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The regional it Director stated that these services can all be intermingled in customized workflows to support their development strategies and programming requirements. Cincom also had to transition off of a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) by first integrating it into a VoIP framework; a very challenging task according to the regional it Director. This was essential for creating an effective platform for growth that would also capitalize on the deregulation occurring in the telecommunications market (Cannon, 484, 485). The following section shown a representation of the schematic that is comparable to how Cincom dealt with this challenging issue .
hat as Learned
Just how central VoIP can be in the development of any corporate strategy was made very clear in the examples learned about at Cincom. VoIP is literally the backbone of the entire application development platform of Cincom today. at&T is so tightly intertwined with Cincom today that…
Cannon, Robert. "State Regulatory Approaches to VoIP: Policy, Implementation, and Outcome." Federal Communications Law Journal 57.3 (2005): 479-510.
Heron, a.J., and a.H. Warren. "Evaluating VoIP Technology -- Technology Push/Market Pull." BT Technology Journal 19.2 (2001): 158-165.
Juan, Rendon Schneir, and Thomas Pluckebaum. "VoIP Network Architectures and Impacts on Costing." Info: the Journal of Policy, Regulation and Strategy for Telecommunications, Information and Media 12.3 (2010): 59-72.
4B in the United States alone (Juan, Pluckebaum, 2010). The adoption of Federated VoIP technologies that alleviate the bottleneck caused by traditional PSTN frameworks are being pioneered by Google with GoogleTalk, in addition to Microsoft with Skype (Nunn, McGuire, Crowe, 2010). Federated VoIP technologies will continue to revolutionize this area of the telecommunications for decades to come, further lowering operating expense (OPEX) levels of spending and eliminating very large sections of Capital Expense (CAPEX) budget constraints (Nunn, McGuire, Crowe, 2010). The reduction in CAPEX initial upfront costs and the continual erosion of OPEX costs for enterprises will ensure a high level of VoIP adoption over the long-term. This adoption will come at the expense of traditional PSTN systems and networks, which will gradually be replaced with enterprise-wide VoIP systems. Additional factors that define the future of VoIP include the proliferating number of mobile network connections combined with 4G speed now…
Cheung, C., Kwok, S., & Jackson, K. (2005). Living with VoIP. Telecommunications International, 39(7), 25-28.
Drucker, J. (2004, Jul 26). Telecommunications; wi-fi + VOIP = ? The ability to make wireless calls over the internet is coming; but its impact is a big unknown. Wall Street Journal.
Juan, R.S., & Pluckebaum, T. (2010). VoIP network architectures and impacts on costing. Info: The Journal of Policy, Regulation and Strategy for Telecommunications, Information and Media, 12(3), 59-72.
Nunn, L., McGuire, B., & Crowe, B. (2010). Voice-over-internet protocol (VOIP) cost efficiencies and the decision to implement. The Review of Business Information Systems, 14(1), 1-11.
VoIP Phone Systems:
Beneficial to the Workplace
A Voice over Internet Protocol, or VoIP, system uses groups of transmission technology, communication protocols, and other methodologies in order to allow the delivery of voice communications and multimedia over Internet Protocol networks (International Engineering Consortium, 2007). The major development of mass market VoIP service began in 2004. VoIP is tempting for both the individual and business because it often offers unlimited international and domestic calling services for one flat monthly fee. Businesses are enjoying the benefits of VoIP because of its efficient use of bandwidth and its low costs (International Engineering Consortium, 2007).
Currently, the customer has primary rate interface (PI). PI is a telecommunication standard that carries many voice and data transmissions between a couple of physical locations. PI is not ideal for our customer because its use is intended for large enterprises rather than small business (Unuth, n.d.). The customer…
Unuth, Nadeem. (n.d.). What is a PBX? Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://voip.about.com/od/glossary/g/whatisPBX.htm .
Unuth, Nadeem. (n.d.). Getting Started with VoIP. Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://voip.about.com/od/voipbasics/ss/GettingStarted_8.htm .
International Engineering Consortium. (2007).Voice over Internet Protocol. Definition and Overview.Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/int_tele/index.asp .
Bit errors, which may be perceived as InErrors and OutErrors prove most significant. Some manageable systems will not permit one to drill down further into the error state, albeit, some systems allow this action and consequently enhance the troubleshooting process. hen these errors surface, one should initially test the cabling channel connected on that port as well as confirm the installation of the latest revision of software on the system and the updated, current status of the firmware calibration. The tester also needs to ensure interfaces and/or patch cords are relatively new. As each implements a limited number of mating cycles, a specific channel may appear to be malfunction when it is performing correctly (VoIP performance testing fundamentals).
The tester also needs to examine duplex configurations as having full duplex links duplex proves vital to performance. Mismatches and/or channels auto-negotiated to half duplex will further limit VoIP operations. Half duplex…
Kuhl, Craig. "Operation: VoIP: Testing and Monitoring Are Complex. But Key for Solid
Results. (Voice-over-internet Protocol)." CED. Advantage Business Media. 2005. Web.
09 June 2010. .
Linask, Erik. "VoIP Testing Made Easy with Automation." TMC News. 2009. Web. 09 June
12). Each would require however separate DHCP servers so that firewall protection could be easily integrated within the system (Kuhn, Walsh & Fries, 2005; Flatland, 2005). H.323 SIP and other VOIP protocols can be disconnected at the voice gateway that interfaces with the PSTN to allow for stronger authentication and access control on the gateway system (Kuhn, Walsh & Fries, 2005). However this can make key management problematic. Other ways to secure the data and voice network include implementing "packet filters" to track malicious connections (although this doesn't always work and is not always sensible) or IPsec and Secure Shell to manage remote voice and data access so hijackers can't utilize the remote system (Kuhn, Walsh & Fries, 2005).
If performance declines because of security measures then the organization can take advantage of encryption at a gateway like the router rather than "individual endpoints" which would allow "IPsec tunneling" however…
Flatland, Jeanne. Integrating Voice into the School Network: Benefits of Wireless VOIP,
E Journal (Technological Horizons in Education) vol. 32.8: 2005. p. 26
Kuhn, Richard, Walsh, Thomas and Fries, Steffen. Security Considerations for Voice
Over IP Systems. Special Publication 800-58, National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, January 2005
This system was problematic because of the number of students in the district and the time that it took to engage in this type of communication.
In an effort to find a solution for the problem an Information Systems Manager was called in to assist the district (Milner, 2005). After abandoning an idea that called for the expansion of the traditional telephone system by placing new jacks in classrooms because it would be too costly, the manager advised the use of VoIP for the school system (Milner, 2005). The article explains that throughout the 2002 school year the district implemented the VoIp system throughout all of its 13 schools.
The school district and other school districts throughout the country have benefited greatly form the adaptation of VoIP systems. VoIp offers greater communication between parents and teachers and also serves as an educational tool for students. Overall there has been very…
Milner, J. (2005). VoIP to the Rescue: Faced with the Challenges Hampering School Communications Nationwide, Three Districts Forge into the 21st Century with Web-Based Telephony the Journal (Technological Horizons in Education), 33(5), 30+.
Taylor K. (2006) the Advantages of VOIP for Small Businesses. Retrieved May 28 from; http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/23214/the_advantages_of_voip_for_small_businesses.html?cat=3
Voice Over Internet Protocol." United States Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved May 28 from; http://www.fcc.gov/voip/
VoIP subscriber base grows 21% in second quarter, 2006. Retrieved May 28 from; http://www.americasnetwork.com/americasnetwork/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=364860&ref=25
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) can be defined as a series of technologies and technique that is used for release of voice communications and multimedia through Internet Protocol networks. In some cases, this technique is referred to as a means of converting analog audio signals into digital data that can be delivered through an Internet Protocol. The use of the technique is attributed to its ability to transform standard Internet connection into a platform for free phone calls. In the past few years, Voice over Internet Protocol has emerged as an innovative technology with the capability of completely transforming phone systems across the globe. As a result, VoIP providers have not only existed for a considerable period of time but are also growing steadily. However, the use of VoIP to rework modern phone systems is characterized by several advantages and disadvantages.
