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vocational education in high school. The review discusses all types of vocational education including agriculture, industrial arts, business, and family & consumer sciences. This paper includes opinions from students, administrators, counselors, parents, and vocational teachers
The importance of vocational education at the high school level has been a controversial topic for several years. The mindset that all high school students must aspire to attend four-year universities has taken hold and the school of thought for years was that any student not interested in such an endeavor was doomed to flip hamburgers for the rest of their adult life (Weisentein, 1991). In recent years this idea has been challenged and today high schools across the nation are recognizing the importance of a solid vocational education for their students who will not be attending university after graduation. The vocational education today is more than the woodshop courses of yesteryear. Today they include…
Greenan, J.P. (1983). Identification of generalizable skills in secondary vocational programs: Executive summary. Springfield: Illinois State Board of Education.
Benz, M.R., & Halpern, A.S. (1986). Vocational preparation for high school students with mild disabilities: A statewide study of administrator, teacher, and parent perceptions. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 9, 3-15.
DeStefano, L., & Wermuth, T.R. (1992). Chapter 29: IDEA (P.L. 101-476): Defining a second generation of transition services. In F.R. Rusch, L. DeStefano, J. Chadsey-Rusch, L.A. Phelps, & E. Szymanski (Eds.), Transition from school to adult life (pp. 537-549). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore.
Purpose of Vocational Education and Its Oppressive Nature: Inequality in Education as Japanese Woman (A eflection of Oppressive Outside World).
Education is often viewed as the panacea to social marginalization; it is a tool members of society can use to obtain better wages, acquire social recognition and become socially mobile. Unfortunately, education can also be a tool used for subjugation. It is a tool that aids in continuing the support of ongoing oppression and the systemic continuance of marginalization. This problem, often thought the fault of individuals, is the fault of social and cultural influences (Mullaly, 2007). Also at fault are structural factors that invite communities to continue class patterns where persons who are already on top to remain there, while those on the bottom seek a systemic pattern where they can only continue what they do to survive (Mullaly, 2007).
When oppression exists, teachers seek similar outcomes…
Apple, M.W. (2008). Can Schooling Contribute To A More Just Society? Education, Citizenship,
And Social Justice, 3(3), 239-261.
Calunsod, R. (2011 July). Disadvantaged Kids In Mindanao Get Japanese-Sponsored Education.
The Japan Times, Online. Retrieved July 28, 2011: http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110721f2.html
Future of Vocational Education in America
Four years of college is not the route for many students for many reasons.
Perhaps money is an issue, or grade point, or simply the desire to continue in the academic world. Everyone cannot be teachers, lawyers, or doctors. Moreover, it would be a sad world if they were. Vocational education gives the world plumbers, wood craftsmen, welders, hair stylists, electricians, and the list goes on. These are the people who make our lives more livable. After all, how many of us know how to wire a house, replace leaky plumbing, or build new cabinets for the kitchen. These people are craftsmen and are much needed in the world. One student may not be able to write a criticism on Shakespeare, but perhaps he is a whiz at woodworking enabling him to build intricate pieces of furniture. Vocational education is very important to our…
Carroll-Gordon, Mary Ann. "School vocational programs too important to abandon." The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. February 19, 1998, pp R02.
Imel, Susan. "Vocational Role in Dropout Prevention." ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education (CE). 1993. http://icdl.uncg.edu/ft/082599-08.html.(accessed07-22-2002).
Perry, Nancy J. "Education: The New, Improved Vocational School. Worried about a shortage of technicians? Can't find people who can communicate and solve problems? Alarmed about high school dropout rates? Here's hope." Fortune. June 19, 1989, pp 127.
Wolfrum, Max. "The Challenges Of Vocational Education." St. Louis Post-
National Defense Act: This act was passed on June 3, 1916. The National Defense Act was a federal law that restructured the organization of the military, this also entailed the development of the Army and National Guard, along with the formation of an Officer's and an Enlisted Reserve Corps among others.
Smith -- Hughes Act was an act passed by Congress in which promotion of vocational agriculture was used to train people as well as provide federal funding for this purpose. It was passed in 1917.
George -- Deen Act: The George-Deen Act of 1936 delivered the initial federal aid to the states for vocational training of distributive workers and sales personnel that comprised of community pharmacists and their Employees. It was directed by the U.S. Office of Education, state boards for vocational education sponsored training programs upon the demand of local residents.
VEND or VTWPW: These two acronyms stand…
(Stasz, and Bodilly, 2004)
In the press release by Mike Bowler and David Thomas (2005), High School Students Using Dual Enrollment Programs to Earn College Credits, New eports Say. According to this report, the federal budget proposes to increase access to "dual enrollment" programs for at-risk students. Out of the approximately 2,050 institutions with dual enrollment programs, almost 110 institutions, or 5% (about 2% of all institutions) offered dual enrollment programs specifically aimed toward high school students "at risk" for failing academically. Two new reports by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics also confirm that high school students currently take advantage of programs to earn college credits. The High School Initiative, designed to help prepare high school students to graduate with skills needed to succeed, permits states and districts to utilize funding for:
individual performance plans, dropout prevention efforts, demanding vocational and technical courses, college awareness…
References www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Ahola+Sakari%22Ahola, Sakari & www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Kivela+Suvi%22Kivela, Suvi. (2007). "Education Is Important, but..." Young People outside o Schooling and the Finnish Policy of "Education Guarantee." Routledge. Retrieved March 5, 2008, at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&eric_viewStyle=listERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=high+school+vocational+courses&searchtype=basic & RICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&pageSize=10&eric_displayNtriever=false&eric_dis ayStartCount=11&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900019b801cf28f&accno=EJ 73348&_nfls=false
Bowler, Mike & Thomas. David. (2005). "High School Students Using Dual Enrollment Programs to Earn College Credits, New Reports Say." Retrieved March 5, 2008, at http://www.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2005/04/04062005a.html www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Cavanagh+Sean%22Cavanagh, Sean. (2006). Perkins Bill is Approved by Congress; Editorial Projects in Education. RetrievedMarch 5, 2008, from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&eric_viewStylelist&EICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=high+school+vocational+courses&searchtype=bas & ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&pageSize=10&eric_displayNtriever=false&eric_ isplayStartCount=11&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900019b8015ea43&accn =EJ748517&_nfls=false www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020969480
Chang, E.S., Chen, C., Greenberger, E., Dooley, D., & Heckhausen, J. (2006). What Do They Want in Life?: The Life Goals of a Multi-Ethnic, Multi-Generational Sample of High School Seniors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), 321+. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020969480 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024401870
Christle, C.A., Jolivette, K., & Michael, N.C. (2007). School Characteristics Related to High School Dropout Rates. Remedial and Special Education, 28(6), 325+. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024401870 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023042611
Dymond, S.K., Renzaglia, a., & Chun, E. (2007). Elements of Effective High School Service Learning Programs That Include Students with and without Disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 28(4), 227+. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023042611 www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Gentry+Marcia%22Gentry, Marcia; www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Peters+Scott+J.%22Peters, Scott J.; www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Mann+Rebecca+L.%22Mann, Rebecca L. (2007). Differences between General and Talented Students' Perceptions of Their Career and Technical Education Experiences Compared to Their Traditional High School Experiences. Prufrock Press Inc. Retrieved March 5, 2008, at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=high+school+vocational+courses&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900019b801cbe46&accno=EJ773183&_nfls=false www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002014218
A two-year degree can offer an affordable foundation towards a Bachelor's degree through a community college, however, it is important to have students take courses that can easily transfer to a university when the time comes. Educators and administrators should be mindful of the importance of guiding students to choose courses wisely with a focus on transferring.
