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Seeing Past Cynicism in Candide
Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 84640033
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Even in this moment of supreme individual stupidity and rigidity, which Voltaire plays up with brilliant sarcastic comedy, Pangloss attributes his continued optimism to the intellectual worship of Leibniz. This instance shows that men are generally not stupid individually, in Voltaire's view, but rather that they are dependent on others for this quality.

Other examples of stupidity and other negative human qualities being obtained through association abound. In Paraguay, Candide has an unlikely encounter with the brother of Cungeund, whom he plans to marry. Immediately after embracing him as a brother himself, Candide reveals his intentions to marry Cunegund, and explains his careful reasoning over the brother's angry protestations. After Candide again insist that he will marry Cunegund, her brother responds thusly: "e shall see to that, villain!' said the Jesuit, Baron of Thunder-ten-tronckh, and struck him across the face with the flat side of his sword" (Voltaire, 36). IThough…

Works Cited

Voltaire. Candide. New York: Dover, 1991.

Women in Candide Is a
Words: 2153 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27333786
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he has lived through violence, rape, slavery, and betrayal and seen the ravages of war and greed. The old woman's story also functions as a criticism of religious hypocrisy. he is the daughter of the Pope, the most prominent member of the Catholic Church. The Pope has not only violated his vow of celibacy, but has also proven unable and unwilling to protect his daughter from the misfortunes that befell her.

Candide also displays this sense of hope in light of his many hardships. He honors his commitment to marry Cunegonde at the end of the story despite the physical abnormalities that have plagued her. Cunegonde is a young and beautiful woman at the beginning of Candide. Mirroring Candide's naive optimism, their love plays out in unrealistic romantic cliches: a blush, a dropped handkerchief, a surreptitious kiss behind a screen. However, this romance in the shelter of the Baron's estate…

Stromberg, Roland. "The Philosophes and the French Revolution: Reflections on Some Recent Research." Eighteenth-Century Studies 21: 321-339.

"Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire" Literature Network

Exploitation of Women in Candide
Words: 1135 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15387753
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That the story is real and that we can learn from it becomes an extremely important aspect. Improvement begins with realization.

The old woman reveals one of the most horrific tales in the story. Chapter 11 reveals some of the most heinous treatment of women. The old woman recounts a tale of being taken to Morocco and sold as slaves. On the ship to Morocco, she tells of how she was raped by Prince of Masa Carrara, a "abominable Nergo who yet thought he was doing me much honor" (37). She wraps up her rape story by saying "these things are so common that they are not worth speaking of" (37). Things were not better in Morocco as the Europeans "fought with the fury of the lions, tigers and snakes of the country to see who should have us" (37). All the women were cut and massacred and many were…

Works Cited

Feder, Helena. "The Critical Relevance of the Critique of Rationalism: Postmodernism,

Ecofeminism, and Voltaire's Candide." Women's Studies. 2002, Vol. 31. Information

Retrieved 12 April 2010.  Web.

Voltaire. Candide and other stories. New York: Signet Classics. 1961.

Lesson 3 Journal Entry
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59929217
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Do you disagree with any of Pope's opinions or pronouncements in the Heroic Couplets or "An Essay on Man"?

Pope is critical of individuals who "cry, if man's unhappy, God's unjust," suggesting that the unhappiest people are people who blame God, rather than themselves for all of their troubles, or who curse God because their lives are imperfect. The need to accept life's imperfections while still working to enact positive changes within the limitations of humanity is a positive message still relevant for people today.

Based on what you have read of "The Rape of the Lock," what do you think the poem's theme or central message is? What or who are the objects of his satire? Does the epic, "The Rape of the Lock" apply in any way to society today? Identify two passages that could serve as satiric commentaries on people's behavior today. Your answer should discuss both…

Entourage Minor Characters Accompanies Candide Assists
Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66775629
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entourage minor characters accompanies Candide assists / hampers journey. Voltaire characters express personal ideas criticisms contemporary French society politics. Discuss minor characters acts a spokesman Voltaire's complaints French politics, society, culture early 18th century.

Martin in Voltaire's Candide

'All is for the best in this best of all possible worlds.' So Voltaire's Dr. Pangloss proclaims in the satire Candide. Candide skewers the philosophy of life of the idealistic philosopher Leibnitz, with whom Voltaire disagreed vehemently. Leibnitz believed that the world existed in a state of perfect harmony. The unbridled optimism embodied by Pangloss is constantly undermined by the horrible events in the world around him, including inquisitions, rapes, and murders.

To take issue with the Panglossian philosophy of optimism, Voltaire introduces a man named Martin who functions as Pangloss' antithesis. Martin, like all of the characters of the work, has survived countless horrors, but he seems to see the world…

Loss Read P 305 Leaving
Words: 7913 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75963209
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" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.

Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…

Physical Journey in Candide
Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79887138
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Candide Journey

The Importance of Journey in Candide

In Voltaire's Candide, the titular protagonist and his companions go on many journeys to many different lands, some intentional and some less so. These journeys are highly important to the structure and nature of the novel, in more ways than one. First of all, they are standard and stereotypical devices that Voltaire purposefully satirizes and also brilliantly makes use of. They also relate directly to the philosophies that Voltaire has his characters discuss during the course of the novel, and are essential for illustrating and demonstrating many of his points. They also play a symbolic importance in the development of each of the characters. These journeys are essential to the story of Candide for reasons of narrative, philosophy, and symbolism.