Use of VoIP:
The use of Voice over…
Park, P. (2009, December 17). Eight Benefits of VoIP. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from http://www.enterprisenetworkingplanet.com/unified_communications/eight-benefits-voip
"The Advantages and Disadvantages of VoIP." (n.d.). Park Communication. Retrieved March 9,
2014, from http://www.parkcommunication.com/voip/the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-voip.html
Valdes, R. & Roos, D. (n.d.). How VoIP Works. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ip-telephony.htm
Voice over IP (VoIP) Security
Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP refers to making use of telephone services over that of the computer networks. During the first part of the process, the VoIP makes an analog signal which is evolved from the speaker's voice. It is then transferred to a digital signal and further transfers over that of an IP network and this is well inclusive of the Internet. Voice over Internet Protocol is also inclusive of any types of software, hardware, or even that of the protocol which could be linked to VoIP. There are very many examples which could be found relating to VoIP technologies which are being widely in use and there are several of these technologies being provided by various companies. Their various systems have the necessity to make use of analog telephone adapters in such a manner so that the standard type of telephones could…
Allsopp, Wil. (22 March 2004) "VoIP - Vulnerability over Internet Protocol" Retrieved from http://www.net-security.org/article.php?id=667 Accessed 11 October, 2005
"Internet Security Systems Discovers Critical Flaws in VoIP Infrastructure; Company Provides
Protection for Customers against VoIP Vulnerabilities" (13 July, 2005) Business Wire. Retrieved from http://www.investors.com/breakingnews.asp?journalid=29005350
Accessed 11 October, 2005
Another option is to use a network simulator which is a device that allows you to exactly model the target network and then see the effect of changing key factors such as routing, link speeds and priorities (Voice-over-IP (VoIP) and network performance, 2007).
The questions that arise after deployment include: is the VoIP system delivering adequate perceived voice quality? And Is the VoIP application affecting the performance of other applications? Voice is, by definition, analogue in nature and voice quality is highly subjective and the same network may deliver different perceived quality for different voice types. When it comes to measuring voice quality, there are two essential advances- analogue and digital. An analogue voice quality tester works by producing a real voice call across a network and weighing it against the received call with the reference call. A digital voice quality tester works by analyzing the packet data stream containing…
Linask, Erik. (2009). VoIP Testing Made Easy with Automation. Retrieved May 16, 2010, from TMC News Web site: http://www.tmcnet.com/channels/voip-test-solutions/articles/60010-voip-testing-made-easy-with-automation.htm
VoIP performance testing fundamentals. (2007). Retrieved May 16, 2010, from Search Unified
Communications Web site:
Fundamentally, proxy servers get SIP messages and redirect them to the next SIP server in the network. Proxy servers are able to provide operations like authentication, authorization, network access control, routing, reliable request transmission, and security. (ii) edirect server: Gives the client with information regarding the nest hop or hops which the message must take and subsequently the client contacts the next hop server and UAS directly. (iii) egistrar Server: Processes requests taking from UACs for registration of their present location. egistrar servers are frequently are co-situated with a redirect or proxy server. (Overview of the Session Initiation Protocol)
Functioning of the SIP:
SIP is an easy, ASCII-based protocol that utilizes requests and responses to set up communication among the different components in the network and to finally set up a conference among two of more terminal points. Users in a SIP network are recognized by a unique SIP address.…
Overview of the Session Initiation Protocol" Retrieved at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/voice/sipsols/biggulp/bgsipov.htm . Accessed on 25 January 2005
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol Communication" Retrieved at http://voip-voice-over-ip.com/?GAW06. Accessed on 25 January 2005
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) (2004) The Concise Tech Encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://www.tech-encyclopedia.com/VoIP.htm. Accessed on 25 January 2005
Voice-over-IP: The Future of Communications" (April 29, 2002)
Skype is not a new technology. VoIP has been around for years but Skype took years to reach the kind of status it enjoys today. Owing to its pioneering status, Skype became popular rather fast which can be held responsible for its slow growth in later years. While Skype was everything that VoIP was touted to be, it still lacked the kind of culture and corporate strategy needed to turn Skype into a major force. Founded in 2003, it was not until 2009 that Skype realized it's potential. The strategy lacked growth which was one of the most major problems with the company. It was indeed unfortunate that Skype with all its potential and pioneering status was not able to devise a growth strategy.
Most of the people using Skype did it for free. They were more interested in computer to computer calls instead of buying minutes to call friends…
Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_95.htm
Kohnstamm, Thomas. Inside Skype. http://microsoftjobsblog.com/blog/inside-skype
Voice over Internet Protocol, also known as VoIP, converts voice signals into data packets and transmits them over the Internet. VoIP services still stand on the cusp of being included in the list of services to be regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). As is well-known, the public switched telephone network has been under the scrutiny of the FCC for the latter part of it's existence. This paper will explore if a similar approach can be taken for VOIP, this form of telecommunications through information services, and what the ramifications of such an approach will be. Many contend that VOIP is the future of voice transmission, with potential improvements over voice clarity and reducing costs of transmissions. This is preceded by the traditional method of voice transmission that is through towers that aggregate and distribute signals, and cables and wires that transmit signals. VoIP services over the world have…
Barbagallo, P. (n.d.). Legal, Tax, EHS, and HR Expert Information & Analysis | Bloomberg BNA. Views Vary on FCC Role as Regulator in All-IP World | Bloomberg BNA. Retrieved June 11, 2015, from http://www.bna.com/views-vary-fcc-n17179872081/
(n.d.). Congress.gov | Library of Congress. Committee Reports Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress). Retrieved June 12, 2015, from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/cpquery/R-cp109:FLD010:@1%28sr355%29:
Economides, N. (n.d.). NYU Stern | NYU Stern School of Business | Full-time MBA, Part-time (Langone) MBA, Undergraduate, PhD, Executive MBA Business Programs. TELECOMMUNICATIONS REGULATION: I AN INTRODUCTION . Retrieved June 12, 2015, from http://www.stern.nyu.edu/networks/Telecommunications_Regulation.pdf
(n.d.). Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Home Page. FCC - Telecommunications Act of 1996. Retrieved June 12, 2015, from http://transition.fcc.gov/telecom.html
With the advent of information technology, the ways different aspects of life work and operate have changed a great deal. The advancement in telecommunication sector have revolutionized and redefined the communication systems at all aspects around the world. The process of bringing the world closer that started with the invention of Morse codes has now entered an era of its own where distances of miles are bridged to a few seconds. This is the world of internet protocol. The invention of the internet and then its integration with the telecommunication system has redefined the meaning of communication and revolutionized the way it is done all together.
Blue Wire Communication Solutions Inc. is a company that deals in providing to comprehensive communication solutions, products and services to its customers. The customer base of the company includes both B2B and B2C customers. The company will be providing a diverse range of…
Bielski, L. (2005). IP Call Centers: Coming Online Slowly but Surely Especially for Small to Midsize Firms, Options Begin to Emerge for Banks. ABA Banking Journal, 97(2), 70+. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008964700
Godwin-Jones, R. (2005). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. Language, Learning & Technology, 9(3), 9+. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011372410
Hazlett, T.W. (2006). Rivalrous Telecommunications Networks with and without Mandatory Sharing. Federal Communications Law Journal, 58(3), 477+. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5016726073
Lookabaugh, T., Ryan, P.S., & Sicker, D.C. (2006). A Model for Emergency Service of VoIP through Certification and Labeling. Federal Communications Law Journal, 58(1), 115+. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013911010
Communication Upgrade Plan
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Abco Company wishes to upgrade its telecommunications technology to a system that is more efficient than the outdated Centrex system now in place. As part of the upgrade plan, the CEO has asked for an explanation of the various systems and technologies available for the upgrade. This research explores various technologies and recommends the proper solution for the business problem at hand.
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Centrex phone system has been the standard in business telecommunications since the 1960s. The system has been the only system of this type for many years. usinesses, such as Abco have had their Centrex System for many years. However, aside from being outdated technology, the Centrex System is no longer the most cost effective solution for businesses. The Abco Corporation has had its Centrex system for as long as anyone can remember. Until recently, no one had…
Callahan, R. (2008). Businesses Move to Voice-over-IP. 12 September 2008. Forbes.com.
Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2008/12/09/skype-vonage-ringcentral_leadership_clayton_in_rc_1209claytonchristensen_inl.html
This article explores the advantages and move towards VoIP in many businesses.
CISCO. (2011). Quality of Service for Voice over IP. Cisco Systems. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./docs/ios/solutions_docs/qos_solutions/QoSVoIP/QoSVoIP.html
The diffused infrared configuration however, uses a transmitter that fills a given office space with signals. The signal receiver can then be located anywhere in the office area in order to successfully receive the I signal.
The Spread spectrum LANs
This form of arrangement utilizes the multiple-cell configuration. Each of the cells are appropriately assigned a unique center frequency that lies within a specific band in order to avoid signal interference. This transmission technique makes use of two methods; frequency hopping as well as direct sequence modulation
The Frequency hopping method uses signals that jumps from a given frequency to the other within a specific bandwidth. The transmission unit then "listens" to a give channel and if successfully detects any idle time (a time when no signal is transmitted),then transmits the packet via the full channel bandwidth .In case a channel is deemed "full," the transmitter then "hops" to the…
Bruce, WR (2002).Wireless LANs End to End, Ron Gilster (ed.), John Wiley & Sons.
Burell, J (2002) 'Wireless Local Area Networking: Security Assessment and Countermeasures: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks', Dec. 2002, retrieved 22 March
2011, < http://telecom.gmu.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Jim-Burrell-December-2002.pdf>
Cisco (n.d)"Cisco HWIC-AP WLAN Module for Cisco 1800 (Modular), 2800 and 3800."
" The problem with these primitive models is that they are still mainly oriented on data retrieval rather than optimal voice transmission.
However, research is well on the way and it seems that it will be less than a year before we can talk about Voice over WiFi or VoWiFi. On the other hand, it is obvious that there are several problems that the VoWiFi providers will have to deal with before the models are commercialized on the market.
First of all, there is the issue of security, something I have also referred to when discussing Voice over IP. The problem does not actually refer to security itself, but to the fact that voice transmission may be affected by the security protocols installed to protect the data exchange. In many ways, this is similar to what we are experiencing nowadays when we have a firewall installed. The problem with voice…
1. Brown, Eric. Voice Over WiFi: the Great Disrupter. August 2004. On the Internet at http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/04/08/wo_brown081104.asp
2. VoIP: It's not just saving money. On the Internet at http://www.worldonip.com/voip.htm
3. Voice over Internet Protocol. White Paper, on the Internet at http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/searchNetworking/downloads/VoIP_Dvorak.pdf
VoIP: It's not just saving money. On the Internet at
Routers, LANs, MANs, and VLANs
Routers have long been an important component in a network beginning with the transmission of data traffic. ith VoIP on its way it will also evolve to support voice traffic as well. It does so today in a lab and test environment as well as limited VoIP deployment.
hat security functions does a router provide and are these functions adequate for securing the LAN or MAN?
Internet Voice, also known as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allows a caller to make telephone calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line. Some services using VoIP only allow a caller to reach other people using the same service. Other services allow calls to anyone with a telephone number, including local, long distance, mobile, and international numbers. Some services only work over a computer or a special VoIP…
Newman, Robert C. (2003). Enterprise Security. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
VLAN -- Definition." (2004) Webopedia. Retrieved on July 15, 2004 at http://net21.ucdavis.edu/newvlan.htm
VLAN Information." (2004) Retrieved on July 15, 2005 at http://net21.ucdavis.edu/newvlan.htm
VoIP. (2003) Retrieved on July 15, 2005 at http://www.fcc.gov/voip/
AOL, for example, drew users away from DSL with its broadband services, simply because it was easier to add broadband to one's existing AOL account than to go through a new service. Thus, through using Shaw rather than Skype, a user could consolidate his or her computer services. So, Shaw could thus make use of its current marketing position as a more tried and true organization in contrast to the upstart Skype.
Shaw could thus create a new, combined product service of VOIP and other Internet services to compete with Skype, although it might have to consider offering this service free for a time to lure customers in, as a promotional device. Shaw could even make more efficient use of placing than Skype by specifically emphasizing its Canadian/North America location, to corner that area of the VOIP market, stressing the greater and more personalized services it could offer North American…
Shaw Communications. (2005) Official website. Retrieved 31 Jan 2005 at www.shaw.ca
Skype. (2005) Official website. Retrieved 31 Jan 2005 at www.skype.com
Comcast feels that the product life cycle is still in its infancy or introductory phase, and that costs will plummet once the technology improves, and more consumers use the product and make it integral to their lifestyle. Vontage like all of the companies has the advantage of the lack of federal communications regulations regarding the technology, but these laws may change in the future -- thus for all companies, the product is still in its growing phase, as branding, positioning, quality and also federal regulations are still an issue, but things are not competitive enough for companies to have a market-wide price war, as sometimes occurs during the growth phase of the product life cycle.
Bundling is advantageous to a company, because it yields a captive consumer audience. A company can lure in a consumer with a low price, but once the consumer subscribes to the bundle, the company…
Secondly, Shaw needs to broaden its national base. Shaw is currently a Canadian-based communication company, while Skype serves eleven million users in the international sphere. It is in Shaw's interests to expand its outreach to other, preferably internationally-based communications companies, regarding VOIP technology, to ensure that it can make inroads into the VOIP market.
Thus, Shaw's deployment must be an increase in advertising and services to its existing Canadian consumers. The second leg of the marketing strategy will require legal and economic negotiations with other firms to establish joint agreements with Shaw in other nations and continents. This second aspect must be accomplished not only to limit Skype's expansion and potential to enter into new agreements, but also to circumvent other communication market second-moves from doing the same, such as Verizon.
features of telecommunications networks, including key networking technologies. Cover the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, including each logical layer.
The OSI layer covers the different layers and types of communication that occurs within a network. The layers, in order of complexity from greatest to lowest are application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link and physical. The physical layer is the actual transport medium like network cable and such while routers and switches address much of the middle layers while the "window" to the user is the application layer at the very top. Telecommoniciation networks, and this is something that will be answered more in-depth later in this report, are very computer driven and are in many ways indistinguishable from regular computer networks as phone and conventional internet networks are very much one and the same and this is especially true when speaking Voice over IP (VOIP) technologies and the like.…
DigiCert. (2014, February 20). What Is SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and What Are SSL
Certificates?. DigiCert Inc.. Retrieved February 20, 2014, from http://www.digicert.com/ssl.htm
Kratsas, G. (2014, February 18). Reports: Target warned before data breach. USA
Today. Retrieved February 20, 2014, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2014/02/14/target-warned-breach/5494911/
If Shaw decides to enter the VOIP market it must find a way to overcome Skype's first mover advantage. It could do this in terms of market placement in the sense that it can offer VOIP as a part of a bundle of other Internet services to its current Canadian clientele. This would certainly be an incentive to Shaw's current Canadian Internet users, but might not draw new users from a broader, international base. However, Shaw can also offer security of its longstanding reputation in other communications services. As in a company is better established than Skype, and thus may weather a potential market shift or change. Shaw can also assure its customers that it will provide continued assistance and support, should their be any difficulties in using or integrating the new VOIP communications system into current business or personal systems. Shaw must corner the emerging VOIP market on ease,…
Skype. (2005) Official company website. Retrieved at 7 Feb 2005 at www.skype.com.
Shaw (2005) Official company website. Retrieved at 7 Feb 2005 at www.shaw.ca
Cyberspace as the Most Dominant Domain
Cyberspace is the indefinite place where all online communications take place. It can also be defined in computer networks as the electronic medium. The name was coined by William Gibson a science fiction author. When he coined the name, he was looking for a word to describe the global computer network he was envisioning. The U.S. government defines cyberspace as the country's control system composed of interconnected computers, routers, servers, switches and fiber optic cables Adams, 1997.