What it all Means
The changes are here to stay. Students with Bachelor's degrees are more economically successful than those who do not attain them. esearch concludes that the disparity between incomes of those who are educated and those who are not, is only going to get wider until there is serious class distinction between the two lifestyles.
Educators nationwide can work to bridge that gap at every level of education. Those charged with educating grades kindergarten through high school, need to focus on learning styles, and the importance of teaching students how…
Becker, Christine (2004) Panel examines link between jobs, education.
Nation's Cities Weekly "
Bernake, Harold (2007) RPT - Bernanke: Education Will Cut Income Gap
Although further education courses can be at traditional universities, they are generally taught through colleges that are exclusively venues for further education courses. These institutions are sometimes called "community colleges" after the American institutions that are similar. (Although American community colleges offer both post-secondary education as well as further or continuing education classes.) Other institutions that offer further education courses may offer a variety of work-based learning classes while campuses that offer adult and community learning coursework also frequently offer further education coursework.
As is appropriate -- and indeed perhaps necessary -- for further education programs designed to ameliorate the skills of a profession as important as teaching (as well as other professions such as social work, medicine, or law), there is an agency tasked with ensuring that teacher further education aligns with national goals for the profession's standards. The Learning and Skills Improvement Service (the LSIS was formerly titled…
Barbezat, D.A. (1987). 'Salary differentials by sex in the academic labour market', Journal of Human Resources, 22(3), pp. 422-28.
Becher, T. Academic tribes and territories: intellectual enquiry and the cultures of disciplines, Milton Keynes: Open University Press/SRHE. (1989).
Blackaby, D., Booth, A. And Frank, J. (2005). 'Outside offers and the gender pay gap: empirical evidence from the UK academic labour market', The Economic Journal, 115, F81-F107.
Tim Brighouse. "Comprehensive Schools Then, Now and in the Future: is it time to draw a line in the sand and create a new ideal?," Forum 45:1 (2003).
Invest More in Education
Higher spending on education is an investment in our collective future. It is an investment in our children. It is an investment in our community. It is an investment in the future world in which we want to live. A more educated community has better economic outcomes. A more educated community has hope. A more educated community is empowered to create their own pathways to their dreams. A more educated community has the ability to understand what really matters, rather than getting bogged down in inane minutiae. This paper will argue that greater investment in education pays dividends for our world down the road. We have a lot of challenges to solve, and they will not be solved any other way. Investment in education will benefit our community.
The Value of Education
What anybody with half a brain already knows intuitively, that education is a worthwhile…
London Economics (2012). Assessing the deadweight loss associated with public investment in further education and skills. BIS Research Paper Number 71. Retrieved May 18, 2015 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32281/12-767-assessing-deadweight-loss-with-investment-further-education.pdf
Psacharapoulos, G. (1994). Return on investment in education: A global update. World Development. Vol. 22 (9) 1325-1343.
Schimit, P., Monteiro, L. & Omar, N. (2014). Cash transfer program and education investment: A model for social evolution. Communications in nonlinear science and numerical simulation. Vol. 19 (3) 570-577.
Solesvik, M., Westhead, P., Matlay, H. & Parsyak, V. (2013). Entrepreneurial assets and mindsets. Education + Training. Vol. 55 (8/9) 748-762.
The definition of an educated person has no doubt altered over time. Certainly, many people have tried to formulate the ultimate definition of what an educated person is, and what achieving that state might entail. In my earliest thoughts about the subject, I probably thought an educated person was probably my grandmother; she seemed so wise, and certainly, I never asked her anything for which she didn't have an answer, and a good one at that. I hasten to add that I didn't necessarily think so at the time. hen an adolescent love affair of mine had gone awry and I was miserable and mopey, she would advise me that the way to get out of the pits was to work at something, really hard. I wanted to wallow in misery. It took a few years more of life before I understood that, and even now, she was better…
Drucker, Peter F. "The rise of the knowledge society." The Wilson Quarterly; 3/22/1993.
Glickman, Carl D. "Dichotomizing Education: Why no one wins and America loses." Phi Delta Kappan; 10/1/2001.
Parker, Lynette. "The Cultural Production of the Educated Person: Critical Ethnographies of Schooling and Local Practice." (book reviews) Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute; 12/1/1997.
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
Part of that includes instilling in students an intellectual curiosity, receptivity to learning through genuine understanding, and definitions of professional success that are motivated by positive aspirations rather than by overcompensation impulses triggered by negative assumptions, messages, or early experiences. In addition to ensuring basic literacy and computational skills required by adults in society, modern primary education must dedicate itself to producing graduates who have discovered their greatest intellectual abilities and developed a genuine interest in a specific academic and/or vocational application of those aptitudes and interests in a manner most conducive to their long-term fulfillment and (ideally) to their optimal benefit to their families and communities in adulthood.
Toward that end, modern education must adapt to the wealth of empirical evidence that traditional methodologies (such as passive lecture and rote memorization, in particular) are comparatively ineffective at achieving the highest goals of education in society. Specifically, as society becomes…
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…
Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's
Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.
Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…
Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;
Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm
Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm
Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.
As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…
Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.
Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…
In various trials in which learners were presented with different formats of video- only, auditory-only, combinations of both, and formats combining each with note-taking by students, researchers have determined that results are comparable, although more so for superior students than for average students. In that regard, average students learn better from repeated viewing in conjunction with audio-based information while superior students benefited equally regardless of the precise combination of those variables.
The author presents the results of research documenting the extent to which developers of computer-based video instruction may be overemphasizing the value of technical sophistication and suggests that the relative value of video-based lessons is substantially the same without the inclusion of all the bells and whistles available by virtue of the latest computer-based information formats. On the other hand, the author reports that vocational task-specific training effectiveness is somewhat more dependent on more sophisticated interactive information formats.
It is headed in the right direction and will surly prosper in the many years to come.
(c)Why were you able to accomplish what you did when you did?
We have been able to accomplish what we have because of the Land Grant College Act of 1862. In early 1848, Congressman Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont suggested that American colleges might steer away from the portion of the studies that had been established so many years ago and think about moving in a direction of having studies with more practical values. In 1857, he introduced a bill that incorporated leading reform notions in regards to technical education. He proposed that institutions should promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in areas that relate to the professions that people were doing (udolph, 1990, p. 149).
This act provided for the support in every state of at least one…
Andrew Dickson White. (2009). Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Cornell University Web site:
Rudolph, Frederick. (1990). The American College and University. Athens: The University of Georgia Press.
