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Also, some may argue that punishing those who simply took orders is immoral in that they had no choice.
Furthermore, these tribunals and their hanging of common soldiers does not do much to deter war crimes. According to McMorran, many believe it is unlikely that men and women like Hitler and Stalin would have been deterred by the prospect of a war crimes tribunal. These men did what they did because they actually believed it was right. As one can see, it takes a certain state of mind to be able to wage this kind of war. These men acted as if they were on a crusade. It is unlikely that they would have stopped because they knew a war crimes tribunal was in their future. This model also applies to many of the other acts of aggression that have occurred since orld ar Two. The Rwandan genocide was fueled…
McMorran, Chris. "International War Crimes Tribunals." July 2003. Beyond Intractability. 21 October 2008. Beyond Intractability. http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/int_war_crime_tribunals/
Gaza ar began in 2008 as a three-week long invasion of the Gaza Strip in Palestinian territories after rocket attacks allegedly hit southern Israel. The conflict did not begin at this point, however, as both sides had obviously prepared their actions for months, perhaps years in advance. The stated aim of Israel upon commencing the war was to end the rocket attacks into south Israel, but due to the relative weakness of the rocket attacks, as well as Israel's immediate and overwhelming counter-offensive, it would appear as if Israel had been planning for an invasion of Gaza for some time. Hamas, the political entity in control of the Gaza Strip, has been leading the Palestinian people away from acceptance of Israel's supremacy of Palestinian lands. However Hamas has been criticized for jeopardizing the safety of the people of Gaza, and the long-term outlook of peace between the two parties. The…
"BBC NEWS | Middle East | History of Israel: Key Events." BBC News - Home. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. .
Chassay, Clancy, and Julian Borger. "Gaza War Crimes Investigation: Guardian Uncovers Evidence of Alleged Israeli War Crimes in Gaza | World News | Guardian.co.uk." Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. .
Cordesman, Anthony. "The Gaza War: A Strategic Analysis." Center for Strategic and International Studies. 3 Mar. 2009. Web. .
"Incriminating Evidence of Israeli War Crimes in Gaza | War Is A Crime .org." War Is A Crime .org | Formerly AfterDowningStreet. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. .
These women, called "comfort women," were conscripted as prostitutes to serve the Japanese military leaders. The book is unsettling to read, and some parts are so difficult it is hard not to pass over them.
Tanaka achieves his purpose quite well throughout the book. He talks about many unsettling topics, such as the rape and massacre of the Australian nurses, but the ultimate cruelty may be the chapter on cannibalization. Tanaka writes, "In another case a friend of his found human flesh in the mess tin of an officer who had become ill and died. The impression left is that the victims of cannibalism were Japanese soldiers who had been killed in battle or who had died of various illnesses" (Tanaka 114). Tanaka shows anything his possible in war and that normal people can become animals when faced with death and war.
In conclusion, "Hidden Horrors" is a disturbing overview…
Tanaka, Yuki. Hidden Horrors Japanese War Crimes in World War II. 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Iraq War- Why America Should Have Never Gone to War
With human rights violation reaching its peak in Iraq and with pictures of Iraqi prisoners proving that U.S. soldiers are committing worst possible war crimes, every American is facing a dilemma: should we support the government or should we not. Everyone is asking the same question, what is America's point for continuing war in Iraq? Does America need to be in Iraq, should it have launched the military attack in the first, Is America really a champion of democracy or simply another terrorist state looking for ways to terrorize weaker nations? These are the questions that are bothering every thinking soul in the world and especially in America where public opinion is sharply divided on the issue of war. Any person with even the slightest degree of humanity left in him would want America to immediately pull out its troops…
Susan Page, Convergence of factors raises costs of Iraq war; As images erode U.S. credibility, analysts watch for tipping points in opinion, USA Today; 5/13/2004;
Siddioi, Moin, Pros & Cons of 'Gulf War II'. (View from the City). African Business; 2/1/2003;
JAMES TOEDTMAN. CHIEF ECONOMIC CORRESPONDENT, HIGH COST OF IRAQ WAR White House seeks extra $25B Newsday; 5/13/2004;
Prisoner mistreatment exposes U.S. double standard in human rights, XINHUA, (China); 5/11/2004
War has shown its ugly side many times throughout the ages. As people have seen through battles, the casualties can be devastating. People lose families, lose their livelihoods, lose their dignity, and lose their homes when they are amidst war. The stories and the personal experiences of non-combatants are often shown to shed light on the brutality and violence that exists in war. Soldiers rape women and kill men. They set fires to entire villages and thousands of children are either left dead, raped, or orphaned. This essay is meant to shed light on the effects of war on non-combatants.