There are several reasons that the journeys are essential for the narrative. Candide's first journey, following his banishment from the castle, is…

Metaphysical Poetry Journal Exercise 3 1A
Words: 3452 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 67044569
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The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?

Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.

Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.

Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17c 18c
Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13465288
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History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C

This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.

Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…


Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners

Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.

Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Enlightenment-Era Neo-Classical Works With Romantic Overtones 'Tartuffe
Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55737002
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Enlightenment-era, Neo-Classical works with Romantic overtones 'Tartuffe," Candide, and Frankenstein all use unnatural forms of character representation to question the common conceptions of what is natural and of human and environmental 'nature.' Moliere uses highly artificial ways of representing characters in dramatic forms to show the unnatural nature of an older man becoming attracted to a younger woman. Voltaire uses unnatural and absurd situations to question the unnatural belief of Professor Pangloss that this is the best of all possible worlds. Mary Shelley creates a fantastic or unnatural scenario to show the unnatural nature of a human scientist's attempt to turn himself into a kind of God-like creator through the use of reason and science alone.

"Tartuffe" is the most obviously unnatural of the three works in terms of its style. It is a play, and the characters do not really develop as human beings because of the compressed nature…

America Without Doubt the Most Powerful Nation
Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34152758
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America, without doubt the most powerful nation on earth and the sole super-power of the 21st century evokes vastly conflicting feelings in people around the world, depending on their individual paradigm: the lens through which they look at the world. While to most people, America is a symbol of prosperity, freedom and equal opportunity it also is a source of equally negative feelings for others who resent its prosperity, and its economic, cultural and military power. This Jekyll & Hyde image of the country in the world, though surprising to many Americans, is not difficult to understand if one examines the issue in its historical, political, and cultural perspective. In this essay we will discuss what America looks like to an outsider, and what it means to people from different countries of the world as a state, as a people, and as a geographic region. Into what larger ideas and…


Fowlie, Wallace. "Voltaire." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002

Johnson, Paul E. And Nancy Woloch. "United States (History). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.

Nash, Gary B. "United States (Overview). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.

Klepp, Susan E. "United States (People)." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.

Plato a Platypus and the Enlightenment
Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47560104
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Plato and the Platypus

Philosophers in the Enlightenment era would come up with various new means to popularize ideas. Denis Diderot conceived the first encyclopedia in this period, which was an attempt to systematize all world knowledge in an accessible way. But also, in another innovation, Voltaire would offer as a refutation of the optimistic philosophy of Leibniz -- which held that "this is the best of all possible worlds" -- a new form of philosophical argument: the extended comedy (Cathcart and Klein, 17). Voltaire's short book Candide is essentially an extended refutation of Leibniz's view of God (or perhaps any view of God), but it makes its points through satirical humor. In some sense, Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein are following in the footsteps of Voltaire by attempting to shed light on philosophical ideas through the medium of humor in their work Plato and a Platypus alk Into A…

Works Cited

Cathcart, Thomas and Klein, Daniel. Plato and a Platypus Walk Into A Bar: Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes. New York: Penguin Books, 2008. Print.

Orgon and Candide the Enlightenment Philosophers Believed
Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15265941
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Orgon and Candide

The Enlightenment philosophers believed that God created the world, and as God is the most benevolent, capable mind possible, then the world must be the best possible world. Humans are incapable of understanding the role of evil in the world because they do not understand how the force that God set in place to govern the world. Therefore, when humans see bad things happening, they are unable to comprehend that every bad thing occurs for a greater good. This philosophy is grounded in a strong sense of cause and effect, the pursuit of which leads humans to misperceptions and, ultimately, to misplaced faith.

Orgon's misperceptions are so acute, that it leaves one wondering if his gullibility was native. Orgon's search for salvation brings him to set aside the cautions and warnings of his friends and fall completely for Tartuffe's flattery and trickery. Orgon's blind faith is driven…


Bottiglia, W.F. (Ed.). (1968). Voltaire: A collection of critical essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice.

Moliere, Jean-Baptiste Poquellin. (1664). Tartuffe. Translated by Richard Wilbur. Department of English, Miami-Dade College | Kendall.

(2004, June 1). Voltaire. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

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Enlightenment Influenced American Revolution and
Words: 798 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59396992
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Because of the wording of the "Declaration of Independence," Locke is perhaps the most famous Enlightenment influence upon the Founding Fathers. However, a number of Continental Enlightenment philosophers had great influence upon the shape of the new nation: "Jean-Jacques Rousseau…distrusted the aristocrats not out of a thirst for change but because he believed they were betraying decent traditional values…Rousseau argued that inequality was not only unnatural, but that -- when taken too far -- it made decent government impossible" (Brians 2002). The French philosopher Voltaire's irreverent attitude towards religion and Rousseau's scrupulous belief in the integrity of the 'natural' man, untouched by law and custom, is reflected in the Founding Founders' notions of a society that was based upon a rule of law, rather than upon the whims of a leader. Rights rather than birthright were to govern the new American state.

The philosopher of criminology Beccaria's influence should not…

Works Cited

Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." University of Wisconsin-Madison. March 11, 1998. Last

Revised May 18, 2000. February 10, 2010. 

Hoffman, Bruce. "Beccaria." Crime Theory. January 2002. February 10, 2010.