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
For one example, American Express had been providing the necessary remedial training for new hires who lacked basic skills for success in modern business; the company eventually suspended those efforts because of a high turn-over rate among young employees (Casner-Lotto, osenblum, & Wright, 2009). In effect, American Express had been paying the cost to train the future employees of other companies.
Other typical deficiencies include the lack of training in interpersonal and other non-technical vocational skills in academic technical training and insufficient attention to ethical issues in many modern business administration programs (Casner-Lotto, osenblum, & Wright, 2009). The authors suggest that the solutions to those problems likely include necessary changes to academic programs as well as to better designed professional apprenticeships, internships, and training programs offered by modern businesses.
Casner-Lotto, J., osenblum, E., and Wright, M. "The Ill-Prepared U.S.
Workforce: Exploring the Challenges of Employer-Provided Workforce
eadiness Training" New…
Casner-Lotto, J., Rosenblum, E., and Wright, M. "The Ill-Prepared U.S.
Workforce: Exploring the Challenges of Employer-Provided Workforce
Readiness Training" New York: The Conference Board.
Mooney, C. (2005). The Republican War on Science. New York: Basic Books.
Vocational Assessments Critiques
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)
The Stanford-Binet is an individually administered test of intelligence and cognitive abilities for people between the ages of two to 85 years. The SB5 is normed on a stratified random sample of 4,800 people who categorically match the year 2000 United States Census, and the scores have been found to approximate a normal distribution. The SB5 measures the following five factors of cognitive ability: Fluid easoning, Knowledge, Quantitative easoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, and Working Memory. The SB5 is used for clinical assessment, neuropsychological assessment, educational placement, career assessment, compensation evaluations, forensics, and aptitude research.
Critique. Parallel forms have been developed and the standards have changed to present a balanced verbal and non-verbal IQ content. Moreover, the test has been revised to be more colorful, interesting, and, therefore, more appealing to test-takers. The test permits combinations of screener subtests to be used for…
____. (2012). Beta III. Retreived http://www.pearsonassessments.com/
HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=015-8685-202&Mode=summary [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]
Standardized tests do not do well in measuring the emerging content standards, and over use of this type of assessment often leads to instruction that stresses only basic knowledge and skills. Although basic skills may be important goals in education, they are often overstressed in an effort to raise standardized test scores. Basic skills and minimum competencies become the main goal of schools and teachers as accountability and minimum competency exams concentrate on these areas (Critical Issue: ethinking Assessment and Its ole in Supporting Educational eform, 1995).
ecently, educators, policymakers, and parents have begun to recognize that minimums and basics are no longer sufficient and are calling for a closer match between the skills students learn in school and the skills they will need to succeed in the world. Schools are now expected to help students develop skills and competencies that apply to real life, genuine situations, and schools are…
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.
Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…
Abdul-Adil, Jaleel. K. And Farmer, David Alan. "Inner-City African-American Parental
Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy." (NEED to PROVIDE REST of CITATION. WAS NOT PROVIDED to RESEARCHER.)
Boehnke, Klaus and Bergs-Winkles, Dagmar. "Juvenile Delinquency Under the Conditions of Rapid Social Change." Sociological Forum. 17.1 (2002): 57-79.
Bowling for Columbine. Michael Moore. DVD. a-Film. 2002.
The modern public system instead pushes individuals into educational programs which benefit the larger global community over smaller individual ones. Therefore, "the political implications of education surpass the conditions of an individual to be educated, and constitute a strategic set of decisions that affect society at large -- hence the importance of education as public policy, and the role of the state," (Burbules & Torres 2000). However, funding such massive public systems is a huge challenge for many nations. In many cases, educational budgets are low on the totem poll in terms of other areas of funding concern within the pressure to implement a globalized economy. In this sense, "In the scenario of a rapidly developing market economy, governments have less access to resources; this is impinging on the scale as well as the quality of education," (Menon 2007:31). This paints the picture that going global does tend to place…
Burbules, Nicholas C. & Torres, Carlos Alberto. (2000). Globalization and education: an introduction. Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives. Routledge Press. Retrieved January 28, 2010 from http://faculty.ed.uiuc.edu/burbules/papers/global.html
Epstein, Erwin H. (2010). Globalization of education -- globalization theory, the role of education. Education Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 28, 2010 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2010/Globalization-Education.html
Menon, Govind Kumar. (2007). Globalization and education: an overview. Globalization and Education. Walter de Gruyter Publications.
Oni, C.S. (2007). Globalization and its implications for vocational education in Nigeria. Essays in Education. Vol. 21:30-35. Retrieved January 28, 2009 from http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol212007/oni.pdf
Special Needs Education
Briefly discuss trend education special children (learning disabled.) French evolution. What philosophic principles period education reflects?
Briefly discuss the trend in the education of special needs children (learning disabled etc.) after the French evolution. What philosophic principles of the period did this education reflect?
The first intelligence tests were developed in France as a way of screening students' ability to function within its confines, and even today the French educational system is notable for its high degree of centralized control. Still, based upon its democratic principles, which began with the French evolution and were formally enshrined into law during the Napoleonic period, France strove to educate all of its citizens in an equal fashion, and to make them all feel like true citizens of France. Today, in France, around 100,000 students identified as suffering from various disabilities go to special schools run by the Ministry of Health.…
IDEA. (2004). Retrieved March 18, 2011 at http://idea.ed.gov/
Markham, David. (2010). The revolution, Napoleon, and education. International Napoleon
Society. Retrieved March 18, 2011 at http://www.napoleon-series.org/ins/markham/c_education_m.html
Mills, Ian. (2010). Education in France: Part 1. Discover France. Wharton Group.
Several community colleges have in recent times shown preference for non-credit post-secondary students as opposed to credit students. This trait is particularly common in the areas of staff tutoring and contractor training. Several of these non-credit courses are quite popular for their flexibility in meeting the demands of the prospective workforce students as well as the demands of their employers. Important questions have been raised about traditional colleges due to the growth of this sector; these questions include the efficiency of colleges in utilizing resources and how well access is being provided for their (colleges) students. Answering the questions raised above will likely challenge state policies and practices at colleges, although analysing the effects of this program may be a herculean task due to the absence of data on activities as basic as admissions and acceptance in community college non-credit workforce education. With increasing states and college investments of resources…
Special Education: Collaboration Between Teachers
The majority of special education students receive instruction in both general education classes as well as special education support classes. Most of these students are enrolled in esource Support Programs in which a special education teacher has responsibility for offering learning supports across the general education curriculum. The job of the special education teacher, or esource Specialist, is to ensure that the student's IEP is properly implemented. This requires ongoing communication and collaboration with general education teachers.
In most cases a special education student in elementary school and above will have a least two to three different teachers in addition to his or her special education support. These general education teachers need to be offered guidance and support regarding how to modify curriculum and how to properly implement any behavior plans.