It states that cyberspace is the nervous system for the military. The use of electromagnetic spectrum and electromagnetic to modify, store, and exchange information using physical infrastructures and networked information systems can also be used to refer to the cyberspace domain.
The use of cyberspace to attack others is referred to as cyber terrorism. The attacks occur in form of viruses, which are meant to disrupt…
Adams, P.C. (1997). Cyberspace and Virtual Places. Geographical Review, 87(2), 155-171.
Halloran, J. (2011). Game Changer? How VoIP Is Impacting the Way We Play. [Article]. International Journal of Interactive Worlds, 1-27. doi: 10.5171/2011.144197
Molina, A. (2003). Cyberspace: The "Color Line" of the 21st Century. Social Justice, 30(2 (92)), 143-149.
Yan, H. (2010). On the Clouds: A New Way of Computing. [Article]. Information Technology & Libraries, 29(2), 87-92.
Electronic communication has become one of the most important methods for people to communicate with one another in recent years. Spielberg (1999) noted that patients have sought to utilize electronic communication with their physicians. In the past, he argued, a variety of exchanges were utilized, including in-person visits, telephone, pagers and voicemail, so it was only natural that communication between patients and those within the medical profession would be extended to the realm of electronic communication. Thus, the market has driven the need for health care organizations to begin to explore how they can use electronic communication methods such as email, the Internet, online chats or even SMS messaging to bridge the communication gap with their patients. hile the market may demand new methods of communication be developed, there are risks inherent to the medical profession that present challenges or obstacles to facilitating the market-demanded electronic communication methods.
Spielberg, A. (1999). Online without a net: Physician-patient communication by electronic mail. American Journal of Law & Medicine. Vol. 15 (1999) 267-295.
Hassol, A.; Walker, J.; Kidder, D.; Rokita, K.; Young, D.; Pierdon, S.; Deitz, D.; Kuck, S. & Ortiz, E. (2004). Patient experiences and attitudes about access to a patient electronic health care record and linked web messaging. Journal of the American Medical Information Association. Vol. 11 (6) 505-513.
Winkelman, W.; Leonard, K. & Kossos, P. (2005). Patient-perceived usefulness of electronic medical records: Employing grounded theory in the development of information and communication technologies for use by patients living with chronic illness. Journal of American Medical Information Association. Vol. 12 (3) 306-314.
Wager, K.A., Lee, F.W., & Glaser, J.P. (2009). Health care information systems: A practical approach for health care management (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
ABC NETWOK DESIGN
A Comprehensive Proposal and Design for ABC Inc. Network equirements
Network Proposal Overview
Network Configuration Management Plan
In order to meet the needs of the customers, ABC Inc. must insure that productivity is not hindered by the growth of the company. The employees at ABC Inc. must have a robust network so that customer service is not jeopardized. The accounting firm has grown from five to fifty employees with the acquisition of a large account. Currently, each employee has their own standalone computer which contains Windows 7, Office 2010 and QuickBooks accounting software. The company does not have a network in place. Currently information is shared by copying data to a flash drive and each workstation has a stand-alone printer. The objective of this proposal is to provide a centralized solution for all of ABC's network needs.
Given the highly…
Amsel, E. (1988). Network security and access controls. Computers & Security, 7(1),
Bray, O., & Hess, M.M. (1995). Reengineering a configuration-management system.
IEEE Software, 12(1), 55-63.
HSPA+ is expected to be commercially available in 2008 through [the introduction] of incremental investments and backward and forward compatible handsets. HSPA+ doubles the data capacity and increases voice capacity by three times enabling operators to offer mobile broadband at even lower cost" (elease 7 HSPA+, 2007, p. 3). Likewise, Housami (2008) reports that, "HSPA+ is a manifestation of the evolved HSPA philosophy where the existing HSPA implementation is pushed to its limits by introducing various improvements to increase the efficiency of the system while maintaining backward compatibility" (p. 2).
The term "HSPA+" is the name assigned to the set of HSPA enhancements that are defined in 3 GPP elease 7 (7) and later; the enhanced downlink (HSDPA) was defined in 3 GPP 5 and provides three times the data capacity of WCDMA 99 (using a rake receiver and a single UE receive antenna) (elease 7 HSPA+).
Some of the…
Chiu, C.S. & Lin, C.C. (2004). Comparative downlink shared channel evaluation of WCDMA release 99 and HSDPA. IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, 2(2), 1165-1170.
Hazlett, T.W. (2006). Rivalrous telecommunications networks with and without mandatory sharing. Federal Communications Law Journal, 58(3), 477.
Herman, B.D. (2006). Opening bottlenecks: On behalf of mandated network neutrality. Federal Communications Law Journal, 59(1), 103.
Housami, H. (2007, January 4). Advanced cellular technologies episode 4: Evolution of UMTS/HSDPA. [Online]. Available: http://housami2.blogspot.com/2007/01/advanced-cellular-technologies-episode_04.html .
Secured real time protocol (STP) is also being identified to enhance the security parameter of WAN and LAN network elements. "STP provides protection with encryption keys for wired and wireless networks including bandwidth limited channels." (Guillen and Chacon 2009 P. 690). There is also a growing use of IP secure to protect organization from the interception of data over the LAN and WAN environment.
To enhance network security, Chen, Horng, & Yang (2008) postulate the use of public key cryptography. While there is a growing use of public key cryptography, there is still a shortcoming identified with the use of public key cryptography in the LAN and WAN environment. Since the public key is being kept in a public file, it is possible for an active intruder to forge the contents of the public key and use it to get access onto the data kept within the network system. To…
Chen, T. Horng, G. & Yang, C. (2008).Public Key Authentication Schemes for Local Area. Informaticia.19 (1):3-16.
Fetterolf, P.C. & Anandalinga, G. (1992). Optimal design of LAN-WAN internetworks:
an approach using simulated annealing. Annals of Operations Research. 36: 275-298.
Guillen, P.E. & Chacon, D. A (2009). VoIP Networks Performance Analysis with Encryption Systems. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology. 58: 688-695.
Bal Athwal, Fotios C. Harmantzis, & Venkata Praveen anguturi. (2010). Valuing Hosted VoIP services in the enterprise market: case application using real options. International Journal of echnology Management, 49(1-3), 250-271.
Basaglia, S., Caporarello, L., Magni, M., & Pennarola, F.. (2009). Environmental and organizational drivers influencing the adoption of VoIP. Information Systems and eBusiness Management, 7(1), 103-118.
Bayer, N., Xu, B., Rakocevic, V., & Habermann, J.. (2010). Application-aware scheduling for VoIP in Wireless Mesh Networks. Computer Networks,
Blefari-Melazzi, N., Daigle, J., & Femminella, M.. (2009). Efficient and stateless deployment of VoIP services. Computer Networks, 53(5), 706.
Reu-Ching Chen, & Chen-Sung Chang. (2007). Optimum latency guarantee by using weighting methods in real time VOIP. Journal of Information & Optimization Sciences, 28(4), 641-651.
de Bijl, P., & Peitz, M.. (2009). Access regulation and the adoption of VoIP. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 35(2), 111-134.
Diffie, W., & Landau, S.. (2009). Communications…
Theodore Tryfonas, Iain Sutherland, & Ioannis Pompogiatzis. (2007). Employing penetration testing as an audit methodology for the security review of VoIP: Tests and examples. Internet Research, 17(1), 61.
Wang, C., & Wei, H.. (2009). IEEE 802.11n MAC Enhancement and Performance Evaluation. Mobile Networks and Applications, 14(6), 760-771.
Patrick Xavier. (2008). From universal service to universal network access? Info: the Journal of Policy, Regulation and Strategy for Telecommunications, Information and Media, 10(5/6), 20-32.
Cox had no obligation to contribute VoIP derived revenues to the Universal Service Fund, however the Cox management decided to contribute voluntarily. This way Cox has tried to enhance and build its stature as both a good corporate citizen and established carrier.
Although VoIP was in line; Cox didn't breakout its variable and fixed expenses for residential telephony.
Cox had proven its ability to profitably provide first rate telephone service. In doing so, they have experienced that bundled offerings could significantly reduce churn.
