,000 people in the United States have tested positive for the virus since 1999, resulting in over five hundred deaths (est). Most experts believe that many more people have most likely been infected with the virus, but have experienced mild or no symptoms, thus have gone unreported (est). An individual's risk of contracting the est Nile is statistically low, and less than 1% of those infected develop serious illness (est). The elderly population and those with compromised immune systems are at the highest…… [Read More]
West Nile Virus
In recent years, every summer, the threat of West Nile (WN) virus has become the scourge of the temperate regions of Europe and North America. (Abramovitz, 2004) The virus presents a threat to the human and animal population -- especially the bird population. Symptoms of WN viral infection range from mild fevers and aches, to encephalitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain). The latter can be fatal. In 1937, a woman in Uganda complaining of a fever was the first known case of West Nile virus. In the 1950s, it was found in Egypt, hence the name. In 1957, some elderly people succumbed to the disease in Israel. Later, in the 1960s, in Egypt and France, an infection in horses came to be recognized as West Nile viral in nature. The WN virus appeared in North America in 1999, though it is not known where in…… [Read More]
West Nile Virus
In the summer of 1999, an unusual thing occurred: West Nile Encephalitis came to New York City. This was unusual because the disease had previously been present in the Middle East and Africa, and sporadically present in Europe, but unknown in North America. Its sudden appearance in America sparked speculation that West Nile Virus was brought to America by terrorists as a form of biological warfare.
In spite of the speculation, there is actually no proof of how the West Nile Virus came to the United States. What is known about the West Nile Virus in the United States is that it developed from the same strand of the virus that infected people in Tel Aviv, Israel. However, despite being able to determine that the Israeli and American strains of the West Nile Virus developed from the same strain, scientists have been unable to determine which strain…… [Read More]
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine
Human Papilloma Virus
The paper deals with HPV epidemiology and associated diseases, the licensed HPV vaccines, recommendations of ACIP, concerns on mandating the HPV vaccine among young girls and the personal perspective on HPV vaccination issue. The Human Papilloma Virus infection is incredibly high and almost 80% of the population is expected to get infected with the virus at any stage of life. The virus is normally cleared by the immune system quite easily but persistent infection may lead to various types of cancers. Since the development of HPV vaccine, a lot of research, media coverage, and policies have been made to deal with. In U.S., only one-third of the pre-adolescent girls have acquired the three dose HPV vaccine. Thus, the question of its mandate arises. ACIP's provided recommendations are a big step towards the increased awareness and implementation of HPV vaccine program.
All the latest…… [Read More]
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system causing the individual to be at risk for opportunity infections, or infections that come about because the immune system is weak. It is a slow progressive disease that is present throughout the body. Humans can get infected with HIV through contact with tissues, such as vaginal, anal area, mouth, eyes, or a break in the skin, such as a wound. It is diagnosed with blood tests and treated with a combination of drug therapies. There has been no cure found for HIV, so the person ends up dying from the virus in the long run.
The most common way HIV is spread is through sexual contact, needle sharing, and transmission from an infected mother to a baby through pregnancy, labor, or breastfeeding. It is spread by body secretions of an infected person to tissues of another person.…… [Read More]
Subtype a is the one that predominates in many of the outbreaks that are seen and presents much more severe clinical illness. It affects both the lower and the upper respiratory tract but is most prevalent in illnesses of the lower respiratory tract such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The obstruction of the airway in RSV can be very dangerous, and this is especially true of infants because their peripheral airways are much smaller than adults. Because of this it is very important to know what the warning signs of the illness are so that children can be treated properly and can recover fully. Infants between age two months and six months are most at risk for RSV, as are premature babies and babies that have other problems that may make their immune system not as efficient such as those that have lung conditions, congenital heart disease, cystic fibrosis, a lack…… [Read More]
computer virus is among the greatest enemy of computer technology's globalization. In just a few split of seconds, it can turn our endeavor of automating our diverse activities into a nightmare. This is especially a catastrophe to businesses whose operation at a large percentage depends on computerized data access and retrieval. Globally, computerization is the trend among businesses. Thus, the damage that computer viruses can cause is a global threat and problem to the stabilization and progress of businesses and economy.
