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Salvador Dali - Surrealism
The artists of the Surrealist movement researched and studied the works of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, determined to explore ways in which to express their art through the world of dreams and the unconscious. Some expressed their art in the abstract tradition, others, in the symbolic tradition. Although, surrealism and certain forms of abstract art share similar origins, they diverge on interpretation of what those origins mean to the aesthetic of art (History pg). The accumulation of knowledge is the root, the basis, to push beyond the frontiers into the unknown. Dali was one artist whose approach to art during the Twentieth Century used that accumulated knowledge, built upon it and mastered it (History pg).
Dali explored all the science of painting and used this as a way to study the psyche through subconscious images. He named this process the 'paranoiac critical method.'…
History of Surrealism. http://www.applied-psychology.org/005_the_gallery.html.
A accessed 10-02-2002).
Lubar, Robert S. Dali: The Salvador Dali Museum Collection. Bulfinch Press Book.
Both men had significant events in their lives which made them change their art style almost 180 degrees from work that was similar to others to work that is most definitely their own. There has not yet been enough time passed to tell who will have the greater heritage. One would think that Warhol would be the less likely to be remembered as a true artist, simply because he turned out his art in a factory like atmosphere and kept a strict eye on the bottom line. One may believe that Close is the true artist because he has suffered more, both physically and mentally, but there are some art critics who compare his style of square grid art composition to a "grotesque paint by numbers." While Warhol is definitely the more famous of the two, this may be because so much of his career was spent in promoting himself…
He admonishes contemporary African-Americans to look into the teachings and culture of the ancient Egyptians for inspiration.
Carruthers goes into "The Instructions of Ptahhotep" which contained maxims to instruct in the correct values, modes of behavior and attitudes appropriate to those who would become civil servants from Prime Minister on down. The pharaohs, he speculates, received this teaching alongside children from all walks of life to instruct them on how to deal with all of the people they were to rule over. Even though the Pharoah was expected to be born wise, he also becomes wise through resources, advisors and by studying the records from the past. They were taught to be a good official and what was expected of them as such. The qualities of wisdom and knowledge about their country and the people in it was stressed, while being taught to listen and learn from everyone, even the…
Acioli-Lopes, Gustavo. "Pernambuco's Slave Trade from Costa da Mina and Transatlantic Competitions in the Early Eighteenth Century." African Diaspora Archeology Newsletter, Sep 2007. Website: http://www.diaspora.uiuc.edu/background.html .
Aldokkan. Ancient Egyptian Art. Aldokkan.com 2001. http://www.aldokkan.com/art/art.htm .
Bontemps, Arna Drums at Dusk, New York: MacMillan, 1939.
Carruthers, Jacob H. MDW NTR, Divine Speech, London, Karnak House. 1995: 16-25. Website: http://www.africawithin.com/carruthers/mdwntr.htm .
These elements comprised clear organization as well as an avoidance of excessive detail. Raphael distinguished himself by an expansive style in his paintings, which the audience experiences as a homogeneous, easily viewed whole. ubjects for which this artist was commissioned include the theological Disputa, the chool of Athens and Aristotle and Plato. An interesting element of Raphael's and other paintings is that he included both himself and his contemporaries to represent the figures in his works.
andro Boticelli was a Florentine painter who predated the High Renaissance at the peak of his career before the turn of the 16th century. His style was individual and graceful, led by the rhythmic elements of outline. Before Raphael, he was the best loved painter of his time. ome of this artist's most notable paintings include the Adoration of the Magi, the Birth of Venus, and t. Augustine in his tudy. Boticelli's talent extended…
Austin, Jamie Sue. "The Premier Artists of the Italian Low Renaissance." 2007. http://www.lifeinitaly.com/art/early-renaissance-2.asp
Chew, Robin. "Michelangelo: Renaissance Artist." 1995-2007. http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96mar/michelangelo.html
Harden, Mark. "The Renaissance Artchive." 2007
Artists often possess an uncanny ability to analyze and manipulate these experiences into an expression that speaks to the masses of the human condition, and they are usually quite possessed of their experiences until they can no longer handle the haunting images and they use their medium to express their emotions over the situation. The art of creating itself often serves as catharsis for the artist himself, and ends in a piece that communicates both a uniquely powerful experience, and one that the audience can relate to and understand. Ultimately a war affects everyone in the community of the concerned parties, and as such it will touch and inspire artists of every medium, which results in certain movements and common themes being woven throughout the poetry, fiction, screenplays, paintings, symphonies, etc., of the time.
Great art is also very much inspired by ideas as well as events. Many artists truly…
Rather, changing scales and exotic tones that intends to create mood or atmosphere characterizes impressionism in music. W.W. Norton online lists the following characteristics.
A parallel chord movement and some stacked (ninth) chords.
A non-Western influences, including new scales (whole tone, pentatonic).
A interest in instrumental color.
A floating rhythms and meters.
Debussy and Ravel were the two famous impressionism composers. Debussy already demonstrated unusual harmonies while he was a child studying at Paris Conservatory. One of Debussy's famous impressionist music is the Pelleas and Melisande. Ravel, on the other hand, was another French impressionist in music like Debussy. He was inspired by the impressionist painters. Among his greatest works were Jeux d'eau, Pavane pour une infante defunte, and Gaspard de le nuit (Geocities Online).
As with the impact of impressionism in arts, impressionism in music changed the traditional music of the romantic era which was characterized by the dramatic…
Dr. Lori. What is Impressionism?
Retrieved on October 29, 2006, from Online.
Web site: http://www.drloriv.com/lectures/impressionism.htm
What is Impressionism?
Abstract Expressionist Painting
Artistic and Aesthetic Value in American Modernist Art during the Cold War Era
Defining American Expressionism
American modernism is perhaps one of the most difficult artistic periods to define. Modernism refers to a trend that affirms the power of human beings to create, shape, and make improvements to their environment. Modernism is aided by technological advances and is considered both progressive and optimistic in its approach to defining society. American modernism is considered both an artistic and a cultural movement. It has its beginnings at the turn of the 20th century, reached its height during the World War I and World War II and continues even today[footnoteef:1]. [1: Lavin, Irving. "Abstraction in Modern Painting: A Comparison." Metropolitan Museum ]
Defining American modernism is only the first of many difficult tasks involved in the study of American expressionist painting and its influence on society. During the 1950s American…
Lavin, Irving. "Abstraction in Modern Painting: A Comparison." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New ser., 19, no. 6 (1961).