Affect of the Enlightenment on the French Revolution
Words: 3655 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73628922
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Enlightenment on the French evolution

evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.

Introduction to the French evolution

When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…


Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000).

Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke

University Press, 1991.

Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at

Analyzing Early Modern Europe
Words: 2287 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83932329
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Pleasure Garden

In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…


Aelarsen. A Royal Affair: Enlightenment and Adultery in 18th Century Denmark. June 2014.  / (accessed December 13, 2015).

"Age of Enlightenment." Pedia Press, 2011.

Curtius, Quintus. Speaking Out Against Injustice: The Case Of Jean Calas. October 12, 2015.  (accessed December 12, 2015).

Halsall, Paul. Medieval Sourcebook: Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527): Republics and Monarchies, Excerpt from Discourses I, 55. October 1998. (accessed December 14, 2015).

Libertine in French Literature
Words: 1121 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90268916
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history libertinism, 18th century France. In concluding paragraphs, relate research formation, conflicts characters Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons dangereuses), epistolary Choderlos de Laclos.

The notion of the libertine:

The radical and reactionary implications of libertinism in Les Liaisons Dangereuses

The novel Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons Dangereuses) has a daring storyline, even by contemporary standards. Over the course of a series of letters between the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, a plot is orchestrated to bring shame and scandal upon the conventional and pure Madame de Tourvel and Cecile Volanges. Valmont in particular embodies the notion of the 19th century libertine, or a man who lives without regard to conventional morality: in effect, he is 'liberated' from the conventions of society and religious dogma.

The notion of a 'libertine' was first articulated in the writings of the 17th century theologian John Calvin, who defined libertines as all that good…

Works Cited

Cavaille, J. "Libertine and libertinism: Polemic uses of the terms in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English and Scottish literature." Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, 12.2 (2012), 12-36,157.

Hollinger, K. "Losing the feminist drift: Adaptations of Les Liaisons Dangereuses."

Literature/Film Quarterly, 24.3 (1996), 293-300.

O'Connell, Lisa & Cryle, Peter. Libertine Enlightenment. Palgrave Macmillan 2003.

Reasonable Truth to Relate
Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73497303
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eason and Truth's elationship

For the most part, one can sufficiently argue that both Socrates and Voltaire have the same view of the relation between reason and religion. Such a view is best summarized as the notion that religion is within the bounds of reason. As such, each philosopher believes that religion -- including its creeds and tenets -- are subject to reason and to inquisitions that are based on reason. Moreover, these philosophers also subscribe to the notion that religion should not influence various areas of religion, such as government, unless it can do so in a way that is reasonable. Numerous people and institutions during the course of the respective lives of each of these thinkers would have argued differently: that religion could supersede reason in some instances and govern over aspects of life that have traditionally, and most prudently, been under the subjugation of reason. These two…


Plato. (380 B.C.E.) Euthyphro. Retrieved from 

Plato. (380 B.C.E.) Crito. Retrieved from

American Revolution the Pen Is
Words: 2468 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89354896
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In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:

dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)

As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…


Black, E. (1988). Our Constitution: The Myth That Binds Us. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Brooks, C.K. (1996). Controlling the Metaphor: Language and Self-Definition in Revolutionary America. CLIO, 25(3), 233+.

Analyzing World War I Dada
Words: 1543 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65341779
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World War I: Dada

The literary and artistic movement known as Dada originated in the Swiss city of Zurich, at the time of the First World War, as a response to the War as well as the nationalism considered by many to have sparked the war. Inspired by Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism, Constructivism, and other innovative movements, Dadaism's output ranged from poetry, collage, and painting, to performance arts and sculptures (Jones, 2002; Hulsenbeck, 1988). The movement's aesthetic, characterized by contempt for nationalistic and materialistic attitudes, strongly influenced artists in major cities across the globe, such as Berlin, Paris, Cologne, Hanover, and New York, and all ended up creating their own separate groups. Surrealism led to Dadaism's degeneration.


Sickened by the nationalism that triggered WWI, Dadaists were constantly against the idea of authoritarianism, and all kinds of guiding ideologies or group leadership. Their main concern was revolting against the apparent middleclass…


Buskirk, M., & Nixon, M. (1996). The Duchamp Effect. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Elder, B. (2013). Dada, Surrealism, and the Cinematic Effect. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Hulsenbeck, R. (1988). "En avant Dada: A history of Dadaism." In R. Motherwell (Ed.), The Dada painters and poets (pp. 23-48). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1920)

Jones, A. (2002). Equivocal Masculinity: New York Dada in the context of World War I. Art History, 25(2), 162.

Catherine the Great Sometimes in
Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56979588
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Notes de Madariaga, "It is hard to argue that Catherine's regime was intellectually oppressive, as many of her detractors have done, in the face of such a clear example of her confidence in the response of society to her rule." (97). A lax censorship and publishing permission epitomized Catherine's personal outlook of encouragement of enterprise in as many fields as possible rather than state control.