There are many types of computer virus. Almost everyday, a new computer virus is created. Since the emergence of computer networks, such as LAN, WAN, and the Internet, there has been quite a number instance where a computer virus had infected and brought damage to a great amount of information and data globally. As a consequence, many businesses are paralyzed when a computer virus attacks.
This paper aims…… [Read More]
In 1918, a Spanish flu pandemic infected more than one-third of the entire global population and claimed the lives of as many as 100 million people. Innovations in health care technologies during the remainder of the 20th century, however, succeeded in limiting the adverse effects of subsequent epidemics until now. The year 2020 will likewise go down in the history books, if there are any historians left to write them, as the beginning of a global pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus which is the source of the Covid-19 disease. The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the most recent information concerning the “what,” “when,” “where,” “how” and “who” of the ongoing global coronavirus pandemic, including the most up-to-date statistics and resources. Finally, the paper provides a summary of the research and key findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Keywords: covid, covid-19, coronavirus,…… [Read More]
detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.
The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]
Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]
Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]
It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).
The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…… [Read More]
Zika, that was identified accidentally in Uganda in 1947 in the midst of insect and primate monitoring, had so far stayed as a hidden virus limited to a slim equatorial belt functioning along Africa and running into Parts of Asia. Not much is known with regards to ZIKV’s release in the US. Phylogenetic studies suggest that the virus originated with the French Polynesian ZIKV force came into Brazil around May and Dec of 2013.
The unparalleled dimension and impact from the ZIKV pandemic within the Americas could be the all-natural consequence of a unique release right into a big populace without having preexisting immune system; Much like the Americas, the communities of Yap Tropical island and French. The seriousness of results in latest breakouts, in comparison with previous findings of moderate illness, has directed a few to hypothesize that this virus seems to have mutated to become much more…… [Read More]
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most palpable variance between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which implies that they can be solely perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to proliferate. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release toxins into the blood stream whereas…… [Read More]
Intent to perform a greater good would not affect the possibility of being exposed to a prison sentence of up to 20 years and a fine of up to $250,000, plus possible penalties under state law.
Montana compares this legislation with that of the regulation of firearms. It is not the mere possession of malicious code that is criminalized, but the use and the damage to computer systems and association economic losses that are the focal point of the law. Computer code, even MMC, is considered intellectual property and carries legal protections similar to books or sound recordings. It is also considered a form of speech and therefore is also offered protection under the Constitution's First Amendment. However, this protection is limited, just as 'free speech' is limited, especially in instances when this speech interferes with the protection of the public welfare -- as is the case with the release…… [Read More]
est Nile Virus is form of encephalitis only found in the United States within the last three years. It is spread by mosquitoes. The mosquito bites an infected animal, often a bird, and then bites a human being, infecting that person with the virus. The first case of est Nile Virus was reported in New York City in 1999, but by the end of last summer had reached virtually all but a few western states (Gorman, 2002).
est Nile Virus has infected far more people than has been reported in the media because most people have either very mild symptoms or none at all. About 20% have headache and fever without any further severe illness or complications (CDC, 2002). Only one in 150 people who contract the disease become sick enough to have the blood tests necessary for accurate diagnosis (Mechcatie, 2001). Most people who become seriously ill with est…… [Read More]
I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH).