Ekstein, Modris. 1999. Walking Since Daybreak.(Houghton Mifflin. 1999). In Shark, Annnabell. MoMA, The Bomb and the Abstract Expressionists. Direct Art. Vol. 4. Accessed 28 March 2012 from http://www.slowart.com/articles/cia.htm
Gasser, Helmi. Neue Zurcher Zeitung, Zurich, May 23, 1958 in The New American Painting: As Shown in Eight European Countries, 1958-1959. (New York:Museum of Modern Art.1959).
Guggenheim Museum. "Russia!." Accessed 28 March 2012 from http://pastexhibitions.guggenheim.org/russia/highlights8.html
Robert Rauschenberg, premier American visual artist, saw things differently than the ordinary human being. For Rauschenberg, mundane matter can be magically transformed onto canvas to convey something entirely different than it was intended for. Rauschenberg's works include elements of everyday life from street signs to magazine clippings. A Rauschenberg canvas begs the viewer to see things as Rauschenberg does: with humor, insight, and creativity.
Born in 1925 in Texas, Rauschenberg studied art formally in the United States and in Paris. However, his initial inspiration to become an artist arrived under unusual circumstances: while he was stationed on a naval base in San Diego, Rauschenberg visited the Huntington Library collection, which sparked a lifelong passion. Rauschenberg worked as an illustrator and window designer and rubbed elbows with other contemporary visual artists. Rauschenberg also associated with performance artists, musicians, and choreographers and was able to contribute to the American creative scene. Throughout…
'Robert Rauschenberg." Learning Disabilities Online. Online at < http://www.ldonline.org/first_person/robert_rauschenberg.html >.
Liturgical Use of Visual Arts and Paganism
Christian art's rich history goes as far back as the 3rd century A.D. Ever since the first paintings were done on catacomb walls, Christians have endeavored to use visible means for expressing the invisible Almighty. Despite Christianity's origins lying in Judaism, which forbids such imagery, the Incarnation concept made it essential to image God's human face in Jesus. he intent was never portraiture. However, an image capable of opening the soul, mind, and heart in a manner that livened up an understanding and faith was critical for several centuries. hrough it, the Church successfully established itself as a major "patron of the arts." he previous pope, Pope Benedict XVI (formerly, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger) draws on Christian iconography's richness; since the tradition, he is in deep appreciation of demonstrates that the Gospels are preached via both spoken words and imagery. Artists of every era…
Tarasov, O. and Milner-Gulland, R.R., 2002. Icon and devotion: Sacred spaces in imperial Russia. Reaktion Books.
Verdon, T., 2007. Art and the Liturgy. Interpretation, 61(4), pp.359-374.
Webber, R.E., n.d. The Visual Arts in Worship. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 May 2016].
Students will be able to analyze and critique Baroque style painting by looking at five Baroque style masters. They will learn the different methods of Baroque style painting -- the use of impasto (thick paint), sprezzato (rapid strokes), chiaroscuro (the use of light and shadow), and dynamism (the sense of motion). This information will allows students to better understand how the Baroque manner took shape and it will also underscore the meaning to these methods and how it differentiated painters from the Renaissance style of painting.
At the end of the three lesson plans, students will be able to identify and develop the techniques of Baroque artist. This will support the students' ability to create, present and respond to visual art by teaching them the tools of the artist. Thus, will be able to recognize styles of brushstroke and how eras like the Baroque have incorporated these strokes into the…
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
Visual Imagery and Qualitative Dimensions of Life & Consciousness in Visual Art
Throughout history all cultures have produced works of art. The impulse to create as a means of personal expression and to stimulate the imagination of viewers is universal and perpetual. In their various manifestations, the arts play an important role in defining culture by presenting intelligent viewpoints of our present state of being, and by serving as a record of our past. The visual arts are a repository of those qualitative dimensions of life, which enhance our consciousness through the use of visual imagery.
The most exquisite expression of the self is through art, be it literature, history theatre, painting, sculptor and so on. From the wondrous Egyptian pyramids to the majestic statue of liberty, from eloquent Greek writer Homer - who produced masterpieces like the Odyssey - to 20th century literati like Palestinian journalist Edward Said -…
1) A short history of English literature: Pages124 & 125. Sylvan Barnet
2) History of English literature: Pages123 & 127. Legouis & Cazamain
3) An Introduction to Fiction, Drama and Poetry: Pages 355 to 361. Kennedy Gioia
Art and the Humanities -
Futurism brashly and boldly embraced new technology, celebrating even the bellicose. In Marinetti's "Manifesto of Futurism," he states, "We will glorify war -- the world's only hygiene -- militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for women," (p. 148). This peculiar statement reveals the nature of futurism as it was manifest at early twentieth century. Futurism was all embracing, rejecting nothing based on immorality because futurism shunned morality. For this reason, Futurism emerged as a staunchly progressive and open-minded genre in the visual arts. The movement not just embraced new technology but celebrated it. Even the uglier side of technology, such as heavy industries and the pollution they create, was something futurists admired and incorporated into their visual art schema. Within the futurist framework, it is certainly possible to imagine works of art that represent something genuinely new.
One reason it is…
Boccioni, Umberto. "Futurist Painting: Technical Manifesto."
Marinette, Filippo Tommaso. "The Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism."
Art and Architecture
Architecture and Art
In a recent visit to Chicago, I observed the Chicago Picasso which was a gift to the city by the famed artist Pablo Picasso. Located in the downtown Chicago loop, the monument stands 58 feet tall, weighs 162 tons and is constructed of Cor-Ten (corrosive tensile) steel. Pablo Picasso gave this massive work of art to the city of Chicago, even though he'd never been to the city, and never went during his lifetime. The unpaid work was based on a 42-inch-tall version Pablo crafted. It was later executed by U.S. Steel Corporation ("Chicago Sculptures," 2011).
It is reported that Pablo Picasso never named his creation nor gave an explanation as to what it represents. The 3-D piece of art looks different from every angle. People have stated that it resembles a baboon; mainly because of the close-set eyes and flaring nostrils. Also, the…
Chicago Sculptures. (2011). Professional Safety, 56(4), 64.
Cunningham, B. (2011, June 5). City in Bloom. New York Times. p. 4.
The Warhol Bubble. (2012). Wilson Quarterly, 36(1), 72-73.
Windy City Windfall. (1966). Time, 88(13), 83.