Catherine, herself, was a prolific writer. Thousands of sheets of paper covered in her journals have survived. The most noteworthy of all was her 1767 Great Instruction, published to present before the elected representatives of nobles, townspeople, Cossacks, tribesmen and state peasants, not serfs, the general principles through which the assembly should codify laws. The 650 articles of the Instruction defined the functions of social estates and described the means of establishing rule of law and citizen welfare. Catherine was influenced by German and French…

Why I Believe in God and Christianity
Words: 2244 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79512806
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The world is filled with chaos, war and strife. In Africa, innumerable numbers of individuals suffer and die from AIDS, poverty and hunger. Genocide and mass murder of groups with varying cultures continues. Regularly, soldiers and civilians die in Iraq. Terrorism scare tactics threaten throughout the world and the Middle East remains a hotbed for horror. China moves forward with its "Big Brother" actions and North Korea downplays its nuclear capacity. In such a world, how can I believe in God? Because it is more important to believe now than it ever was before, especially with such uncertain world. As Voltaire once said: "To believe in God is impossible. Not to believe in Him is absurd."

One of the main reasons I believe in God is that it makes me feel more secure amidst this growing instability. Because we live in such an insecure world, it is impossible to…

Works Cited

Holy Bible King James Version Study Bible. New York: Thomas Nelson, 1997.

Voltaire Foundation. Website visited October 9, 2003. .

The Enlightenment S Effect on Catherine the Great
Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26187620
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Catherine the Great

If in an absolute monarchy, the nation's course "depends on the disposition and character of the Sovereign," as Sir James Harris observed during Catherine's rule, it is telling of the accuracy of Harris's remarks by comparing the course of Russia's evolution under Catherine to the character of the woman they called Catherine the Great (Madariaga 203). Under Catherine, Russia became an even more liberalized nation than it had been under Catherine's "great" predecessor, Peter. This liberalization came about primarily through Catherine's contact with and implementation of "Enlightenment" ideals, a result of her voluminous correspondence with men like Voltaire, the popular Enlightenment Era philosopher, whose sharp wit made him an antagonist to even the most heralded traditions. Men like Voltaire went a long way in shaping Catherine's outlook, which is seen in the very outset of her 1767 Instruction to the Legislation: her first point being that Russia…

Works Cited

Catherine II. "Instruction to the Legislative Commission." Documents in Russian

History. Web. 27 September 2015.

Cracraft, James. Major Problems in the History of Imperial Russia. D.C. Heath, 1994.


Berlin Dada and the Modern Artists of the Weimar Republic
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Dada and Degenerate Art in Germany

At the end of WW1, Germany found itself in a period of transition. Held responsible for the war and forced to pay reparations, the Weimar Republic was in a disastrous state. The Kaiser Willelm II had abdicated, hyperinflation decimated the value of the mark, and erlin was fast becoming vice capital of the world with "New Frau" poster-girl Anita erber taking pride in her position as the high priestess of immorality.[footnoteRef:1] It was a new Germany in every respect -- but not one that was destined to last: it was new in the sense that for the first time in its culture, the Germans were embracing the end -- the end of the old order, of the old code, of the old art and moral imperatives; life was short and falling apart at the seams as fast as the mark was becoming worthless. Jobs…


Altshuler, Bruce. The Avant-garde in Exhibition. NY: Abrams, 1994.

Barron, Stephanie. Degenerate Art: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. NY:

Abrams, 1992.

Droste, Sebastian; Berber, Anita. Dances of Vice, Horror and Ecstasy. UK: Side Real

The American Revolution and Enlightenment Thought
Words: 2273 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21176211
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Revolution, Constitution and Enlightenment
The American Revolution and the ensuing U.S. Constitution put forward by the Federalists were both products of and directly informed by the European Enlightenment. The Founding Fathers were considerably influenced by thinkers like Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu (whose separation of powers served as the model of the three-branched government of the U.S.). This paper will explain how the European Enlightenment set the stage for the American Revolution and U.S. Constitution by putting out the ideas that the Americans would use as the basis of the political and social foundation.
The Enlightenment aka the Age of Reason was an Age in which natural philosophy assumed the vaulted position of guiding light over the preceding Age of Faith, which had served as the socio-political basis in Europe for centuries. The Reformation had upended the Age of Faith and introduced secularization into the political realm (Laux), particularly via…

Gibbon When Names of Historians
Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12376483
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As Stephen Goode states (1998, p. 19) Gibbon's magnificent and memorable story is how difficult equilibrium is to maintain. Such equilibrium was based in most part on the emperor's character. A bad emperor would mean mad times. "The evil imperializing genius of Augustus placed this delicate balance in jeopardy," Gibbon writes, as one of his major themes of his book: That is, when imperial power is misused as it often was, the result was sapping the virtue of the state and initiating the decline of the living and strong political life that had maintained ome during the epublic and created its greatness.

Gibbon was the major critic of the oman Empire, and as detailer of its decline, he explains the loss of the public support and withdrawal of citizens from personal involvement in the life of the empire: "Their personal valor remained, but they no longer possessed that public courage…

References Cited;

Craddock, P. (1989) Edward Gibbon. Luminous Historian. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Epstein, J. (1996). Real Page-Turner. The American Scholar 65: 167-8

Goode, S. (1998) Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire. Insight on the News. 14(29) 18+.

Kelly, C. (1998) Edward Gibbon, the History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Greece & Rome. 45: 232-233.