The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…… [Read More]
The owner remarked about how important it is to guard one's system against viruses and intrusion. He went further to remark that there are programs that offer their services free of charge (partial programs or trial versions) to protect one's computer, but he recommends buying a program that offers full protection. This statement concluded the interview "Unfortunately my customers have often learned the importance of protecting their information the hard way; it is not something to be taken lightly." This statement makes a lot of sense. Too often a person will sit back thinking that it is impossible for something to happen to them, when in fact one should always be prepared for the unexpected. The owner of Company Xtreme reported that approximately 50% of his customers are individuals whom have had viruses on there computer. Among this 50%, they also have spyware, which often may allow strangers access to…… [Read More]
ole Z-DNA Binding Vaccinia Virus Pathogensis
The work of Yang-Gyun Kim, et al. entitled "A ole for Z-DNA Binding in Vaccinia Virus Pathogenesis" (2003) reports a study on Vaccinia, reported to be a poxvirus that contains DNA with less than 200 genes and which undergoes replication in infected cells and specifically in the cytoplasm. When a strain adapted from vaccinia was given to a mouse, the mouse died in less than one week stated to be dependent upon the route of infection and dosage given to the mouse. Kim, et al. (2003) reports that the viral E3L gene product "has been extensively characterized and is essential for virulence." A 25-kDa protein is encoded by E3L and is stated to have to primary domains: (1) an N-terminal domain with a sequence that is comparable to the vertebrate Zol family of Z-DNA-binding domains; and (2) a C-terminal domain with a typical double-stranded…… [Read More]
ith the sophistication of computer users generally increasing, the corporate market forms an important part of the customer base as these users are a more captive audience. One sale to an it department can be worth hundreds of licenses. However, Norton is weak in the corporate market and competes mainly in the consumer market at present.
Demand for Norton products is declining. hile Symantec overall has continued to grow in size, acquisitions and other business segments have spurred this growth (2009 Symantec Form 10-K). From 2007 to 2008, Norton revenue grew 7.2%, but the market share declined as the overall security software market increased 19.4% by revenue (Gartner, 2009). The market is trending towards increased fragmentation. The share of minor players in the industry has increased from 48% of the market in 2007 to 50.9% of the market in 2008. McAfee has increased its market share slightly, while each of…… [Read More]
Writing a paper about a complex issue such as the Zika virus can be a challenging enterprise, but the model essay presented below provides some useful guidance concerning how to get started, including developing an appropriate thesis, writing an outline and locating relevant content from reliable and legitimate sources. Writing an abstract, introduction and conclusion becomes easier once the preliminary research for the body of the essay is completed.
The Effects of Zika virus on pregnant women
How the Zika virus is spread from country to country
Identifying opportunities to reduce Zika virus infections
Will the Zika virus become a pandemic?
The Epidemiology of the Zika Virus
The Origins and Transmission of the Zika Virus
The Zika Virus: Who is at Risk and What Can be Done?
II. Review and Discussion
A. Background and overview
B. Recent and current trends in…… [Read More]
New York and the Zika Virus
Description and Controlling Efforts
The communicable disease researched within this document is the Zika virus. This is a virus which is primarily transmitted to humans from mosquitoes. The mosquito which is known to carry this virus is the Aedes Eegypti mosquito which is natively found in South America and Central America (New York State, 2016). An initial Zika outbreak in the U.S. took place in the summer of 2016. The state of New York is attempting to prevent the virus from spreading to it with a proactive plan involving several measures.
There are myriad environmental factors related to this disease. The most salient is the presence of standing water, which naturally attracts mosquitoes. It is necessary to protect all water which is not running from the presence of mosquitoes which could potentially transmit the Zika virus. The other environmental factors pertain to…… [Read More]
Epidemiology in the News: Incidence and Prevalence of the Zika Virus
Healy (2016) reports in the L.A. Times that scientists are currently pursuing five strategies of dealing with the Zika virus. Before reporting on these strategies, Healy provide an epidemiology of the virus, beginning with its first reported incidence in 1947 in Uganda. From Africa, Healy shows that the virus spread to Asia and the Americas. Connected to the spread of the disease is the concern of "whether cases of microcephaly followed in its wake but were undetected at the time" (Healy, 2016). To determine the connection of microcephaly to Zika, the island of Yap was studied by epidemiologists, who noted that in 2007 "between 68% and 88% of residents over the age of 2 were infected with the virus" (Healy, 2016).
