War Against Terrorism Essays (Examples)

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British Television and Journalism War on Terrorism

Words: 3194 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66274085

The writer of this article, Victor David Hanson, states that since earlier times, this sort of disparity in power has been in evidence, and it is a fact that the others have been attempting to build up their innate strength and power by merely imitating the West. This is sometimes referred to as a type of 'military parasitism', wherein those who were weak would often try to steal or buy or clone those weapons of the West that they found to be powerful. One example of this phenomenon is that of Japan. This country had no munitions manufacturing unit, no organized naval fleet, yet she managed to defeat a ussian Armada during 1905. (Post-Modern War)

The main reason for this success was that Japan had been sending thousands of her students to foreign universities and to military academies to study, and this resulted in the gaining of certain knowledge in…… [Read More]

References

Best of Counter terrorism and Security" Counter Terrorism and Security International. Retrieved at http://www.iacsp.com/a4.html. Accessed on 17 January, 2005

Clements, Kevin. (2002) "The War on Terrorism and its Aftermath" The Second eSymposium on Conflict Prevention Dialogue Session 2. February. Retrieved at http://www.dwcw.org/e-symposium/cgi/wwwbbs.cgi-Symposium_2&88Accessed on 17 January, 2005

Corera, Gordon. (2004). "War on Terror vanishes from agenda" 24 November. Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4034833.stm. Accessed on 17 January, 2005

Hanson, Victor Davis. (2005) "Post-Modern War." Free Republic. 10 January. Retrieved at  http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1317714/postsAccessed  on 17 January, 2005
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Protecting Ourselves Against Terrorism

Words: 3671 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83464042

S. has to be active in supporting the International Law. He argues that our effort should not be to defeat a set of criminals, Osama in Laden, his Al-Qaeda network and a few like-minded groups, but we have to undermine the notion that any action is acceptable for a cause and slaughter of civilian is an acceptable political act.

The fight against terrorism has to be based not on destroying a certain group of terrorists but as a campaign of human rights. Geneva Conventions and international human rights law specifically establish that terrorism is not a legitimate act of war or politics. These rules specify that civilians should never be deliberately killed or abused, regardless of the cause. Mr. ush's refusal to condemn Israel's bombing of civilian targets in an impotent Lebanon may be politically expedient but it says that United States considers it all right to deliberately bomb civilian…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Reisman, W.M., International Legal Responses to Terrorism, Houston Journal of International Law, Volume 22, Issue 1, 1999

Grebinar, J., Responding to Terrorism: How Must a Democracy Do It? A Comparison of Israeli and American Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Volume 31, Issue 1, 2003

Roth, K., Misplaced Priorities: Human Rights and the Campaign against Terrorism, Harvard International Review. Volume 24, Issue 3, 2002

Charters, D.A. (Editor), The Deadly Sin of Terrorism: Its Effect on Democracy and Civil Liberty in Six Countries, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 1994
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Forensic Speech on the War on Terrorism

Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84425106

Iraq

The American public is misleaded concerning the war in Iraq.

Americans believe that the war is for freedom, 9-11, and the good of the Iraqi people.

Americans are misled.

What is the war really about?

The war is not about terrorism, freedom, WMD's or the "people."

The war is misguided and damaging.

Experts agree that the war is a bad idea.

Clarke and Leverett give opinions on why the war is a bad idea.

The Iraq war is compared to an insufficient dose of penicillin.

What's so wrong with attacking Iraq?

There are no WMD's, the main justification is gone.

One cannot clean one's kitchen by cleaning the living room.

So what's the big deal?

American citizens are not safer than before, and may be less safe.

Iraq, like American Muslims are perceived as fair targets, whether they deserve it or not.

Conclusion: Iraq is not the same as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fletcher, Douglas. (2004). Where are the WMD's? Reason Hit and Run. 27 March.

Discusses the role of WMD's in the war on Iraq.

Gillespie, Nick. (2002). You mean they're not the same thing? The Washington Post. Retrieved from Web site on March 31, 2004 http://216.239.57.104/search?q=cache:JW0jnA8faFQJ:www.brookings.edu/comm/policybriefs/pb93.pdf+%22war+on+terrorism%22+and+%22Iraq%22+an d+%22wrong%22&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

Touches on the possible negative repercussions on the war on terrorism resulting from the Iraq war -- especially in the use of resources.
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Effects of War Against Iraq

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6202949

War against Iraq

War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…… [Read More]

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War in Afghanistan Following the

Words: 3674 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30447159



Fallout

A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.

A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…… [Read More]

Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.

Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127

Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
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War on Terrorism Is it Justified On

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64166779

War on Terrorism: Is it Justified?

On September 11, 2001, two separate airliners, loaded with passengers, were flown into the two towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. This was soon followed by a similar act in Washington, D.C. that destroyed part of the Pentagon. Passengers on another plane attempted to retake it from hijackers, and that plane crashed into the Pennsylvania countryside, undoubtedly preventing a fourth attack.

y the time the second plane flew into the south tower of the World Trade Center, we knew these were deliberate attacks. y the time the Pentagon had been attacked, there was a widespread perception that we were at war. Spokespersons and reporters drew comparisons to the attack on Pearl Harbor.

However, there are troubling differences to the attack of December 7, 1941, particularly in who the enemy was or is in each situation. There was no doubt in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albom, Mitch. Oct. 15, 2001. "Battle Must be Joined as Surely as Peace." Los Angeles Business Journal.

Author not available. Dec. 2001. "Iraq, Anthrax, and the Hawks." The Progressive. Accessed via the Internet 3/19/02. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1295/12_65/80681001/print.jhtml

Pipes, Daniel. Jan. 2002. "Who Is the Enemy? (Analysis of United States War on Terrorism)" Commentary Magazine.

Stephen, Andrew. Sept. 24, 2001. "The War that Bush Cannot Win." New Statesman. Accessed via the Internet 3/19/02. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FQP/4556_130/79029848/print.jhtml
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Terrorism Compare and Contrast a

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38312890

Jewish people believed they were promised land of their own, and the Palestinians believed that they would be given a defined homeland as well. However, the governments making these decisions were outside the Middle East and were acting in their own interests, not the interests of the people living in the areas affected. When the United Nations recognized Israel as a political entity after World War II, it did so in response to the outrage of Germany's Holocaust. While this was understandable to Western countries, Palestinians felt that they had been cheated out of their homeland and that instead it had been given to Israel.

The differences between fundamentalist and more moderate Islam comes down to the nature of Islamic belief. Islam does not make any real distinction between religion and government. In the Koran, religion and government are completely intertwined. So to fundamentalist Moslems, a non-fundamentalist Islamic country in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Merey, Can. 2004. "Still no trace of Osama bin Laden."

Manila Bulletin, December 29.

Staff writer. 2005. "Irish Republicans in crisis over money laundering probe. Agence France Presse English, Feb. 19

Weisbach, Jessica. 2004. "The Psychology of the Terrorist Mind: Attempting to Understand as a Possible Means towards Prevention," in Peace, War and Human Nature. Accessed via the Internet 8/4/05. http://gseweb.harvard.edu/~t656_web/peace/Articles_Spring_2004/Weisbach_Jessica_terrorist_mind.htm
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War in Afghanistan

Words: 3312 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62121514

ar in Afghanistan

After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com.

This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.

Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13

Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from  http://www.latimes.com
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Terrorism Has Been in Existence for a

Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28440904

errorism has been in existence for a long time, yet the experts are still finding difficulty defining exactly what it is. errorism has been defined as: "Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience." However it is defined, there is agreement that there are certain elements that much be present for an act to be classified as terrorism. Some experts agree that it must be politically motivated and that the targets must be random. It is thought that the intention is to make everyone afraid of being a target. he CIA's Counterterrorist Center adds that it must be premeditated and not just an impulsive act, and aimed at civilians. errorist acts can be considered barbaric because of the extent of the damage that is inflicted, and so it is difficult to understand why anyone would be motivated to…… [Read More]

Terrorism has been in existence for a long time, yet the experts are still finding difficulty defining exactly what it is. Terrorism has been defined as: "Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience." However it is defined, there is agreement that there are certain elements that much be present for an act to be classified as terrorism. Some experts agree that it must be politically motivated and that the targets must be random. It is thought that the intention is to make everyone afraid of being a target. The CIA's Counterterrorist Center adds that it must be premeditated and not just an impulsive act, and aimed at civilians. Terrorist acts can be considered barbaric because of the extent of the damage that is inflicted, and so it is difficult to understand why anyone would be motivated to carry out such an act. In past history there have been many reasons for such terrorist acts such as to produce fear, to harass weaken or embarrass a government security forces, to satisfy vengeance, to steal money and equipment especially weapons, to free prisoners, and to obtain worldwide or local recognition for a cause. In order to be effective on a large scale the common method of terrorism is by bombing. Perhaps the most remembered in recent history is what is now known simply as 9-11. This was an unusual mode of terrorism where planes were simultaneously flown into public buildings in crowded cities. The deadliest was at the World Trade Center in New York city where more than 3,000 lives were lost. But that was not the first time that the World trade Center was the target of terrorism. In February 1993, a truck bomb exploded there, killing six people, and displacing business in the complex for six months. Terrorists acts are not always carried out by groups. Timothy McVeigh killed 168 people by bombing a federal office building in Oklahoma City in 1995.

Despite the war against terrorism which has been intensified since the 9/11 attacks, some think that as long as there is greed and hatred in the world there will continue to be this deliberate use of violence against civilians for political or religious ends.
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War and Terrorism

Words: 843 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70800887

War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)

Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.

Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.

However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at  http://www.nytimes.com .

Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
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War in American History The

Words: 2275 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53426093



Katulis and Juul help put into perspective the tentative position of Iraq in saying that Iraq's leadership remains split on a draft version of SOF (Katulis and Juul, online). The Iraqi cabinet must vote a two-thirds majority in favor of their support for a plan (Katulis and Juul). This may be difficult to achieve when the cabinet is divided along religious sect lines. It is, too, perhaps the first time since the election of the cabinet by the Iraqi people that they had to put such concerted emphasis on their decision making, because, once made, there is no turning back from that decision which could result in the U.S. pulling out of Iraq beginning almost immediately. What follows will answer the question of whether or not Iraq is prepared to stand on its own against the forces of Islamic fundamentalist extremism. Leaving Iraq may see it become impossible to regain…… [Read More]

As Hanson points out, the jihadists do not need fighter jets, a navy fleet or even tanks to win their war against the west (Hoover Institution, Hanson, online). Their tools are terrorism, and this, too, seems to be one of the aspects of the present and future nature of warfare that people choose not to acknowledge. The goals of terrorism are no to destroy buildings, although the destruction of buildings as occurred on September 11, 2001, does indeed further their work; it is rather to cause a disruption of the economy, to create political division, world discord, to instill a prevailing atmosphere of fear and panic, and to bring down the society that is the target of the terrorist acts. In this regard, as we examine where America is today, and where the rest of the world is as economies are collapsing around us, it might be fair to say that the jihadists are winning their war of terrorism.

Who would have believed, as Hanson so succinctly argues, that a world amidst the technological progress where the world stands today could be brought to its knees by terrorists who have effectively enslaved the freedoms that it has taken America and its post World War II allies hundreds of years to achieve? Today, cartoon satire depicting Islamic extremists can be banned - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban ideas and images; the words "war on terror" have been ostensibly set aside because they have become too psychologically burdensome to the public - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban words from the language; and other examples of giving into the weight of terrorism as cited by Hanson (Hanson, online). Echoing Galbraith, the question must be asked, "Is this victory?"

Wordpress.com, 2008. Galbraith, Peter, GBlog. Found online at http://gunnyg.wordpress.com/2008/10/27/is-this-a-victory-by-peter-w-galbraith/,retrieved 18 November 2008.
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War in Iraq Diminish the

Words: 1979 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19344673

S. security, but on international security.

Source #7 from Google: owman, Karlyn, U.S. public opinion and the terrorist threat, June 6, 2006, available at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all, pubID.24492/pub_detail.asp.

Source evaluation: The article provides a well-documented insight into the public opinion in U.S. regarding the war in Iraq.

Source #8 from Google: Diminished Public Appetite for Military Force and Mideast Oil

Five Years Later..., released on September 6, 2006, available at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=288.

Source evaluation: An article based on opinion polls regarding the people's opinion towards the war in Iraq.

Source #9: Gunaratna, Rohan, the Terrorist Threat Five years after 9-11, September 22, 2006, available at http://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/1031/cid/6?PHPSESSID=0f987fb38af332abab79864390a755c4.

Source evaluation: The article deals with the terrorist organization al-Qaeda and the changes in this field brought by the war in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Source #10 from Google: Layne, Christopher, No adult supervision, November 23, 2004, available at http://www.realisticforeignpolicy.org/archives/2004/11/index.php.

Source evaluation: The article is analyzing the decision-making…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mazzetti, Mark, Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Worsens Terrorism Threat, published on September 24, 2006, available at  http://www.nytimes.com /2006/09/24/world/middleeast/24terror.html?ex=1316750400&en=da252be85d1b39fa&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss;

Mueller, John, Is There Still a Terrorist Threat?: The Myth of the Omnipresent Enemy, from Foreign Affairs, September/October 2006, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060901facomment85501/john-mueller/is-there-still-a-terrorist-threat.html;

Fletcher, Michael a., Bush warns of enduring terror threat, September 6, 2006, available at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/05/AR2006090500312.html ;

Benjamin, Daniel, Two Years After 9/11: A Balance Sheet, October 2003 | Special Report No. 111, available at http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr111.html
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Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

Words: 1772 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30854973

Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .

In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Diamond, L. (n.d.). Winning the new cold war on terrorism. Hoover Institute. Stanford University. Retrievable from http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/papers/coldWarOnTerrorism.pdf.

Levine, D. And Levine, R. (2006). Deterrence in the Cold War and the War on Terror. National Science Foundation Grant publication. Retrievable from  http://www.dklevine.com/papers/inimical.pdf .

Tirman, J. (2006). The War on Terror and the Cold War: They're not the same. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Audit of Conventional Wisdom. Retrievable from  http://web.mit.edu/cis/acw.html .

US History (n.d). Berlin Wall. Viewable at  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1867.html .
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Future Threat of Terrorism Five to Twenty Years in the Future

Words: 1849 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38654324

Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Is the United States "winning" the war on terrorism? Are we losing? How do you define winning? (300-400 words) to the following questions and post it to the discussion forum, "Winning." In your response, please cite examples from current events that support your answer.