There is no to launch the operations of VoIP speedily. By doing so Cox can lock in customers, otherwise Cox would be exposed to competition and rivalry from DBS and other ILECs who are steadily and gradually building the art and science of bundling. Cox should better plan its ploicy such that it can cater for the supremacy of the competitors.
The training cost of the…
http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_generic_strategies.htm . http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_value_chain.htm
Cox Communication Inc., Harvard Business School report.
The market was not ready for wireless even five years ago, but that has definitely changed. When Levi's launched its latest 501s marketing campaign earlier this year, a wireless site was a central part of its digital strategy. Now there are nearly 30,000 public wireless "hot spots" in the United States. Advertisers believe that now that wireless has finally become a medium with which consumers are comfortable, the next stage is its exploitation by brands. Many feel that the wireless sites will increasingly become a part of marketing campaigns.
The semi-technical arena is seeing the rise of numerous new search engines, especially since ones such as Google have become so successful. Increasing numbers of Web surfers are going to alternative search engines that specialize in finding certain kinds of information or offering additional capabilities to well-known search sites (Kharif). AOL launched a test version of its new travel search site,…
Clendenning, a. (March 11, 2005). Are specialty search engines a future trend?
America's Intelligence Wire. [electronic version]
E-Commerce Trends. Website retrieved July 12, 2005. http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/16967.html
Frenzel, L.E. (2005). The Internet's next evolution beckons. Electronic Design.
Currently, all the traffic among the different units passes via the novel centers and because of this Grant Thornton was also capable of reducing most of the fixed point-to-point circuits which had linked nearly all of its units. The savings made throughout its 50 units was a phenomenal $300.000 annually for the entire company. Besides, with the complete elimination of the long-distance costs, Grant Thorton was able to make a savings of $30,000 on a monthly basis. (Understanding VoIP: Leveraging Technology for a Competitive Edge)
The importance of Voice Internet Protocol technology is appreciated all over the world throughout huge as well as middle level companies and embracing of Voice Internet Protocol is just an issue of time. A short analysis of the oadmap as well as Heat index data evolved from the Wave 2 of a Networking research has spawned certain exciting findings regarding the technology preferences of the…
Boney, James. Cisco IOS in a Nutshell.
ClickZ Stats Staff. Investment in Voice Technology Increases. October 2, 2001. http://www.clickz.com/showPage.html?page=895861
Collins, Daniel. Carrier Grade voice over IP.
). Such security should also preplan strategic responses to attacks associated with the network (Dawkins et al.).
A book entitled "Surviving Security: How to Integrate People, Process, and Technology" explains that the rapid expansion networking and networking technologies necessitates greater security needs. The author asserts that parts of the network such as routers, switches and even network printers are vulnerable (Andress). The article further explains that the router or switch contained between the firewall and the internet access or between the firewall and the internal network are often vulnerable. Organizations with networks should work hard to secure them at these points. The article also states that if attackers can gain access to a network at these points, they can gain access to sensitive information and compromise the stability of the network. Also attackers who gain access to a network at one of the aforementioned points will also be able to…
Strong Case for converged Networks." 24 October, 2008 http://www.networkmagazineindia.com/200206/cover2.shtml
Andress, Amanda. Surviving Security: How to Integrate People, Process, and Technology. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications, 2003
Bates, R.J. Voice and Data Communication Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Further Efforts Needed to Integrate Planning for and Response to Disruptions on Converged Voice and Data Networks. United States Government Accounting Office, 2008. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d08607.PDF
Microsoft purchased Skype for $8.5 billion (Primack, 2010). This marked the third time in five years that Skype had been sold, first to eBay and then to a private investment group. The company filed for an IPO, but that never came to pass as Microsoft entered the bidding and took over. There have been significant questions from industry observers about the value of Skype to Microsoft, and whether Microsoft overpaid for Skype. Analysts have attempted to determine what Microsoft's plans for Skype are, and whether those plans justify the seemingly high valuation (Bright, 2011). Since the purchase, there have been a number of changes at Skype that have seen Microsoft seek to capture value from the company. One recent change, for example, is the pending launch of conversation ads (McCue, 2012). To better understand this acquisition, the business of Skype and the needs of Microsoft must both be taken into…
Bright, P. (2011). Microsoft buys Skype for $8.5 billion. Why, exactly? Wired Magazine. Retrieved June 15, 2012 from http://www.wired.com/business/2011/05/microsoft-buys-skype-2/
Bright, P. (2011). Why Skype? Microsoft confirms $8.5 billion purchase, clarifies nothing. Ars Technica. Retrieved June 15, 2012 from http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2011/05/microsoft-confirms-85-bn-skype-purchase-clarifies-nothing/
McCue, T. (2012). Skype for Windows and Microsoft launch conversation ads. Forbes. Retrieved June 15, 2012 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/tjmccue/2012/06/13/skype-for-windows-and-microsoft-launch-conversation-ads/
Primack, D. (2010). Yes, Microsoft is buying Skype. CNN Money. Retrieved June 15, 2012 from http://finance.fortune.cnn.com/2011/05/10/yes-microsoft-is-buying-skype/
new technologies have given birth to data analysis from the IT backrooms, and have increased the possibilities of utilizing the use of data-driven results into every aspect of an organization. However, much as improvements in hardware and software have made the advent of big data usage possible, the only consideration is not technology. It is important for organizations to take very holistic approaches to integrate big data into every aspect of their business procedures, their daily operations, and strategies. Big data brings both challenges and opportunities to every business. To be able to obtain value for big data, it is important to carry out timely analysis of the data, and the result must be such that can influence important business decisions and bring about positive changes. Having the appropriate combination of people, technology, and processes determine the overall effectiveness. Key processes, roles, and functions are optimized by analytics. It can…
BCC Research, (2013, April). Mobile Wallet Technologies: Functionality and Advantages. Retrieved from BCC Research: http://www.bccresearch.com/blog/information-technology/mobile-wallet-technologies-functionality-advantages.html
Desantis, M. (2006). Understanding Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). U.S.-CERT.
Eisenhauer, T. (2015, October 7). Intranets vs. Extranets-What is the difference? Retrieved from axero://axerosolutions.com/blogs/timeisenhauer/pulse/165/intranets-vs.-extranets-what-is-the-difference
EY. (2014). Big data: Changing the way businesses compete and operate. EYGM Limited.
Skype competes as a differentiated player in the VoIP industry. The company's business model is based on free distribution of its software, and then encouraging users to sign up for a payment plan that covers usage. The company's technology was once innovative but has now been commoditized (Blodget, 2011). The company was recently purchased by Microsoft for $8.5 billion (Saporito, 2011). The value of the company derives not from the software but from the company's 170 million-strong user base.
The company's strategy therefore relies heavily on throughputs. The most important input for Skype is the technology, which is now common. The technology allows users to interact with each other, using text messaging, voice or video calls. The company charges for this service, but still loses money. The main input for Microsoft is the user base. ithout the massive user base, Skype has little intrinsic value and little means of generating…
Blodget, H. (2011). Microsoft has bought Skype for $8.5 billion. Business Insider. Retrieved May 17, 2012 from http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-05-09/tech/30075195_1_skype-andreessen-horowitz-windows-phone#mod-ctr-lt-in-top
Nadler, D. & Tushman, M. (1980). A model for diagnosing organizational behavior. Organizational Dynamics, Autumn 1980. pp. 35-51.
Saporito, B. (2011). Microsoft's call on Skype: Profits $0; value $8.5 billion. Time Magazine. Retrieved May 17, 2012 from http://business.time.com/2011/05/10/microsofts-call-on-skype-profits-0-value-8-5-billion/
MSFT Skype V
Microsoft purchased Skype for $8.5 billion, and immediately critics of the deal questioned the value that Skype could bring to Microsoft (Bright, 2011). Skype was plagued with old technology that it did not even develop itself (Ricknas, 2008; Kharif, 2009). The company's 2009 SEC filing revealed that its financial condition was terrible. hile the company has been rapidly increasing its user base, less than 10% of users are paying customers and the rate at which paying customers are growing is slower than the rate at which customers in general are growing. There are two feedback loops that are critical to Skype, one of which is negative and one of which is positive. These feedback loops can be identified through the analysis of the company's business and financial statements.