Religious Liberty as Stated in the First
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eligious Liberty as Stated in the First Amendment

eligious Liberty

The practical and legal ramifications of religious liberty are not difficult to determine, for they follow from the theological implications of the concept of religious liberty. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in 1776 which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law. Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland (which was officially declared an Anglican state in 1692) both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.S. constitution sets the stage for a massive fight between various and contending religious beliefs, which…

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Associated Press. (2011). High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father In Funeral

Protest Suit. KWTX. Retrieved from 

De Tocqueville, A. (1838). Democracy in America. (H. Reeve, Trans.). New York,

NY: George Adlard. (Original work published 1835). Retrieved from

Milton and Shakespeare
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Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" with Milton's "Paradise Lost"

Comparison of the two works:

Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and Milton's Paradise Lost are two examples of great works that seemingly have little in common. The differences in subject, approach, language and style contrast greatly but these works also share many common themes. Although Twelfth Night is a romantic comedic work and Paradise Lost is an epic poem that deals with a much heavier subject matter, both present the reader with stories of the consequences when there is a disruption in world order and balance while incorporating elements of disguise and character consequences.

Shakespeare's work is consistent with the witty, bright comedies popular during its time. According to Warren and Wells, these comedies typically included a mixture of dialogue, singing, stage fights, and suspense and the nature of the lighthearted language used was commonplace during the early 1600's (1994). Additionally, critic en Johnson said…


Bloom, H. (ed.) (1987). John Milton's Paradise Lost. New York: Chelsea House Publsihers.

Corns, T. (1998). John Milton: The Prose Works. New York: Twayne Publishers.

Elledge, S. (1993). John Milton's Paradise Lost: An Authoritative Text Backgrounds and Sources of Criticism. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Notkoff, T. (2001). Readings on Twelfth Night. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press

Modernist Trends
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During WWI, two artists, the German Hugo all and his future wife, Emmy Hennings, emigrated from Munich, Germany, to Zurich, Switzerland. Here, they opened Cabaret Voltaire in February 1916, in Spiegelgasse, 1, in Zurich. Other immigrant artists would soon join them in their endeavor to defy art and politics and most especially, the war madness. Even if they were performing in Zurich, a hub of peace, WWI was providing more than a background for their artistic expressions. WWI and everything related to it was the evil source of inspiration the artists attempted to sublimate thorough their art.

The shows at the cabaret involved a whole array of artists from different corners of Europe. The artists were free to experiment and most especially, to create everything that could go against the conventional, the traditional, dare, amaze, arouse, make people let loose, awake every sort of emotion possible, take art away…


1. Elger, Dietmar, (2004). Dadaism. Taschen 2. Sheppard, Richard, (2000). Modernism -- Dada -- Postmodernism. Art 3. Adamowicz, Elza, Robertson, Eric, (2011). Dada and Beyond: Volume 1: Dada Discourses, Volume 1. Radopi

4. Trachtman, Paul, (2006). Dada. Smithsonian Magazine. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on April 9, 2014


How Political Legitimacy Has Been Effected Over the Centuries
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Political Legitimacy and the Nature of Authority Throughout History

From the origins of civilization to the middle of the seventeenth century, the nature of authority does change -- but it typically changes according to the demands of the individual society. In ancient times, authority is based on a number of factors, such as military might (in ome, Greece, Persia); but religious beliefs also play a part (the Greeks were very devoted to the gods and goddesses, for instance); and so too does the political process (in ome, they refused to have kings for a time) and in Athens, political authority lay in the democratic process (Haaren, Poland, 2000). In the medieval age, authority is based on the combination of reason and faith and the assent of kings to the oman Pontiff to allow the Church to have a say in the governance of Christendom, after Constantine allowed Christianity to come…


Elliott, J. H. (2009). Spain, Europe and the Wider World: 1500-1800. Yale University


Haaren, J., Poland, A.B. (2000). Famous Men of Greece C. Shearer, R. Shearer [Ed.].

Lebanon, TN: Greenleaf Press.

Ballets Russes and the Rite of Spring
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Rite of Spring - Vaslav Nijinsky & Igov Stravinsky

In what ways has The Rite of Spring laid the foundations for postmodernism in art, music, and dance?

The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky, choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky, laid the foundations of postmodernism in art, music and dance by promoting the ideas rooted in Kant and Nietzsche -- namely that truth exists not as an objective reality but rather as a construct of the mind -- a subjective, internalization of externalities (Knight 89). Postmodernism in the 20th century was essentially a reaction to the modernism of the 19th century and modernism's elevated belief in Reason, based on Enlightenment ideology which came about as a result of the Scientific Revolution and Protestant Reformation in Europe. The postmodernist reaction to the inheritors of the Enlightenment was to elevate irrationality and absurdity -- the idea that human beings, far from using Reason, very…

Works Cited

Buckle, Richard. Nijinsky. UK: Trinity Press, 1971. Print.

Griffin, G. Edward. The Creature from Jekyll Island. NY: Amer Media, 1998. Print.

Hans Richter. Dada: Art and Anti-Art. NY: Thames and Hudson, 1997. Print.