As early as 2008, the Council on Foreign Relations noted that there was increasing evidence that the U.S. was 'winning' the war on terror: "al Qaeda has not managed to mount any major attacks on an American target, much less on the American homeland, since 9/11. Those attacks that have succeeded have been fairly minor compared with past al-Qaeda atrocities: a 2004 assault on the U.S. consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killed five local employees and no Americans" (Blake 2008). Since then, attacks on U.S. soil, such as the Boston Marathon bombings, while absolutely devastating to the individuals personally affected, have been relatively…… [Read More]

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Critically Evaluate the Requirements and Challenges Associated With International Co Operation in Counter Terrorism

Words: 2241 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69831939

Terrorism in the contemporary society - UK

Terrorism is a serious issue in the contemporary society and the international public is actively involved in fighting it through a wide range of channels, both organized and improvised. hile terrorism was previously regarded as being a concept with a lesser felt presence in the est, recent decades have proved otherwise and have made it possible for the masses to understand that they are exposed. The September 11, 2001, events in particular changed the way that the masses looked at terrorism in general. People understood that it was a real problem and that they were no longer as safe as they previously thought they were.

The September 11 events made the whole world turn its attention toward the U.S. It seemed that terrorism had chosen the country as a main target and that the American authorities needed to provide a rapid and effective…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Anderson, D. "The Terrorism Acts in 2012: report of the Independent Reviewer on the operation of the Terrorism Act 2000 and of part 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006." (IDRC, 17 Jul 2013)

Conte, A. "Human Rights in the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism: Commonwealth Approaches: The United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand Front Cover." (Springer Science & Business Media, 3 Jul 2010)

Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs Committee. "Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism: Fourth Report of Session 2005-06; Report, Together with Formal Minutes, Oral and Written Evidence." (The Stationery Office, 2006)

Forrest, J. F. "Countering Terrorism and Insurgency in the 21st Century: Lessons from the fight against terrorism." (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007)
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Terrorism There Are a Number

Words: 9571 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28900701

Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.

Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:

As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."

Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.

Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.

Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.

Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
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Terrorism What Is the Role

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23155497

These contexts include: simple contexts, in which there is a clear cause-and-effect structure at work that is self-evident; complicated contexts, in which there are many right answers, but it is hard to ascertain them; complex contexts, in which there are no visible solutions (a dynamic in which there are "unknown unknowns"); and chaotic contexts, in which a leader is simply tasked with reducing the severity of a situation.

Over time, national security is faced with each of these contexts, and intelligence requires employing officials who are equipped with the requisite expertise to successfully target a given predicament.

In light of the many different tasks faced by national security, it is essential to have a Grand Strategy (or Statement of Purpose) that accounts for every aspect of national defense and steers the different compartments toward a unified direction.

An example of a unified direction can be seen in the War on…… [Read More]

References

Chambers, Jay, "Combating Terrorism in a Globalized World," National War College, 2002.

"Combating Catastrophic Terror: A Security Strategy for the Nation." 2005

"Combating Catastrophic Terror: A Security Strategy for the Nation." 2005.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Terrorism, Strategies, and Grand Strategies." In Attacking Terrorism: Element of a Grand Strategy, ed. Audrey Kurth Cronin and James M. Ludes. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2004.
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Terrorism What Was Once Seen

Words: 2297 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87767522

Thousands of individuals employed within the ussian nuclear complex - many of whom have knowledge and access to nuclear materials - receive salaries that are barely at subsistence level, raising the possibility that they might be susceptible to offers from anyone in the market to buy nuclear components" (Deutch, 1997).

5. Economic Consequences

It is generally a habit of the terrorist groups to target international powers in order to make their statement. But these international powers have extremely strong economies, and most importantly, extremely diverse. What this means, is that even if a terrorist attack would affect one economic sector, the large diversity of operations and revenues would be able to support the economic revival of the affected sector and support the country's economic growth (Sandler and Enders, 2005). However, one cannot rely on this premise as it is most applicable at a macroeconomic level. On a microeconomic level, the…… [Read More]

References

Balkin, K.F., 2004, Antiterrorist Policies Jeopardize Immigrant's Civil Rights, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, Greenhaven Press

Bergesen, a.J., Han, Y., 2005, New Directions for Terrorism Research, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 46

Deutch, J.M., 1997, Terrorism, Foreign Policy, No. 108

Halwani, R., 2006, Terrorism: Definition, Justification and Applications, Social Theory and Practice, Vol. 32
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Terrorism Definitions of Terrorism Under the U S

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29779743

Terrorism

Definitions of terrorism

Under the U.S. Government, terrorism has different definitions, not accounting also scholars' own definitions of this concept. In a study by Mark Burgess (2003) for the U.S. Center for Defense Information, he identified five (5) definitions of terrorism, three from the U.S. Government and two from academic scholars. The common factors in each definition, according to Burgess, are the terrorists' motives, identity, and methods.

The Department of Defense defines terrorism as "[t]he calculated use of unlawful violence to inculcate fear… to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological" (para. 4). The FBI has the same definition, albeit worded differently and includes not only people, but also property as an object of violence. The State Department, meanwhile, has a more specific definition, identifying terrorism as "premeditated" and primarily "politically motivated," and identified terrorists as "subnational groups or clandestine…… [Read More]

References

Burgess, M. (2003). "Terrorism: the problems of definition." Center for Defense Information. Accessed 23 April 2011. Available at: http://www.cdi.org/program/issue/document.cfm?DocumentID=1564&IssueID=138&StartRow=1&ListRows=10&appendURL=&Orderby=DateLastUpdated&ProgramID=39&issueID=138

Slater, J. (2006). "Tragic choices in the war on terrorism: should we try to regulate and control torture?" Political Science Quarterly, (121)2.

US Army Training and Doctrine Command. (2007). "Terrorist Organizational Models." In A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Available at: www.fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/guide.pdf
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Terrorism There Have Been Various Definitions and

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14223558

Terrorism

There have been various definitions and views of terrorism that have beenfronted over the years. It has been described as a strategy and at other levels as a tactic, some have called it a crime and yet other refer to it as a holy/noble duty; some consider it an inexcusable abomination yet others consider it a systematic reaction to oppression. Obviously, a lot depends on whose point-of-view is being represented, be it theological, political or psychological. Also terrorism can be seen as willful destruction (killing) of people or destruction of property by people not acting on behalf of an established government to redress a real or imaginary injustice attributed to an established government. However it is important to note that not all cases of willful destruction of people or property are acts of terrorism (ed Cross Organization, 2007).

Some of the important definitive characteristics of terrorism include among others;…… [Read More]

References

Commonwealth of Kentucky, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011

from http://homelandsecurity.ky.gov/community/

Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html

Homeland Security, (2011). Preparedness, Response & Recovery. Retrieved November 20, 2011
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Terrorism How Does Terrorism Affect Children Children

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55134687

Terrorism

How does terrorism affect children?

Children are often the victims of terrorism, and sometimes die in terrorist attacks (Dyson, 2001). When children witness or survive a terrorist attack, psychological ramifications like post-traumatic stress disorder may result (Hall, 2003). In some cases, children lose their loved ones and their lives may be turned upside down by terrorist attacks as all that is familiar to them -- schools, family, homes, community -- are destroyed (FBI, 2007). The war on terrorism can also affect the lives of children, as the media perpetuates a culture of fear. Children may, for example, be raised to be suspicious of people of different races or ethnicities because their parents, teachers, and the media perpetuate stereotypes about who is and who is not a terrorist.

What makes "martyrdom" such an effective tool for terrorists? Discuss in terms of social construction.

Suicide bombings and other examples of terrorist…… [Read More]

References

Dyson, W.E. (2001). Terrorism: An investigator's handbook. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Retrieved March 25, 2007, from www.fbi.gov.

Gunaratna, R. (2002), Inside Al Qaeda: Global network of terror. New York: Berkley Books.

