1000+ documents containing “war crime”.
Also, some may argue that punishing those who simply took orders is immoral in that they had no choice.
Furthermore, these tribunals and their hanging of common soldiers does not do much to deter war crimes. According to McMorran, many believe it is unlikely that men and women like Hitler and Stalin would have been deterred by the prospect of a war crimes tribunal. These men did what they did because they actually believed it was right. As one can see, it takes a certain state of mind to be able to wage this kind of war. These men acted as if they were on a crusade. It is unlikely that they would have stopped because they knew a war crimes tribunal was in their future. This model also applies to many of the other acts of aggression that have occurred since orld ar Two. The Rwandan genocide was fueled….
Gaza ar began in 2008 as a three-week long invasion of the Gaza Strip in Palestinian territories after rocket attacks allegedly hit southern Israel. The conflict did not begin at this point, however, as both sides had obviously prepared their actions for months, perhaps years in advance. The stated aim of Israel upon commencing the war was to end the rocket attacks into south Israel, but due to the relative weakness of the rocket attacks, as well as Israel's immediate and overwhelming counter-offensive, it would appear as if Israel had been planning for an invasion of Gaza for some time. Hamas, the political entity in control of the Gaza Strip, has been leading the Palestinian people away from acceptance of Israel's supremacy of Palestinian lands. However Hamas has been criticized for jeopardizing the safety of the people of Gaza, and the long-term outlook of peace between the two parties. The….
"BBC NEWS | Middle East | History of Israel: Key Events." BBC News - Home. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. .
Chassay, Clancy, and Julian Borger. "Gaza War Crimes Investigation: Guardian Uncovers Evidence of Alleged Israeli War Crimes in Gaza | World News | Guardian.co.uk." Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. .
Cordesman, Anthony. "The Gaza War: A Strategic Analysis." Center for Strategic and International Studies. 3 Mar. 2009. Web. .
"Incriminating Evidence of Israeli War Crimes in Gaza | War Is A Crime .org." War Is A Crime .org | Formerly AfterDowningStreet. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. .
These women, called "comfort women," were conscripted as prostitutes to serve the Japanese military leaders. The book is unsettling to read, and some parts are so difficult it is hard not to pass over them.
Tanaka achieves his purpose quite well throughout the book. He talks about many unsettling topics, such as the rape and massacre of the Australian nurses, but the ultimate cruelty may be the chapter on cannibalization. Tanaka writes, "In another case a friend of his found human flesh in the mess tin of an officer who had become ill and died. The impression left is that the victims of cannibalism were Japanese soldiers who had been killed in battle or who had died of various illnesses" (Tanaka 114). Tanaka shows anything his possible in war and that normal people can become animals when faced with death and war.
In conclusion, "Hidden Horrors" is a disturbing overview of….
Iraq War- Why America Should Have Never Gone to War
With human rights violation reaching its peak in Iraq and with pictures of Iraqi prisoners proving that U.S. soldiers are committing worst possible war crimes, every American is facing a dilemma: should we support the government or should we not. Everyone is asking the same question, what is America's point for continuing war in Iraq? Does America need to be in Iraq, should it have launched the military attack in the first, Is America really a champion of democracy or simply another terrorist state looking for ways to terrorize weaker nations? These are the questions that are bothering every thinking soul in the world and especially in America where public opinion is sharply divided on the issue of war. Any person with even the slightest degree of humanity left in him would want America to immediately pull out its troops from….
Susan Page, Convergence of factors raises costs of Iraq war; As images erode U.S. credibility, analysts watch for tipping points in opinion, USA Today; 5/13/2004;
Siddioi, Moin, Pros & Cons of 'Gulf War II'. (View from the City). African Business; 2/1/2003;
JAMES TOEDTMAN. CHIEF ECONOMIC CORRESPONDENT, HIGH COST OF IRAQ WAR White House seeks extra $25B Newsday; 5/13/2004;
Prisoner mistreatment exposes U.S. double standard in human rights, XINHUA, (China); 5/11/2004
War has shown its ugly side many times throughout the ages. As people have seen through battles, the casualties can be devastating. People lose families, lose their livelihoods, lose their dignity, and lose their homes when they are amidst war. The stories and the personal experiences of non-combatants are often shown to shed light on the brutality and violence that exists in war. Soldiers rape women and kill men. They set fires to entire villages and thousands of children are either left dead, raped, or orphaned. This essay is meant to shed light on the effects of war on non-combatants.