Hewett, Ivan. "The Rite of Spring 1913: Why did it provoke a riot?" Telegraph, 16

comparing and contrasting dada and'surrealism
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Where the Twain Meets: Dada and Surrealism
Distinct artistic movements, genres, and philosophies, Dada and Surrealism do cross over and share considerable points of reference. Dada made its mark on the art world first, with its genesis in Switzerland during the First World War (“Dada and Surrealism,” 1). In fact, Dada was never constrained by visual media, with poets and performance artists at the forefront of the largely political and reactive movement (“Dada and Surrealism,” 1). To call Dada avant-garde, or progressive, would be an understatement, because Dada transformed the ways people thought about and created art. Art was no longer about creating aesthetic beauty or pleasing a patron, but about actively challenging social norms, politics, and even what it means to be human. Dada art can be provocative, but is not necessarily so, with some artists using their medium to question and even “humiliate” art itself (Rubin 11). The…

Emanuel Kant's the Work of
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And the freedom in question is the most harmless of all-namely, to make public use of one's reason in all matters" (Clarke 1997, 53). This added to classical liberalism's support of the freedom of speech and of the press. This all played a part in Kant's desire to apply reason to practical life. In The Conflict of the Faculties, he wrote in defense of the openness of the university as "an institution that exists to serve governments…and [bring about] enlightening ends" (Clarke 1997, 53-54). Thus once knowledge was separated from values, it could be harnessed to serve the human project. One area where Kant had an impact beyond philosophy has been in international relations theory. "According to the classical view of international politics, the international sphere is composed of sovereign states and characterized by anarchy" (Bartelson 1995, 257). People have order in their native land but see the rest of…

Works Cited

Ames, Edward Scribner. "The Religion of Immanuel Kant." The Journal of Religion 5:2

(1925): 172-177.

Bartelson, Kens. "The Trial of Judgment: A note on Kant and the Paradoxes of Internationalism." International Studies Quarterly 39:2 (1995): 255-279.

Clark, Michael. "Kant's Rhetoric of Enlightenment." The Review of Politics 59:1 (1997):

Produced for a Variety of
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" Ibid.

Byrd's work also predated the Lewis and Clarke journals in his information on the natural history of the area. In fact, he wrote about the Native American tribes and the flora and fauna, much still unknown at the time. This, too, was part of the Enlightenment though, a rather Lockean concept of using one's knowledge to both understand and interpret the universe. By attempting definition, Byrd was following the path of the philosopher who sought to better understand himself by describing his world -- and by describing his world, having the ability to better understand the complex relationships therein. Thus, the settlement of a mere 1728 boundary dispute had significance far beyond colonial law. We may be sure that Byrd had studied Locke, for there is much in the journals that reads as if Locke edited the passages. Locke, for instance, thought childhood was a type of innocence…


Baesler, M. Asylum for Mankind: America, 1607-1800. Cornell University Press,


Dolmetsch, C. "William Byrd II: Comic Dramatist?" Early American Literature.

6 (1), 1971, 28+.

United States a Democracy the
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The Executive Branch (President and Cabinet) executes spending and Congressional instructions, makes appointments to certain governmental posts, and is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. The Judicial Branch (Supreme Court) exercises judicial review over the constitutionality and interpretation of laws; determines how Congress meant the law to apply, and has a panel that serves for life (Constitutional Topic: Separation of Powers).

There are a number of criticisms focused on the actual level of democracy or even democratic representation in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. First, many governmental officials (Supreme Court justices, etc.) are appointed, not elected, and therefore may operate outside the will of the populace. Second, in order to be elected to a state or national office now requires a huge amount of funding; putting elected office outside the purview of most people. Thus, it is not necessarily the "best" people…


Cassier, E. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968.

"Constitutional Topic: Separation of Powers." March 2009. U.S. December 2010 .

Dahl, Shapiro and Cheibub. The Democracy Sourcebook. Boston: MIT Press, 2003.

"Democracy vs. Republic." June 2004. December 2010 .

Kinesthetic Intelligence -- and Kinesthetic
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Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."

Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.

Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.

It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…

Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.

Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Enlightened Jews When One Thinks
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ut the rabbi could also serve as the connection between a Jewish ghetto and the surrounding Christian community. This dual raised status of rabbis made their role the most enviable in the community. ut the shifts in French society that occurred in the decades just preceding and following the French Revolution created cracks in the isolation of European Jews.

The French Revolution is generally seen as an overthrow of the monarchy, and of course this is in part what happened. ut the revolution was intended not simply to overthrow the Second Estate -- the nobility and royalty -- but also the First Estate -- the church and the clergy. The revolution unseated the Catholic Church from its position of power perhaps even more surely than had the Reformation, and it helped to free the country from Protestant as well as Catholic influence. ut even more broadly, the revolution allowed people…


Alexander, Uri. The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference. European Judaism 35, 2002.

Arkush, A. Moses Mendelssohn and the Enlightenment. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Berkovitz, Jay. The Shaping of Jewish Identity in Nineteenth-Century France (Paperback) Indiana: Wayne State University Press, 1995.

Brann, Ross and Adam Sutcliffe. Renewing the Past, Reconfiguring Jewish Culture: From al- Andalus to the Haskalah. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.

Catherine the Great Enlightened Flowerpot
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They did not expect her to evolve into a ruler of any significance. They were wrong.

Catherine moved quickly to consolidate her power after taking the throne. She studied policy and reached out to consultants and political actors who would both aid her and prove trustworthy. She ruled with a lighter touch, perhaps, than her husband, but she was certainly no push-over. Alexander writes that "Her style of governance was cautiously consultative, pragmatic, and 'hands-on,' with a Germanic sense of duty and strong aversion to wasting time."