Please take a close look at two paintings of storms: Watteau's the Storm
Watteau's the Storm and Delacroix's the Sea of Galilee
The two paintings in question refer to different time periods in art history and more importantly, to different views about art and life. These views are also reflected in the style and the technique of the two paintings. Art is often a reflection of the times in which it is created. The social values and perceptions as well as the dominant religious and philosophical ideas of the time tend to be represented in art during a certain period. The following two paintings will be compared and contrasted in terms of their unique qualities, as well as in terms of the way they reflect the era and the dominant ethos of the time period in which they were created.
Comparison of Two Paintings
The development in…
Introduction to the Romantic Era in English Poetry. Retrieved from http://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/introser/romantic.htm
Neoclassicism. Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/neoc_1/hd_neoc_1.htm
Romanticism in Art. Retrieved from http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-
The concept of color value may be better illustrated by impressionist artists like Renoir. In "The Skiff," Renoir depicts a boat on a placid pond using different shades, or values, of blue:
Capitalizing on color value in this case adds considerable depth and nuance to the painting, as well as texture.
Texture: Texture is most obvious in three-dimensional and especially in multimedia artwork. Sculptor Giacometti molded metal, preserving its naturally bumpy texture as in the following depiction of a man walking:
One of the distinguishing features of Giacometti's work is his use of texture. Instead of smoothing the metal to create a more realistic sculpture, the artist lets the texture become an essential defining element of the artwork. Multimedia artist Louise Nevelson sometimes carved niches into wood, thereby achieving the same type of textural experience:
In fact, the Nevelson piece also illustrates the visual function of Pattern.…
Here, the discus thrower is using the space around his body. The sense of motion is palpable, even though the image is wholly static it seems as if the discus thrower is moving through space. In two-dimensional art, space is created using visual illusions. The following panel of Hieronymous Bosch's "Garden of Earthly Delights" depicts some figures in the foreground and some in the background extending toward the horizon:
The result is the sense of depth and space, which are not actually present on the canvas.
Not immediately recognized for his contribution to the visual art world, William Blake is perhaps better known for his poetry. However, the Englishman received formal training in drawing and was officially apprenticed to an engraver in London in the late eighteenth century. Blake's interest in metaphysics is apparent in all his productions, especially in allegorical pieces based on the Old Testament like his "Nebuchadnezzar," (completed in 1795). Blake's color print, finished in pen and watercolor, is a typical example of the artist's chosen media; he rejected oil paints. Like all art classified as Romantic, "Nebuchadnezzar" is intensely individualistic and introspective. Blake's preoccupation with symbolism and esoterica is apparent in the subject matter as well as its execution. Drawing upon the Biblical allegory of a headstrong king who dreams (and later realizes) that his mind degenerates into that of a beast, Blake visually interprets the book of Daniel. "Nebuchadnezzar,"…
Laid on its side, auschenberg's "Bed" contains the same visual and tangible objects as a real bed. "Bed" seems like more than a representation of a bed; it could just as well be one especially given the use of actual bedding.
The expansion of the visual plane and the reworking of the canvas paralleled expansions of consciousness. Those transformations in consciousness and their impact on the art world were a result of historical and social change. During the 1950s when auschenberg worked, technology was growing in its relevance to the global economy. Advancements in science included quantum mechanics and theoretical physics. Medical marvels abounded. Culture was becoming less homogenous as the spread of ideas flowed across borders. Human sexuality and sexual freedom were also growing more liberated. Gender roles were changing and so were global political norms. Within the exciting environment of the 20th century arose conceptual transformations in the…
Rauschenberg, R. (1955). "Bed."
Steinberg, L. "Other Criteria." Oxford University Press, 1972.
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…
Art and architecture of the Early Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Middle_Ages
Art: Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html
Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/middle-ages
Roman art. Retrieved from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/roman.html Siddiqui E.
Great Art proponents
Art is not something new that started recently. Art work has been in existence for a very long time and there are various artists who have brought an influence in this field. When looking at art in the 1960s we can see that there are various art movements as well as cultural histories which are associated with this period.
Andy Warhol was a very influential pop artist in the 1960s. He took product logos and their labels from a commercial context and displayed them as a form of art. He also went ahead to make sculptures that were identical to Brillo boxes and Campbell's soup cans. Through his work we can see that pop art posed as a challenge to traditional art through equating imagery that was mass produced in advertising with existing fine arts. This was attracted by graphical directness of advertising and consumer packing…
References psychedelicadventures.com. (2010).The Psychedelic [in] Society:
A Brief Cultural History of Tripping. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://www.psychedelicadventures.com/BriefHistory.htm
Chappell, M. (2006). Art in the 1960s. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://artsconnected.org/collection/118487/art-in-the-1960s?print=true#%281%29
Sarasota Visual Art. (2012). William Pachner: Works from the 1960s. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://sarasotavisualart.com/2012/02/william-pachner-works-from-the-1960s/
Not surprisingly, Caspar David riedrich's "Morning Mist in the Mountains" from 1808 is a markedly different work of art. His approach is definitely more realistic, and any symbolism in the painting is found strictly in the eye of the beholder. There is also no overt use of line in this painting, but rather the entire image is softened and blurred by the mists covering the mountain. The mountain, too, is seen from a much closer perspective, which actually serves to make it less dominating and forthright as its boundaries cannot be seen -- the mountain forms the entire background, rather than being the most prominent feature of it. In addition, the Western use of perspective and foreshortening is definitely visible in this painting whereas it is decidedly lacking in Kuan's landscape. The most prominent formal aspect of riedrich's "Morning Mist in the Mountains" is the contrast between the trees and…
Fan Kuan's "Travelers among the Mountains and Streams," painted sometime in the early eleventh century CE, is a classic example of a Chinese landscape. The title is somewhat ironic, as the travelers that are the supposed subject of the painting are incredibly overshadowed by the mountains themselves. There is an extreme use of vertical line in the painting, with the mountain appearing as a pillar of rock that takes up most of the painting. Near the mountain's base, the horizontal lines of the mist layer and the path beneath both serve to break up the painting to some degree, but the overall effect is the dominance of nature over the rather insignificant and seemingly futile efforts of mankind. Kuan's use of shadow is used to create the illusion of three-dimensionality, but the lack of color and the regularity of the lines make the painting more symbolic and representational than it is realistic.
