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Indeed, AIDS is nowadays a global concern and it reaches the entire public. No one can actually feel secure from the illness. However, we may also notice that the article is pretty basic, giving out primary information, which may induce us to believe that it is rather directed towards teenagers or people with lesser knowledge on AIDS.
3. "Identification of Herpesvirus-Like DNA Sequences in AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma" from Science (16 December 1994
The first observation that needs to be made here is that the language used is very technical: many terms from chemistry, biology and anatomy. This is quite clear from the very beginning, when the author mentions among the agents suspect of causing Kaposi's sarcoma things like "cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus or human herpes virus 6."
Further more, the tone used throughout the paper is extremely precise and scientific, as it describes chemical reactions used to identify certain DNA…
231) Yet, research recently has stated findings that "non-mnemonic semantic elaboration methods" are more effective that the mnemonic keyword technique on lexical retention for L2.
VIII. Differentiation of Mnemonic and Non-mnemonic Elaboration Techniques
Mnemonic and non-mnemonic elaboration techniques are differentiated by the manner of association of new words with previous knowledge in that: "mnemonic elaboration techniques establish this connection through verbal and visual imagery" however, the elaboration of non-mnemonic techniques makes this connection through use of semantic characteristics and may be through the organization of a list of scrambled words known as the 'ordering method' or through generation of sentences with the target word in a manner that the inference of the word can be made by the sentence or the 'sentence writing method'. (Sagarra and Alba, 2006, p. 231)
Furthermore, the connection can be made through construction of a diagram displaying the target word's semantic association known as the…
Sagarra, Nuria and Alba, Matthew (2006) the Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners of Spanish. The Modern Language Journal
Volume 90 Issue 2, Pages 228-2431 June 2006.
connected with me in a very logical way. The point that Peregoy and Boyle (2013) make about how sheltered instruction puts "both subject matter and language" together I found to be completely sensible. Subjects and language should go together when teaching ELLs. The name for this practice -- sheltered instruction -- was also something I thought to be interesting: the idea that this kind of approach not only builds on foundations already poured (like all homes), but that it also provides a roof over the student's head that keeps out the confusion and turmoil that can sometimes rain down as a result of improper or inadequate instruction.
By helping students to make connections, this type of instruction provides them with a bigger picture experience so that they can see how the learning applies to their own life, how it builds upon what they have already learned. They get a sense…
Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource
book for teaching K-12 English learners (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Sireci, S., Faulkner-Bond, M. (2015). Promoting validity in the assessment of English learners. Review of Research in Education, 39(1): 215-252.
Vocabulary Acquisition in ESOL Students
English as foreign/second language (EFL/ESL) classrooms widely neglected the area of vocabulary, until lately. Grammar lessons are founded on a collection of rules having coherent structure, expected to be remembered or followed by students. However, the same doesn't hold true when it comes to vocabulary (Jeff, 2010). In the past few years, this area of English learning has gained importance as a necessary component to be learned by ESL students. It is believed by many to be just as crucial as reading, speaking, writing, and listening (Jeff, 2010). Work of different researchers state that knowledge of vocabulary aids language use, which in turn helps expand vocabulary knowledge, while knowledge about the world leads to increased language use and vocabulary knowledge (p. 6). The above contextualized outlook towards vocabulary learning will aid students in expanding their vocabulary by means of authentic communication (Jeff, 2010).
Adel M. Alharbi. (2015). Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary. Journal of International Students. ISSN: 2162-3104 Print / ISSN: 2166-3750 Online Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 501-511
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (1992). Myths and misconceptions about second language learning. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/1d/2b.pdf
Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Keiffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for instruction and academic interventions. Portsmouth, NH: Center on Instruction. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL1 - Interventions.pdf
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
Math Vocabulary Literature Review
The nation's public and private school systems have demonstrated that there are far too many examples where large numbers of students do not positively excel. Unfortunately, math success has become one of the more obvious shortcomings of the educational system. "Mathematics education seems particularly prone to the belief in the single new idea: do this (whether using calculators, teaching mathematics through problem solving, working collaboratively, stressing the basics, employing manipulatives, and so on), and all your math problems will be solved." (Elliot, Portia C., 11) Obviously this is not the case.
This Literature Review focuses on the fact that modern day students consistently demonstrate that they are lacking in overall proficiency, especially in areas like mathematically-based vocabulary. But is it the student's fault? The study article in the 2006 Reading Psychology by Margaret-Mary Sulentic-Dowell, Gloria D. Beal and Robert M. Capraro called "How Do Literacy Experiences…
As a result, the variables that can be extracted from this information, is that there needs to be a wide variety of solutions made available to educators. At the same time, there must be more support in helping them to reach out to these students. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest amounts of learning comprehension. This helps to make the Action Research Project more effective by: understanding how this can improve the student's grasp of the materials and what are the underlying weaknesses in using this technology. (Zimmerman, 2009, pp. 3356 -- 3362)
This resource that was written by Freeman (2008) is significant, because it is highlighting how using technology to teach English language learners can improve the overall amounts of learning comprehension. The reason why, is because a host of different ideas are being presented in format that is using the various language skills of the student…
Black, R. (2009). English Language Learners, Fan Communities and 21st Century Skills. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 52 (8), 668 -- 697.
Freeman, B. (2008). Creating a Middle School Mathematics Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education. 29 (1), 9 -- 19.
Lopez, O. (2010). The Digital Learning Classroom. Computers and Education. 54 (4), 901 -- 915.
Moore, S. (2009). Uses of Technology in the Instruction of Adult English Language Learners. Centers for Applied Linguistics. 1 -- 4.