John Keegan, in his book, explains the views of war and the way people may have a particular perspective on combat and the various classifications of people during a war. The friend is the ally who helps or comes to aid. The enemy is the person that needs to die…
Anny Politzer, 'Der heimkehrende Krieger' ['The Returning Soldier']
Bartell, L.S. True Stories Of Strange Events And Odd People. iUniverse, 2014.
Carlson, John. 'War On Behalf Of Noncombatants'. Isme.Tamu.Edu. Last modified 2015. Accessed April 8, 2015. http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE04/Carlson04.html#_edn1 .
Keegan, John. The Face Of Battle. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…
Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.
Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011
With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.
Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.
Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers…
Agnew, R. & White, H. (1992). "An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory." Criminology 30(4): 475-99.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Labor Force Overview. Retrieved from http://www.stats.indiana.edu August 15, 2011.
Checkpoint (2010). The Global Retail Theft Barometer, 2010 Edition. White paper retrieved from http://globalretailtheftbarometer.com August 15, 2011.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). Uniform Crime Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov August 19, 2011.
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)
Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.
Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.
However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…
Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com .
Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:
Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).
Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…
Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.
Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.
Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
How can God satisfy both participants in the conflict?
Twain's moral is that the religious rhetoric used to justify war and the merging of patriotism and faith is always suspect. Each side believes that his or her cause and nation is just. During wartime, prayers 'cancel one another out' and show the hypocrisy of the inflated, one-sided view of warfare expressed in propaganda. It is easy to see Twain's message reflected in real life, particularly in the cases of ethnic conflicts where participants are pitted in age-old hatreds and use religion as a justification for their crimes. Such was the case of the Bosnians vs. The Serbs and the Protestants vs. The Catholics of Northern Ireland. To pray for victory in war, points out Twain's old man, is to pray for the death of other people: "If you pray for the blessing of rain upon your crop which needs it,…
Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004).
Use of esources to Finance Conflict
Forest products are also often used to pay for conflicts. Timber requires little investment and can be converted to cash more cheaply than oil, which requires technology. Control over timber resources can shift the balance of power during a conflict and affect how long the conflict lasts. Underfunded armies, military, police, and rebel forces often finance themselves by cutting trees. Conflicts in Cambodia, Burma and Liberia have been funded with timber, and in each of those countries the wood produced more than 100 million dollars per year (Global esources, 2004).
Incompatible Uses Leading to Conflict
Use or misuse of resources can be very profitable on one hand but ruinous to another. For example, jurisdictional conflicts have heated up…
Breaking the habit (2004). The Nation (Feb 9), 178 (5), 11-14.
Brown, V.J. (2004). Battle scars: Global conflicts and environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (17), 994-1003.
Coles, C. (2004). Resources for peace. The Futurist (Jan/Feb), 38 (1) 6.
Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (2002). IUCN/IISD E&S Task Force. Johannesburg: World Summit on Sustainable Development.
The policy and the systematic or widespread characteristics are the essential elements in proving that there was knowledge and that the act was coordinated by the central authority or by a certain authority.
Finally, the last additional issue is the presence of the objective element. The objective element connects the act to a widespread or systematic one, with the will of the individual directed towards a repetitive act. The objective element also brings the additional important element of intent, the intent to commit the respective acts of crimes against humanity.