Making a Case
The key balancing feedback loop at Skype is that which keeps the company unprofitable, and this…
Bellinger, G. (2004) Introduction to systems thinking. Retrieved from http://www.systems-thinking.org/intst/int.htm on 2/20/12.
Bright, P. (2011). Microsoft buys Skype for $8.5 billion. Why, exactly? Wired Magazine. Retrieved June 15, 2012 from http://www.wired.com/business/2011/05/microsoft-buys-skype-2/
Dignan, L. (2011). Skype: Ad revenue provides third revenue stream. ZD Net. Retrieved June 18, 2012 from http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/skype-ad-revenue-provides-third-revenue-stream/45769
Kharif, O. (2009). Skype legal settlement clears path for expansion. Business Week. Retrieved June 18, 2012 from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/nov2009/tc2009116_153601.htm
These include lack of emergency calling, call security, and sound quality. Because VoiP providers, including Skype, are a bypass to the conventional phone system, they do not typically provide emergency calling services (Schueneman, no date). Thus, the firm will have a more difficult time accessing police or fire services. It must be considered how often such services are needed by the office.
The second consideration is with respect to call security. Skype's security is proprietary and a closely guarded secret (the Economist, 2008). Thus, the level of call security on Skype is unknown. For a legal firm, the potential outcomes in the event of a breach in call security can be catastrophic. Cases could be lost, sensitive information could be revealed and the firm's reputation could be damaged (Nugent, 2007).
The final consideration is with respect to sound quality. Skype and other VoiP software are often of substandard sound quality.…
Schueneman, Thomas. (no date). The Advantages and Disdvantages of Using VoiP. EZine. Retrieved March 2, 2009 at http://ezinearticles.com/?the-Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-Using-VoIP&id=147921
No author. (2008). Tossing the Phone. The Economist. Retrieved March 2, 2009 at http://www.economist.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
technologies that are readily available for in-home internet access. You should consider practical as well as technical differences in your comparison. Do not include Frame elay or ATM as these are primarily larger scale business solutions.
Higher-speed standards up to 300+ Mbps
802.11n uses (MIMO) technology and a wider radio frequency channel.
It provides a mechanism called frame aggregation to decrease time between transmissions
Channels operating at 40 MHz are another feature incorporated into 802.11n
The transmitter and receiver use pre-coding & post-coding techniques to achieve the capacity of a MIMO link
A video conference is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously
ITU H.320 is known as the standard for video conferencing over integrated services digital networks
H.264 SVC is compression standard that enables video conferencing systems to achieve highly error resilient
To avoid repeating negative historical experiences, regulatory regimes need to block the control and domination by networks/platforms. In the report, "Infrastructure and Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Macro Level Literature," Stephane Straub (2007) reported that at times, in some developing companies, "the hope of getting a fixed-line installed is a distant and costly dream" (p. 4). Meantime, the primary option for the individuals waiting for fixed-line telecommunications services would likely be having to us a much too expensive cell phone.
In 2010, much of the fixed-line telecom industry faces growing threats from cable and wireless service competitors.
As the writer of the quote introducing the study section pointed out, more firms are realizing "a cellular wireless solution" generally provides "more stability than the usual wired connections… [and serves as] a valuable asset built for the long haul" ("Lincolnshire Drainage Board…," 2010, ¶ 9). In the book, Integration in Asia…
Ahmadnezhad, E. (2009). Research Design Mixed Methods. PPt; Tehran University of Medical
Sciences. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from www.pitt.edu/~super4/36011
Campbell, D.J. & Craig, T. (2005). Organisations and the business environment. Oxford, UK:
First, the decreasing subscription of land-line telephone service due to the proliferation of cellular technology. Since 2001, there has been a steady decline in market share of land-line telephones as more and more users chose to use cell phones as their permanent phone provider. WorldCom, with its specific focus still on land-line services has created a multitiered strategy to promote land-line use. They emphasize new packages that are more affordable than older packages, with shorter time commitments, as well as more land-line services than previous offers. WorldCom believes that this strategy promotes greater diversification of land-line services across many different platforms that will increase the overall usage and service provision for American consumers. The second major issue that impacts WorldCom's future strategic vision is the emergence of VIP services as a mode of land-line phone services. VIP (Voice over IP) are internet-based telephone services that utilize the internet connections to…
Overall it is evident that WorldCom has suffered tremendously as a result of their illegal disclosure and accounting practices. They suffered complete negative publicity and branding in the wake of their scandal and now must attempt to resurrect its brand through its parent company. Either of these initiatives will be extremely hard in the much tighter competitive landscape of landline phones.
Lawson, Stephen. www.infoworld.comInfoWorld, January 06, 2006.
Lynne W. Jeter (2003). Disconnected: Deceit and Betrayal at WorldCom. Wiley
However this research fails to focus on the outcomes of this particular teaching method. For instance, the existing research does not reveal conversational abilities, level of comprehension or whether or not the learner is able to read and write English proficiently. All of these issues are relevant to understanding the success of teaching ESL online. A better understanding of the failure and/or success rates of online learning when compared to traditional teaching methods is needed so that instructors and administrators know whether or not they want to utilize online learning as a curriculum tool.
For the purposes of carrying out this type of research, the researcher must seek out institutions of learning that currently use online language learning to teach English as a second language. A decision must be made concerning whether or not the research will focus on adult learners or young learners. Once this decision is made,…
Campbell, a.P. (2003). Web logs for use with ESL classes. The Internet TESL Journal, IX (2). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org / Techniques/Campbell-Web logs.html
Coburn J. (2010) Teaching Oral English Online - Through Skype (VOIP). Retrieved from http://www.adno.no/index.php/adno/article/view/109/133
Dekhinet R. (2008) Online enhanced corrective feedback for ESL learners in higher education. Computer Assisted Language Learning 21 (5), 409 -- 425
Ferris, D., Hedgcock, J. (2005) Teaching ESL composition: purpose, process, and practice
4). The strength associated with this approach is ensuring that an organization has access to its mission-critical data in the event of a disaster, with the concomitant weakness being the relatively modest costs involved.
The next step in developing the organization's information system recover plan is to take stock of existing hardware. As Cohen emphasizes, "If you have been hosting your company's Web site on an office computer, it is time to stop. For the cost of a cup of coffee per day, a Web-hosting center can fully protect your site off-site, where it will not tie up your company's bandwidth" (p. 3). This approach to maintaining important contacts with customers and an organization's intranet has several strengths over an organization's hosting the Web site in-house. For instance, eagan (2006) notes that, "A hosted solution provides an organization with the flexibility of deploying an IP-enabled system without the maintenance costs…
Cohen, B. (2004, November 17). Data recovery planning -- What you need to know.
SmallBusinessComputing.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.smallbusiness computing.com/webmaster/article.php/3436831.
Reagan, C. (2006, February). Using VOIP to recover telecommunications services: A new generation of disaster recovery processes and telecom systems can help your enterprise deal with a crisis. Business Communications Review, 36(2), 60-61.
FDDI's emergence as a networking interface standard is assured given its adoption across both Token ing and TCP/IP-based networks and heterogeneous LANs that rely in large part on Fiber Optic cabling to ensure the highest level of performance possible.
Fiber optic cablings' unique set of advantages makes this specific type of connectivity solution ideal for high bandwidth requirements of LANs and WANs that transmit voice and data as the majority of their traffic. It departments that choose to implement Fiber Optics as their backbone cabling standard often include a series of repeaters to ensure the signals sent are strengthened before they reach their destination system. The development of cabling techniques for allowing for synchronous communication is also significantly changing how fiber optic cabling is used.
The role of fiber optic cabling in the creation of networks is clearly seen in the context of the OSI Model. The Data Link…
ARC Electronics, (2007). BRIEF OVER VIEW of FIBER OPTIC CABLE ADVANTAGES OVER COPPER. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from Arc Electronics Web site: http://www.arcelect.com/fibercable.htm
Barry, S, & Jones, J (2004). Hardware and the OSI Model for the CCNA Exam. CCNA Exam Cram Book, 1, Retrieved October 10, 2007, at http://www.examcram2.com/articles/article.asp?p=169517&rl=1 .