The most effective way in which teachers can collaborate is to ensure that they…
Leonard, L. & Leonard, P. (2003, September 17). The continuing trouble with collaboration: Teachers talk. Current Issues in Education [Online], 6(15). Available: http://cie.ed.asu.edu/volume6/number15/
National Center for Research in Vocational Education. 1993. Teacher Collaboration in Secondary Schools. Sourced from Web. December 6, 2011. http://vocserve.berkeley.edu/centerfocus/cf2.html
John Dewey and Charles Prosser were both instrumental figures in American educational philosophy and pedagogical theory. Both Dewey and Prosser were pragmatists, but each proposed a fundamentally different function for public education. Dewey stressed the importance of education for fostering civic duty and promoting democracy; Prosser remained more concerned with the role education would play in preparing children for vocational careers. Although both Dewey and Prosser believed education should be applicable to daily life, Dewey believed that Prosser's focus on vocational education might inhibit intrinsic motivation and the development of a person's natural interests, thereby artificially channeling children into specific career paths (Wonacott, 2003). Dewey believed that vocational education presented a danger of becoming too "rote, mechanical, and slavish," (Wonacott, 2003, p. 6). As Labaree (2010) points out, Dewey "lost" the philosophical debate over the role of education as Prosser helped to pass the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917, which ensconced…
Labaree, D.F. (2010). How Dewey lost. Retrieved online: https://web.stanford.edu/~dlabaree/publications/How_Dewey_Lost.pdf
Steinke, L.J. & Putnam, A.R. (n.d.). The current status of technology education. Retrieved online: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=ojwed
Wonacott, M.E. (2003). History and evolution of vocational and career-technical education. Retrieved online: http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/compilation-history.pdf
principals who are equity-oriented, marginalized dynamics may crop up in schools that are changing demographically at a rapid pace (Cooper, 2009). This essay reflects upon how educators may play the role of transformative leaders by way of carrying out cultural work that tackles inequity, addresses and/or attempts to remove socio-cultural limits, and promotes inclusion. The theories of Cornel West on 'the new cultural politics of difference' appraise the topic, as do literary works on transformative leadership to promote social justice.
Highlighting the ever-changing policy responses in the history of educational leadership, along with their contextual settings, explains the necessity for another glimpse at the manner in which educational leadership should be considered in recent times. Gale & Densmore (2003) found that educational leaders are now faced with contradictory pressures -- on the one hand, to favor some student groups over others, yet, on the other hand, to ensure that disadvantaged…
Appiah, K.A. (2006). The politics of identity. Daedulus, 135(4), 15-22.
Barrett, A. (2012). Transformative leadership and the purpose of schooling. Unpublished dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
Bell, D.A. (1987). Neither separate schools nor mixed schools: The chronicle of the sacrificed Black schoolchildren. In D. Bell (Ed.); And we are not saved: The elusive quest for racial justice (pp. 102 -- 122). New York: Basic Books.
Brown, K.M. (2004). Leadership for social justice and equity: Weaving a transformative framework and pedagogy. Education Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 77-108.
children attend school every day and while they are there, their parents want them to be safe and sound. That includes when they are on the playground, lunchroom, and in the classroom. The equipment in which that the school use should be safe so that will be injured during school hours. And, when the students become older and want to attend vocational school, the equipments and machines that the school and teachers have for the classroom must be extremely safe while working with them. This is a must since when a person is in vocational school; they are working with power tools and heavy equipment while in the classroom. When it comes to safety in vocational school, there is also a health issue due to the fact that some of the machines might be a health hazard to the students and teachers.
The machines and equipment in which the Massachusetts…
'How to Effectively Market and Manage Quality Australian International
A primary focus for the nearly half a million international students choosing to study in Australia each year seems to be on obtaining a higher education; oftentimes it is because they believe it is an investment in their own future. For the vast majority of these international students the hope is that their education will lead to improved employment opportunities and a higher quality lifestyle, either in Australia, another country, or after they return to their homeland. Interestingly enough, almost half of the surveyed higher education graduates and two thirds of VET graduates were living in Australia, with most either already having been granted permanent residency or hoping to obtain permanent residency status.
Graduates who were working in Australia had a slightly higher level of unemployment than those who returned home, although most were working or undertaking further study.…
Anctil, E.J.; (2008) Recommendations for selling higher education, ASHE Higher Education Report, Vol. 34, Issue 2, pp. 89-98
Australian Government (2009a). Transforming Australia's higher education system, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, Accessed on May 17, 2010 at website: http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Documents/PDF/Additional%20Report%20-%20Transforming%20Aus%20Higher%20ED_webaw.pdf .
Belanger, C.; Mount, J.; Wilson, M.; (2002) Institutional image and retention, Tertiary Education and Management, Vol. 8, Issue 3, pp. 217 -- 230.
Bradley, D.; Noonan, P.; Nugent, H.; Scales, B.; (2008). Review of Australian higher education: Final report, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, accessed on May 18, 2011, http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Review/Documents/PDF/Higher%20Education%20Review_one%20document_02.pdf .
CTE Program Evaluation Based on the WASC Self-Study Model
CTE Program Evaluation
Career Technical Education (CTE) programs generally conduct accreditation evaluations through the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC). egional Occupational Programs/Centers (OCPs) fall within the CTE program category and are evaluated using the post-secondary WASC process. The process of reviewing and approving institutional educational programs of all types is known as accreditation, and it is conducted across the globe. The major components of an accreditation process typically are self-study, internal review, and external validation by trained educators -- in that order. The phases of the accreditation process provide opportunities for educational institutions to assess the strengths and weaknesses of their programs in detail. As the educational institutions work through the various evaluation phases, stakeholders develop a school-wide action plan that will articulate and guide the school through a continuous improvement processes.
In order to commence an accreditation process,…
Assembly Bill 2448 Program Summary. (2006). Retrieved http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/rp/ab244807summary.asp
Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006. Reauthorization of Perkins. (2006). Laws & Guidance | Vocational Education. Department of Education. Retrieved http://www2.ed.gov/policy/sectech/leg/perkins/index.html
Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education (OCTAE). (2014). Laws & Guidance | Vocational Education. U.S. Department of Education. Retreived http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/index.html
Outreach and Technical Assistance Network for Adult Learners. (2014). Retrieved http://www.otan.us/browse/index.cfm?fuseaction=doc&catid=34128&ref=6263
The language of instruction in schools and universities is omanian, but Hungarian and German are also used for the benefit of the country's two largest ethnic minorities.
The Pre-University Level ("nv? mantul Preuniversitar) is structured in 4 cycles: Kindergarten, Primary school comprised or two 4-grade periods - grades I to IV and grades V to VIII, and High school (Liceu) - four or five grades (grades IX to XII/XIII). There are two categories of higher education: Vocational education ("nv? mant profesional ?i tehnic), which can continue or supplant High School to prepare students for careers that are based in manual or practical activities, and Higher education (Studii Superioare) organized (or in the process of being organized) according to the principles of the Bologna process, which aims at the construction of the European higher education area. It has the following four components: Bachelor-3 years in most disciplines, Master (Masterat) 2 years…
Capita, L and Capita, C. "Country Reports on Education: Romania," Education and Media in Southeast Europe. Retrieved January 27, 2007 at http://www-gewi.kfunigraz.ac.at/csbsc/country_reports/Education_Romania.htm.