Nelson and Stage (2007) was to assess the effects of contextually-based multiple meaning (i.e., words with multiple meanings) vocabulary instruction on student vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. To this end, groups of 3rd and 5th grade students were provided with the standard language arts instruction in isolation (in other words, non-specific treatment) or with contextually-based multiple meaning vocabulary instruction that was contained in the standard language arts instruction that is provided to all students over a 3-month period (Nelson & Stage, 2007). The results of this study showed that the students who were provided with the contextually-based multiple meaning instructions demonstrated statistically and educationally significant improvements in their vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension overall compared to the group of students who received the non-specific treatment (Nelson & Stage, 2007). The results of this study also showed that the demonstrated improvements were most visible in the reading comprehension scores, and those…
Biemiller, A (2003 April). Teaching vocabulary to kindergarten to grade 2 children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
Cunningham, A.E. & Stanovich, E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33, 934-945.
Graves, M.F. (2004). Teaching prefixes: As good as it gets? In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame'enui
Learning Specialized Vocabulary
Educators that provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) must provide students with the primary concepts of English in the early stages of language development. As students progress and become more familiar with the language and its idiosyncrasies, advanced training is likely to acclimate students to much of the daily slang as well as complex vocabulary that they hear from native English speakers in routine conversation. It is the responsibility of the ESL instructor to provide this teaching at the appropriate juncture, and the most advantageous route is specialized vocabulary. The following paper will provide a discussion of the concept of word elements in the English language. The paper will continue with an analysis of the methods by which ESL instructors teach technical or specialized vocabulary in their coursework, including various learning strategies for students. Finally, a brief discussion of the importance of specialized vocabulary…
American Guidance Service, Inc. (1997). Building Vocabulary
Skills. Minnesota: American Guidance Service, Inc.
Cohen, A., & Steinberg, J. (1983). Effects of three types of vocabulary on readability of intermediate grade science textbooks: an application of Finn's transfer feature theory. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(1), 87-101.
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL
Also different cultures and different regions have their own peculiar requirements. For example, a method that works well in United States of America may not work that well in a country like Malaysia. "With regard to lexical ambiguity, the rich inflectional morphology of Italian makes it relatively easy to distinguish between nouns, verbs, and other grammatical classes. In contrast, the sparse grammatical morphology of English means that nouns, verbs, and other word classes often sound alike and must be disambiguated by context (the comb vs. To comb), or by prosodic cues (to record vs. The record)" (Bates, Devescovi & Wulfeck, 2001).
So the differences are stark. In Chinese context application of morphology becomes more difficult. In countries like Malaysia where different languages are spoken the application of just the method of morphology can not simply work In some countries where English is taught as a second language morphology is used…
Dixon, W. & Smith, H. (2000). Links between Early Temperament and Language Acquisition. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Vol: 46. Issue: 3.
Bates, E., Devescovi, A., & Wulfeck, B. (2001). PSYCHOLINGUISTICS: A Cross-Language Perspective. Annual Review of Psychology.
Basically, Charles had accidentally rolled backwards at the edge of a parking area outside a fraternity at another college. His open-topped Jeep slid a few feet backwards down a steep wooded hill in the black of night and came to rest on loose rocks and soil at a very steep upward angle. The hill was so steep that it would have been impossible to release the brake to engage the clutch without sliding backwards down a rocky mountainous hill. n fact, the hill was too steep for the emergency brake to hold the vehicle in place alone. t took a few second for Charles to get the attention of three friends in the backseat, but he managed to tell them they had to get out of the Jeep calmly and only from the sides and not the back. Then he told the girl in the passenger seat that he needed…
Illustrated Meaning -- Lacerated
One look at the results of Clint Malarchuk's lacerated jugular vein by a skate blade was enough to convince him that he no longer wanted to play that position at all. Luckily, Malarchuk was saved by excellent emergency care.
Applying This Week's eadings
This week's readings have been helpful in showing that it is important to consider the challenges that new writers face -- especially if those writers are young ESL's. The idea of Peregoy and Boyle (2013) to use technology and introduce students to blogs or wikis on the Internet is a good idea and Gottlieb's (2006) idea of keeping students engaged by spicing up the classroom environment with different modes of learning -- such as pictures or videos is another useful tool.
In class, I could see applying both of these methods because we are now in the Digital Age and it is important that we embrace this fact and enable young learners to navigate their lessons via this technology. So I think this week's readings helped me to see that and to better appreciate the options that are available to a teacher. It has definitely helped…
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource
book for teaching K-12 English learners (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
The groups were distinguished by those who participated in language acquisition activities employing enhanced reading with word-based activities and those who participated in what the researcher called 'narrow reading,' which occurred without this supplementary instruction. The two groups were asked to retain the same scope of fifty selected vocabulary words. Min would find that those in the former group, denoted as the "RV" group, performed significantly better than those in the "NR" group. In interpretation, Min tells that "the results show that the RV group demonstrated significantly more knowledge about the target vocabulary than the NR group on the acquisition and retention tests. The researcher concludes that reading plus focused vocabulary exercises are more effective and efficient than the narrow reading approach in enhancing target vocabulary acquisition and retention among EFL secondary students." (Min, p. 75)
Min would go on to suggest that the value in this study rests in…
Laufer, B. & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type,-word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-411
Min, H.T. (2008). EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading Plus Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading. Language Learning, 58(1), 73-115.
vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge. It shapes what we can know. Evaluate this claim with reference to different areas of knowledge.
esponse Question: Does vocabulary limit what we can know or limit what we can express?
The sentiment, "the vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge. It shapes what we can know" expresses only a partial truth. The vocabulary we have only shapes what we can express or communicate to others, but real wisdom and discovery, as encountered in various areas of knowledge, can transcend vocabulary. This is most immediate in the area of knowledge encompasses by the arts. Literature, music, art and poetry can often express the inexpressible, aptly conveying it to the spectator and imparting wisdom to that spectator. The spectator may be fully aware of this, and fully cognizant that he has been touched, but unable to express through words just…
Eliot, T. (1971). The Waste Land: A Facsimile and Transcript of the Original Drafts. New York: Harcourt Books.
Levine, L., & Munsch, J. (2010). Child Development: An Active Learning Approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers.