Not surprisingly, Caspar David Friedrich's "Morning Mist in the Mountains" from 1808 is a markedly different work of art. His approach is definitely more realistic, and any symbolism in the painting is found strictly in the eye of the beholder. There is also no overt use of line in this painting, but rather the entire image is softened and blurred by the mists covering the mountain. The mountain, too, is seen from a much closer perspective, which actually serves to make it less dominating and forthright as its boundaries cannot be seen -- the mountain forms the entire background, rather than being the most prominent feature of it. In addition, the Western use of perspective and foreshortening is definitely visible in this painting whereas it is decidedly lacking in Kuan's landscape. The most prominent formal aspect of Friedrich's "Morning Mist in the Mountains" is the contrast between the trees and the mist that enshrouds them; these trees represent the only dark valued objects and are also the only parts of the painting that make use of definite lines, making them stand out quite prominently among the white mists and the blurred swathe of mountain and air the fills the painting.
Despite the differences in these two paintings, however, there are also some notable similarities. Though there are no human figures in Friedrich's paintings, the sheer scope of nature depicted could be see as a comment on human insignificance. Kuan's "Travelers among the Mountains and Streams" is much more explicit in delivering this message, but it can be seen in both paintings. Likewise, the verticality is much more subdued in Friedrich's painting, but it is interesting to note that both landscapes place their emphasis on vertical line, rather than on the horizontal of the horizon.
Eisenstein also mentions the "higher nervous activity" that accompanies perception of motion pictures (p. 225). The physical impact of visual imagery is poignant, according to Eisentstein. Motion pictures are visceral.
Interestingly, Deleuze mentions the ability of film to create what the author calls "false continuity," (p. 207). As Deleuze notes, "It is not quite right to say that the cinematographic image is in the present," and therefore it should not be "confused with what it represents," (p. 207). In painting and other static forms of visual art, symbols are not as easily confused with what they represent because of the added dimension of motion. Whereas Eisenstein is concerned with relationships of dominance and subordination, Deleuze focuses on relationships between past, present, and future. Eisenstein uses montage to illustrate his ideas about how the brain interprets a moving canvas of images, and Deleuze discusses film in a more general sense. Yet…
Deleuze, Gilles. "Thought and Cinema: The Time-Image"
Eisenstein, Sergei. "On Montage and the Filmic Fourth Dimension."
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…
Feast in the house of Levi. http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/martin/art_law/feast_in_the_house_of_levi.htm (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Friedlaender, Walter, the anti-mannerist style. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/art-theory-baroque-Fall-2008/style3.html (Accessed November 18, 2008)
Mannerism. Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannerism (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Nosotro, Rit. Art of the reformation and the counter reformation. Hyperhistory. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw20reformationart.htm (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Arts and Education
Lack of Arts in School Curriculum affects learning and interest in learning
School leaders and policymakers pay little attention to arts despite the experience that, allowing young people to participate in arts and culture can influence their development tremendously. The major problem lies with the fact that very few people bother to carry out a research, and record the far-reaching effect arts and culture can have on students. Instead, schools, researchers, and policymakers spend more time focusing on what is easily and commonly measured: reading and math success. This has led art proponents into trying to establish a connection between arts and higher reading and math grades -- a claim that still lacks scholarly, scientific evidence. For other advocates of arts, there is no need and no way to measure the benefits (Greene, et al., 2014).
In recent years, most attention with regards to education have been…
Greene, J. P., Kisida, B., Bogulski, C. A., Kraybill, A., Hitt, C., & Bowen, DH (2014, December 2). Arts Education Matters: We Know, We Measured It. Education Week.
Hudziak, J., Albaugh, M., Ducharme, S., Karama, S., Spottswood, M., Crehan, E., & Botteron, K. (2014). Cortical thickness maturation and duration of music training: Health-promoting activities shape brain development. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(11), 1153-1161.
Johnson, C., & Memmott, J. (2006). Examination of Relationships between Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test Results. Journal of Research in Music Education, 54(4), 293-307.
For example, most (if not all) of the ancient Greek and Egyptian pottery that we find in museums was not considered art in its time of creation. They were made as practical pieces that were used for practical purposes. It was later when humans defined the word art that these relics were collected and renamed as art.
Another example of why art is hard to define and why it really depends on the time in history that makes a piece a work of art or not can be seen in the way in which many artists do not achieve success until after their deaths. It can be argued that true artists are often very in tune with what is going on in the culture and very aware of ways in which culture oppresses people or glorifies them. They are sensitive to what is going on in the world and perhaps…
Billio, Bruno. (2011). About. Bruno Billio. Accessed on 11 December 2011:
Design is the process involved in the creation of an artwork, and this process uses the elements of art to portray concepts and ideas. There are several basic principles of design, each contributing to the presentation of a work of art. These principles of design include: balance; emphasis; pattern; proportion; rhythm; unity; and variety.
Balance is a term referring to the arrangements of parts of an artwork in a certain manner in order to convey a certain sense of equality in terms of visual weight. This balance can be symmetrical, asymmetrical, or radial in nature. Emphasis in regards to design refers to the visual stress, accent, or sense of importance that is created in an artwork through the use of color, shape, size, and placement of an object. Emphasis can also refer to the object or area within an artwork that draws the viewer's attention. Pattern in design refers to…
Hoen (2003). Using Appropriate Art Vocabulary, retrieved 6/25/2007 at http://teachers.henrico.k12.va.us/godwin/hoen_l/artinsight1/art1projects/GlossaryTerms.pdf .
No Author Given (2007). Principles of design. Art, Design, and Visual Thinking, retrieved 6/25/2007 at http://char.txa.cornell.edu/language/principl/principl.htm .
No Author Given (2007). Principles and elements of design. Homework Help: Art: Visual Arts, retrieved 6/25/2007 at http://www.jiskha.com/art/visual_arts/ped.html .
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
A number of modifications have occurred within the area of arts instruction, leading to a redesigning of the whole curriculum. A few transformations involve modern trends like literacy training via art, worldwide popular culture, 21st-century abilities, social justice, art evaluation, cultural diversity, and interdisciplinary approaches.