Webopedia (2007). What is fiber optics?. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from Webopedia Web site: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fiber_optics.html
Cisco Systems, (2006). FDDI Documentation. Retrieved October 9, 2007, from Cisco FDDI Documentation Web site: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/fddi.htm#wp1020577
The fact that they are interconnected and promoted together is an indication that there is strong managerial relationship between both firms. ("Transform the way your usiness Works," 2011)
At the same time, Skype and Verizon have a similar kind of relationship. This is because both companies have a shared interest, with Skype being offered on Verizon's phones. While Verizon, is able to attract Skype's large customer base. Since they are working together, this is a sign that the management of the two organizations has a strong relationship with each other. (ernier, 2011)
What kind of negotiations has Skype engaged in to enter the North American market? How does culture play a role?
The kind of negotiations that Skype has utilized is to partner up with as many firms as possible. The reason why, is because if they can begin offering their service as an application on various networks. Then, they…
Japan. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja.html
Luxemburg. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lu.html
Transform the way your Business Works. (2011). Skype. Retrieved from: http://www.skype.com/international/en-us/business/
Bernier, P. (2011). Mobile VOIP. TMCNET. Retrieved from: http://www.tmcnet.com/voip/0510/mobile-voip-skype-verizon-deal-is-hot-topic.htm
The truth that electronics aid humanity may be a subject for debate. However, it must be noted that nothing else may beat your doubt on electronics but the fact that we can derive from others' experiences that the technological advances in electronics really assist man in sustaining his life and surviving from the weaknesses of our physical body. More so, we may derive such information from our relatives and friends who may have experienced recovering from diseases with the aid of advanced biomedic machines. or, you can also ask this question to yourself to provide a view on how effective do you really believe can technology that is applied in electronics help, assist, and aid humanity -- "Would you rather go for the old method and practices of medicine than how medicine is practice these days?"
Technology in Electronics - Aiding Other Defects of Humanity
If the advances in electronics…
Electronics and Biomedical Engineering. http://www.city.ac.uk/sems/undergraduate/elecbiomed/
Taylor, John. "Serving Blind Readers in Digital Age."
American Libraries, 35.11 (2005): 49-51.
Jarvis, Jessica. "Opening Doors to Learning."
Web conferencing, though it is a very effective tool has its own drawback. The lack of human element and the absence of nonverbal feedback, particularly when dealing with clients constitute the negative side of electronic communication.
The field of medicine is one that uses web conferencing to great success. Telemedicine success stories are a good indication of the useful application of web conferencing. Web Conferencing, for example allows physician assistants and nurses to consult physicians and experts pertaining to patients symptoms and start appropriate treatment method for patients in hospitals and health care units running in remote locations. Similarly educational institutions embrace the technology offering e-learning modules for students from geographically diverse areas.
With careful planning and implementation of access privileges for different group of end-users internal security concerns can be allayed. Sensitive information can thus be protected by authorization. VOIP security concerns are a deterring factor as time and…
1) Matt McKenzie. Five Web Conferencing Packages: Not Just Conference
Calls Anymore. NetworkComputing.com Dec 1, 2005 http://www.networkcomputing.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=174403432
2) Kelly Jackson-Higgins. Video IP Project Boosts Network's Profile: A Look at Cisco Media Network. NetworkComputing.com Apr 19, 2004 http://www.networkcomputing.com/showitem.jhtml?docid=1508centerfold
3) Kelly Jackson-Higgins. Concrete Company Trades Travel for Web
6: Existing Cable and Wireless Design
The company will establish wireless access using the LWAP (lightweight access point). The LWAP will be distributed to all the facilities through the WLS. Typically, WLS will be installed to assist in providing the traffic tunnel and failover authentication. To enhance the security of the WLAN, the company will install the encryption system at the wireless access point, the encryption protocols will contain WPA/WPA2, and there will be an AES encryption at all the wireless access point using the 802.1 X authentication.
The company will redesign the local backbone infrastructure in order to increase the network bandwidth. There would be 100 BASE-T4 cabling to the 7 Cisco 2613 routers. The cabling system will assist the company to achieve efficient network connectivity for future growth. The 100 BASE-FX (fiber) cabling will be attached to the Cisco 7507 routers, which will assist in achieving more expansion…
Cisco (2011). Product Overview. Cisco Inc. USA.
Cisco (2012). Cisco Network Availability and Operations Optimization Service. Cisco System Inc.
Chen, T. Horng, G. & Yang, C.(2008).Public Key Authentication Schemes for Local Area. Informaticia.19(1):3-16.
Guillen, P. E. & Chacon, D. A (2009). VoIP Networks Performance Analysis with Encryption Systems. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology. 58: 688-695.
In 2010, Microsoft purchased Skype for $8.5 billion, and at the time many observers were unsure of what value Skype had for the software giant (Bright, 2011). According to some, Skype's core VoIP business is subject to commoditization (Ricknas, 2008). Another issue that Microsoft must address is Skype's business model. Prior to the purchase, Skype had filed for an IPO and the filing documents reveal some major financial issues for the company. hile it states that part of its strategy is to attract more users of both free and paid products, its income statement indicates that the users of free services are not making enough paid contributions to cover the cost of servicing them. Although the Skype user base was growing year-over-year, the company's profitability was declining. The company lost $1.4 billion on revue of $381 million in FY2007, turned a small profit in FY2008 and then proceeded…
Bright, P. (2011). Microsoft buys Skype for $8.5 billion. Why, exactly? Wired Magazine. Retrieved June 15, 2012 from http://www.wired.com/business/2011/05/microsoft-buys-skype-2/
Kharif, O. (2009). Skype legal settlement clears path for expansion. Business Week. Retrieved June 18, 2012 from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/nov2009/tc2009116_153601.htm
Nadler, D. & Tushman, M. (1980). A model of diagnosing organizational behavior. Organizational Dynamics. In possession of the author.
No author. (2011). With Skype purchase, Microsoft will own 68% of all IM market share, Google 3.5%. WM Power User. Retrieved June 18, 2012 from http://wmpoweruser.com/with-skype-purchase-microsoft-will-own-68-of-all-im-market-share-google-3-5/
Niklas Zennstrom and Janus Friis formed Skype in 2003. The two produced VoIP software based on P2P architecture that revolutionized the field of communication. The software provided its users with high quality and free voice calls, as firewalls did not affect this software. The company rapidly grew due to the free quality voice calls reaching its critical user mass in a short time. The company later started premium Skype products to corporate users, which increased the revenue generated. VoIP technology used by Skype means that the company relies on the internet or IP-based networks to transmit the signal. The information transferred through the software requires protection from hackers and for privacy thus encrypted.
Microsoft acquired the company in 2011 for a record 8.5 billion U.S. dollars. This is considers one of Microsoft's most expensive acquisitions as the company grows to become the number one software company in the…
Capon, N., & Hulbert, J.M. (2007). Managing marketing in the 21st century: Developing and implementing the market strategy. Bronxville, N.Y: Wessex Inc.
Cronin, M.J. (2010). Smart products, smarter services: Strategies for embedded control. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic management theory. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2012). Strategic management: Competitiveness & globalization. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Web conferencing systems have been faced with resistance to change by those responsible for knowledge transfer and knowledge management, as these systems are seen as a threat to the more costly and time-consuming approaches to sharing knowledge. It has been seen that employees will resist using Web Ex-systems as they are afraid it makes the transfer of their knowledge too easy, and therefore is a risk to their status in the organization (Hu, Hafsi, 2010). Studies of change management indicate that when the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or comparable leader within a business supports and provides pragmatic, honest feedback about how the Web conferencing system will be used, resistance is minimized and broader adoption occurs.