Calin, M. And Dumitrana M. (ed.) "Values and Education in Romania Today," Romanian Philosophical Studies I, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Changes Series IVA, Central and Eastern Europe, Volume 14 http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-14/contents.htm
Ryan, K. And Lickona, T, "Character Development: The Challenge and the Model," in K. Ryan and T. Lickona, ed., Character Development in School and Beyond (Washington: The Council for Research Values and Philosophy, 1992), p. 5.
This was prepared by a specialist on the subject and would probably cut down incidences of the disease. (Advocacy Group Issues Guides for Diagnosing ADHD) There are some communities who need constant help and one of them is the Latino community and the help from counselors and advocacy is certainly welcome. Victims in the Latino community suffer due to their language barrier and immigration status. (Counseling and eferral Services for the Latino Community)
III. New Framework for Advocacy in Counseling/Counselor Education Programs
A. Identifying injustices or need to improve conditions within profession:
There has been a finding that developmental framework is required for a developmental framework as the foundation for any type of counseling. This has been noted by different experts and they have stated "that career guidance and counseling services would be greatly improved if theory and research could identify those traits and trends of development observed in adolescence...…
Advocacy Group Issues Guides for Diagnosing ADHD" (28 May, 1997) Education Week.
Retrieved at http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1997/05/28/35add.h16.html?querystring=advocacyAccessed 30 August, 2005
Counseling and Referral Services for the Latino Community" Retrieved at http://www.consejo-wa.org/domesticviolence.htm. Accessed 30 August, 2005
Counselors" (2004) U.S. Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm . Accessed 30 August, 2005
ace, Discrimination and Education
acism and discrimination have been long-lasting impediments to equality of education in the United States. It was only in the mid-20th century that African and Native Americans won legal access to equal education. Much of America's early history of racism still lingers within the educational system. Today, poverty and poor literacy skills often plague African-American and Hispanic students, and Native American groups continue to pressure the government for self-determination and equality in educational attainment. Groups like the NAACP continue to work to see racism and discrimination in education eliminated in the United States, and significant progress has been made over the last decades, although racism continues to be a problem in American schools.
The history of racism and discrimination in the United States is almost as long as that of America itself. The fledgling nation of the United States reserved education largely for its white, male,…
American Indian Education Foundation. History of Indian Education in the U.S. 02 May 2004. http://www.aiefprograms.org/history_facts/history.html
Corley, Mary Ann. Poverty, Racism and Literacy. ERIC Digest, Publication Date: 2003-00-00. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. 02 May 2004. http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-5/poverty.htm
Francisco, Richard P. 2001. Racism: the real enemy that will destroy the United States. Black Issues in Higher Education, Oct 11, 2001. 02 May 2004. Available at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m0DXK/17_18/80087603/p1/article.jhtml
McLean Donaldson, Karen B. 1987. Through Students' Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.
But high schools have been reporting rising grade point averages. Regardless of whether grade inflation is to blame, or an ineffectuality on the part of standardized testing to adequately measure student achievement, this points to another difficulty of using either higher grades or higher test scores to measure student success and thus take into consideration 'teacher quality' and variables that play into assessing teacher quality when hiring new staff members or retaining existing staff members. (Daily Policy Digest, 2001)
If measuring student achievement is difficult, and thus coming to terms with an adequate assessment of teaching 'quality,' then how does one improve teacher quality. Perhaps, suggests educational researcher Victor Lavy, the real question is not the assessment of incoming teachers or outgoing students. Rather, administrators should ask the question, how to increase existing teacher's incentives to improve the quality of teaching, and once this is determined, make such incentive based-programs…
Darling-Hammond, L. (1 Jan 2000)."
Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence." Retrieved on 28 Apr 2005 at http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/
Grades Rise While Test Scores Languish" (15 Aug 2001) Daily Policy http://www.ncpa.org/images/1pix.gif
Females are the target group for both the advertisements and the needs to achieve financial security, independence, or freedom from traditional gender roles are expressed in the DeVry and ITT Tech advertisements. Words like "You can become..." introduce the consumer to the idea that they can change who they are by enrolling in the private school. The need to achieve is powerful, because of our culture's emphasis on social status.
However, the Chamberlain School of Nursing and the ITT Tech advertisements differ in how they appeal to the need to achieve. The Chamberlain School of Nursing appeals to the need to achieve educational and professional goals in a traditional way, whereas the ITT Tech advertisement appeals to the need to achieve educational and professional goals in an untraditional way. Therefore, the ITT Tech advertisement appeals more to the need for autonomy, and the need to dominate. A female who is…
Biagi, S. (nd). Advertising's 15 Basic Appeals, by Jib Fowles. Retrieved Oct 23, 2008 at http://www.frankwbaker.com/fowles
De Vry University's Chamberlain School of Nursing. Advertisement: viewed in local newspaper Oct 20, 2008.
ITT Tech's School of Information Technology. Advertisement: viewed in local newspaper Oct 20, 2008.
This was achieved by the fact that college has allowed me to take 5 courses that are totally different from one another in each semester.
One of the essential aspects in personal development and eventual self-fulfillment is individual freedom. College promotes the achievement of personal development and fulfillment through providing freedom that is quite liberating. In essence, the student has to make decisions independently regarding significant aspects of his/her education. This contributes to personal development since the person is taught how to make smart choices and concentrate on what is best for him/her. As there are numerous opportunities to explore, the individual must learn to make decisions without increased supervision from parents or teachers. As a result, the ability of a person to make decisions is tested through analysis of the effectiveness of these decisions, which results in individual growth and ability to determine self-fulfillment.
Discovery of Passion:…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. "Higher Education Conformity." Alternet. Alternet, 1 May 2007. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. .
Menand, Louis. "Live and Learn." The New Yorker. Conde Nast., 6 June 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. .
Schwartz, Steven. "The Higher Purpose." Times Higher Education. TSL Education Ltd., 16 May 2003. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. .
Tugend, Alina. "Vocation or Exploration? Pondering the Purpose of College." The New York Times. The New York Times, 05 May 2012. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. .
Debate between Liberal Arts and Job Preparation Skills
Liberal arts skills and job preparation or vocational skills are the two categories of the eight essential purposes of higher education. These two categories of purposes have had a significant effect on the curriculum of higher education over the years. Liberal arts skills are one of the most important aspects and central purpose of higher education given that it incorporates seven of the eight essential purposes. As compared to the job preparation or vocational skills, liberal arts skills are focused on general education instead of entry to the job market upon graduation from a university/college. It includes instruction in wider, central disciplines like English, Science, Math, and History and is centered on developing skills like critical analysis, problem-solving, and effective oral and written communication. Liberal arts skill is important to the central purpose of why higher education exists in the United States.…
Education, M.A Education. "There Are No Shortcuts" Rafe Esquith, a 1981 graduate UCLA. As role model, Rafe Esquithe inspires standing side disadvantaged educated, poor people immigrants.