She had absolute power, but she acted with a certain reserve, at least initially, which belied the fact that she would eventually become known in history as a toughened despot. Perhaps this notion of Catherine the Great as a despot was introduced due to her later years when she seemed to indicate an unwillingness to allow her son to ascend the throne, or…

Works Cited

Alexander, John T. Catherine the Great: Life and Legend (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1989).

Alexander, John T. "Catherine II." Encyclopedia of Russian History. (Cincinnati: Gale/Cengage, 2003).

Catherine II. Memoires of the Empress Catherine II, Written by Herself (New York: D. Appleton and Co, 1859)

De Madariaga, Isabel. Catherine the Great: A Short History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002,

Adonais and Don Juan Explored
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hile most of the poem centers around this face, there are a few stanzas where the poet breaks away and discovers what he knows to be himself after this tragedy. The dreadful aspect of life and even his own early demise surface in the emotions revealed in this poem. It is deeply personal and intense. On the other hand, "Don Juan" is less personal. hile the poem may feel less personal, it cannot be denied that we see a little of Byron in this character. However, this is more than a character sketch. Each poem successfully utilizes the literary techniques of voice, mood, and tone to explore meaning. Shelley is remarkably successful in capturing moments of grief. The mood and tone of the poem are nothing to question. The stanzas examine focus primarily on sorrow and how this sorrow affects the poet. There is nothing else to know about this…

Works Cited

Byron, George. "Don Juan." Textbook. City: Publisher. Year.

Shelley, Percy. "Adonais." Textbook. City: Publisher. Year.

Reformation and Renaissance Thinkers' Criticism
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Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these. He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the Church. Luther could not accept the clergy's ability to absolve sin and that it was something, which could be bought. He held that there was no biblical basis for indulgences and that the ible should be the sole basis and center of Christian theology. Outside of the ible, the clergy had no sure and valid foundation for their interpretations (Hermansen).

The foremost Reformation figure after Luther and Huldreich Zwingli, a Swiss pastor, was John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian (Microsoft Encarta…


Hermansen, Joel. The European Renaissance and Reformation. AP World History:

Appleton Area School District, 2009. Retrieved on June 5, 2009 from

Microsoft Encarta. Reformation. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft

Corporation, 2009. Retrieved on June 5, 2009 from

Occidentalism the Title of Ian
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These conservatives are, in the authors' estimation, anti-Western, even though they perceive themselves to be upholding Western values.

But is this really a useful or complete understanding of the complexities of the religious and cultural debates that exist within the Middle East, America, or the larger world? Although the use of the term Occidentalism helpful to some extent in examining why 'they' hate 'us' in the Islamic vs. Western world's culture wars, ultimately the term is so broad its value is somewhat limited, especially if their construct is applied to Nazi Germany vs. The West. Further confusing the issue is that the authors note that many Western critics come from within the system itself, from the ultimate critic of Western bourgeois values Karl Marx to Western-educated fundamentalist terrorists. This makes the definition of 'the Occident' even slipperier, especially as Marx was pro-urban, pro-science, in contrast to religious fundamentalists.

This blurry…

Martin Luther vs John Locke
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He argued that forgiveness could not be bought with money, and that it could only come as a result of the relationship between God and the sinner. His writings were very controversial, and because he did not want to obey Pope Leo X and retract them, he was excommunicated and condemned as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

I believe that Martin Luther had a more profound impact on world history because the Protestant Reformation opposed the corruption that had taken over the Catholic Church. Luther taught that salvation comes from God, and that only through faith can a sinner be redeemed, and also narrowed down the number of sacraments. Moreover, he translated the Bible to German which made it more accessible to the common people who did not speak Latin which in turn contributed to the development of a standard version of the…

English by Time
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The Norman conquest had forever altered the face of history and the face of the English language.

Middle English

The period thought of as the Middle English period roughly from 1150-1500 is a period that is demonstrative of the massive changes associated with the Norman conquest. Though there is some evidence that French did not completely overtake English in common or official use the language had a great influence upon English via the Normans and the elasticity of the language at its source.

The Middle English period (1150-1500) was marked by momentous changes in the English language, changes more extensive and fundamental than those that have taken place at any time before or since. Some of them were the result of the Norman Conquest and the conditions which followed in the wake of that event. Others were a continuation of tendencies that had begun to manifest themselves in Old…

Works Cited

Baugh, Albert C. A History of the English Language. 2nd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959.

Emerson, Oliver Farrar. The History of the English Language. New York: Macmillan, 1894.

McCrum, Robert & MacNeil, Robert. The Story of English: Third Revised Edition. New York: Penguin, 2003.

Spreading the Word; Restore VOA's English-Language Broadcast Funds." The Washington Times 15 Feb. 2006: A19.

William Carey Biography at One
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Although Carey's journal reportedly ends prematurely, he continued to write letters for the next thirty years.

Carey understood the value in/of education, medicine, and other works. He continually encouraged missionaries to travel to the hinterland "and build an indigenous Christianity with vernacular Bibles and other writings and native-led churches."

For his mission to succeed, hile it simultaneously retained its core, Carey purported, it had to not only fill the eternal needs of people missionaries shared the gospel with, but also their day-to-day needs.

During his day-to-day life, Carey was also a husband and father. The following relates details regarding his three marriages.

Dorothy Plackett Carey (1755?-1807): Married illiam Carey in 1781. She was 25 and he was 19. Their marriage was a contrast in ability and interests. She was reluctant to leave England and go to India. Only after much perusasion and on the condition that her sister, Kitty,…

Works Cited

Balmer, Randall. Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, . Accessed 27 March 2008.