Pinker, S. (2008, January 13). The Moral Instinct. Retrieved from cuny.edu: http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/INTRO_TEXT/Chapter%208%20Ethics/Reading-The%20Moral-Instinct.htm
vocabulary acquisition for a child, especially one that is not a native English speaker, who is trying to learn to read. The author mentions four "areas of instruction that teachers…demonstrated: comprehension, vocabulary, text structures and text features" (Kesler, 2010). The author relates that his test group for different reading approaches was from an urban elementary school at which 21% of the student population was ESL students. Four shared reading approaches -- possible sentences, using context clues, repeated readings, and using our bodies -- were compared as to effectiveness with this population. The remainder of the article was used to describe and evaluate the four different approaches.
The goal of using possible sentences is to help students understand how sentences can be built from an individual word or group of words. The author used a shared reading context to help the students think of ways that the words could be used.…
Graves, M.F., Juel, C., Graves, B.B., & Dewitz, P. (2011). Word recognition, in Teaching reading in the 21st century: Motivating all readers. New York: Pearson.
Kesler, T. (2010). Shared reading to build vocabulary and comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 64(4), 272-277.
Ontario. (2003). A guide to effective instruction in reading: Kindergarten to grade 3. Ontario Early Reading Strategy. Ontario: Ministry of Education.
Pinnell, G.S., & Fountas, I.C. (2007). Shared and performance reading, in The continuum of literacy learning, grades K-8: Behaviors and understandings to notice, teach, and support. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…
Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.
Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:
Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
SIOP® Lesson Plan Template
THM: Properties of Weather
Science for 2nd Grade
KY VOCABULARY: Snow, frost, ice, fog
MATRIALS: The book from which the story will be read is Weather by Seymour Simon. The teacher will need to use a Post chart, "Weather chart ." This will help explain how to make inferences about text and unfamiliar words by applying their schema and other words in the sentences.
Students at this stage may find Weather and climate confusing. Climate is examined by looking at annual patterns. Weather refers to the situation at one given time and the seasons influence the general climate.
(Language and content objectives, comprehensible input, strategies, interaction, feedback)
Second grade students are expected to apply strategies to comprehend text by making inferences about words describing weather condition when reading.
PRACTIC AND APPLICATION:
(Meaningful activities, interaction, strategies, practice…
(Reproduction of this material is restricted to use with Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008. Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP® Model.)
© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
Another aspect that the search engines use to line up web pages, besides the frequency of the characters, is the appropriateness of the topic i.e. A search on "elephants" will not yield the same results as a search on "elephants in Africa" or "animal rights: elephants (Valenza, 1997). This difference has to be explained by the librarian-teachers to the students in the initial stages of their online research endeavors so that when they conduct research on a more vast topic, they have to ability to break own the topic and concentrate on the words and areas that will yield the most relevant information at the quickest pace. It is important to note here that the accuracy of a the use of words is also part of knowledge management as it requires an individual to first manage the little knowledge he has on the topic, i.e. distinguishing the important aspects for…
Agosto, D.E. (2002). Bounded rationality and satisfying in young people's web-based decision making. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(1), 16-27.
Chen, S.-H. L. (2003). Searching the online catalog and the World Wide Web. Journal of Educational Media and Library Sciences, 47(1), 29-43.
Gadzella B.M. And Baloglu. (2003). M. High and Low Achieving Education Students on Processing, Retaining and Retrieval of Information. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30:2.
Hirsh, S.G. (1997). How do children find information on different types of tasks? Children's use of the Science Library Catalog. Library Trends, 45(4), 725-746.
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…
Gustav Klimt Lesson Plan
"Describe the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in the learning segment".
Students will learn the art of Gustav Klimt, which will assist in creating the work of art that will resemble Klimt's style. Moreover, students will be introduced to the Gustav Klimt's artwork focusing on his love for cats. (Weidinger, 2007).Students will also learn their artistic style and utilize their patterns and shapes to fill up their works. Moreover, students will continue to build and develop the basic skill sets utilizing art tools such as paint, glue, scissors, and oil pastels. Students will also learn how to utilize the line variation, stylized form, symbol, color, and media variety with the ability to create their "Tree of Life". Moreover, the lesson plan will assist students to learn about cool and warm colors incorporating them into the artistic styles of Gustav…
The author offers some concrete suggestions for creating a literacy-friendly household. The first step offered is to make reading a central household activity. This can be achieved by holding daily reading sessions in which collective reading takes place. Family reading time can consist not just of reading stories aloud but also articles from newspapers or the nutritional information on food containers. When reading is presented as a treat or a reward, rather than as a chore, the young learner is more apt to develop positive associations with literacy.
While the article lacks any scientific analysis or empirical evidence, it does offer helpful tools for parents wishing to improve their child's literacy. When literacy problems are recognized early, the child has a greater opportunity to improve and avoid falling behind in class. Because so many school subjects are reading-dependent, creating a literate household is a primary means of ensuring a child's…
Diane Blake Art Exhibition
King Island, Bass Straits -- Diane Blake. Diane is a native of the Eastern Shore, but has travelled all over the world to capture her images. She has been an artist and photographer for over 30 years, and loves to use her artistic lens to examine the natural environment. In particular, we focus on Diane's view of the seascapes and natural beauty of King Island, Tasmania (Art with Al, 2013).
Description and ationale - Dianne Blake celebrates the natural beauty of Mother Nature with her interpretations of the land and sea of a number of environments, in this case, King Island, Tasmania. Her work focuses on texture, color, and combinations of both that create natural wonder in paintings. In this case, Diane focuses on kelp, sponges, anemones, works, barnacles and the myriad of life in tide pools and rock ponds near the ocean shores. Each of…
Art with Al. (2013). King Island, Bass Strait by Dianne Blake. Artwithal.com. Retrieved from: http://www.artwithal.com.au/exhibitions/king_island_bass_strait/artwork/
Board of Studies, NSW. (2006) Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus. Retrieved from: http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/arts/k6_creative_arts_syl.pdf
Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretic Reduction
Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretical Reduction
Reductionism has to do with the classification of knowledge, particularly the classification of scientific knowledge. Many philosophers, such as Nagel, believe that the all current scientific knowledge can be broken down into discrete theories. Accordingly, progress in science is measured by the development of new theories.