John Keegan, in his book, explains the views of war and the way people may have a particular perspective on combat and the various classifications of people during a war. The friend is the ally who helps or comes to aid. The enemy is the person that needs to die so….
Anny Politzer, 'Der heimkehrende Krieger' ['The Returning Soldier']
Bartell, L.S. True Stories Of Strange Events And Odd People. iUniverse, 2014.
Carlson, John. 'War On Behalf Of Noncombatants'. Isme.Tamu.Edu. Last modified 2015. Accessed April 8, 2015. http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE04/Carlson04.html#_edn1 .
Keegan, John. The Face Of Battle. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would be….
Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011
With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.
Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.
Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers need to be….
Agnew, R. & White, H. (1992). "An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory." Criminology 30(4): 475-99.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Labor Force Overview. Retrieved from http://www.stats.indiana.edu August 15, 2011.
Checkpoint (2010). The Global Retail Theft Barometer, 2010 Edition. White paper retrieved from http://globalretailtheftbarometer.com August 15, 2011.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). Uniform Crime Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov August 19, 2011.
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)
Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.
Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.
However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war and political conflict….
Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:
Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).
Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at exactly….
Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.
Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.
Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
How can God satisfy both participants in the conflict?
Twain's moral is that the religious rhetoric used to justify war and the merging of patriotism and faith is always suspect. Each side believes that his or her cause and nation is just. During wartime, prayers 'cancel one another out' and show the hypocrisy of the inflated, one-sided view of warfare expressed in propaganda. It is easy to see Twain's message reflected in real life, particularly in the cases of ethnic conflicts where participants are pitted in age-old hatreds and use religion as a justification for their crimes. Such was the case of the Bosnians vs. The Serbs and the Protestants vs. The Catholics of Northern Ireland. To pray for victory in war, points out Twain's old man, is to pray for the death of other people: "If you pray for the blessing of rain upon your crop which needs it,….
Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004).
Use of esources to Finance Conflict
Forest products are also often used to pay for conflicts. Timber requires little investment and can be converted to cash more cheaply than oil, which requires technology. Control over timber resources can shift the balance of power during a conflict and affect how long the conflict lasts. Underfunded armies, military, police, and rebel forces often finance themselves by cutting trees. Conflicts in Cambodia, Burma and Liberia have been funded with timber, and in each of those countries the wood produced more than 100 million dollars per year (Global esources, 2004).
Incompatible Uses Leading to Conflict
Use or misuse of resources can be very profitable on one hand but ruinous to another. For example, jurisdictional conflicts have heated up in Montana and….
Breaking the habit (2004). The Nation (Feb 9), 178 (5), 11-14.
Brown, V.J. (2004). Battle scars: Global conflicts and environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (17), 994-1003.
Coles, C. (2004). Resources for peace. The Futurist (Jan/Feb), 38 (1) 6.
Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (2002). IUCN/IISD E&S Task Force. Johannesburg: World Summit on Sustainable Development.
The policy and the systematic or widespread characteristics are the essential elements in proving that there was knowledge and that the act was coordinated by the central authority or by a certain authority.
Finally, the last additional issue is the presence of the objective element. The objective element connects the act to a widespread or systematic one, with the will of the individual directed towards a repetitive act. The objective element also brings the additional important element of intent, the intent to commit the respective acts of crimes against humanity.
War Crimes vs. Crimes against Humanity
In 1950, the principles of the Nuremberg Tribunal were published as a general set of rules on which to base indictments on charges of crimes against humanity. There were three categories of crimes described as being punishable under international law, with deportation appearing under two such categories. The three categories were crimes against peace, war crimes….
1. Wald, Patricia. 2007. Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. Washington University Global Studies Law Review.