Barnhill, John H.. "The Journal and Selected Letters of William Carey.(Book Review)," Baptist History and Heritage, January 1, 2001. Available from Highbeam Research, .Internet. Accessed 27 March 2008.

Carey, Eustace. Memoir of William Carey, D.D.: Late Missionary to Bengal.(Jackson and Walford, 1836; Digitized Oct 24, 2006. Available from,,+missionary&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0.Internet . Accessed 27 March 2008.

An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the by William Carey. Produced by Michael Ciesielski, Robert Shimmin and PG Distributed Proofreaders, N.d. Available from, Internet. Accessed 27 March 2008.

Hb Fuller H B Fuller H B
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So as anyone knows, higher prices always keeps addicts from continuing to use a product. So not only did the monster hybrid successfully sail the seas of a possible disastrous press package, but it also made more money on the kids that were addicted to the product in the first place. So in answer to the question as to whether or not H.B fuller conducted itself in a morally responsible manner, that would be an unequivocal no.

But let us have a reality check.. Twenty-twenty hindsight is always great, but everyone has to realize that companies are in business to make money and that process, although it may have some casualties, is the process that makes the world turn, so to speak. Could H.B Fuller have done things differently and achieved the same results for the company, perhaps not. Any changes they would have made, whether it be additives to…


Bauerlein, Monika (11 August 1993). The sweet smell of success. Retrieved March 27, 2008, from Web site: 

H.B. Fuller (2007) Company website. Retrieved March 27, 2008, from Web site; 

Material Safety Data Sheet Toluene (2007) Retrieved March 27, 2008, from Web site: 

McDonough, William. (____)

17th and 18th Century Europe
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Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.

The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…

Revolutions Compare and Contrast the
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He believed that if people join together and make a social contract they can both preserve their nation and remain free (Rousseau 93).

The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a ten-year period of upheaval in France as it was throughout Europe during the period which followed the American Revolution. In France, the political climate changed from a monarchy with aristocrats and much influence by the Catholic Church to a democracy. Citizens formulated their desires for rights and privileges equal to the aristocracy and, fighting for this ideal, won it.

The preamble to the French Constitution is a "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." The Declaration of Rights says that "No one shall be disturbed for his opinions, even religious, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law" (Knight 2).

The Constitution of the United States also has a preamble that declares that the…

Works Cited

Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854-78), vol 7-10. Boston: Little, Brown, and company.

Knight, Kevin. French Revolution. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2006. .

Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy. Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books. 2003.

Rousseau, George S. Nervous Acts: Essays on Literature, Culture and Sensibility. Palgrave Macmillan. 2004.

Nonexistent Knight by Italo Calvino 1959
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Nonexistent Knight is a character driven narrative and, therefore, should be summarized within the framework of those characters and their exploits throughout the novella. The titular character, the nonexistent knight, Agilulf, who exists not in the flesh but in a suit of armor, seeks to restore his honor by confirming that his good deed that earned him his knighthood, saving the virginity of a young royal woman from the lecherous ways of two brutes, did indeed happen per his recollection. The youth, Raimbaut, is a young knight in the making who falls in love with a dastardly lady knight. The lady knight, Bradamante, falls in love with the chivalric and impeccably noble ways of the nonexistent knight and sets up a love triangle of sorts. Then there's Torrismund, another knight, who ends up falling in love with a woman that was at one point thought to be his mother. Lastly,…

Works Cited

Calvino, Italo. The Nonexistent Knight. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Inc., 1959. Print.

Markey, Constance. Italo Calvino: A Journey toward Postmodernism (Crosscurrents,

Comparative Studies in European Literature and Philosophy). Gainesville, FL:

University Press of Florida; 1st edition,1999. Print.

Microeconomic Study the Market for
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However the restaurants collectively are considered to be a luxury good to those within the market. We feel that our brand is a normal good in this market as our cuisine is specific to the taste of the clientele represented by the demographic. Additionally, our decor and quality distinguish our establishment from what are deemed to be the lower quality establishments in the area that would normally represent the 'competition'.

The additional features of our establishment also yield a luxury restaurant as the market deems the bathroom as an important feature in distinguishing a market friendly and luxurious restaurant experience. In many countries it is that way, the food itself does not distinguish the restaurant, as one can ostensibly obtain a great, world-class meal from many restaurants. Indeed, the restroom experience is what qualifies a restaurant as being luxurious or not luxurious.

The market structure that best characterizes the industry…


Cadbury Schweppes Announces Intention to Sell Europe Beverages. United States, New York: PR Newswire Association LLC, 2005. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 15 July 2011.

Country Forecast Switzerland September 20092009,, The Economist Intelligence Unit, United States, New York.

John Bohannon Contributor to The Christian, Science Monitor 2004, The best food I've tasted - but never seen, United States, Boston, Mass.

Micheloud & Cie (2011) Cost of living in Switzerland: beverages.

Protestant Ref Imperialism and WWI
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92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.

Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.

The new Imperialism of America (and…

Reference List

Elliot, J.H. (2009). Spain, Europe and the Wider World: 1500-1800. Yale Universtiy


Haaren, J. (1904). Famous Men of the Middle Ages. New York, NY: American Book