These theories are used to explore and control the phenomena in their domains and to systematise, organise and summarise our knowledge about them. In fact, mastering any field of science requires an understanding of its fundamental theories.
Examples of scientific theories are the quantum theory in physics, the evolutionary theory in biology, and the general equilibrium theory in economics.
Definition of a Theory
The first issue which all must face is defining a theory and its constituents. The second issue, often resolved in the definition of the theory, is the relation of a theory…
Nagel, E. (1961). The structure of science: Problems in the logic of scientific explanation. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Nagel, E. (?). Issues in the Logic of Reductive Explanations, p. 905-921.
Ladyman, J., Ross, D., Spurrett, D., & Collier, J. (2007). 2. "Scientific Realism, Constructive Empiricism, and Structuralism."
Sklar, L. (1967). Types of inter-theoretic reduction. British Journal for the Philosophy
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson
Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education
Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.
Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.
About the Concept:
There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…
Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: https://learningconnection.doe.in.gov/Standards/About.aspx?art=11
Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/
Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:aLFi5i1eLl4J:www.melroseschools.com/lincoln/MPS_Writing_Curriculum_K_5.pdf+writing+curriculum+for+elementary&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShGXpwCDU3mdB2rQVO2e3Dav6AgQn-3Ng2vDjsDa_f50Pd5k8wDn4zmQH2cTwV3P7kAA2v9zu
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test: http://www.riversidepublishing.com/products/gmrtOnline/index.html
functional literacy activities? What are some examples?
Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.
What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?
One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…
Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from Getreadytoread.org: http://www.getreadytoread.org/early-learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/preparing-for-kindergarten-begins-the-year-before
Teachervision.com. (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from Teachervision.com: https://www.teachervision.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html
Virginia.edu. (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from Virginia.edu: http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/pdfs/Phon_Spel_Handout.pdf
Those with issues to overcome are always more heroic. Hector also becomes a hero when, after at first running from Achilles, he eventually stands up to him and dies a heroic death.
The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the it could easily be argued that the Illiad glorifies war, as much of the poem is spent portraying the warriors as brave and courageous, even as they go on killing rampages. Warriors are describes as "masters of the battle cry" and "warlike" in glowing epithets. When Achilles originally refused to fight, he is roundly condemned for it by all of the other Greek characters. Even the weapons of war, such as Achilles impenetrable shield, are glorified. But homer is more complicated than simple -- war also brings death, which he describes in great detail. Hector's death is perhaps the most graphic of…
Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and relations that their own lives might have with the stories that they read. The implementation of taking the pictures is one way that this has been successfully achieved. This use of a camera is a very flexible application and is being used in different ways for different special-needs students.
May (2003) found that cameras are being used to also expand the span of words or vocabulary amongst the special-needs students. The teacher hands out a set of words to the students…
Beukelman, D.R., Beukleman, H.M., Ranklin, J.L., Wood, L.A. (2003). Early Computer Literacy: First Grades Use the "Talking" Computer. Reading Improvement. 40: 3. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Castek, J., Coiro, J., Henry, L.A., Leu, D.J., Mcmullan, M. (2004). The Lessons That Children Teach Us: Integrating Children's Literature and the New Literacies of the Internet. The Reading Teacher. 57: 5. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Doering, a., Hughes, J., & Huffman. D. (2003). Preservice teachers: Are we thinking with technology? Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(3), 342-362. In Speaker, K. (2004). Student Perspectives: Expectations of Multimedia Technology in a College Literature Class. Reading Improvement. 41: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Dowrick, P.W. Kim-Rupnow, W.S, and Power, T.J. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. Journal of Special Education. 39: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Language Objectives: 1) Students will develop key vocabulary of farm animals.
2) Students will be able to exchange and discuss information
3) Students will verbally identify animals from sight to their partners.
animal, barn, chicken, cow, duck, egg, goat, farmer, horse, pig, sheep
Book: The Big Red Barn by Margaret Wise Brown.
Animal picture worksheets, coloring instruments
Preparation Scaffolding Grouping Options
_yes__ Adaptation of Content _yes__ Modeling _yes__ Whole Class
_yes__ Links to Background _yes__ Guided practice _yes__ Small Groups
_yes__ Links to Past Learning _yes__ Independent Practice _yes__ Partners
_yes__ Strategies Incorporated _yes__ Comprehensible Input _yes__ Independent
Integration of Processes Application Assessment
_yes__ Reading _yes__ Hands-on _yes__ Individual
_yes__ Writing _yes__ Meaningful _yes__Group
_yes__ Speaking _yes__ Linked to objectives _yes__ Written
_yes__ Listening _yes__ Promotes engagement _yes__ Oral
Introduce Concept and language objectives
Preparation: Introduction of visiting farm animals:…
people generally think that we can detach ourselves from the world around us and objectively evaluate and reason through our experiences. This is the classical line of thought initially proposed by philosophers such as Aristotle, Socrates, and, later, Descartes who fashioned his Cartesian principle to the purpose that we can step back, evaluate our internalized knowledge, think it through and from thence, decide which to accept, which to erase in order to formulate a foundation of 'sure and safe beliefs. ationalism persisted through Kant and then to Husserl who fashioned his phenomenology proposing that performing 'epoche' i.e. bracketing our assumptions can lead us to better seeing the essence of the phenomena and to perceiving an objective world.
Others are less certain.
Benjamin Whorf and Edward Sapir, for instance, believe that it is our vocabulary -- our language -- that shapes our perceptions. Sapir argued that:
Human beings do not live…
Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (1992). Business Communication Today. NY, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Burnett, M.J., & Dollar, A. (1989). Business Communication: Strategies for Success. Houston, Texas: Dane.