Hall, H.V. (2003). Introduction: Psychological study of terrorism. Journal of Threat Assessment 2(3), 1-8.
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Terrorism and Democracy Terrorism Is by Its

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69258397

Terrorism and Democracy

Terrorism is by its very nature is anti-democratic as it seeks to achieve political ends by violence. It has no interest in any of the bedrocks of democracy such as building consensus, stimulating debate or protecting the rights and interests of minorities. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the TC twin towers, the 'clear and present' danger to democracy, freedom and liberties has become even more pronounced. There is consensus among all those who cherish democracy that urgent steps are necessary to counter the threat of terrorism. The key question is: how to accomplish this? In this essay we shall examine how terrorism undermines democracy and whether setting up an international committee can help to fight terrorism. e shall also look at short definitions of democracy and terrorism.

Definition of Democracy

Democracy (Greek demos, "the people"; kratein, "to rule") is a political system in which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003. http://web2.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510442002?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA

Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97

Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
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Terrorism Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Define

Words: 4573 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21286311

At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.

War on Terror

War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…… [Read More]

References

The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.

The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,

Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.

Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
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Terrorism the Effects of Terrorism

Words: 2858 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36907808

No matter the actual cost of terrorism in terms of the economic damage, the perception that investment is going to incur higher risk will inevitably lead to the conclusion that it will also incur higher costs. Since higher costs are generally an anathema to transnational business, it stands that capital would move away from areas that have experienced terrorism. In fact, this is born out by the numbers. As already mentioned, FDI in the U.S. dropped by a factor of ten following the September 11th terrorist attacks. No one person, business, institution, or government had to organize this shift; rather it occurred organically as a function of the market itself. In the aftermath of the attacks, the U.S. suddenly seemed like a riskier place to do business and capital would have been shifted towards areas of the world that had the perception of being safer.

In fact, surveys conducted among…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abadie, Alberto and Gardeazabal, Javier. "Terrorism and the World Economy." Aug. 2007. 29 Nov. 2007 http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~.aabadie.academic.ksg/twe.pdf.

Carafano, James Jay. "Global Terrorism and the Global Economy: Unpeaceful Coexistence." Chapter 2 in 2005 Index of Economic Freedom. 2005. 29 Nov. 2007 http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/chapters/pdfs/Index2005_Chap2.pdf.

Nanto, Dick K. "9/11 Terrorism: Global Economic Costs." CRS Report for Congress. 5 Oct. 2004. 29 Nov. 2007 http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink/meta-crs-7725:1.
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Terrorism and Economy How Has

Words: 1750 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24309143

S., have the potential to cause billions of dollars of damage to the U.S. economy" (Threat pp).

orks Cited

Airlines likely to become vocal over security costs - claim.(Brief Article)

Airline Industry Information. December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.

Bartlett, Michael. "Only Terrorism Can Derail Continued Growth."

Credit Union Journal. October 03, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.

Crutsinger, Martin. "ECONOMISTS RANK TERRORISM GREATEST THREAT

TO ECONOMY; MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR Business ECONOMICS RANK IMMEDIATE THREATS." isconsin State Journal. August 18, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.

Definition of Terrorism. Retrieved August 14, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definition_of_terrorism

High oil prices risky for U.S. economy: top Bush adviser.

Agence France Presse English. August 09, 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.

Raum, Tom. "Approval of Bush's Handling of Economy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Airlines likely to become vocal over security costs - claim.(Brief Article)

Airline Industry Information. December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Bartlett, Michael. "Only Terrorism Can Derail Continued Growth."

Credit Union Journal. October 03, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
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Terrorism Has a Long and Violent History

Words: 3383 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12639816

Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000

Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/content/ForeignPolicy/chomskyglobeterr.cfm

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.

Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564344/Terrorism.html
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Terrorism Tech Technological Innovation as

Words: 4295 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74677890

The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.

After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."

This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.

Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at  http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html ?wlc=1243220640

Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=

Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
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Terrorism Seems to Have Taken Over the

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1754710

Terrorism seems to have taken over the world. No matter how hard the industrialized countries try to find ways to achieve peace and stability in the world but somehow the opposite happens. Today's world is predominantly inhabited by hatred that is visible in the never-ending terror and fear produced by the attacks of September 11th and the military responses undertaken by Super powers. Wars apparently carried out in order to eradicate terrorism are seen by the affected countries as excuses to simply dominate more countries and establish and American hegemony or new colonialism all over the world.

The reasons for escalating terrorism are complex and more than often not understandable. However, some of the reasons are as follows: The growth in the number of terrorist groups is instigated largely by the religious imperative that is greatly funded by the state governments of the Islamic countries; the highly advanced technology and…… [Read More]

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Terrorism Asia the Political Complexity

Words: 2028 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12958185

" (IST, 1)

Nonetheless, India holds that Pakistan has both a significant motive to see attacks on Indian soil carried out without proper retribution and that its commitment to eroding the forces of terrorism generated by its own people may be regarded as nominal at best. Quite indeed, the political pressure imposed by the United States may be matched or even overshadowed by the political pressures instigated by its own populace. One may deduce in fact that there are substantial sectors of the population which if not supportive of extremism or participating and funding in any such activities, may nonetheless find some sympathy for the idea that political and economic causes are the primary impetuses for acts of 'terrorism.'

Nonetheless, Pakistan's opportunity for growth and improvement does hinge on these efforts, at least according to the United States. Even under new leadership, the U.S. has continued to make its Pakistan…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Associated Press of Pakistan (APP). (2009). Pakistan Dealing With Challenges Courageously: Governor Sindh. Associated Press of Pakistan Corporation. Online at Dawn Media Group (DMG). (2009). 'U.S. Forces Not to Be Allowed to Operate Inside Pakistan. Dawn.com.

Hitti, P. (1943). History of the Arab People. Princeton University Press.

IST. (2009). Pakistan wants Unconditional Talks With India. The Times of India. Online at  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/news/india/Pakistan-wants-unconditional-talks-with-India-Qureshi/articleshow/5022368.cms 

Kronstadt, K. Alan. (Jan. 2005). Pakistan-U.S. Relations. CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Online at < http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB94041.pdf>
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Against Patriot Act of 2001

Words: 4145 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9972714

Against the Patriot Act of 2001

What is the Patriot Act of 2001? The Act was passed in order to unite and strengthen the United States of America by providing all the appropriate and the necessary tools with which to fight terrorism. The President George W. Bush signed the Act on October 26th in 2001, after the devastating terrorist attacks that occurred on the nerve center of the United States of America, the World Trade Center, on September 11, 2001. (USA Patriot Act) These terrorist acts were a cleverly coordinated series of attacks on the Pentagon, which is the Headquarters of the Department of Defense of the United States of America and holds more than 23,000 civilian as well as military employees, and also more than 3,000 non-defense personnel, and on the World Trade Center, which is the center of global commerce that is responsible for providing network access to…… [Read More]

References

Bergen, Jennifer Van. "The U.S.A. Patriot Act Was Planned Before 9/11" Truth out Editorial. (20 May, 2002) Retrieved From

http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/05.21B.jvb.usapa.911.htm Accessed on 25 November, 2004

Dinh, Viet. E. (1 June, 2004) "How the U.S.A. Patriot Act defends Democracy" A White Paper. Retrieved From http://www.defenddemocracy.org/usr_doc/USA_Patriot_Act.pdf

Accessed on 25 November, 2004
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Terrorism Homeland Security

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83282242

Terrorism/Homeland Security

Terrorism / Homeland security

Terrorism is a global phenomenon that needs urgent research to address its effects on people. Scholars on terrorism argue that terrorism is a disputed term. These scholars contend that those individuals referred to as terrorists may be guerrilla fighters, resistant fighters, freedom fighters or militants. They further state that terrorism is a tactic employed to pass out propaganda of deeds thus causing psychological and social impacts on individuals. In addition, people in these places feel the direct effects of the violent act of the terrorists group. Experts dispute whether the start of terrorism is in the first century. There is a view that it started in the 11th century during the time of Sicarrii Zealots. Others are of the opinion that Al-Hashshashin's time was the time when terrorism began (Howard, 2002).