Teaching Literacy through Art
According to Moody-Zoet, art-teaching offers distinctive and useful intellectual behaviors and skill sets which aid in the learning of other academic disciplines. The following skills are introduced, cultivated and honed by arts education: craft creation capacity; task involvement and determination when it comes to task completion; envisioning, expression, and seeking of a vision for oneself; observation; reflection; stretching; exploration; and understanding of the art community/world. Arts education represents a vital component of every learner's holistic scholastic literacy. The arts, after all, are entrenched in representation and cognition, in addition to be profoundly involved in the way education expands as well as…
imilarly, the phases of the image evolves from art reflecting basic reality, through three progressive stages that culminate in art that has no relation to reality at all. The same happens with utopian and science fiction writing. The first stage requires no such writing, as the world is viewed as utopian in its current state. The second stage recognizes the world as imperfect, and compensates for this by means of romantic dreams (Mann). The third stage revolves around technological dreams such as robots and machines, while the final stage once again culminates in an end to science fiction: the hyperreal absorbs science fiction into a new genre related to the Internet and other types of mass media.
There are many examples of the hyperreal in the modern media. Perhaps the most striking of these is entertainment centers such as Disney World. These worlds are presented as reality to visitors, who…
Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." 1936.
Kazis, Richard. "Benjamin's age of mechanical reproduction." Jump Cut, no. 15, 1977. http://web.bentley.edu/empl/c/rcrooks/toolbox/common_knowledge/general_communication/benjamin.html
Mann, Doug. "Jean Baudrillard: A Very Short Introduction." 2009. http://publish.uwo.ca/~dmann/baudrillard1.htm
178). For example, Sakkal reports that, "The measuring system of Ibn Muqlah is based on a circle with a diameter that equals the height of the letter Alef. It controls the correct proportions of the letters by comparing them to the circle, and by diagonal dots written with the calligraphy pen" (1993:9). In his analysis of Ibn Muqla's role in the standardization of the geometrical basis of Arabic writing, Ernst, citing an early treatise, illustrates the religious significance of the circle as being an integral part of these revisions to calligraphic script: "God (glory be to the Most High) created the world in a circular form. The master Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al- Husayn ibn Muqla the scribe (may God have mercy on him) realized that writing could be made circular. He transmitted that method of [round] Kufic in this fashion that is now current, so that it…
Brown, Keith, Anne H. Anderson, Laurie Bauer, Margie Berns, Graeme Hirst and Jim Miller.
Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Boston: Elsevier, 2006.
Blair, Sheila S. And Jonathan M. Bloom. 2003. "The Mirage of Islamic Art: Reflections on the Study of an Unwieldy Field." The Art Bulletin 85(1): 152-154.
Eaton, Gai. Islam and the Destiny of Man. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press,
Passion: overwhelming erotic love. Passion: zeal, intense interest in a thought, ideal, belief, person, or activity. Passion: anger, rage, fury. Passion: suffering. Perhaps most commonly used in reference to romantic, erotic love in modern culture, the word passion actually evokes any strong, overpowering emotion. Mel Gibson's recent film The Passion of the Christ reminds viewers that in Christian thought, passion refers explicitly to Jesus's suffering. Christian passion is frequently depicted in the visual arts, but so too is the passion of romantic love, the inexplicable force drawing one person to another. Often mythological figures are employed to convey the archetype of passion; mythic figures suggest that passion is immutable, universal, and timeless. That which the gods can feel is by definition divine in nature. Titian's "Venus and Adonis" especially exemplifies a painter's rendering of archetypal passion onto the canvas. A Renaissance-era artist, Titian uses imagery from classical mythology to invoke…
Matrix, lade Runner, And Metropolis
Science-Fiction films have evolved through the decades as technology as progressed, allowing for greater Special Effects and visual demonstrations of worlds overrun by machines.
Three such films - The Matrix, lade Runner, and Metropolis have manifested their stories not only through their scenery and futuristic landscapes, but also through society and the forces governing them.
In their essays, Stan rakhage and Giuliana runo examine these influences within film and how they demonstrate the relevance of history in a social context; postmodernist influences; and the perceptions of vision as they appear on film.
In runo's essay Ramble City: Postmodernism and lade Runner, runo examines the film lade Runner, as it relates to postmodernism and the ideals surrounding the architecture, and social infrastructure of the world where people lack a 'real' history, and therefore, philosophically, a 'real' existence.
The city of lade Runner is not the ultramodern,…
Blade Runner Dir. Ridley Scott.
1982. Based on Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
Metropolis Dir. Fritz Lang
1927. Based on Thea Von Harbou's novel.
Visual Arts - Communicate
Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial
A description of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial (VVM) (which features 58,272 names; the letters spelling out the names are 0.53 inches high and are carved 0.015 inches deep into the walls) should include the fact that it is made up of two gabbro walls (gabbro is an igneous rock, chemically the same as plutonic basalt, which is black) that are each 246 feet 9 inches long. The two walls are built into the ground, there is an earthen embankment behind the walls, and the two walls meet at an apex which is 10.1 feet high at the point where the walls join. At the ends of the walls, the height is just eight inches (www.bvvinc.org).
The angle at which the two walls come together is 125° 12' and the walls are built on top of 140 concrete pilings that have been…
Beverly Vietnam Veterans. (2001). Locating a Name (on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial).
Retrieved May 27, 2014, from http://www.bvvinc.org .
Durbin, S. (2007). Gericault's The Raft of the Medusa. Art & Perception. Retrieved May 27, 2014, from http://www.artandperception.com .
Lin, M. (2000). Making the Memorial. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved May 27,
Grabbing onto the hand of her partner, she make a sweeping gesture denoting dance and movement. The lines created by her arms allow the eye to move freely across the canvas. The right-hand dancer turns her torso around fully, and doing so she encourages us to gaze where she is, back at the center of the composition. Rhythm pervades Derain's piece because of his selection of dance as a subject, but also because of the use of curvilinear forms that keep the eye flowing. Moreover, colors repeat themselves enthusiastically, spread out across the canvas and avoiding stagnation.
At first glance, Edward Hooper's Early Sunday Morning exudes stillness and with its straight lines is nothing like Derain's Dance. The town is asleep, businesses closed for the day and not a person is in sight. Yet it is precisely the lack of people that makes Hooper's composition so compelling and full of…
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…
Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,
1. Retrieved from http://journal.utarts.com/articles.php?id=4&type=paper
Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Art Analysis: Art21
After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in omance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well…
Art21, Inc. (2012) Explore Artists. Available from: http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists . 2012 July 10.
European Graduate School. (2012) Pierre Huyghe -- Biography. Available from: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/pierre-huyghe/biography/ . 2012 July 11.
Wines, Michael. (2009) Ai Weiwei, China's Impolitic Artist. The New York Times, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/28/world/asia/28weiwei.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 July 12.
Pierre Huyghe, "This is not a time for dreaming," 2004.