Language and thought processes http://mrhoyestokwebsite.com/
2000, the National eading Panel developed and publicized a report that included give critical areas that need to be addressed in order to provide effective reading instruction: 1) Phonemic awareness, 2) Phonics, 3) Fluency, 4) Vocabulary, and
Comprehension (National eading Panel, 2012). Too, we must realize that not all children become phonemically aware at the same age or grade level. Some preschool children can segment and even understand multi-syllabic words, which some even in 2nd grade cannot. However, using the 5 basic steps, it is possible to provide a standards-based program that logically defines and emphasizes basic reading skills (Neuman and Dickinson, 2006). We can think of each portion of the 5 steps as building blocks towards fluency, with one logically contributing to the other through a series of exercises, drills, and finally mastery of each level.
Phonemic Awareness -- Is the ability to notice and cognate discreet sounds in…
Boost Vocabulary and Spelling. (2012). Learnthat.org. Retrieved from: http://www.learnthat.org/
Teaching Phonics. (2012). A to Z. Phonics.com. Retrieved from: http://www.atozphonics.com/teaching-phonics.html
What are the Five Essential Elements of Reading? (2009). Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University. Retrieved from: http://www.nhpirc.org/files/Five%20elements%20of%20Reading%20Tip%20Sheet.pdf
Cunningham, P. (2008). Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing. Allyn And Bacon.
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
child who is a non-reader is hard to deal with. Although they should not be discouraged to read or look at books, providing books to a disabled child who is a non-reader will not allow the child to learn and discuss fully the learning experience because the child will not be able to read anything provided. A book with pictures only, which the teacher can make will not only let the child associate images with words, but also provide him/her with something to do. B. A child will also have the ability to share his or her thoughts verbally which will teach him/her to communicate (the child can say which colors are on the pictures and repeat what each part of the plant on the pictures are so he/she remembers). Yes the child is easily distractible and poorly organized, but putting attention on the child and letting him/her communicate is…
Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the impact that it has on the relations between U.S. And Iran. Hence, whoever reads this headline and know even the slightest bit about the background of the U.S.-Iran relations will interpret the possible results without actually reading about them.
Similarly, when analyzing the headline in Appendix B, 'Regime Change Brewing in Iran?' another format of headline comes to mine. The headlines can also be used to exhibit the actual strategic breakdown of the news story in a single sentence. This simply…
Paragraphing is also a very important aspect in the language use of any news troy as it not only breaks down the news story into separate parts but also allows the journalist to use transitional words like meanwhile or furthermore that allows the story to have a flow and simultaneously allows the journalist to represent different emotions and importance of facts through difference in language use form one paragraph to the next (Ghadessy, 1988).
In the paper we have discussed how in the modern era the text of and the
"Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other. Shakespeare uses a rhyme scheme that became known as Shakespearean rhyme scheme or English rhyme. He writes about love in a sarcastic manner though. He is mocking the traditional love poems and the usual expressive manner in which women are often compared to. It is ironic in a way because Shakespeare himself also uses the very techniques in his previous writing when he is writing from a man's point-of-view and describing a woman. But in this sonnet he uses the technique of mocking this exaggerated comparison. Usually women are compared to having skin as white as snow, however, in reality, Shakespeare points out, women don't really fit this description, "If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun."
Each standardized nursing language is designed for use in a number of clinical settings, including home care, ambulatory care, and inpatient treatment, with certain languages providing decided advantages within particular circumstances. Although it is true that "improved communication with other nurses, health care professionals, and administrators of the institutions in which nurses work is a key benefit of using a standardized nursing language" (utherford, 2008), the proliferation of several nursing languages throughout the years has inevitably resulted in discrepancies, wherein the personal preferences of nurses, the policy of a hospital's corporate ownership, or other factors determine when, where, and why a specific language is used.
To address the growing concern over the inability of nurse's to communicate through a single standardized language system, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) commissioned a comprehensive study which resulted in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) being selected as the most advantageous option.…
Cho, I., & Park, H. (2006). Evaluation of the expressiveness of an ICNP-based nursing data dictionary in a computerized nursing record system. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13(4), 456-464. Retrieved from http://220.127.116.11/content/13/4/456.full
Rutherford, M. (2008). Standardized nursing language: What does it mean for nursing practice?. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13(1), 57-69. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/H ealth-it/StandardizedNursingLanguage.html
obert Graves lived from 1895 to 1985, and was a novelist, poet as well as a translator of the English Language. obert Graves has been a vivacious author, and has won acclaim as an author of the accounts of the First World War, in his book called 'Good bye to all that' republished in 1957. His poetry about the First World War he was recognized as being one of the sixteen Great War poets in 1985. These poets were honoured on the slate stone that was unveiled in Westminster Abbey's Poet's Corner as an edifice respecting their contribution to the narration of the war.
Through his life span, obert Graves has worked on various aspects in literature, ranging from autobiographical accounts, to historical novels. His works also include translations of Greek mythology as well as historical novels such as King Jesus, I and the Golden Fleece. obert Graves's memoirs particularly…
Brown, Keith and Jim Miller. Concise Encyclopedia of Syntactic Theories. . New York: Elsevier Science, 1996.
Campbell, Donna M. Regionalism and Local Color Fiction, 1865-1895. . Washington: Literary Movements. Dept. Of English, Washington State University., n.d.
Carnie, Andrew. Syntax: A Generative Introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.
Freidin, Robert and Howard Lasnik. Syntax. Critical Concepts in Linguistics. . New York: Routledge, 2006.
Because of the existence of so many common homophones in the English language, Bullokar wanted to retain some way of distinguishing between these words in print, and if two different symbols signified the production of the same sound, this could be accomplished (olfe 41). His reform efforts were essentially centered around the visual word, no doubt due to the novelty of the printing press, and he attempted to develop a simple visual system for pronouncing the English language.