Terrorism in Middle East

Terrorism organizations in the Middle East are mostly religious…… [Read More]

References

Howard, M. (2002). What's in a name? How to fight terrorism. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 8-13.

Bruce, R. (2007). Al Qaeda strikes back. Foreign Affairs, 84 (3), 24-70.

Scott, D.M. (2002). Somebody else's civil war. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 22-42.

Zachary, A. (2003). Funding terrorism in Southeast Asia: Jemaah Islamiya and Al Qaeda the financial network . Contemporary Southeast Asia, 25 (2), 169-199.
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Terrorism and the Internet Modern

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10999243

(Ulph, 2006)

The document is remarkable for a couple of reasons, which more widely emphasizes on the importance of the internet for the jihadi terrorists. The first one is the component of collective initiative that the writer promotes; emphasizing the pace of communication and the prospective strength that spread jihadi sympathizers throughout the world could concentrate on a single project. Second relates to the competence for data storing that the internet entails, permitting quick reach not only to data of academic interest but also to sensitive forms of infrastructure details containing utilities, distribution as well as transport networks, along with the risk and susceptibility perceptions of such facilities -- that governments are presently providing at ever higher standards of transparency. (Ulph, 2006)

Activity over the web is not a current phenomenon and not limited to Islamic outfits- either moderate or extremist. Terrorist groups of several features i.e. racial, ideological or…… [Read More]

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Terrorism This Report Is About

Words: 1471 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70858437



Should we get the religion that did this? Consider that the people who conducted the attacks were all united members of a single religious sect -- Moslems. The question then must be asked, was this a religious attack or jihad? I do not believe that because the attackers were Moslems and claimed to be motivated by religious beliefs that from this point forward it is fair to assume all Muslims or Islam as a religion is violence driven.

It is important that we as a nation do not single out Moslems or any other group as the only source needing suspicion for future acts. Consider Timothy McVey and what he did in Oklahoma. For several days after that explosion, Americans and the Media were looking for some Muslim or religious sect in the Middle East to attack. The shock that one of our own perpetrated this horrific act blindsided the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Johnson, Denis. "War at Home." The New Yorker September (2001):.

Morrow, Lance. "The Case for Rage and Retribution." Time September (2001):.

Saghiyeh, Hazem. "It's Not All Americans Fault." al-Hayat October (2001):.

If you need to type anything after the Reference List then start it on this page
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Terrorism Law Terrorism Is the

Words: 2030 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99614017



National security and intelligence policy focus on offices that the federal government controls. These policies have gained the support of the communities who have the resources used in implementing such policies. Therefore, the national security and intelligence policy aims at re-organizing homeland security and intelligence systems for different national entities and private sector. However, these policies do not stipulate the activities the communities will implement in an effort to provide national security (McCormack 57). hile the national security and intelligence policy call for local and state entities to be linked to the efforts of national security and intelligence, the policies have failed to envision that national security and intelligence are being controlled by federal entities. This means that local, state, and federal intelligence officials must share information amongst themselves for the purpose of attaining national security and maintaining intelligence at all levels (Cumming 69).

The national security and intelligence policies…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McCormack, Wayne. Understanding the Law of Terrorism. New York: Lexis Nexis, 2007. Print

Marting, Gus. Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. California: Sage,

2009. Print

Cumming, Alfred. Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives. New York: Henry Holt,
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Terrorism and Raymond James Stadium

Words: 3212 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76452618

According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).

Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).

Even…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:

http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/blsecurityjobs.htm

Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN

Politics.Com. Cited in:
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Terrorism and Domestic Soft Targets

Words: 3109 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55851226

In the first instance an attack of this nature usually serves a symbolic purpose from the terrorist's point-of-view in that he or she is seen to be attacking the bastion of global Western commerce. Secondly, many business concerns are more vulnerable to attack as they are usually not as heavily secured as military or energy installations. There is also the factor that American financial institutions are invariably identified with the international polices and political stances of the U.S. government, making them a prime target for terrorists and radical groups. (Kirkpatrick, 1983, p. 94)

American multinational Corporations (MNCs) in particular are an increasing focus of terrorist attention. As Harvey (1993) states, "If the trends of the past are any indication of the future strategies of terrorists, United States MNCs will continue to be their primary targets" (Harvey, 1993 p. 465). In this regard studies have found that financial and commercial institutions…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002393124

Bayles, W.J. (2001). The Ethics of Computer Network Attack. Parameters, 31(1), 44. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000729437

Beard, J.M. (2002). America's New War on Terror: The Case for Self-Defense under International Law. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 559+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424066

Beebe, J.L. (2006). Inherently Safer Technology: The Cure for Chemical Plants Which Are Dangerous by Design. Houston Journal of International Law, 28(1), 239+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021769883
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Terrorism Media in a Minimum Pages

Words: 1918 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38644414

Terrorism Media in a minimum pages ( including title reference pages): Discuss broadcasting terrorist activities successes psychologically impacts individuals (e.g., victims, recovery teams, responders, general population).

Terrorism is one of the most discussed subjects in the last ten years. A terrorist attach that takes place in one place of the world usually captures the headlines in the next day's main newspapers and television broadcasts. This is largely due to the fact that terrorism is a phenomenon that can affect in an instant thousands of people and the futures of even more.

Given the importance of the subject, the media usually plays a key role in the relationship between terrorism and its target public. Through the media in particular terrorist activists send their message across to decision makers, to the public, and most importantly, through the immense coverage terrorism receives on all media channels, it has become an even more global…… [Read More]

References

Al Jazeera. (2010) "U.S. kills al-Qaeda 'number three'." Around the world . Retrieved from http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2010/06/20106143751105245.html

Homeland security (2008). "Assessing the Nuclear Attack Threat" Testimony of Under

Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis Charles E. Allen before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/testimony/testimony_1207151676007.shtm.

Joyner, J. (2006) "Media Coverage Fuels Terrorism." Outside the beltway. Retrieved from http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/media_coverage_fuels_terrorism
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War in Afghanistan the Foundational

Words: 2727 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36921389

(NYT)

Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation

Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)

The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"

Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.

Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.

Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.

Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
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Terrorism Russia S Big Problem

Words: 2710 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12876979

Terrorism in ussia on an International Level

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

Terrorism in ussia has existed since the ussian Empire. Its long history has brought violence against countless civilians in order to accomplish ideological or political objectives through the generation of fear and panic. Tactics so often seen in terrorism such as hostage taking saw extensive use in Soviet secret agencies. The greatest example of this was during the Great and ed Terror campaigns against their own countrymen as stated by historians like Karl Kautsky. As the end of the 20th century approached, major terrorist activity took place in the capital of ussia, Moscow. These events involved the Moscow theater hostage crisis as well as apartment bombings. Aside from Moscow, Dagestan, Chechnya, and other areas of the nation experienced terrorism. The worst part of it all is that scholars and journalists believe some of these…… [Read More]

References

Cavaliero,, C. (2011). PROTECTING ITS OWN: SUPPORT FOR RUSSIA'S FEDERAL LAW ON THE COUNTERACTION OF TERRORISM. George Washington International Law Review, 43(4), 663. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/77480580/protecting-own-support-russias-federal-law-counteraction-terrorism

Cohen, A. (2002). Russia, Islam, and the War on Terrorism: An Uneasy Future.Demokratizatsiya, 10(4), 556.