Yap provides a useful means of studying the disease because island nations such as Yap, which are small…… [Read More]
Worldwide, the distribution pattern of WNV is mainly found in the northern, eastern and southern regions of Africa, parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. On a global scale, mortality rate of diseases caused by WNV human infection could range from 2.4% to as high as 47% (Bourne, 2011). In the United States, CDC reports its latest (2011) data showing that there have been a total of 432 WNV infections reported as of October 2011. Sixty-seven percent of this reported human infections are neuroinvasive cases (encephalitis / meningitis), while about 5% resulted to death. Across states, California has the most number of cases of WNV human infection at 87 cases (20%), followed by Mississippi as far second (46 cases, or 11% of total reported cases). The prevalence of WNV human infection in these states reflects the virus' characteristic as thriving in tropical / temperate regions. CDC has not…… [Read More]
Windows and Linux are very different operating programs, as the former is a popular paid system while the latter is free and it has a relatively small number of users in comparison. One of the main reasons why the masses have a limited understanding of Linux is the fact that it is especially customizable. This means that there are numerous versions of the operating system and it is thus difficult to relate to it by generalizing. When it comes to antiviruses, the two operating systems are similarly different, as Windows users are much more probable to need an antivirus and as most Linux antiviruses are typically free. One of the most intriguing things when comparing the two operating systems in the context of antiviruses is the fact that the majority of the ones for Linux are free.
Kaspersky is probably one of the most common antiviruses that are currently in…… [Read More]
Indigenous Environmental Studies
For this assignment, we choose the problem of deforestation in Africa and it potential link to the outbreak of the Ebola virus. There have been scientific discussions and debates about whether deforestation was the primary cause of the rise and spread of the Ebola virus which is yet to be conclusively proven but there are enough indications to this end. Hence, for this paper, it is proposed to study the possible link between deforestation in Africa to the spread of the deadly virus that resulted in one of the greatest natural disasters for mankind.
Was deforestation the case of west Africa's Ebola outbreak?
Deforestation in Africa -- especially in sub-Saharan Africa is a major problem and a cause of concern for environmentalists as well as for the local population. However, this problem turned out to be a care for the global population after the rapid…… [Read More]
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…… [Read More]
Addictive Virus" -- later to become the thirteenth chapter of their bestselling book Affluenza -- John De Graaf, David ann, and Thomas H. Naylor engage in a highly rhetorical comparison of addictive shopping to physical addictions such as alcoholism and drug addiction and behavioral addictions like compulsive gambling. It becomes clear shortly into their paper that their purpose is largely alarmist and moralistic, rather than medically or therapeutically intended: none of the authors has any medical or psychiatric credentials. I hope by addressing three aspects of their paper -- their rhetorical strategy, their shifts in focus, and in particular their examples presented as evidence, particularly their closing example -- that I may show the ways in which their thoughts actually confuse rather than clarify issues of behavioral addiction.
The title alone of the essay gives, in miniature, a fair taste of De Graaf et al.'s rhetorical strategy: the phrase "the…… [Read More]
S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated.
In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the CDC, influenza a is found in many different animal products. These products include, ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. According to the CDC, "Wild birds are the primary natural reservoir for all subtypes of influenza a viruses and are thought to be the source of influenza a viruses in all other animals. Most influenza viruses cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds; however, the range of symptoms in birds varies greatly depending on the strain of virus." These symptoms can provide wide spread fatalities among wild animals.
Influenza B, circulate widely through human interaction. Symptoms include runny nose, sore throat, coughing, congestion, and nausea. More importantly, in regards to transmission, if an animal such as a pig is infected with a human…… [Read More]
HIV / AIDS on American Society
hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).