Statement of purpose: MA in Education
t is wonderful to have a terrific mind, but it's been my experience that having outstanding intelligence is a very small part of the total package that leads to success and happiness. Discipline, hard work, perseverance, and generosity of spirit are, in the final analysis, far more important.
Rafe Esquith, There Are No Shortcuts
Rafe Esquith, an innovative teacher of students who come from poor and disadvantaged backgrounds, is a living example of how great teachers inspire their students to do the impossible. Esquith's class of fifth graders, many of whom are the children of parents who cannot speak English, routinely perform Shakespeare and do higher-level science and mathematics. By putting in extra hours in the classroom, and…
I admire Esquith's methods as a teacher, but I also relate to the experiences of his students. I first began to learn English in middle school. My English teacher, Queen Lee, seemed like a sophisticated, inspiring, and worldly person. I later learned that like myself, she had been born in a rural area of Korea. In my small Korean village, there was no transportation, and only a small church. No school was located nearby, and I often had to walk for three hours to go to school. When I was in the class of Queen Lee, I resolved to become a teacher and inspire my own students to believe in the ability of education to transform their lives. Today, I am profoundly grateful to be living in the United States, a nation with seemingly no limits upon the individual's ability to succeed and transcend economic barriers.
In college, I majored in medical laboratory science because I knew I needed to support myself after I graduated. However, I still harbored an unfulfilled dream: to become a teacher. After getting a job in a hospital as a medical technician, I continued my education. Working a full-time job and taking a demanding course load was grueling, but well worth the effort. After receiving a B.A in Education in 2002 I accepted my first teaching position in a moderately-sized city. I continued my professional education while I taught, and received my B.A in English Language and Literature, enabling me to teach students in elementary, middle, and junior high schools.
During my six years as a teacher, I have taught -- and learned from -- my students. Being a teacher requires me to use my full intellectual capacity, but also requires me to give my students the nurturing and support they seldom receive at home. This is what I seek to learn in a M.A. program: how to help my students want to learn, even while they are dealing with seemingly insurmountable personal challenges. One of my proudest accomplishments as a teacher was when a 10-year-old boy in my class was being bullied, and I was able to notice this and, through my example and gentle pressure, encouraged my students to accept him. I would like to gain more skill in classroom management, motivation, and above all learn how to inspire my students to dare to do the impossible.
Biblical principles that are related to our intellectual and spiritual education. They have a basis in the Bible (both the New and the Old Testament) and can be applied to our lives in many ways. Often times, as is shown in this paper, our own experiences bear out what these principles teach us. In this paper, a discussion of 10 Biblical principles and their relation to Scripture is provided. How these principles have applied to the writer's own life is also described. Following these discussions are plans for how the ideas developed may be practically applied in life so as to give glory to God and better our own lives.
The education of young students takes place not just on an intellectual level but also on a spiritual level. It is part of what character education consists of -- the formation of the mind and soul in terms of the…
Gutek, G. L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A
biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Lickona, T. (1993). The return of character education. Educational Leadership, 51(3):
Most palliative care vocational nurses are generalists. However, there are specialties in palliative care, such as oncology and geriatrics. Hospice and palliative care nurses can become Certified Hospice and Palliative Nurses (CHPN).
Palliative nurses practice in a variety of settings. The most common setting is the patient's home. Palliative nurses also work in the hospice units of medical facilities, such as hospitals, nursing homes, and other long-term care settings. Patients typically die within a month of enrolling in a hospice program. In contrast, palliative care nurses are more likely to practice in long-term care facilities and have more extended involvement in their patients' end of life.
In order to be an effective palliative care nurse, the vocational nurse needs an understanding of a specific group of practice areas. Those areas include: pain management, end-stage disease process, loss and grief, and bereavement care. However, in addition to medical knowledge, palliative care…
For Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN), many nursing schools offer 'fast track' flexible programs that these allow working nurses to balance school and job demands to become Registered Nurses (RN)s. Often these programs offer degree credit for the student's previous experiences in the field. Approximately 30% of BSN graduates every year come from such programs. Even prospective nurses without undergraduate nursing degrees can enter the profession through Accelerated RN Baccalaureate Programs. These programs offer a path to becoming an RN with only one or two years of intensive education training. "According to the 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, over 20% of the RN population had completed additional academic nursing or nursing related preparation after graduating" (Upgrading, 2009, All Nurses)
Anderson, Sue. (2007). The perks of nursing as a second career. Reality RN.
Retrieved June 26, 2009 at http://www.realityrn.com/more-articles/managing-your-career/the-perks-of-nursing-as-a-second-career/266/
Upgrading your nursing degree. (2009). All Nursing Schools. Retrieved…
Anderson, Sue. (2007). The perks of nursing as a second career. Reality RN.
Retrieved June 26, 2009 at http://www.realityrn.com/more-articles/managing-your-career/the-perks-of-nursing-as-a-second-career/266/
Upgrading your nursing degree. (2009). All Nursing Schools. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
Departmental managers should play a role in determining the specific areas of special competence required of engineers reporting to them and they should contribute to the in-house development of testing tools used to ensure competence in those areas.
Monitoring their professional status is also an ethical responsibility of every firm employing professional engineers (Harris, Pritchard, & abins, 2008). At a minimum, that means maintaining accurate records of certification status and dates; but it also means that the organization must apply the same level of concern to ensure that all in-house standards and testing requirements are met, beyond those formally required by law. In practice, every supervisor and department head must play an active role in that regard by singing off on individual employee compliance with periodic testing requirements.
More specifically, those elements of testing should be linked directly to performance by specifying different testing modules to correspond to every specialty…
Harris, C.E., Pritchard, M.S., and Rabins, M.J. (2008). Engineering Ethics: Concepts
and Cases. Cengage Publishing.
In that respect, one of my professional idols was teve Irwin who was tragically killed in 2006 in an encounter with a sting ray (Webber, 2011). While he was best known for his television show, the Crocodile Hunter, he was actually a world-renowned environmental conservationist who had dedicated his life to protecting endangered animal species and to educating the public about the importance of protecting the natural environmental habitat of wildlife species. According to the Queensland Department of Education and Training (2006),
"teve had a significant influence on thousands of Queensland school children and his passion for the environment and wildlife was extremely infectious.
worked tirelessly to protect the world's animals and environment. He was awarded the Queensland Museum's highest accolade in 2003 - the Queensland
Museum Medal - for his exceptional contribution to the understanding and appreciation of Australian wildlife at an international level and his commitment and…
Australia Zoo. (2010). Chat to a Keeper Archive. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from:
Queensland Government DET. (2006). Honour Steve Irwin's passion for nature.
Retrieved March 25, 2011 from:
Vocational Assessment Test eview: Myers Briggs Type Indicator
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality assessment that can help guide people to suitable vocations, but which is also useful in other scenarios. It was developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cooks Briggs, from a Jungian psychology perspective. Although they began working on it in the early 1940s, it was first published in 1962. It is a self-report questionnaire, which examines the individual's preferences along different components of personality. It was created for a normal population distribution and can be used for members of any demographics that can process the test, though it is probably most appropriate for late teens and beyond; perhaps ages 14 and up. The MBTI is a multiple-choice test and is written at a 7th grade reading level. It takes approximately 20-30 minutes to administer the test, but the test is not timed and…
Carlyn, M. (1977). An assessment of the Myers Briggs type indicator. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 41(5), 461-473.