Cross, S. (2006). Russia's Relationship with the United States/NATO in the U.S.-led Global War on Terrorism. The Journal Of Slavic Military Studies, 19(2), 175-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13518040600697738

Omelicheva, M. (2010). Russia's Counterterrorism Policy: Variations on an Imperial Theme. Perspectives On Terrorism, 3(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/61/html
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Shift of Terrorism to the International Level

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40654289

shift of terrorism to the international level. It defines terrorism, the reasons it is carried out, and the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the reasons due to which, certain states are covertly sponsoring terrorism to fight against their rival states without starting a conventional full scale war, and saving huge costs. It highlights how the military actions involved in the global war against terrorism are fuelling the terrorist movements and strengthening their numbers.

War and Terrorism

War can be defined as an armed conflict between two states, where both the states' main focus is to impose their own will on the rival state. During the last two centuries, the conventional ways of fighting a war have changed immensely due to technological advancements, but the reasons to initiate and fight a war remains the same. A war is fought in order to occupy and control a piece of…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, R.A. (1999) The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Become a Terrorist And Why?. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf 

Payne, J.L. (2008). What Do the Terrorists Want?. The Independent Review, 13. Retrieved from  http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_13_01_2_payne.pdf 

Morgan, M.J. (2004) The Origins of the New Terrorism. Parameters. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/04spring/morgan.pdf
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U S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001

Words: 3011 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86839720

U.S. Approach to Terrorism

U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001

The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.

President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11

After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.

Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.

Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.

Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
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Causes of Terrorism

Words: 2694 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4960511

The debilitating economic conditions and return of foreign investors within the country has a direct impact on the financial circumstances of businesses on the stock market (Freeman & Logan, 2004).

Skyrocketing prices of consumer commodities and everyday necessities are observed when the nation is likely to experience poor financial and economic situation. Consumer conference gets badly damaged when the prices fluctuates on the higher side. These reasons only create imprecise ways of earning money and surviving for the livelihood, which escalates terrorism (Freeman & Logan, 2004).

The tourism industry of any nation gets equally affected if high incidents of terrorism are recorded. This is typically due to the reason that tourist, sightseers, and travelers would give less preference to the countries with increased episodes of the heinous crime in comparison to the rest of the countries. Even though, the country is making great efforts to promote its tourism industry on…… [Read More]

References

Bjorgo, T. (2004). Root Causes of Terrorism: Myths, Reality and Ways Forward. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Corlett, J.A. (2003). Terrorism: A Philosophical Analysis. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Durmaz, H. (2007). Understanding and Responding to Terrorism. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

Freeman, E.M. & Logan, S.L. (2004). Reconceptualizing the Strengths and Common Heritage of Black Families: Practice, Research, and Policy Issues. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
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Counter the New Terrorism Threat

Words: 3129 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92024491



This is not an isolated incident, many experts believe there are many other biological weapons available to terrorist organizations, and the biggest problem they face is how do disperse them effectively.

Many considerations must be handled in order to control these types of attacks. First, the country must attempt to block these items from entering the country. Intelligence, monitoring, infiltration, and higher security at the nation's borders and ports can fend off at least some of these weapons. Second, if they do enter the country, there must be ways of locating and disarming them before they are set off. Of course, that is much easier said than done. Local and national response experts will need to be trained in how to deal with these weapons. Expert Steven Simon states, "Emergency response teams will need to be able to pinpoint the location of a device, identify its type, and know in…… [Read More]

References

Higgie, Dell. "Combatting Terrorism: Dell Higgie Surveys the International Counter-Terrorism Scene." New Zealand International Review 30.1 (2005): 2+.

Lsser, Ian O., et al. Countering the New Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1999.

Mockaitis, Thomas R. "Winning Hearts and Minds in the 'War on Terrorism'." Grand Strategy in the War against Terrorism. Ed. Thomas R. Mockaitis and Paul B. Rich. London: Frank Cass, 2003. 21-38.

Noricks, Darcy M.E. "Can the U.S. Counter the New Terrorism? Counterterrorism Leadership Must Shift from Dept. Of Defense to State Dept., Says Defense Analyst." Whole Earth Fall 2002: 25+.
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Amounting to Crimes and Terrorism

Words: 1878 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94806173

In this case, another category should be defined where the act was intentional, and the long-term eventual outcome was to commit an act of war against the United States, but this effect was not a direct threat to national security. In this case these acts would still be classified as crimes.

In order to be classified as an act of terror, there must be an indication of purpose. The purpose must be a direct threat to national security; for example, flying planes into a building would be an act with a purpose to threat national security. Obtaining passports for those intending on flying planes into a building would also be considered to be an act of terror, because this act has a purpose, and is a direct contributor to the compromise of national security. However, committing forgery on papers to enter the United States would not be considered an act…… [Read More]

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Roots of Terrorism in the

Words: 4050 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27156827

Middle East countries, and also former colonies around the world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became "paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported"(Shah, 2000). People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that "weak spot" and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the "invasive" West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization. Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs…… [Read More]

References

Global Connections -- the Middle East. (2002). Retrieved February 12, 2007, from PBS Web site:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/resource/index.html 

Levitt, M., a. (2002). The Political Economy of Middle East Terrorism. MERIA Journal, 6(4). Retrieved February 11, 2007, from MERIA Web site: http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2002/issue4/jv6n4a3.html

Middle East. (1993-2006). Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Web site: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579298/Middle_East.html

Shah, a. (2000). The Middle East. Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Global Issues Web site: http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast.asp
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Will Congress End the War on Terror

Words: 2437 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63887852

Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror

Introduction

On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…… [Read More]

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Iraq War the War in

Words: 2990 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87275099

6). At home, though, the media can often be co-opted by being made to feel that public opinion would be against it if it reported something other than the prevailing public sentiment. After't he 9-11 attacks, the public wanted the perpetrators and their leaders punished, so the war in Afghanistan had the support of the public. By extension, the idea of the war on terror also had support, though the parameters of that war were never clearly defined and were certainly not explained to the public. The Bush Administration made use of this support when it decided to invade Iran and suggested in many ways that this was a continuation of the war on terror and even that Saddam Hussein was responsible for 9-11. The news media did not do its job as well as it should and did not question most of these assertions until some time had passed.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boylan, James. "When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina." Columbia Journalism Review, Volume 46, Issue 2 (July-August 2007), 59.

Kamiya, Gary. "Iraq: Why the Media Failed." Salon.com (10 April 2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.salon.com/opinion/kamiya/2007/04/10/media_failure/.

Kellner, Douglas. "Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the 'War on Terror.'" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Volume 37, Issue 4 (2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5024109830?title=Bushspeak%20and%20the%20Politics%20of%20Lying%3a%20Presidential%20Rhetoric%20in%20the%20%22War%20on%20Terror%22.

Payne, Kenneth. "The Media as an Instrument of War." Parameters, Volume 35, Issue 1 (2005). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5011208618?title=the%20Media%20as%20an%20Instrument%20of%20War.Smith, Sylvia a. "Media Faulted on War's Lead-up." Outside Cab le News (12 March 2008). July 22, 2008. http://outsidecablenews.blogsome.com/2008/03/12/media-faulted-on-wars-lead-up/.
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What Happened to Iraq After the War Effects of War

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61887190

War on Iraq

Long road for U.S. Iraq Proposal." CNN International Online. Available at http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/09/08/sprj.irq.russia/.