The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]
Nano particles and nano tubes are on the small scale of a virus, which is why the living organism is crucial for downsizing the materials that are customarily used in portable rechargeable batteries. The new batteries will be more powerful and also prove less taxing on the environment. Manufacturing the virus-assisted batteries will also be more efficient and safer, as no solvents are needed to manipulate them and engineers do not have to use high heat or resort to high-pressure procedures. Instead, only water is necessary.
Although prior research has revealed ways to genetically manipulate viruses to create a material suitable for the anode of a battery, the most recent research revealed ways to use viruses for the cathode of the battery too. The first genetic manipulation revealed the potential for the virus to cover itself in nano-particles of iron phosphate. The most recent research showed that this genetic manipulation…… [Read More]
Prevention and Treatment
HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…… [Read More]
The anti-virus software company Symantec (NASDAQ symbol: SYMC) makes Norton antivirus software, one of the industry's leading anti-virus programs. This paper investigates how Symantec fares against Network Associates, Inc. (the makers of MacAfee anti-virus software) in terms of the relationship between revenue and computer virus outbreaks, as well as overall averages. Specifically, stock quotes for Symantec and Network Associates will be compared post-virus outbreak for each of these four major outbreaks: 1) Blaster, Category 4, August 12, 2003, 2) SoBig, Category 4, August 22, 2003, 3) Bugbear, Category 4, October 2, 2002, 4) Klez, Category 4, April 25, 2002, and 5) Sircam, Category 4, July 24, 2001. Ultimately, there is a small decrease in stock price for both Symantec and Network Associates the day after a major virus outbreak occurs.
One of Symantec's main competitors in terms of industry anti-virus software is McAfee, a business unit of Network Associates,…… [Read More]
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…… [Read More]
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Description of the communicable disease
Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…… [Read More]
Further research is needed for determination of type and strain, as well as longitudinal graphing of various populations at risk for HHV-3. In addition, dormancy issue and likelihood of shingles is an important area of future research (Orrin and Goldman, 2006). Additionally, when chickenpox becomes fatal in children, it appears that the liver becomes compromised, either with anti-inflammatory drugs or through burdening it with other toxins. Further research into this phenomenon is clearly necessary (Krasner 1999).
Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical
Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:
"Chickenpox -- Healthier You." CPM Medica. 2008. Cited in:
Krasner, G. "Chickenpox: Why Do Children Die?" Coalition for Informed Choice.
1999, Cited in:
Orrin, S. And G. Goldman. The Chickenpox Vaccine: A New Epidemic of Disease and Corruption. Viritualbookworm.com, 2006.
Poland, G. "The…… [Read More]
, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.
In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).
In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…… [Read More]
herpes simplex viruses. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face and is often referred to as labial herpes. It is the most common herpes simplex virus and is usually acquired in childhood. y adulthood, up to ninety percent of individuals will have antibodies to HSV-1. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or genital herpes is sexually transmitted and is usually associated with genital ulcers or sores -- however individuals may harbor HSV-2 and not have developed any symptoms. Genital herpes can also be caused by HSV-1, but this is not as common. Up to twenty-thirty percent of U.S. adults have antibodies against HSV-2.
This paper discusses the effects of both labial and genital herpes in terms of typical consequences and more severe complications that are less likely to arise.
The first time a person is infected with HSV-1, he…… [Read More]
.the absence of any agreement about how HIV causes AIDS, the only evidence that HIV does cause AIDS is correlation. Just as there are cases of AIDS [4,621 cases recorded in the literature, 1,691 of them in the U.S.A.] without HIV, there are cases of HIV-positive persons who remain healthy for more than a decade and who may never suffer from AIDS. It is even possible that some rare strains of HIV exist that are benign...Some homosexual men in the U.S. who have been infected with HIV for at least eleven years show as yet no signs of damage to their immune systems." (Thomas, Mullins, Johnson, 1994)
These long-term survivors must be studied to "ascertain whether something unusual about their immune systems explains their response or whether they carry an avirulent strain of the virus," yet another as yet unclassified and mutated strain. (Thomas, Mullins, Johnson, 1994) but there is…… [Read More]
Analysis of esults:
The Disk Cleanup Tool should be part of normal maintenance on computers. The buildup of obsolete files overtime can cause degradation of your computer. After running disk clean up unneeded files were deleted which gave improved system performance.