Pitman's shorthand accomplishes the same thing, to some degree, but that was not at all its purpose nor is his system limited in such a fashion. Pitman wanted to develop a true science behind the development and codification of linguistic elements, and his phonetic shorthand system -- one of the first serious and comprehensive efforts at the development of a phonetic alphabet for English -- does largely this, having one symbol for…
Baker, Alfred. The Life of Sir Isaac Pitman. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1919.
Bullokar, William. Three Pamphlets on Grammar. Accessed 26 March 2010. http://ota.oucs.ox.ac.uk/headers/0025.xml
Dons, Ute. Descriptive Adequacy of Early Modern English Grammars. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2004.
Pitman, Sir Isaac. A History of Shorthand. London: Ben Pitman, 1890.
The eb has grown increasingly fast and sophisticated, as podcasts, streaming video, and other movie-like aspects of entertainment have become part of the eb experience. Features such as YourTube allow persons to see videos, homemade by uses, over the web. As digital cameras and video cameras become more common, the language of the eb and the media exposed upon eb blogs are sure to expand in the future, and to incorporate more visual elements.
As technology changes and expands into every day life, the language used to describe Internet technology is likely to become more blurred and less specific.
One example, previously discussed, is the fact that the Internet and orld ide eb are often incorrectly used as synonyms. Another example is how the verb "blog" has been modified to become a verb, so to "blog" is to write a blog, as well as the document of a blog itself.…
Blog," (2006) Webopedia. Retrieved 12 Aug 2006 at http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/B/blog.html
The Difference Between the Internet and the World Wide Web." (2006) Webopedia. Retrieved 12 Aug 2006 at http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/2002/Web_vs_Internet.asp
HTML." (2006) Webopedia. Retrieved 12 Aug 2006 at http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/HTML.html
SDLC." (2006) Webopedia. Retrieved 12 Aug 2006 at http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/SDLC.html
Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation
Demonstrate effective communication skills
• I have expanded my vocabulary to include standard practical and theoretical business concepts and I have increased my proficiency with digital technology communications media. I have learned how to coordinate my vocabulary, language, and persuasion efforts to specific audiences depending on whether they are laypeople, professionals, colleagues, or strangers. This skill is extremely important within the military, in particular, because communications that are standard among service members are often incomprehensible to civilians and because civilian communications may be too imprecise to convey the minimum necessary information and distinctions typically communicated best through highly specialized terminology.
• I have improved my ability to use email and other forms of technology to communicate in a professional manner. That also includes a greater understanding of the manner in which different communications media typically require the communicator to consider how various communications efforts might…
Value of Shakespeare
The works of illiam Shakespeare are staples in our educational system at least from secondary through college levels. This has been true in some degree for more than 400 years, virtually since these works were first performed. In Shakespeare's time, many of these plays were very popular, and they were reprinted and performed over and over in the centuries since. The use of these works in education shows that they are valued and that they impart some of this value to students, raising the question of how these plays have affected and changed society and what values they nurture in students today.
These plays first have contributed much to our language. illiam Shakespeare contributed to the language by perpetuating a large vocabulary -- which is why many have cited the large vocabulary of the plays as evidence that the largely uneducated Shakespeare could not have written the…
Lederer, Richard, "Looking at Language: Drawing Inspiration from Shakespeare." The Patriot Ledger (April 20, 1996), C3.
McArthur, Tom. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Neumann, Anne Waldron. "Should You Read Shakespeare?" Meanjin 56(1)(1997), 17-25.
Papp, Joseph and Elizabeth Kirkland. Shakespeare Alive! New York: Bantam, 1988.
Vocabulary, Practices, and Proficiencies:
I began going to the gym earlier in the day before the prime-time hours between approximately 5:00 PM and 8:00 PM during which the general energy level and rhythm of the gym increased and it became the most crowded. During the non-peak hours it was much easier to observe and learn about the environment while getting used to the standard operating procedures that all the regulars already seemed to know.
I learned that generally, it is expected that people use specific pieces of gym equipment one at a time, occupying them for as long as reasonably necessary to perform multiple "sets" of an exercise. (Exercises are performed in successive "sets" each set consisting of anywhere from a few "repetitions" or "reps" to fifteen or more reps of the movement.) When only one piece of particular equipment is available, individuals often ask one another for permission to…
Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.
Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…
Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.vocalinks.com/site/vocalinks/assets/pdf/K3000_ELL_Research.pdf
Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:
One of the most curious aspects of American culture to residents of other industrialized democracies is the American attitude towards freedom, as currently expressed in the healthcare debate. Americans have articulated a great deal of hostility about being 'forced' to buy health insurance, despite the fact that 1. National and state government-run programs already exist in the form of Medicare and Medicaid and 2. Healthcare is a necessity. Bankruptcies due to health-related issues are nonexistent in nations such as Great Britain and Canada, where participation in the national system of health insurance is mandatory, yet in America there is a tendency to view that 'what you get is what you deserve,' and those who fall behind in their healthcare bills are somehow exhibiting moral failings regarding their ability to budget or to find work that provides health insurance.
Given that self-employed businesspeople often lack health insurance, while the…
Belief systems and social perception structures. (2011). Leading Edge International Research
The definition of ritual. (n.d). Anth 311. University of Waterloo. Retrieved:
Language and Thinking
Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…
Faccone, Claudia et al. The Effct of Language on Thought. The Psychology 20 Course:
University of Carolina, 2000. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://www.unc.edu/~jdumas/projects/languagethought.htm
Hampton, James. A. Language's Role in Enabling Abstract, Logical Thought.
Commentary/Peter Carruthers. Psychology Department: University of London, 2002.
Unfamiliar vocabularies relating to learning and cognition emerged in the course of Week 4's readings and research. These include "mnemonics," "mental representation," and "domain knowledge." Mnemonics may essentially be defined as the techniques an individual uses to enhance memorization. These techniques are useful for learning as they help retain crucial information in the long-term memory. When information is retained in the long-term memory, it is organized in a certain manner. This is referred to as mental representation. Mental representation plays an important role in learning as learning generally occurs when the learner has a clear picture of a given phenomenon in his/her mind. Domain knowledge simply refers to knowledge relating to a given area or field. For instance, seasoned doctors have extensive knowledge of the domain of medicine. They acquire this knowledge not inherently, but through continuous learning.