This article was published on the eve of the U.S.-Iraq proposal in conducting an offensive attack against Iraq. The U.S. administration's plan to conduct an offensive attack against Iraq (and particularly, Saddam Hussein) was spurred by reports on incidents about civil unrest in Iraq, as well as Iraqi attacks against the U.S. These arguments are supported by reports that Iraq has been responsible for the attacks in the UN headquarters in Baghdad. During this time, UN support on the proposed war against Iraq is perceived to be the best support that the U.S. can receive as a solid backing in pursuing an attack against Iraq and Saddam Hussein's regime. In addition to an offensive attack against Iraq, U.S. also asks for additional financial support through the Congress to back up the costs of attacking Iraq…… [Read More]

Johnson's article presents a clear illustration of the after-effects of the offensive attack against Iraq. Through this article, readers become informed about the two sides of Iraqis inside Iraq: one group who wants independence with U.S. assistance, and the other group who wants independence without U.S. assistance. Although Iraqis do not approve of Hussein as their leader, neither do they want their nation be commandeered by Americans, since they know the cultural and religious differences that Americans and Iraqis have. This Newsweek article presents the "human side" of civil society-led insurgencies, a more dangerous and serious problem than the issue concerning Saddam, since Iraqis themselves are now expressing their disapproval of U.S. intervention in rebuilding Iraq through violent means/methods.

Beyer, L. "Inside the Kingdom." September 15, 2003. TIME Magazine. pp. 16-27.

Lisa Beyer's cover article for TIME Magazine delves into the political and social system of Saudi Arabia, a Muslim nation that is a declared ally of the U.S. In its war against terrorism. Beyer's focus, however, is about the danger that Saudi Arabia poses against the U.S., primarily because its actions does not parallel with its statements on anti-terrorism. The reporter provides an in-depth analysis of Saudi Arabia as a nation and its leaders, all of whom Beyer alleges to be supporters and financiers of terrorist groups, which Beyer qualifies as "Taliban extremists" and "Pakistani radicals." In addition to this information, Beyer also reports on Wahhabism, a religious movement (Muslim) that is dominant in Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism is relevant in Beyer's report because this is the primary ideology that Saudi Arabia uses in motivating and training members of radical and extremist groups that they finance. The article ends with a skeptical look on the future of U.S.-Saudi Arabia relations. While U.S. And Saudi Arabia are presently allies (not necessarily against terrorism), it is still questionable whether Saudi Arabia will maintain its pro-U.S. stance in the future. Beyer's report is also another analysis of the present and future effects of the U.S.-Iraq war on the U.S.'s relationships with Muslim nations. The article's critical look on Saudi Arabia gives the readers an idea of the stance of the reporter, which is clearly anti-Saudi Arabia, if its loyalty and honesty with the U.S. will be gauged. Moreover, this TIME article also mirrors the truth that aside from problems, criticisms, and possible attacks against Americans in Iraq, there is more at stake when other countries, specifically Muslim nations, are put into the picture of the current U.S. "rehabilitation program" in the Middle East.
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Causes of Terrorism The Roots

Words: 2511 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98123878



However, despite this sweeping generalization offered by the government, U.S. foreign policy has always been clear and direct about its stance against terrorism. Even President Clinton, far prior to the tragedy of 9/11 addressed the United Nations General Assembly about the importance of the prevention of international terrorism and identified it as a major priority in the world arena (Chomsky, 84).

What must be stressed at this point is that terrorism is about the frustrations of a voiceless country -- one that feels that it will not be heard through conventional political or military means. Since the root of the problem is political, the solution is more of a political issue than a security issue because the solution is not in counterstrikes, or fighting fire with fire, but in finding a way to restore the country's voice so that the frustration is relieved instead of stoked (Scheuer, 88). So far…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Taheri, A. (1988). Nest of Spies. New York: Pantheon Books. Discusses how American polices in Iran have failed since World War II. It provides the history of post-WWII foreign policies with the Middle East and plainly details Kissinger's role in the downfall of positive relations with the country. Offers little in the way of solutions except for being an advocate of the truth in media and the education of the American public on its own foreign affairs and other government workings.

Hartung, W.D. Breaking the arms-sales addiction. World Policy Journal, winter 1990-

91, 7. Describes the fundamental policies and drives behind the arms sales of the U.S. And Britain. Reveals how the sale of arms is, on the surface, seemingly beneficial to the enemy nations, but is in fact a key element of keeping those nations from acquiring capital and therefore independence. Discusses polices of genuine humanitarian efforts and peace treaties that would eliminate the need for the oppression of capital and therefore the perceived need of arms sales.

Chomsky, N. (1999). The new military humanism: lessons from Kosovo. Maine:
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U S Policy Concerning Iraq War

Words: 3455 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93404755

However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East.

At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and opposing attitude of the majority in the Middle East; on the other hand, there are those who take Saudi Arabia as reference point for the possible success of future strategies concerning the democratization process and the way in which a totally Muslim country can change and improve its standards. From this point-of-view, the situation in Saudi Arabia, the progress it made in areas such as social activities, political participation, education, and other levels at which the population can express itself…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bennis, Phyllis et al. "U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives." Foreign Policy in Focus. N.d. 18 February 2008. http://www.fpif.org/pdf/iraqStmt.pdf

Carothers, Thomas. "Is gradualism possible? Choosing a strategy for promoting democracy in the Middle East." Middle East Studies. Democracy and Rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2003

Cortright, David et al.. "Contested Case: Do the Facts Justify the Case for War in Iraq?" Policy Brief F8. Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame. 2003.

Fisher-Thompson, Jim. "Mechanics Training for Iraqi Army Fuels Engine for Change." America. Gov website. 2008. 18 February 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2008/January/200801071712331EJrehsiF0.7347071.html
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Countering Terrorism Failure of the U S Government

Words: 3205 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75154395

U.S. Policy and the War on Terror: An Ineffective Strategy

Since 9/11 the U.S. government has pursued a policy of combating terrorism with all of its resources (intelligence, technology, military, economic sanctions, etc.). However, the question remains, nearly a decade and a half later, with terror attacks occurring more and more frequently around the world, whether the U.S. has been effective in its countering of terrorism. According to various studies, it can be shown how far from actually eradicating terrorism, the policies of the U.S. government have actually helped to foster the spread of terrorism. Now, as Russia steps into the Middle East to fight ISIS at the request of Syria, a disinformation campaign in the West has been put into practice by the mainstream media to show how Russia and Syria are hurting the war against terrorism, when the reality is that Russia has been far more effective in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barzegar, Kayhan. "The Terror Plot, An Ideological War for Geopolitical Interests," Iran

Review. 24 Oct 2011. Web. 12 Dec 2015.

Britton, Neil. "Dog or Demon?" in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions,

Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli. International Research Committee on Disasters, 2005.
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Religion and Wars

Words: 5869 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87135313

relationship exists between difference of religion and the occurrence of civil wars within societies. The relationship between religious groups to society can be defined against the backdrop of war. Powerful emotions surround both conflict and military conflict (Yinger, 1946). A direct relationship has been recognized for several year regarding religion and violence. Students of organized religion "have frequently pointed out the ease with which most church leaders shift, at the outbreak of war, from an explicit antiwar position to a vigorous pro-war policy" (Yinger, p. 176). However, despite the seemingly strong tie between religion and war, it is critical to also acknowledge that while religion seems a backdrop for many wars, many other factors have contributed as well. Political aspirations and agendas have had as much to do with war as religion. The complex intermingling of these many different factors will be explored in greater detail below.

ecent research suggests…… [Read More]

References

Allen, John L. (N.D.) "As Vatican Calls for Peace, diplomat plans defense of 'preventive war.' {Online} Available: http://www.natcath.com/NCR/Online/archives/013103/013103j.htm

Armstrong, K. (1991). "Peace in Palestine." Holy War. New York: Doubleday. p4.