Fretwell, C., Lewis, C., & Hannay, M. (2013). Myers-Briggs type indicator, A/B types, and locus of control: where do they intersect? American Journal of Management, 13(3), 57-66.
Lok, C. (2012). Career development: what's your type? Nature, 488, 545-547.
Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing America's Schools Back To Reality
In his 2008 book, Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing America's Schools Back to Reality, author Charles Murray seeks to destroy the notions that the American people and government have operated under in past decades: the belief that schools and the educational system itself must be structured in a way that forces education down the throats of the masses, which has proven wholly ineffective in Murray's eyes. Murray, alternately, argues that the American educational system has based itself in romanticized ideals of demanding excellence from every student, which is simply impossible, largely ineffective, and debilitating to students and individuals who are actually academically and intellectually superior enough to succeed in education, thereby restructuring the system and perhaps the American landscape completely.
Murray has noted that his book seeks to counter the ideas of the past, saying, "American…
Kirkland, Lynn and Manning, Maryann. "Keeping the Arts Alive in a Test-Crazed
Culture," in Childhood Education, 87(4): pp. 285-288. 2011. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Murray, Charles. "The Age of Educational Romanticism." American Enterprise Institute.
2008 May 1. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.aei.org/article/education/the-age-of-educational-romanticism / [Accessed on 5 December 2011].
Over the last few decades there has been an increase in the number of students that express a desire to attend collage (Haralambos and Holborn, 2010). In the U.S. 88% of high school students in the eighth grade said they wanted to go on to higher education, and approximately 70% did go on to college within a period of two years following her graduation (Venezia et al., 2013). The increase in demand and attendance maybe argued is unsurprising, given the wealth of literature which extols the virtues of a college education. Higher education is associated with a range of positive outcomes, including the potential for a higher income and the high level of affluence associated with a higher income, as well as being seen as generally socially advantageous. It has been argued that a four-year college degree has become the new "Holy Grail in American life" (Sawhill, 2013). However,…
Haralambos M, Holborn M, (2010), Sociology Themes and Perspectives, London, Collins
Nelson, B, (2012, Jan 25), Why You Should Postpone College, Forbes, [online] accessed at http://www.forbes.com/sites/brettnelson/2012/01/25/why-you-should-postpone-college/
Owen, S, Sawhillm I, (2013, May 8), Should Everyone Go To College? Brookings, [Online] accessed http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2013/05/08-should-everyone-go-to-college-owen-sawhill
Parker, S, (2013, Feb 15), Does Every High School Student Need to Go to College? [online] accessed http://www.takepart.com/article/2013/02/15/vocational-education-popular-alternative-college
Establishing Consultation and Collaboration in a School
Calgary Public School Board has hired a resource teacher for an elementary/junior high school, which has 16 teachers and 325 students i.e. 150 and 175 students at elementary and junior high levels respectively. The school principal has indicated his desire to create some form of consultation and collaboration in the school. While the school has in the past referred students with special needs to special education placements in other schools, those with learning and behavioral difficulties have been removed from the resource room because they could not be placed in a district program. The former resource teacher did not work in collaboration with other teachers and stakeholders. As the new resource teacher, it's important to establish suitable measures for consultation and collaboration to help address the needs of special education students. Such a platform will help in dealing with the different cases in…
Bos, C.S. & Vaughn, S. (2000). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Dettmer, P., Thurston, L.P. & Dyck, N.J. (2005). Foundations and Frameworks for Collaborative School Consultation. In Consultation, collaboration, and teamwork for students with special needs (5th ed., chap. 2, pp.35-66). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Feldman, E.S. & Kratochwill, T.R. (2003). Problem Solving Consultation in Schools: Past, Present, and Future Directions. The Behavior Analyst Today, 4(3), 318-330.
Stanberry, K. (2016, December 19). Transition Planning for Students with IEPs. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/transition-planning-for-students-with-ieps/
Public Intellectual Essay
The introduction of critical race theory and other anti-colonial approaches to academic discourse has obscured the fact that higher education itself remains embedded in colonial institutions and structures. Higher education is a vestige of colonial means of psychological and social control. The political implications of colonialism in higher education include the perpetuation of hegemony, the suppression and subordination of alternative epistemologies, the ongoing political dominion over what constitutes knowledge, and the use of higher education to promote structures and institutions that serve the dominant culture. Although often an unconscious process, the ways colonial mentalities and processes remain entrenched in higher education are directly harmful to individual students and to society as a whole. Colonialism in higher education promotes a monolithic worldview that inhibits critical inquiry and creative solutions to global problems. By controlling how knowledge is defined, institutes of colonialist higher learning prevent alternative views and inhibit…
(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.
(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive ehavioral Intervention Support (PIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)
Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)
The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the…
Pierangelo, R. And Guiliani, G.A. (2008) Classroom Management for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008.
Jolivette, Kristine, et al. (2000) Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral disorders. ERIC Clearinghouse. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E597. Online available at: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org/e597.html
Salmon, Hallie (2006) Educating Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Law & Disorder. Online available at: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/201/salmon%20educating%20students%20with.pdf?sequence=1
Rush, Sharron (2010) Improving Education for Students with Emotional Disturbances. Knowbility. Online available at: http://www.knowbility.org/research/?content=improve
J. This limitation is summarized in the following passage:
Sometimes, disagreements about educational benefit are called "Cadillac-Chevrolet" disputes. emember: In owley, the Supreme Court ruled that children are entitled to an appropriate education (i.e. A Chevrolet), not the best education money can buy (a Cadillac). http://www.wrightslaw.com/advoc/articles/iep_guidance.html#Law_and_egulations
The above accurately describes some of the limitations that public schools have to meet the needs of special education children. This may or may not be helpful to remind the grandparents of at this point in the process. It seem entirely likely that they know this (and certainly any well-run IEP program would have made this information known to the grandparents at the very beginning of the process) but the grandparents may need to be reminded of the legal limits for J.J.'s education.