War Crimes vs. Crimes against Humanity
In 1950, the principles of the Nuremberg Tribunal were published as a general set of rules on which to base indictments on charges of crimes against humanity. There were three categories of crimes described as being punishable under international law, with deportation appearing under two such categories. The three categories were crimes against peace,…
1. Wald, Patricia. 2007. Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. Washington University Global Studies Law Review.
2. Trahan, Jennifer. 2006. Genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity., Human Rights Watch, International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991
3. International Law Commission of the United Nations, 1950. On the Internet at http://deoxy.org/wc/wc-nurem.htm. Last retrieved on May 13, 2009
4. Robinson, Darryl. January 1999. Defining "Crazy Against Humanity" at the Rome Conference. The American Journal of International Law. Vol. 93. No.1
Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes
Treason is the term legally used to describe different acts of unfaithfulness, treachery and betrayal. The English law was the first to make a distinction between high treason and petit (petty) treason in the Statute of Treasons (1350). It described petit treason as an act in which one's lawful superior is murdered by him/her. For instance, if an apprentice murdered his/her master, it was stated as a petit treason. On the other hand, high treason was defined by the English law as any grave threat to the permanence or stability of the state. High treason consisted of "attempts to kill the king, the queen, or the heir apparent or to restrain their liberty; to counterfeit coinage or the royal seal; and to wage war against the kingdom" ("treason," 2012).
Treason is regarded as both a prehistoric misdemeanor and an acknowledged epithet (Eichensehr, 2009). The…
Eichensehr, K.E. (2009). Treason in the Age of Terrorism: An Explanation and Evaluation of Treason's Return in Democratic States. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (5), 1443+. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-215409561/treason-in-the-age-of-terrorism-an-explanation-and
Lawless, M. (2007). Terrorism: An International Crime. International Journal, 63(1), 139+. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1525193241/terrorism-an-international-crime
McGlynn, S. (2011). War Crimes. In The Encyclopedia of War. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow678/pdf terrorism from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-terroris/terrorism treason from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-treason/treason
War Crimes. (2012). In BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/war/overview/crimes_1.shtml
This is when they would go after some highest officials in the German and Japanese governments that knew about the atrocities. Under this approach they were publically making an example of these individuals and their involvement with these activities. This created the impression that the Allies were doing everything possible to hold ex-Nazis and Japanese officials accountable. (Plesch 101 -- 118)
However, beneath the surface is when the U.S. And Soviet Union, were cherry picking individuals that could help develop new weapons programs (most notably: rocket scientists). At the end of the war, the Germans had developed the V-1 and the V-2 rockets. These were loaded with a simple warhead and fired at England. Moreover, the Germans had been able to create the first jet aircraft. (Ward 34 -- 52)
After the war was over, the Allies were rounding up these scientists and were learning everything about these secret programs.…
Plesch, Dan. America, Hitler and the UN. New York: IB Tarius, 2011. Print.
Ward, Bob. Dr. Space. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2005. Print.
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Classification of Crimes
Joe should be charged with murder, since he wielded the murder weapon. As it was a drive-by shooting, multiple shots were fired and another person was injured, the charges should include capital murder, and attempted capital murder. Larry, who served as an accomplice in the drive-by shooting, should also be charged with the same crimes, as he assisted in them by driving the car. Even though he did not operate the murder weapon, he was complicit in the act and enabled it to happen. Thus, the same charges that are leveled at Joe should also be leveled at Larry. They could also be charged with conspiracy to commit the crime, as it was premeditated.
As for Bob, he heard what the plan was and promptly quit the vehicle at the first chance he could. However, he did not attempt to stop what was about to happen and…
The question then becomes, not is there an Adolf Eichmann in each person, for undoubtedly there is. The question becomes, how well can people discern the difference between ideals with which they agree, and those things that are immoral; and perhaps most importantly, how effectively can people decide to do that which is morally correct even when faced with such unpopular consequences as standing out from the crowd and siding against a popular government (Alford)?