A major focus of research in the area of learning…
Parents Magazine (2008):
I am Toddler, Hear me Roar: Learning to Live With and Love Your Toddler"
The Terrible Twos: A Preview of the Teenage Years
Angry. Opinionated. Possessing a unique will and capabilities. Ready to explore the world, regardless of whether his or her parents think he or she is ready to do so. Although this description may seem to fit the profile of the typical adolescent, it is also a fair description of toddlers as well. Toddlerhood is the first major stage of childhood development when children are learning how to test their limits and stretch and grow as people by taking risks. As any parent knows, every toddler's favorite word is a decided 'no,' usually uttered in a very loud and declarative tone! Parents are often frustrated during this period of their child's development, as they strike a balance between encouraging the toddler's independence while still striving…
A major challenge that the majority of English language learners will face is difficulties understanding new concepts with the various forms of verbal communication. Part of the reason for this, is because many people will often have to deal with issues associated with: the differences between English and their native language. At the same time, they will have to address challenges such as: cultural assimilation and adjusting to changes inside their new schools. This is problematic, because if some kind of lesson plan is not created to address these challenges many students will often become frustrated with the educational environment. Once this occurs, it means that they can begin to: lose interest in the subject matter and they will have more difficulties in adjusting to the various challenges that they are facing.
As a result, a number of different theories were developed over the years that were designed to…
Lesson Plan, 2011.
My Notes, 2011.
Carter, R, 2001, The Cambridge Guide to Teaching, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Fathman, A, 2006, Science for English Language Learners, NTSA Press, Richmond.
Next, the teacher, through questioning and eliminating, reduces the categories and establishes consensus on the order of information expected to be found. She also gets the students to consider the search terms that might get results. Once this in done a scaffold is constructed using the established order.
Still, in a group setting, students use personal semantic maps and begin to learn to create a collective scaffold of meaning in a way that is meaningful to their cognitive processes -- they learn how to learn, and how to communicate that learning in a classroom environment to the teacher and to their peers. (Grid of Constructs about Learning, 2004)
The teacher then takes the students to the computer room where they search the net for information that pertains to their particular category. They add the additional information that they have found their section of the scaffold.
This adds technical reinforcement and…
Grid of Constructs about Learning." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.math.uow.edu.au/people/ap_contnt.pdf
Reinhardt, Erica. (May 27, 2004) "Learning cycle." Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.human.cornell.edu/units/dns/extension/youth/sciencediscovery/cornellnutritionresources.html
Scaffolding." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1scaf.htm www.uws.edu.au%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile_id%3D6974%26filename%3DA4611G__Spring_2000.University of Western Sydney, Macarthur "Erica Model -- Whole Language Strategies." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.uws.edu.au/download.php?file_id=6974&filename=A4611G__Spring_2000.pdf&mimetype=application/pdf
Address Any Town USA
Reason for Referral:
Jane Doe, a nine-year-old Caucasian female in fourth grade, was brought for testing by her parents, Tom and Kate Doe. The parents report uneven performance in school. Jane seems to know something one day and then perform it poorly on the next. They report that Jane struggled to learn both printing and cursive and that she still makes occasional reversals when writing numbers. She is struggling to learn multiplication and division facts, which is making problems for her in arithmetic. Parents also report that the classroom teacher, Mrs. Brown, also has concerns. Parents state that Mrs. Brown says that Jane is often off-task and that Jane requires what the teacher thinks is more help than typical for children her age to get on task and stay on task. Jane often fails to bring homework done or…
Is forgetful at home
Jane shows few signs of hyperactivity, but does show impulsivity, and talks a lot in class. Based on this evaluation, Jane meets the criteria for a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Type.
Source for DSM-IV: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis1/p21-ch01.html
Appeals Review Committee,
Riverside, Office of Undergraduate Admissions,
3106 Student Services Building,
Dear Appeals Committee
Re: Transfer admission to UC campus for Fall 2012- (Write your Full Name here)
I learned on [insert date] that I was denied transfer admission to UC campus for Fall, 2012. I respectfully request the Transfer Appeals Committee to reevaluate my application on the basis of the new information provided in this letter.
Although I was never surprised when I received the rejection letter from UCR, I was extremely disappointed. I am quite aware that when I applied my GPA was below average for UCR. I also know that at the time of the examinations (due to my background as an international student from Japan); my scores did not represent my true ability since English is not the lingua franca in my home country. I must say that I went thorough an extraordinary hardship during…
Harry, B., Sturges, K.M., & Klinger, J.K. (2005). Mapping the process: An exemplar of process and challenge in grounded theory analysis. Educational Researcher, 34(2), 3-13.
Read the article listed above and provide your impressions. In one page, summarize the authors' experiences in conducting a grounded theory study in an educational setting. What were some of the challenges they faced? What are your thoughts in general on conducting qualitative research in the field of education?
Grounded theory is generation of a hypothesis (or assumption) that proceeds from observation and rich qualitative study. The authors wanted to show that qualitative study in general and grounded theory approach in particular could be used in conjunction with the subject of education.
The purpose of the study was (a) to investigate whether and, if so, how, the processes used to identify, assess, and place students in high-incidence special education programs contribute to the overrepresentation phenomenon;…
Lester, S (nd) An introduction to phenomenological research http://www.sld.demon.co.uk/resmethy.pdf
MacArthur, G.S. (2007). Best practices in writing instruction. New York: Guilford Press.