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…
Acidini, Luchinat Cristina. The Medici, Michelangelo, & the Art of Late Renaissance Florence. New Haven: Yale UP in Association with the Detroit Institute of Arts, 2002. Print.
Adams, Laurie. Italian Renaissance Art. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001. Print.
Barter, James. Artists of the Renaissance. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1999. Print.
Bartlett, Kenneth. The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance. Toronto D.C.
It is clear the artist wants to communicate his feelings to his audience, and the text makes this clear in using codes and thoughts to convey these feelings.
There are cultural assumptions assumed by this text, especially that everyone is familiar with the history of World War II and the Holocaust. It seems many of the images of the artist are related in ways to this, and it assumes that everyone will understand the meaning and the history, without having to ask questions. The artist, in that, seems to depart from dominant culture values, not because his work is dark and disturbing, but because somehow, the works seem to convey the dark side of life that many people want to ignore. He takes a dim view of humankind it seems, and that is not so common in cultural values, because most people want to hope for the best, and Kiefer…
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…
Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.
Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992
Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.
Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
If they are a couple, they have no children together. Whereas Morisot focuses on the child in "The Basket Chair," Caillebotte accomplishes the opposite. Caillebotte's painting lacks emotional intensity, because his palette is far more retrained than that of Morisot. Morisot's garden is rendered in vivid greens and intensely saturated hues. Caillebotte's, on the other hand, is a more staid palette. Furthermore, unlike Morisot's fenced-off garden, Caillebotte's is a public park. Yet there are no other people in the park: which suggests that there are a disproportionate number of wealthy elite in Paris at the time of painting. In their own ways, the two Impressionists suggest that the bourgeois live in a world apart from the working class society. Beyond the boundaries of their respective gardens, scores of working class French men and women toil to feed the burgeoning capitalist enterprise that characterizes urbanization and industrialization. However, the subjects in…
Caillebotte, Gustave. "The Orange Trees." 1878.
Duret, Theodore. Manet and the French Impressionists. London: Grant Richards, 1910.
Fell, Derek. The Impressionist Garden. London: Frances Lincoln, 1994.
Harrison, Charles. Painting the Difference: Sex and Spectator in Modern Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Art Museum Visit
This particular piece of art is a limestone statue, which in all likelihood, originally was a painted piece. Limestone was a precious mineral, and would have most likely been honed and by prepared by a servant or slave for the artisan to work with. This statue is considered to be sculpture in the round as there are no additional supports required (Barnet 113). A great deal of detail is carved into the headdress, and because of the realism qualities, the statue is of a woman. A number of these statues were designed in small decorative forms; however, many were crafted in life size and even larger forms. The proportions seem to be to scale. The Egyptian use of proportions is a method that depicts the human figure in a consistent way, using measurements derived from the observation of real bodies and related to Egyptian metrology (Baines 9).…
Barnet, Sylvan. A Short Guide to Writing About Art, 9th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008), 113-114.
Baines, C. Egyptian Figures, Personification, and the Iconology of a Genre. Warminster. 1985.
Baines, J. "Theories and Universals of Representation: Heinrick Schafer and Egyptian Art, Art History 8, 1 (1985): 1-25.
Davies, W. Egyptian Hieroglyphics. 1988.
There is also little doubt that viewing the original works is a very different experience to viewing a reproduction. There is as sense of presence and intimacy in viewing the original works that is not evident when viewing a reproduction. There is something tangible and direct that comes across when looking at the original that is lost in viewing reproductions. With the original paining one is allowed to view the actual brush strikes and paint build-up in a way that cannot be achieved with a reproduction.
"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,
"Italian vs. Northern Renaissance." Accessed September 10, 2011.
"Religious Themed Paintings inside Houston's MFA." Accessed September 10, 2011.
http://peggy-w.hubpages.com/hub/Religious-Themed-Paintings-inside-Houstons-MFAaissance Art and Architecture
"Renaissance Art and Architecture." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John," accessed September 10,…
"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano Bugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,
Critique of Surreal and Post-Impressionist Works of Art
Dali's Autumn Cannibalism (1936) http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/dali_retrospective/dali_pma_05_07.htm
Salvador Dali is one of the great and mercurial figures in art history. The surrealistic Spanish painter was influenced heavily by the tumultuous period of history in which he lived and by the haunting images in his own psyche. Both are on dramatic display in the 1936 piece, "Autumn Cannibalism." Here, Dali paints a depiction of the military conflict tearing his motherland apart from within, offering us this terrifying rendering of civil war as seen through the eyes of one consumed by it.
In the confrontation between the social commentary and the internal reflection that comprise this piece, Dali creates a piece that is decidedly representative of the surrealist movement both in aesthetic and motif. In spite of Dali's incredible influence, surrealism was ultimately a short-lived movement, leaving its impression on the art world through…
People not only make art, but also choose which objects should be called art" (Art Pp).
Art critics refer to the work of Bulgarian-born Christo and American Robert Smithson as land art and earthworks (Art Pp). In February 2005, Christo and his wife, Jeanne-Claude, fulfilled a twenty-six-year-old dream art project when 7,500 saffron colored drapes hanging from 16-foot-high steel frames were unfurled as they wound their way through twenty-three miles of footpaths through Central Park (Sanders Pp). During a recent visit to New York City, reporter Bob Ray Sanders made a special stop to the park to witness "The Gates" for himself (Sanders Pp). His describes the contrast of the bright orange colors with the "grayness of stark barren trees and shrubbery did give the appearance of what the artists called a 'visual golden river' with many tributaries meandering through the park' (Sanders Pp). Sanders said that the bursts of…
Sanders, Bob Ray. "Sometimes, perceptions about art separated by very wide gulf." Fort Worth Star-Telegram; 2/17/2005; Pp.
Kogan, Nathan. "On aesthetics and its origins: some psychobiological and evolutionary considerations." Social Research; 3/22/1994; Pp
Chang, Rodney. 'Ideas on Art Psychology."1980
The figures of people, carriages, etc. are "washed-out," they are as small as ants are. The method of reflecting motion and dynamics of routine life by "washed-out effect" was borrowed "from a new invention of photography" (Schapiro 81). Photographic cameras of that epoch were not sensitive for picturing motion, so all objects in motion were "washed-out."