Troubleshooting Tool 3: Virus scans
Having an up-to-date anti-virus software is an integral part of keeping your computer running smoothly. Simple steps should be taken to ensure your anti-virus is running properly. Ensure definitions are up-to-date by running live update regularly and have scheduled virus scans.
The following steps overview how to use Symantec Endpoint Protection:
1. Select Start (All Programs (Symantec Endpoint Protection (Symantec Endpoint Protection.
2. The status of "Your computer is protected." Should be displayed. If it is not, take the listed actions on screen to turn on protection. Select the "Live Update" button on the left-side of the screen.
3.…… [Read More]
Customer Inserts His/Her Name
Explain how HIV infects CD4+ cells?
The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus which belongs to a group of viruses known as the retroviruses. HIV causes in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) by infecting the cells of the human and uses up all the energy inside the cells which is required for the growth and development of human cells. AIDS is a fatal disease in which the immunity system of the human body is destroyed due to which the body becomes vulnerable to various infections and also the weakness of the body's immune system also allows other diseases to attack the body. Once a person is infected with HIV, this virus feeds on the energy present in the cells and multiplies in the white blood cells. White blood cells are the ones which build up the immune system and when they are weakened by the HIV…… [Read More]
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…… [Read More]
Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).
There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]
SIV Phylogeny in Western Gorillas
SIV in Western Gorillas
Phylogenetic Analysis of SIV in Western Gorillas
In order to better understand how SIV is transmitted Takehisa et al. (2009) undertook several experiments to determine the phylogenetic relationship between SIVgor and SIVcpz. These experiments depended primarily on sequence homology comparisons, a commonly-used and well-accepted approach for determining phylogenetic relationships.
The specific aims are as follows:
Whole genome sequence homology comparisons will be performed between different strains of SIVgor, SIVcpz, and HIV-1, to establish the relative similarity and thus reveal phylogenetic relationships.
SIVgor sequence will be examined for evidence of recombination. Should a recombination signature be found, it can be used to help search for the most recent common ancestor.
There are multiple strains of SIVcpz infecting chimpanzees from central and eastern Africa, and previous research has shown these strains are geographically-specific. SIVgor sequence comparisons with SIVcpz strains isolated from wild chimpanzee…… [Read More]
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, And Prevention
Acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea) can be caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites, but in the United States the most common cause is the norovirus (CDC, 2012b). The norovirus contributes to 800 deaths and 70,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. each year, but unless a person is elderly, very young, severely ill, or immunocompromised, most people suffer only minor symptoms. Since the estimated U.S. health care burden of norovirus infections around $2 billion annually (CDC, 2012a), this report will examine what is known about norovirus etiology and how these infections can be prevented.
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, and Prevention
The norovirus belongs to the virus family Caliciviridae and contains a single-stranded NA genome encased within an envelope-free protein isocahedral capsid (Morillo and Timenetsky, 2011). Based on recent sequencing information, noroviruses can be grouped into five genogroups: G1, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV. Only GI, GII, and GIII infect…… [Read More]
2. Scientists avoid using the terms "true" and "the truth" because they are too absolute. Science does not aim to give absolute knowledge. Instead, the scientific method relies on the senses and on experiments by creating hypotheses and testing them. Also, science is based on the five senses. The terms "true" and "truth" do not acknowledge the limitations of the five senses. Scientists understand that the body of knowledge created by science has changed over the years because of the development of better instruments to measure and gather data. The human senses might not change much, but the reliability of the senses change as instruments become more sophisticated. Scientists are constantly striving to improve the reliability of their observations and so can never claim to know the "truth." The five senses can point to what seems to be true, but scientists work with objectivity. Truth is a subjective issue, which…… [Read More]
Nursing Case Study
Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study
The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.
The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.
The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…… [Read More]
But this email will be from a recognizable company, rather than obvious Spam, so they will open the email. Such emails may even be welcome, if the subject heading proclaims a discount or a special offer for the return consumer.
Consumers may also be receptive to email that is not merely advertising. Consumers who are part of a target group, as a result of their past Internet purchases or because they agree to be part of a special 'rewards' program, may enjoy subscribing to an emailed newsletter of information and special promotions. A Borders consumer may eagerly open an email that offers an interview with his or her favorite offer, and a 20% off coupon for that author's new book.
Such forms of email marketing, even in the age of viruses and Spam, show that email marketing is not dead. In fact, such targeted and selected campaigns may be more…… [Read More]
Children with AIDS
The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…… [Read More]
Chemical and Biological Terroism
Biological and Chemical Terrorism Prevention
The United States Government has identified the potential of chemical, biological, radiological and/or nuclear (termed CBN) terrorism, especially after the September 11 attacks. They have been concerned ever since Sarin was used in a Tokyo subway (Aum Shinrikyo in 1995) and the anthrax case (in November 2001). The chances of terrorists resorting to these agents in warfare are pretty high considering their advantages over conventional methods. Most organizations fighting terrorism are not equipped well enough to detect such chemicals. A closed container can help most of them escape discovery. The low cost involved in their production increases the dangers manifold. Since most of the above agents affect the human body directly, they are essentially more efficient than conventional warfare.
Chemical weapons have four major classifications. Choking agents are aimed at being fatal and are easily accessible. Phosgene is one such industrial…… [Read More]
Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's
Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.
Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…… [Read More]
However, nothing can be done until the malware actually occurs. With all the different viruses, worms and Trojans, how can security managers possibly predict what malware will occur next? In contrast, a behavioral rule defines legitimate activity in a system. Any activity not matching the profile will cause the security product to be triggered. As rules are not specific to a particular type of attack, they can block malicious behavior without having to recognize the precise attack used. Thus, there is additional protection against new attacks as they emerge. It is to effectively prevent any unauthorized applications, including malicious code and Trojans. or, it could protect a webserver by making it impossible for anyone to access the webserver to change the files and limiting the risk of a hack (Franklin, 2002).
However, the dilemma comes how many rules should the system have? The security manager must decide between an effective…… [Read More]
The risk to humans is generally low, however during any outbreak of Avian Flu among poultry, there is always a possible risk to humans who have contact with the infected birds and surfaces contaminated with excretions from the infected fowl (Avian1). The current outbreak of H5N1 among poultry in Asia and Europe is an example of a bird flu outbreak that has caused human infections and death (Avian1). In rare instances, limited human-to-human spread of H5N1 virus has occurred, however transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person (Avian1). Because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that the H5N1 virus could mutate and infect humans with a strain that could easily spread from one person to another (Avian1).
Furthermore, according to the CDC, because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human…… [Read More]
Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…… [Read More]
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).
In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.
There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…… [Read More]
evolution of plant viruses. All five peer-reviewed articles are related because they all delve into the evolution of plant viruses.
Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plan viruses, Gutierrez, et al., 2013. Plants use insects as the vectors for the spread of viruses. Insects historically go from one plant (host) to another; but recent evidence shows that viruses in plants, as they evolve, can actually have an influence "vector physiology and behavior" (Gutierrez, 2013). There is the possibility that insect "stresses" -- while feeding on plants -- may cause "major switches" in the way viruses evolve in plants (Gutierrez, 610).
The researchers found that "numerous plant viruses" can be and are transmitted by not just one insect, but by several insects. For example one species of aphids probes into a plant and another aphid species also makes "test probes"; this creates a…… [Read More]
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…… [Read More]
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]