Clausewitz, Carl Von. (1992). "What is War?" On War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976). 75-89; excerpt reprinted in U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, C610 Syllabus/Book of Readings. 205011. Fort Leavenworth: USACGSC, July 1992.

Chandler, D.G. (1996). "The English Civil Wars, 'Islam vs. Christianity'." Atlas of Military Strategy. Boston: Sterline Publishing Company. Pp.30-33., 54-55
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Terrorism Justified According to Purpura 2007 Terrorism

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60203145

Terrorism Justified?

According to Purpura (2007), terrorism as a term does not have a fixed definition. This effectively means that its usage and application is largely hinged on a myriad of viewpoints, be they political or religious. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism; its justification, usage and application.

The Use of Terrorism by Powerful Governments to Delegitimize Less Powerful Governments

Though terrorism cannot be seen to be a wholly biased term formulated by powerful governments solely to delegitimize those states having insignificant political or economic clout, there are instances where governments at a national level utilize terror so as to advance a well defined agenda. It therefore follows that though in most cases it is the "non-state actors" who are blamed for terror, powerful governments also utilize terror to stifle dissent or further diplomatic efforts as well as state policies abroad.

Terrorism as "War by Other Means"

It…… [Read More]

References

Osama Bin Laden (1996, August 23). Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holly Places: A Message from Osama Bin Muhammad Bin Laden to his Muslim Brethren All Over the World Generally and in the Arab Peninsula Specifically. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from the Terrorism Files Website:  http://www.terrorismfiles.org/individuals/declaration_of_jihad1.html 

Purpura, P.P. (2007). Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Smilansky, S. (2004). Terrorism, Justification and Illusion. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from: http://philo.haifa.ac.il/staff/smilansky/Ethics%20terrorism.pdf
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Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days Although

Words: 2306 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43523516

Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days?

Although terrorism has been present ever since the beginning of recorded history, defining it may prove to be slightly controversial task. There is no universally shared definition as it's a highly subjective term that depends upon the point-of-view of the observer. However, there are three perspectives from which terrorism can be looked at and then defined. These perspectives include the terrorist's, the victim's and the general publics.

The phrase "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter" is one that even terrorists may re-affirm, thus asserting the controversial nature of the term itself. The following definition released by the United States FBI, can be used to describe the nature of modern day terrorism:

"The unlawful use of force or persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (U.S. Department…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Adas, J., 2010. Mazin Qumsiyeh on the History and Practice Of Nonviolent Palestinian Resistance, s.l.: s.n.

Akram, M., 2008. Pakistan, Terrorism and Drugs. [Online]

Available at:  http://www.nytimes.com /2008/01/19/opinion/lweb22pakistan.html?_r=1&ref=opinion [Accessed 17 October 2009].

Anon., 1988. Hamas Charter. [Online]
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Terrorism the Impact That Terrorism Has Had

Words: 925 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69444113

Terrorism

The impact that terrorism has had on the global community since September 11, 2001 has been profound to say the least. In this short essay, the author will address the intent of terrorists, their methods, the political objectives, and the global response. In addition, they will include a treatment and analysis of how terrorism has affected international cooperation and other relations. Unfortunately, it is the opinion of this author that the efforts of the United States since September 11, 2001 have only exacerbated the problem. The methods and the political objectives of the terrorists have been largely achieved due to the American mismanagement of the war on terrorism. hen one soberly reflects upon the present quagmires (one must use the plural form) that the U.S. finds itself in the Middle East, there are few other options but to review how we got where we are and how to extricate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bin Laden, O. (2004, October 30). Bin ladin tape: transcript of osama bin laden's speech. Retrieved from http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/1964.cfm.

Morgan, M.J. (2004). The origins of the new terrorism. Parameters, 30-43.

U.S. State Department, Report of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy.

(2005). Cultural diplomacy the linchpin of public diplomacy. Washington,
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Terrorism What Are the Best Plans That

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14316801

Terrorism

hat are the best plans that this nation can make in order to counter the threat of terrorism? Is negotiate with terrorists an option? Can a nation preempt a planned terrorist plot? Is retaliation a reasonable idea when counterterrorism is on the table? These issues will be addressed in this paper.

Counterterrorism Strategies

Scholars point to several ways in which governments respond to or prepare for potential terrorists attacks. Helen Fenwick, a professor of law in the UK, points to three "…standard government policy responses to terrorism": a) consider the fight against terrorism as warfare, which is essentially depending on the military and intelligence components of government (the U.S. has conducted military campaigns against terrorists); b) use a "police-based" approach, treating terrorism as a kind of criminal activity (which it certainly is), by employing actions through the criminal justice system; and c) use political tactics and try negotiation with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brookings Institution. (2002). The New National Security Strategy and Preemption. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from  http://www.brookings.edu .

Fenwick, Helen. (2008). Proactive counter-terrorist strategies in conflict with human rights.

International Review of Law Computers & Technology, 22(3), 259-270.
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Terrorism D efeating Terrorism Must Remain One of

Words: 2250 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40448729

Terrorism]

"[D]efeating terrorism must remain one of our intelligence community's core objectives, as widely dispersed terrorist networks will present one of the most serious challenges to U.S. national security interests at home and abroad...."

DCI Porter Goss, testifying before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

Nine days after the horrendous bombing of the Trade Towers on September 11, 2001, President George Bush addressed the Joint Session of Congress and the American People told the watching public that "we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our enemies to justice, or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be done ... I will not forget this wound to our country or those who inflicted it. I will not yield; I will not rest; I will not relent in waging this struggle for freedom and…… [Read More]

Reference Cited

'An Evening with Noam Chomsky." October, 2001. New War Against Terror.

16 July, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/GlobalWatch/chomskymit.htm

Arnold, Terrell. Is the War on Terrorism Irrelevant? 16 July, 2005.  http://www.rense.com/general64/terrd.htm 

Gardiner, Beth. Critics ask whether British intelligence missed key clues before
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Terrorism Gray Jacqueline M And

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26193354

The study was based on an interview system and it was developed after the 9/11 attacks. The eventual results pointed out that deterrence means were to be used, under the form of diplomatic responses. Thus, one of the first means to respond to terrorism was through diplomatic channels with states that supported terrorism. In this sense, the message sent across was that terrorism cannot be tolerated. Also associated with diplomatic means was the revenge response; finally, the least diplomatic message was that of actually eliminating terrorism.

Another result found through the study was related to the issue of negotiation. Still a diplomatic means, it pointed out a deterrence aim. It showed again that terrorism must not be tolerated.

The application of economic sanctions, as yet another action envisaged, bared the same message of lack of tolerance for terrorism and revenge. The military action against terrorism point out to the same…… [Read More]

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Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37164865

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Nuclear terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were labeled as the single most serious threat to the national security of the United States of America by President George W. Bush. When President Barack Obama came into office, he had the same sentiments about the growing terrorism in the Middle East. Our leaders and security experts see terrorist having access to WMD as nightmares when they sleep. The Japanese group Aum Shrinrikyo, Al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar al Tayyib and Jemmah Islamiya are few of the terrorist groups who have been known to gain access to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 5) Terrorist groups are present to spread terrorism all over the world as the name suggests. However, many would argue that these viscous people are only going to scare the world and not use any of them. However, seeing their statements and…… [Read More]

References

Cordesman, Anthony H. 2002. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger

Long, Jerry M. 2008. Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies

Mowatt-Larssen. 2010. Al Qaeda Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: Hype or Reality? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School

O'Neil, Andrew. 2003. Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: how serious is the threat? Australian Journal of International Affairs 57:99 -- 112.