Some impressionists, for example Edgar Degas (1834-1917), were influenced by ethnic painting techniques such as Chinese and Japanese graphics, characterized by striking representation of shape and figures. Degas continued Monet's experiments with light and reflection of motion. Many of his paintings were influenced by other methods similar to photography: uncommon visual angles and asymmetric perspectives, which can be observed in such paintings as a Carriage at the aces (1872), Ballet ehearsal (1876) characterized by unusual visual solution and geometric interpretation.
Auguste enoir (1841-19191), father of Impressionism, became famous for his mass portraits. enoir's Impressionism…
Sayre, Henry M.A world of art Prentice Hall; 4 thedition 2004
Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller
The Impressionists, Article from web resource: http://www.biography.com/impressionists/artists_morisot.html
Pool, Phoebe Complete Paintings of Monet. New York: Abrams,1967
According to Sayre (2009), the four roles of the artist are keeping a historical record, giving form to intangibles, revealing the hidden, and showing the world in a new way. In "Mother of Pearl and Silver: The Andalucian," James McNeill Whistler fulfills the role of historical record keeper. The depiction of the Andalucian captures the style, attitude, and culture of the subject. In this sense, "Mother of Pearl and Silver: The Andalucian" is a historical reference. Although the fashion is not quintessentially Spanish, the subject in the painting does capture the mood of the late nineteenth century, when Whistler painted. Whistler depicts the fashion and attitudes of the era in this painting, which also show how globalization was becoming a reality for many Americans and Europeans. An American painter depicts an American model wearing Continental clothes and a Spanish hairstyle.
In "A Burial at Ornans," Gustave Courbet also paints…
"Gustave Courbet (1819-1877): A Biography." Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved online: http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/collections/courbet-dossier/biography.html
"James McNeill Whistler (artist)." (n.d.). National Gallery of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.nga.gov/fcgi-bin/tinfo_f?object=12197
"Reading Art: Understanding Iconography." Retrieved online: http://corptrain.phoenix.edu/sites/art101r4/index.html
Sayre, H.M. (2009). World of Art. Prentice Hall.
Splashes of color like red and several shades of blue are added to the collage in a "dragonfly, wing-like" formation. A cutout photograph of a boy is pasted on the "wing" of a lighter shade of blue, perhaps to note a sense of calm to his surroundings.
The Hawkins' exhibit will consist of 80 objects, a retrospective of his nearly a quarter of a century career. The work is described as "at its core, about the pleasure of intense looking." Third mind is described as referring to another piece of Hawkins' work, "ichard Hawkins: Of two minds simultaneously," which means to be undecided, uncertain or unsure, the description states. Hawkins is aware of the duplicity that this body of work creates, which is stated to be intentional.
The Art Institute of Chicago was founded in 1879 as a school and museum. The museum holds art from African-American artists to silk…
1. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010 the Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
2. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010. The Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
3. George Eastman House. "Current Exhibitions • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
4. George Eastman House. "Photographs by Jessica Lange • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…
Andy Warhol." PBS: American Masters. 20 Sept 2006. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/warhol_a.html
Teaching Art Since 1950." National Gallery of Art. 199. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/pdf/artsince1950.pdf
Un Chien Andalou." Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1929.
Varendoe, Kirk. Online NewsHour: Jackson Pollock. 11 Jan 1999. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june99/pollock_1-11.html
Roy Lichtenstein -- Stepping Out is a painting done in oil and magna on canvas by Roy Lichtenstein. (Magna is a plastic painting product made of permanent pigment ground in acrylic resen with solvents and plasticizer. This material mixes with turpentine and mineral spirits and dries rapidly with a mat finish) (www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html).Painted in 1978, this work is 85 inches in heighth and 70 inches in width, 218.4 cm by 177.8 cm. This work of art, accession number 1980,420, is located at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (5th Avenue and 82nd Street). It was purchased in 1980 as a Lila Acheson Wallace Gift with additional funding through the Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund, the Arthur Lejwa Fund, in honor of Jean Arp; the ernhill Fund, the Joseph H. Hazen Foundation Inc., the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation Inc., and gifts fromWalter areiss, Marie annon McHenry, Louise Smith, and…
Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. 2nd Edition. New York:Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2000.
A www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lichtenstein_roy.html www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/pbio?224210 www.metmuseum.org/collections
Of course, I am incidentally exposed to non-commercial art throughout my day, as well. My home is decorated with original paintings by unknown artists, so I see art as I glance around my home. My work is also decorated with artwork, though the works there are reproductions of the works of famous artists. I also hear music during my commute to work, and my office plays jazz music in the background.
Examining my experience with art in my daily life, it becomes clear to me that art is an essential part of a civilized life. Though I have not formally studied any of the fine arts, I believe that they have been very helpful to me. I believe that art serves as a reminder to me and to my fellow human beings that we are elevated above other animals. In addition, I believe that the tone and nature of a…
The Narrative Tradition in Art: Evidence and Examples from the Neolithic and the Hellenistic Periods
Artists have existed since long before the dawn of civilization and the beginnings of recorded history, and the subject matter chosen for depiction in paintings has at once been highly varied and remarkably similar as civilization progressed and societies same and went. Wildly disparate styles have led some to emphasize color and the abstract while others attempted to paint exactly what was seen, and buildings dominate some paintings while landscapes dominate others; at the same time, there have been similarities in that paintings always represent the world as seen by the civilization producing the art, and thus people and certain other elements are almost always well represented. Art is a way of mirroring life, and of displaying features of importance to a given people, and representations of men and women and the objects…
Cartldge, P. & Millett, P. (1998). Kosmos: Essays in Order, Conflict and Community in Classical Athens. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hamblin, W. (2006). Warfare in the ancient near east. New York: Routledge.
Kleiner, F. (2010). Gardner's art through the ages. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Snodgrass, A. (2000). The dark ages of Greece. New York: Routledge.
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…
Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892 .
Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
Art movement DADA
The phenomenon Dada is notoriously difficult to describe; some critics hesitate even to use the term "movement." Focusing on Dadaists' reflections about the phenomenon itself, we will try to delineate a general image of the Dada in the context of the European avant-gardes of the 20-th century. e will also try to analyze the historical and political context inside which the dada phenomenon occurred. Our main focus will be on two main tenets of Dadaism: the "self-critical" feature of Dada's self-image as it emerges during the main phases of its history, especially during its early phase, and the political commitment of Dada during its last phases of development.