Stanley, L & Wise, S (1993) Breaking Out Again: Feminist Ontology and Epistemology London, Routledge
Informational book 1: Everything Horse: hat kids really want to know about horses
The book Everything Horse: hat kids really want to know about horses is designed to be a basic, introductory text for horse-crazy kids. The book is also useful, from an adult's perspective, because it introduces children to ideas and concepts that better enable children to understand history and the natural world. The horse has played an important role in how the land was settled and also is a very unique animal. The book is structured along the lines of a series of questions that children are likely to have about horses such as "hy are horses mounted from the left?" "Do horses think?," "hy do horses wear shoes?," and "hat was the Pony Express?"
By approaching the subject matter from this point-of-view, the book is able to 'hook' the young reader into reading further. The…
Crisp, Marty. Everything Horse: What kids really want to know about horses.
Hill, Cherry. Cherry Hill's Horse Care for Kids. Storey Publishing, 2002.
Yeh-Shen: A Cinderella story from China (Louie, 1982); (Carr, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007).
Chinye: A West African folk tale (Onyefulu & Safarewicz, 1994); (Nigeriaworld, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007),
The Korean Cinderella (Climo, 1993); (Shapiro, 1993); (Snuggs, 2007).
Tattercoats: An old English tale (Webster Steel, 1976); (Advameg, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007).
The rough-face girl (Martin, 1992); (Native Languages of the Americas, 2011); (Snuggs, 2007).
Names of Cinderellas
"In the dim past," according to first publication in 850-860 AD
"Long ago," according to the book published in 1994.
"Long ago," according to the 1993 book.
"…there once dwelt"
"Once, long ago" according to the 1992 book.
"Treated roughly and not allowed to go to the springtime festival to choose her marriage partner."
"Chinye must run a dangerous errand through the forest…
Interdisciplinary Social Studies Lesson
Lesson 1: Women's ights Movement
This current lesson will satisfy the requirements set by the state in the standard, SS.S.11.02 Civics. Essentially, this introduces 11th grade students to the civic nature of democracy and the United States Government. The lesson will help students "outline and evaluate and analyze the origins and meaning of the principles, ideals and core democratic values expressed in the foundational documents of the United States (Ideals of United States Democracy)" (Teaching History, 2014). It is crucial within 11th grade to introduce students to the democratic process through examination of the nation's history. Students will be able to understand how laws are made and altered as they are needed based on a changing national population. The specific standard within this larger set that will be addressed is SS.O.11.02.01. Here, students will be able to "explain the reasons for amendments ratified since 1900…
Burns, K., & Barnes, P. (Director). (1999). Not for ourselves alone: The story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. [Documentary]. PBS Home Video.
Danzer, G.A., Klor da Alva, J.J., Krieger, L.S., Wilson, L.E., & Woloch, N. (2008). The Americans -- Teacher's edition -- New York edition. USA: McDougal Littell.
Hilburn, Jeremy & Wall. Steven D. (2011). Concept-based interdisciplinary teaching: Science and social studies teacher collaboration for the 21st century. North Carolina Middle School Association Journal, 26(1), 1-10.
Irey, Doug. (2013). Social studies teaching is interdisciplinary and connects students to the world around them. Teaching Philosophy. Web. http://mrireyportfolio.weebly.com/social-studies-is-interdisciplinary.html
Weightloss Counseling and Physical Exercise
PHASE II Search Paper
Dana Delatush RN BSN ONC
"I pledge my honor that I have neither given nor received inappropriate aid on this assignment."
Abstract Comment by Patricia: Place the abstract on a separate page for your final search paper
This paper is focused on the literature search related to the PICOT question: Does weight loss counseling and physical exercise improve pain and mobility in obese patients with a BMI >25 suffering from osteoarthritis? To answer this clinical question, six databases were searched including the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, PsycInfo®, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source™. The paper describes the search methodology. Keywords: osteoarthritis, obesity, weight loss counseling, pain, mobility
Introduction to Search Strategy
I will be creating a search strategy to help me clarify what information I need, and…
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…
Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.
Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association
of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.
Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
This suggests another realm from which I might be able to draw, using both design elements and textures. Clothing, whether truly traditional or the modern degradations of the older textile traditions, could also prove to be a source of materials for my own work.
My research will involve both academic research into contemporary and past art and craft practices in Saudi Arabia as well as an artistic exploration into the incorporation of unconventional materials into works relevant for today's society. I plan to use unconventional materials in my sculptures such as waste and discarded materials, leather, wood, plastic, and glass. This is the new point in my work, using materials that many people will not see as being properly the building materials of art. Making art that reclaims discarded materials will be one by which I will make work that is -- especially within the realm of Saudi…
Facey, W. Building on the past. Retrieved 24 April 2010 from http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199904/al-.udhaibat-building.on.the.past.htm
McNiff, J. (n.d.) Learning with and from people in townships and universities. A paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, as part of the symposium Communicating and testing the validity of claims to transformational systemic influence for civic responsibility.
Nawaab, N.I. (1998). The suqs of 'Asir. Retrieved 24 April 2010 from http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199804/the.suqs.of.asir.htm
Ross, H.C. The fabric of tradition. Retrieved 24 April 2010 from http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198705/the.fabric.of.tradition.htm
The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:
1. Can a set of best practices be identified from the existing body of literature concerning implementing and administering a special curriculum for young indigenous non-native speakers of English? If so, how can these best practices best be applied to Malaysia's young indigenous non-native speakers of English?
2. What cross-cultural factors need to be taken into account in developing such a special curriculum?
3. What are some of the common obstacles, challenges and constraints that have been experienced in other countries in general and in Malaysia in particular in implementing English as a second language curricular offerings?
The Design -- Methods and Procedures
Data Collection. The proposed study will draw on both secondary and primary sources to achieve the above-stated purposes and answer the above-stated research questions, an approach that is highly congruent with the…
Charles, M. (2006, October). Language matters in global communication. The Journal of Business Communication, 44(3), 260-262.
Crismore, a. (2003). An American woman teaching in Malaysia: Remembering the obstacles and successes. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 380-382.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Dovring, K. (1999). English as lingua franca: Double talk in global persuasion. Westport, CT: