human papilloma virus and the description of epidemiology as it relates to the virus. Steps and methods of epidemiology have been discussed in detail alongside statistical data for demographics taken from surveillance records. Moreover, research data have been taken as vital assistance to compliment the study of this research paper and to prove results with evidences from researches (Duncan, 1988).
Statistics have been taken from World Health Organization for the rate of occurrence and risk factors involved with the diseases caused by the virus. Epidemiology cannot be defined unless its steps and methods are explained (Fletcher & Fletcher, 2005). The epidemiology for papillomavirus diseases includes descriptive methods of epidemiology and in this paper; the focus has been made on describing the process steps with respect to papillomavirus. There are five steps, which define how the epidemiology process is carried out; keeping in mind one of the two approaches of the research method for epidemiology. The epidemiological triangle best describes the way in which the diseases generated through papillomavirus are connected with its other two influencing factors and how the triangle model can be used to prevent the infections from spreading (Gordis, 2009). At the end of the paper, prevention levels and their relationship with the papillomavirus infections are discussed.
Epidemiology is defined as the study, which focuses on occurrence, distribution and cure of a specific disease or a numb (Krickeberg, Pham, & Pham, 2012)er of diseases. These diseases are observed in the human population as ever occurring and altogether showing signs of an epidemic thus indicating that all types of disease are dealt within the approach of epidemiology in finding their cure and eradication. Such diseases may include Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus, anemia, asthma, depression; papilloma virus infection etc.
Human papillomavirus infects human body to cause many types of diseases and infections, which differentiates from cancers and infections leading to cancerous cells development. There are more than hundred types of papillomavirus out of which the thirty to forty types are constantly transmitted through sexual contact. They are highly responsible for the development of cervical cancers on a large scale. Papillomavirus 16 and 18 are the two known viruses, which cause throat cancer in humans. Therefore, human papillomavirus is responsible for genital cancers as well as cancers of throat and recent studies and researches have diagnosed it to be an increased risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Adhering to the purpose of this paper, human papillomavirus in teenagers and adults is common (Saracci, 2010). Many individuals go about not knowing if they carry the virus in their bodies or not. Sometimes these viruses are inactive and remain dormant for some time until they find favorable conditions to develop while others show rapid symptoms of development. The virus is greatly found in young women and often they are unrecognizable which makes it difficult for their diagnosis. The virus again is distributable through sexual contact in males and females both. It has a significant ratio of morbidity and mortality among young girls and women because of being a major reason for cervical cancer. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 20 million people in the United States remain infected with the virus. The percentage of sexually active men and women in USA infected with the virus is 6.2 million out of which almost each year the infection occurs at a constant rate of 75% among young people from the age of fifteen to twenty four (Stewart, 2010).
According to Youth Risk Behavior Survey, sexual intercourse has been regarded as the only transmitting source of the infection and virus, which indicates that 58.7% of the teenagers in one of the states of America are involved in sexual intercourse and therefore prone to development of the infection by receiving the virus from their partners.
The similar survey also highlights the data relating to the matter by stating that fifty percent of women are prone to acquiring cervical cancer through human papillomavirus when they initiate sexual intercourse and have covered a time span of five to seven years. By the age of fifty, eighty percent of women are exposed to the virus while some acquire it and some do not.
Epidemiology for human papilloma virus has been modified since the years 1960s and 1970s by using measurements from DNA tests to identify the types of human papillomavirus being the central cause of cervical cancer in teenage girls and adult women (Szklo & Nieto, 2004). The epidemiologic model for the cervical cancer is based on natural history and carcinogenic cofactors of the virus. Teenagers aged between fifteen to nineteen years have been reportedly diagnosed with 4.5 million cases of human papillomavirus. Papillomavirus are categorized into high risk and low risk virus with those causing Papanicolaou smear and cervical cancers as high-risk types. Those causing anogenital warts are considered as low risk viruses. The low risk virus types include the 6 and 11 types, which are responsible for ninety percent of the anogenital warts. As stated earlier, type 16 and 18 cause cervical cancers therefore treating them high-risk viruses (Vuylsteek & Hallen, 1994). In teenagers and adult women, cervical cancer has been found to greatly contributing their deaths with reporting 650,000 cases of cervical cancer deaths every year worldwide. In addition to this, the virus is also responsible for vulvae, anal, penile, tongue, tonsil, mouth and sinus cancers in individuals to which the adolescents are fifty percent prone to acquiring the cancer development infection.
Epidemiological studies have two focuses, which states whether the event has already taken place or the events are likely to occur in future. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus consists of five broad steps namely the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history and prevention.
The first step of prevalence indicates the extent to which the infection prevails among the population of teenage and individuals aged between 20 to 50 years of age. The studies are based on DNA sampling and testing which determine the results after combining with measurements of type specific anti-bodies against the papillomavirus antigens. The prevalence of this virus is greater than fifty percent with respect to the women population particularly the teenage when sexually active women engage in more than often sexual relationships with different partners. The prevalence of the virus among teenagers has been found to cross 27.4% of the population (Krickeberg, Pham, & Pham, 2012).
The second step, Incidence, indicates that oncogenic papillomavirus types are greater in occurrence as compared to the non-oncogenic types. Teenagers aged between fifteen to nineteen years in England are found to have forty-four percent occurrence ratios within three years of becoming sexually active while 60% risk at five years of becoming sexually active (Saracci, 2010).
The third step, Risk factors, indicate number of sex partners, smoking and oral contraceptive sue to be the greater risk factors for transmission and development of the virus. Teen women having more than one sexual partner are reportedly to have a positive relationship with the development and transmission of papillomavirus leading to cervical cancers. According to a recent study, the increase in papilloma infection of about 1.5 ratio increases the risk factors for teenage women about two times. As for smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked cannot determine the degree of prevalence of the infection. The recent studies have failed to establish a relationship between risks of infection developing through smoking.
The fourth step of epidemiology is the natural history of the infection, which comes within persistence, immunity, infection with multiple types, development of lesions and cancers.
Seventy percent of teenage women do not show symptoms of the infection until they reach an age where the symptoms develop showing 80% occurrence of the infection (Gordis, 2009). The immunity to the infection is supported with high incidence and prevalence among the population, which influences the occurrence of the infection. The dormancy of infectious virus cannot be considered immunity however limiting the risk factors can create an immunity factor.
The infection is a cause of about fifty-five percent of the invasive cervical cancers in teenage women of which papillomavirus 16 is the major cause. The other type papillomavirus 18 is about 17% responsible. The last step, prevention, brings in insights of abstinence and control of the infection since prevention is better than the cure itself. The prevention step indicates that usage of vaccines be made possible form a certain age limit so that this infection is prevented form the core. Unless otherwise using prophylactics is the ideal solution to avoiding transmission of papilloma virus. The vaccines developed in the recent years have shown hundred percent protections from papillomavirus type 16 (Krickeberg, Pham, & Pham, 2012).
United Kingdom has a population, which includes more than 25 million of teenage women who after the age of fifteen are at risk of developing cervical cancers through papillomavirus. According to World Health Organization statistics, 8.9% of the teenage women in UK are prone to develop papilloma infection while 79.1% of the population of women is prone to cervical cancers through…