The rapid growth of Web conferencing systems has been accelerated by the growing reliance on more advanced security technologies and features in these platforms (Pearce, 2009). In conjunction with this development has been the…
Bayer, N., Xu, B., Rakocevic, V., & Habermann, J.. (2010). Application-aware scheduling for VoIP in Wireless Mesh Networks. Computer Networks, 54(2), 257.
Burrows, P.. (2010, November). Cisco Scales Back Forecasts. Business Week,1.
Hu, H., & Hafsi, T.. (2010). Strategic Change in a Shifting Institutional Context. Journal of Change Management, 10(3), 293.
John Lund. (2006). Web Conferences and Labor Education: An After-Action Report. Labor Studies Journal, 31(2), 93-100.
The pilot was initiated six weeks before implementation in order to ensure that no problems occurred when the whole system was implemented. The pilot program was also used to provide information and training in the use of the new system. The training entails that users were able to interact with the features of the new system in order to become familiar with them. In this way, users learned to use the new system in a safe environment. This provided them with a platform of learning, where such learning took place with as little as possible apprehension.
In general, the pilot program went reasonably well, although some people had considerable trouble understanding telephones that were operated via computers. Others were afraid that the system would crash while being used. Another factor causing fear was the fact that some users felt they would be monitored in a "Big Brother" fashion. The major…
The surveys should become an ongoing activity as customer behavior and preferences change quite often and the company needs to be aware of all changes to be able to adapt to them. For this, the company needs to have set up a system to send as many surveys online as possible to keep costs under control. Every customer should be asked to provide an email address, which can later be used for sending promotional messages, if the customer agrees to receive communications from Kerry Co. otential systems that meet these requirements are Zoomerang and Inquisite that have quite a large capacity of sending surveys for this kind of business. E-mail surveys are likely to be more appropriate for the young buyers, whereas the elder ones should be inquired about their satisfaction via phone or post, which is a more expensive method. Nevertheless, elders are likely to have a…
Pegram, K. 2000. Dollars & Sense - Take Advantage of Your Satisfied Customers. DWC Magazine, March Edition, www.dwconline.com
Wikipedia, Accessed Feb 2009. Key Performance Indicator. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_performance_indicator
MARKETING PLAN - COOKWARE
Product Returns is a third process area that Imperial Tobacco has to contend with, specifically from its distributors and channel partners. Typically Tobacco products are returned if a specific lot of tobacco or packaging has been found to be defective. There have at times been product recalls as defined by governments. A third reason for product returns is when a product has been discontinued and Imperial is not willing to pay price protection to cover the distribution partners' inventory carrying costs until they are sold. The Product Returns process begins with the issuance of a Return Material Authorization (RMA) that specifically states how much of a given product is being returned and for what reason.
The RMA is then sent to the distributor who then ships back the tobacco products to Imperial. Once the products have arrived back at the company, if they are defective, they are sent to Quality…
An article from last year points to the continuing thrust forward with respect to the integration of technologies and sensory desires for the user, describing the inception of visual aspects into the protocol.
The 2007 article by Ding et al. is focused on the discourse, research and user-end needs which figured into the gradual integration of visual images indicating users status and allowing for the presentation of messaging. Based particularly upon the findings produced by a long-term observation of the patterns of usage for VOIP users, the study would produce a set of conclusions concerning the fashions of usage which have produced the integration of visualization into an already integrative protocol.
The article contends to "shed light on the factors that drive the use of visual enhancements to audio conferencing." (Ding et al., 1019) Among them, the article concludes that there is an impulse when using computer interface systems to…
Sixth, there are tangible cost reductions possible by using Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) applications rented over the Internet vs. buying customer relationship management systems and installing them in a company. Significant and tangible cost reductions are possible using Salesforce.com for example over purchasing Oracle Corporations' CRM Suite, or using manually-based systems based on Microsoft Excel or Word.
Seventh, tangible cost reductions are possible by using project management software to manage the many dependencies and deadlines in a project vs. simply tracking all activities in a spreadsheet. Project management software is specifically designed to track deadlines and the resources needed to attain them, and can also load balance resources to attain multiple and often conflicting goals. It greatly reduces tangible costs of both the project and greatly minimizes the risk of a missed deadline as well in this area.
Another tangible area of cost reduction for it is in the managing inventories in…
Mobile and Wireless Portal
eWeek.com is a one of the top portals that is dedicated to providing technology-related news to readers all over the world. It is the digital version of the eWEEK magazine that discusses technology trends, latest apps, evaluations and business decisions that are made with technology as the underlying element. It provides comprehensive information about the world of technology and this has helped it to create a niche market for the magazine and its parent company.
Description of the portal's structure
The portal has a simple design that is appealing to readers. The core emphasis in this website is content and so the entire design revolves around the content that is published here. The site has been divided into numerous categories to make it easy for people to look up what they want quickly and effortlessly. The broad categories in the site include news, reviews, storage, security,…
Mobile and Wireless Technology -- News and Reviews. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.eweek.com/c/s/Mobile-and-Wireless/
STEP 8 - INTEVENTION IMPLEMENTATION PHASING
The initial implementation of the automated calling system will require a significant amount of data entry concerning patient contact data; however, this data can be integrated in digital form from existing healthcare information management system as discussed further below.
PLANNING MODULE III - DETAILED HIMS PLANNING and COSTING
Although the actual acquisition of the automated calling system selected for this initiative will be completed by the hospital's purchasing department, a preliminary review of available representative systems that meet the needs of the ENT department is provided in Table 1 below.
epresentative Automated Calling Systems and Specifications
BroadcastByPhone: Automated dialing software can reach people by phone or by voice mail with personalized messages the auto-dialer uses a computer to deliver personal calls or leave answering machine messages in a human voice or a computer-generated voice. Calls are delivered…
Cyr, F., King, M.C. & Ritchie, P.L. (1999). Quality management for psychology services in health care facilities. Canadian Psychology, 36(3), 201-204.
Tidwell, R. (2004). The 'no-show' phenomenon and the issue of resistance among African
American female patients at an urban health care center. Journal of Mental Health
Counseling, 26(1), 1-3.
On the other hand, applicable laws do have authority and under the concept of moral relativism, it may be justified that any duly passed law be complied with (Svensson & Wood, 2008).
One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders. On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't…
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't block Skype." (August 14 -- 2006).
Halbert, Terry and Ingulli, Elaine. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Clearly, he companies engaged in this practice were operating with direct intention, and a roper governance system would have made this obvious and prevented it.
In another telecommunications case, a company was found to have included spyware in a company-sponsored "software upgrade" to users' cell phones, that enabled the company to collect confidential information from users' phones without their consent (Khaleej Times, 2009). Not only is this practice clearly unethical, but it is also illegal despite a lack of stringency in the detection of such crimes and the prosecution of large-scale corporate offenders such as telecommunications companies. Again, greater transparency and internal control would have allowed this practice to be discovered much sooner, and the risk of discovery almost certainly would have prevented this action from ever occurring. Corporate governance works best when it is so strong it is only rarely and usually accidentally tested; when purposeful actions…
ADCCG. (2012). Accessed 7 May 2012. http://www.adccg.ae/
ADX. (2012). Mission & Vision. Accessed 7 May 2012. http://www.adx.ae/English/AboutADX/Pages/MissionVision.aspx
Creffield, L. (2007). Why you can't block Skype. Accessed 7 May 2012. http://www.ameinfo.com/93716.html
Etisalat. (2011). 2010 Annual Report.
Web Conference Memo
Web Conference program research
I refer to the work you assigned me, to research on the best web conference program which can help you hold a weekly status meeting. I did research through the internet regarding the same. Through my research, I looked into four various kind of web conference programs namely, OnWebinar, Vyew, OpenMeeting and DimDim. However, to come up with one program, I analyzed each in consideration with the Operating System installed in our computers and other various factors.
Therefore, I would like to recommend Vyew as the best web conference program, because of its features which have listed below:
It's a browser-based web conference program and it operates effectively on Windows, Mac and Linux as well.
It has hundreds of active/archived meeting per user, which means it can support a number of users at a time.
It's very flexible compared to other…
Montreal, Quebec, Canada in Museums and the Web April 8-12, 2008
(D. Klein) Compare Best Conferences services 2012