It is significant that one of the most important objections that the grandparents have is that J.J. will face emotional abuse…
Vocational services for high school students. (2011). http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eohhs2terminal&L=5&L0=Home&L1=Consumer&L2=Disability+Services&L3=Training+and+Education+Services&L4=Education+Guidance&sid=Eeohhs2&b=terminalcontent&f=mrc_c_vr_voc_students&csid=Eeohhs2
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
esearch was the first to feel the effects. The shift in the material base of the university leaves the humanities entirely out in the cold. Corporations don't earmark donations for the humanities because our research culture is both self-contained and absurd. Essentially, we give the copyrights of our scholarly articles and monographs to university presses, and then buy them back, or demand that our libraries buy them back, at exorbitant markups. And then no one reads them. The current tenure system obliges us all to be producers of those things, but there are no consumers." (Donoghue 2008)
The idea in education is one of operating as a business. The academic partners within the university setting are essentially in competition with one another for funding and other resources. If the students with stellar marks from certain departments are highly recruited by business and academia, the department is heralded and viewed upon…
Bassett J. 2008. The Future of Humanities Education, or Ahab and His Humanities.. Interdisciplinary Humanities. Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=0e20acd8-7fc3-4066-9e72-d2da6278a966%40sessionmgr113&vid=1
Bell D. 2010. Reimaging the Humanities. Proposals for a New Century. Dissent (00129846) Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=4f0282e4-a846-49e1-a8af-110652799ccc%40sessionmgr112&vid=1
Pokrovskii N.E., 2007. What Is Happening to Humanities Education? Russian Education & Society. Retrieved January from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=106&sid=44770a98-2f1e-4057-bbef-2bd93b6e1bb0%40sessionmgr110&vid=1
Woodward K. 1980. The Humanities Crisis. Newsweek. Retrieved January from: http://www.lexisnexis.com.rlib.pace.edu/lnacui2api/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T10928153278&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T10928153281&cisb=22_T10928153280&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&selRCNodeID=9&nodeStateId=411en_US,1&docsInCategory=11&csi=5774&docNo=3
" (Stevens, 2006) While the pay of education staff has been lowered, tuition fees have been raised and yet public spending."..on higher education in the UK is one of the lowest in the industrialized world." (Stevens, 2006) Currently ritain is stated to spend only 1.1% of its national income on higher education, compared with the EU average of 1.2%." (Stevens, 2006; paraphrased) the U.S. spends 2.6% of its national income on higher education according to Stevens. The Labour and Conservative parties in ritain are conspiring to bring about an increase of private funding for higher education "but only to encourage the social stratification that has taken place." (Stevens, 2006) the proposal is for the establishment of a system in which a "select group of 'world class' universities would be established, with the majority of universities left to compete amongst themselves for ever dwindling public funding." (Stevens, 2006) Oxford and Cambridge…
Smith, Liz (2007) Report reveals UK youth abandoned by education system. WWS News 25 June, 2007. Online available at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2007/jun2007/educ-j25.shtml
Stevens, Robert (2006) Britain: Poorer Student Numbers Fall as Tuition Fees are Hiked Up. 27 Dec 2006. World Socialist Web Site. WEWS.org News and Analysis. Online available at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2006/dec2006/univ-d27.shtml
School Leaving Age to be Raised to 18 (2007) Evening Standard 1 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23381446-details/School+leaving+age+ 'to+be+raised+to+18'/article.do
Capital Support for the Expansion of Successful and Popular Secondary Schools (2007) Teachernet. Online available at http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/resourcesfinanceandbuilding/FSP/successfulandpopular/
Based on these findings, a number of assessment tools are used to evaluate students' abilities and the most appropriate level of participation in general educational settings (A Parent's Guide, 2002).
Early childhood education programs in District 75 have been affected by other federal mandates, including the Governmental Performance eporting Act (GPA) and the Program Assessment ating Tool (PAT); both of these initiatives require that all federal programs (e.g., Head Start, childcare, and programs for children with disabilities) must provide performance data concerning the progress that has been made toward meeting the goals of the program, which in turn are used to formulate federal budget allocations (ous et al., 2007). Current performance data for District 75 is presented at Appendix A.
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). In those cases where the District 75 assessment committee finds that children require services and a special education setting, they are provided with an Individualized…
About us. (2011). New York City Department of Education. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.
Annual yearly progress. (2011). New York State Department of Education. Retrieved from
Chambers, D. etal. (1996, I June). "Another look at competency-based education in dietetics." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96 (6): 614.
While this article is focused on the usefulness of competency-based education specifically within the field of dietetics, it is helpful for those in other fields as well because it presents an excellent argument about why competency-based education is such a powerful tool. While other training (and evaluation) methods have tended to focus on specific skill sets, competency-based education is extremely helpful in teaching the integrated skills needed for higher-level positions, including helping to inculcate the kinds of critical-thinking skills that are important for management positions.
Foley, G. (1995) Understanding Adult Education and Training. Allen & Unwin: Sydney.
This is one of the most important works on adult education and training within a specifically Australian context (although a number of international examples are included). The first book…
Klotz 266) the standards of the system have had to rely on standardized accountability curriculum to attempt to make this cooperative concept work. The difficulties are also answered with community emphasis on technology and social growth as well a community involvement in schools and district affairs.
In one of the most poignant addresses to congress, in this case Montana, one of the congressmen demonstrate the fight, in every state for the development of quality schools for Native Americans.
If there is to be a solution to the Indian problem in this country, it will only come about when our educational system provides the knowledge... needed to understand and respect the cultural differences between us and the state helps to preserve and protect their cultural integrity. This is a matter of pride. All of us are proud of our heritage... because we know about our history, our culture and our integrity....Are…
Juneau, Denise, and Mandy Smoker Broaddus. "And Still the Waters Flow: The Legacy of Indian Education in Montana it Took 34 Years, Extraordinary Perseverance, and a Series of Legislative and Legal Efforts before the Advocates of Indian Education for All Would Finally See Its Implementation in Montana's Classrooms. Ms. Juneau and Ms. Broaddus Chronicle the Law's Tortuous History." Phi Delta Kappan 88.3 (2006): 193.
Klotz, Irving M. "Multicultural Perspectives in Science Education: One Prescription for Failure." Phi Delta Kappan 75.3 (1993): 266.
Mitchell, Bruce M., and Robert E. Salsbury. Encyclopedia of Multicultural Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Roscoe, Will. The Zuni Man-Woman. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991.
The study found that while the students sought out information from a variety of sources, the sources they found most valuable were parents, friends, teachers, and school counselors. Students in upper grades (11th & 12th) were more likely than students in lower grades to seek out information, and upper level students were more likely to find school counselors, college resource materials, campus visits, and college representatives as most helpful, compared with lower grade students (9th & 10th) who reported that parents, relatives, or siblings were most helpful. There are several implications of this study for colleges and universities. First of all, as school counselors were cited as an important resource for information, colleges need to work with counselors to make sure they have up-to-date information. Griffin et al. (2010) explain that "erroneous information can lead to unrealistic expectations that may cause students to select goals and take actions that can…
Griffin, D., Hutchins, B.C., & Meece, J.L. (2011). Where do rural high school students go to find information about their futures?. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(2), 172-181. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Hahn, A.,, Coonerty, C. & Peaslee, L. (2003) Colleges and universities as economic anchors: Profiles of promising practices. Retrieved from http://www.compact.org/advancedtoolkit/pdf/HAHN_FINAL_PAPER.pdf
Hardy, D.E., & Katsinas, S.G. (2007). Classifying community colleges: How rural community colleges fit. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2007(137), 5-17. doi:10.1002/cc.265
Ludlow, B.L., & Duff, M.C. (2009). Evolution of distance education at West Virginia university: Past accomplishments, present activities, and future plans. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 28(3), 9-17. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.