Dada "artworks" were usually conceived as all-in-one theatrical performances, art happenings, counting music, dance, poems, theory, costumes, as well as paintings. Jangling keys, gymnastic exercises called noir cacadou, and screaming presentations of sound poetry or other texts accompanied these…
Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproductibility and Other Writings on Media. Eds. M. Jennings, B. Doherty, T.Y. Levin. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008: pp.34-45
Caws, Mary Ann. The Poetry of Dada and Surrealism: Aragon, Breton, Tzara, Eluard and Desnos. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000: pp.12-34.
Dachy, Marc. The Dada Movement, 1915 -- 1923. New York: Rizzoli, 1990: pp.56-78
Hugnet, Georges. Dada. In: The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art. vol. 4, no. 2/3, 2006: pp. 3-18.
La Berceuse (Woman Rocking
Pellicot Roulin, 1851-1930), 1889.
incent van Gogh
Dutch, 1853-1890). Oil on canvas. The Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg Collection,
Partial Gift of Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg, 1996
The world of art is diverse and rich coming together for appreciation overcoming all cultural barriers. The story of an Gogh and his astounding genius while creating canvases has captivated the interest and attention of millions around the world. Even when people cannot afford art they appreciated the creativity and charm that each of his pictures brings forth. Each of his strokes has a life of its own and the lifelike creation gives an illusion of perfection that is hard to imitate.
The Metropolitan Museum boasts one of his best creative efforts done late in his artistic life. ery near the time of his breakdown at Arles.
La Berceuse or a Woman Rocking a Cradle…
Van Gogh, V. 1958. The complete letters of Vincent van Gogh. Vol.
3. London: Thames and Hudson.
Fry, R. 1998. Cezanne. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
An option to display "hot spots" highlights select paintings on the wall.
Viewers can also easily zoom in and out to focus on objects contained in that room, and the QuickTime interface also allows virtual visitors to enter an adjoining room visually. Thus, the QuickTime version may be more useful for working with elementary-age children because of the more fun, game-like atmosphere the virtual tour creates. Older children and adults, however, would enjoy the QuickTime and standard versions of the tour equally. In both the QuickTime and the standard interface, clicking on one of the hypertext items or on the floor plan map allows visitors to move from room to room. Virtual visitors using on the standard interface can pan the camera in each room, too, using the arrows below the image. Except for the heightened, point-and-click ability to pan, zoom, and view "hot spots" on the photographic image itself,…
Vincent Van Gogh's Van Goghs." Virtual Tour: National Gallery of Art. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/vgwel.shtm
Period/date- enaissance 1501- 1504
Location or origin- Florence Italy
Medium and size- Sculpture
Period/date- Baroque 1610
Location or origin- ome
Medium and size- Painting
The story of David and Goliath is one that transcends time. In particular, the story appeals to a wide array of diverse individuals, each with its own views on religion, culture and values. Through the universal appeal of David, many different interpretations have arisen throughout time. These interpretations, although distinct, often convey a fundamental truth prevailing during the period of its creation. Aspects such as war, political policies, civil unrest, and culture values often matriculate into the interpretation of the David of Goliath. Art is no different in this regard. Both the Baroque and enaissance periods gave rise to new and distinct forms of belief and expression. These concepts ultimately matriculated into many of the more commonly know masterpieces of today's time. The…
1) Hartt, Frederick, Michelangelo: the complete sculpture, New York: Abrams,1982
2) Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo, New York: Harper & Row, 1974, 59-61; Anthony Hughes, Michelangelo, London: Phaidon, 1997, 74
Race and gender might have always been rigidly determined social categories, but class was more mutable when it came to access to cultural emblems like the visual and literary arts (Levine).
In "Cartoon and Comic Classicism," Smooden argues that scholars are deeply conflicted about the boundaries between high and low art. Cartoons, and the analysis of cartoons, are a perfect example of how, when, and why the boundaries between highbrow and lowbrow become blurred. Cartoons are artistically discreet modes of visual culture, and they often convey social and political commentary that is far more in depth than canvases hanging on the walls of art museums. Some mass-produced popular art carries with it an element of subversion, buried beneath the surface and only visible as satire by those keen enough to notice it -- whether high or low on the social ladder. Artists like Mark Ryden embody lowbrow, popular art and…
Levine, Lawrence. Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. Harvard University Press, 1988.
Peterson, Richard A. "Understanding Audience Segmentation: From Elite and Mass to Omnivore and Univore." Poetics 21 (1992).: 243-358.
Smoodin, Eric. "Cartoon and Comic Classicism: High-Art Histories of Lowbrow Culture." American Literary History, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Spring, 1992), pp. 129-140
ather, the vines and clusters f grapes on the tree give the piece its true softness and roundness. This is mirrored by the effect of the figures' hair. Both faun and children all possess curling flowing ringlets that seem to hang as loosely as do the grapes, emphasizing a sense of liberty in the work.
The sense of softness and liberty bestowed upon the piece by the line and texture is oddly juxtaposed with the impressions created by other elements of Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children. Most obviously, the piece is composed in a way that makes the faun's posture seem unnaturally contorted, as if the scene has moved beyond teasing and into torment. The extreme angle of the head and neck, especially with the backwards-arcing back, evince more of a struggle to get away than the softer elements of the sculpture suggest. The same is true of the…
Delbeke, M., Levy, E., and Ostrow, S. Bernini's Biographies. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.
Metropolitan Museum of Art Works of Art Index. "Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children," Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/09/eusts/ho_1976.92.htm
Montagu, J. Roman Baroque Sculpture. Hong Kong: Yale University Press, 1989.
Metropolitan Museum of Art Works of Art Index, "Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children," Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The bronze piece on the front is textured or hammered, too, adding another depth of pattern and texture to the work. There is not a lot of intricate detail on the piece, but for some reason it seems detailed, anyway, perhaps because of the size of the piece.
Because this is a three-dimensional work, there is a feeling of space and depth to the piece, too. In fact, the figure seems to be frozen in a moment in time, and commands the space around it. The bronze "shield" on the front in concave, and so gives additional depth and a three-dimensional quality to the piece, and so does the hole in one of the legs. This is not a massive sculpture, but it seems larger than it is because of the use of space and depth to create a fuller, more complete piece of art.
The artist definitely wanted to…
Danto, Arthur. "Joan Mir." Artchive.com. 2006. 14 Oct. 2006. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/miro.html
Mir, Joan. "Woman Addressing the Public: Project for a Monument." Kimball Art Museum. 2006. 14 Oct. 2006. http://www.kimbellart.org/database/index.cfm?detail=yes&ID=AP%201996.01