2. Trahan, Jennifer. 2006. Genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity., Human Rights Watch, International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991
3. International Law Commission of the United Nations, 1950. On the Internet at http://deoxy.org/wc/wc-nurem.htm. Last retrieved on May 13, 2009
4. Robinson, Darryl. January 1999. Defining "Crazy Against Humanity" at the Rome Conference. The American Journal of International Law. Vol. 93. No.1
Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes
Treason is the term legally used to describe different acts of unfaithfulness, treachery and betrayal. The English law was the first to make a distinction between high treason and petit (petty) treason in the Statute of Treasons (1350). It described petit treason as an act in which one's lawful superior is murdered by him/her. For instance, if an apprentice murdered his/her master, it was stated as a petit treason. On the other hand, high treason was defined by the English law as any grave threat to the permanence or stability of the state. High treason consisted of "attempts to kill the king, the queen, or the heir apparent or to restrain their liberty; to counterfeit coinage or the royal seal; and to wage war against the kingdom" ("treason," 2012).
Treason is regarded as both a prehistoric misdemeanor and an acknowledged epithet (Eichensehr, 2009). The turncoats, traitors and….
Eichensehr, K.E. (2009). Treason in the Age of Terrorism: An Explanation and Evaluation of Treason's Return in Democratic States. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (5), 1443+. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-215409561/treason-in-the-age-of-terrorism-an-explanation-and
Lawless, M. (2007). Terrorism: An International Crime. International Journal, 63(1), 139+. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1525193241/terrorism-an-international-crime
McGlynn, S. (2011). War Crimes. In The Encyclopedia of War. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow678/pdf terrorism from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-terroris/terrorism treason from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-treason/treason
War Crimes. (2012). In BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/war/overview/crimes_1.shtml
This is when they would go after some highest officials in the German and Japanese governments that knew about the atrocities. Under this approach they were publically making an example of these individuals and their involvement with these activities. This created the impression that the Allies were doing everything possible to hold ex-Nazis and Japanese officials accountable. (Plesch 101 -- 118)
However, beneath the surface is when the U.S. And Soviet Union, were cherry picking individuals that could help develop new weapons programs (most notably: rocket scientists). At the end of the war, the Germans had developed the V-1 and the V-2 rockets. These were loaded with a simple warhead and fired at England. Moreover, the Germans had been able to create the first jet aircraft. (Ward 34 -- 52)
After the war was over, the Allies were rounding up these scientists and were learning everything about these secret programs. The….
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the often-stateless….
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Also, some may argue that punishing those who simply took orders is immoral in that they had no choice. Furthermore, these tribunals and their hanging of common soldiers does…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Gaza ar began in 2008 as a three-week long invasion of the Gaza Strip in Palestinian territories after rocket attacks allegedly hit southern Israel. The conflict did not begin…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
These women, called "comfort women," were conscripted as prostitutes to serve the Japanese military leaders. The book is unsettling to read, and some parts are so difficult it…Read Full Paper ❯
Iraq War- Why America Should Have Never Gone to War With human rights violation reaching its peak in Iraq and with pictures of Iraqi prisoners proving that U.S. soldiers are…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
War has shown its ugly side many times throughout the ages. As people have seen through battles, the casualties can be devastating. People lose families, lose their livelihoods, lose…Read Full Paper ❯
Crime As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope…Read Full Paper ❯
Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011 With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II) Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a…Read Full Paper ❯
Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures: Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
How can God satisfy both participants in the conflict? Twain's moral is that the religious rhetoric used to justify war and the merging of patriotism and faith is always…Read Full Paper ❯
Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004). Use of esources…Read Full Paper ❯
The policy and the systematic or widespread characteristics are the essential elements in proving that there was knowledge and that the act was coordinated by the central authority…Read Full Paper ❯
Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes Treason Treason is the term legally used to describe different acts of unfaithfulness, treachery and betrayal. The English law was the first to make a distinction…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
This is when they would go after some highest officials in the German and Japanese governments that knew about the atrocities. Under this approach they were publically making…Read Full Paper ❯
Proportionality in War The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military…Read Full Paper ❯