Those who held opinions that were opposed to Eichmann's trial in Israel did not wait to be heard. One notable contemporary in particular believed that the methods undertaken to achieve the trial were questionable at best. In 1961, Victor Gollancz published a pamphlet on the very trial in question. It was a plea to abstain from executing Eichmann, but it touched on issues related to the motives surrounding the trial. The Israeli Prime Minister wanted…
Alford, C. Fred. "The Organization of Evil." Political Psychology 11.1 (1990): 5 -- 27.
Web. 30 Mar. 2010.
"Argentina Uncovers Eichmann Pass." BBC News. 29 May 2007. Web. 12 April 2010.
Browning, Christopher. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish
Rather, the Union argues, Washington was ill-informed in its preparations for the campaign. Furthermore, the paper condemns Washington for seeking to force the removal of the Modocs from their native country in which they co-exist successfully with the whites.
Another example of the paper being protective of the military occurs on January 10, 1873, when the army was having little success flushing the Indians out of 'Lava Bed.' The Army cavalry was made to retreat after an attempted advance. The Union described this failed mission in a five sentence article. The last sentence of the article noted that the Army was expecting the arrival of Howitzer guns the following week. The title of the article, did not reference the failed offensive, but instead read was The Modoc War- The Howitzers Coming.
Most of the articles give daily updates as to the war. If there was any combat the previous day,…
"The Modocs: A Blundering War," Sacramento Daily Union, May 12, 1873
"Massacre of Modoc Prisoners," Sacramento Daily Union, June 10, 1873
"The Modocs," Sacramento Daily Union, June 6, 1873
umor of War
Vietnam war is one of the most talked about conflicts events in American history. Not only because of the 11-year long conflict that existed between the two countries but mainly because of the bitterness and casualties that it left behind. It is still not easy for many war veterans to talk about the most horrible experience of their lives. While it is true that most war veterans think they were lucky to serve their country but they also admit that they wee not prepared for what they experienced and saw during the war. It has been one of the most terrible examples of war crimes and today most war veterans associate war with bitterness and disillusionment instead of patriotism or service. One such story of disillusionment appeared in Philip Caputo's A umor of War, which a war memoir that depicts Caputo's experience during Vietnam conflict. The most…
Philip Caputo A Rumor of War Owlet; Reprint edition (November 1996)
John Attarian, Rethinking the Vietnam war. Vol. 15, The World & I, 07-01-2000, pp 288.
Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History (New York: Viking Press, 1983), 396.
THE TWO FACES OF WAR
The basic and universal sentiment is that war assaults people's rights to life, security, subsistence, peace and liberty (Lacewing, 2012). Some contend, however, that war is just under certain conditions, which morally justify it. This Theory consists of three parts, namely the justice of resorting to war or jus ad bellum; just conduct in war or jus in bello; and justice at the end of war or jus post bellum. The justice basis of resorting to war is grounded on six criteria, which justify it. It has a just cause. It has the right intention. It is made through the proper authority. It is made as a last resort. It has a probability of success. And it has a proportionate response. Justice in war refers to the treatment of the enemy. There is justice if weapons prohibited by international law are…
Buell, J. (2002). Just war theory and the wars of the 20th century. Vol 11, Yale-New
Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved on June 16, 2012 from http://www.yale-edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2002/3/02.03.01.x.html
Chavez, F.B. III (2012). Legitimate use of military force. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.
Retrieved on June 16, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/facts_6869777_legitimate-use-military-force.html
It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.
According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…
"Civil Wars Throughout the World."
Cramer, Christopher. "Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: exploring growth, distribution and conflict linkages."
http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:N00ZR7tRHzsJ:mercury.soas.ac.uk/economics/workpap/adobe/wp73.pdf+countries+that+have+had+civil+wars& ; hl=en
Nixon and the Legacy of the War in Vietnam
Nixon & Vietnam
President ichard Nixon set out policy goals for the conflict in Vietnam in a speech to the nation on November 3, 1969. At the time the country was deeply divided over the question of our presence in the region. In this speech Nixon claimed a nation cannot remain great if it betrays its allies and down its friends and that a unilateral withdrawal of all United States forces would humiliate our nation and promote recklessness in the councils of those great powers who have not yet abandoned their goals of world conquest and spark violence wherever the nations commitments helped to keep the peace. A withdrawal of American forces would in the final analysis cost more lives and not bring peace, but more war. Nixon asserted that for these reasons he would not end the war…
Kerry, J. (1971, April 22). Vietnam war veteran John Kerry's testimony before the senate foreign relations committee, April 22, 1971. Ernest Bolt (Ed.). University of Richmond, Online ACS Course Fall 1999. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from https://facultystaff.richmond.edu/~ebolt/history398/JohnKerryTestimony.html
Nixon, R. (1969, November 3). Nixon's 'silent majority' speech. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://watergate.info/1969/11/03/nixons-silent-majority-speech.html
Nixon, R. (1973, January 23). Nixon's 'peace with honor' broadcast on Vietnam. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://watergate.info/1973/01/23/nixon-peace-with-honor-broadcast.html
"The United States engaged in a pattern of conduct beginning in or before 1989 intended to lead Iraq into provocations justifying U.S. military action against Iraq and permanent U.S. military domination of the Gulf.
2. President ush from August 2, 1990, intended and acted to prevent any interference with his plan to destroy Iraq economically and militarily.
3. President ush ordered the destruction of facilities essential to civilian life and economic productivity throughout Iraq.
4. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed civilian life, commercial and business districts, schools, hospitals, mosques, churches, shelters, residential areas, historical sites, private vehicles and civilian government offices.
5. The United States intentionally bombed indiscriminately throughout Iraq.
6. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed Iraqi military personnel, used excessive force, killed soldiers seeking to surrender and in disorganized individual flight, often unarmed and far from any combat zones and randomly and wantonly killed Iraqi…
John Ashcroft's April 1, Testimony (2003) TalkLeft: The Politics of Crime 2003 April 5. Online available at http://talkleft.com/new_archives/002337.html .
Pillar, Paul R. (2006) Intelligence, Policy, and the War in Iraq. Foreign Affairs. March/April 2006. Council on Foreign Relations. Online available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060301faessay85202/paul-r-pillar/intelligence-policy-and-the-war-in-iraq.html.
Tremblay, Rodrigue (2006) War Crimes and Responsibility of the Bush Administration. After Downing Street. Online available at http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node/13670 .
Skelly, James M. (2006) American Soldiers and War Crimes in Iraq. Open Democracy. June 9, 2006. Online available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/democracy-americanpower/iraq_warcrimes_3627.jsp .
Chomsky and the Linguistic Politics of ar
Often, in war, diplomacy and other geopolitical matters, terminology has significant implications. It is frequently the case that terms such as 'terrorism,' 'genocide' and 'war crime' are applied as much if not more on the basis of the cultural identity of the perpetrator than the nature of the crime itself. This is the theme at the center of Noam Chomsky's 2012 article entitled "Somebody's Else's Atrocities." According to Chomsky, the determination to label a human rights disaster an atrocity is often contingent upon the global power balance, with those in a self-proclaimed position of ethical authority often spared this type of language. Indeed, the example cited by Chomsky that drives the discussion hereafter -- the U.S. military-led massacre of civilians in Fallujah, Iraq -- illustrates the duality of terms such as atrocity. The examination of varying media responses to the incident underscores Chomsky's…
Associated Press. (2004). Allawi Blames Coalition for Massacre. FoxNews.com.
Chomsky, N. (2012). Somebody Else's Atrocities. In These Times.
CNN iReport. (2013). Operation Phantom Fury. CNN.com.
Democracy Now! (2006). Al Jazeera Reporters Give Bloody First Hand Account of April '04 U.S. Siege of Fallujah. Democracynow.org.
U.S. Intervention in Middle East Conflicts:
The relations between Iran and Iraq were hugely affected by Islamic Revolution as Iraq's president was worried that the emerging Shi'a regime in Iran would provoke uprisings in Iraq. Actually, Iraq became increasingly worried that the Islamic Revolution that emerged in Iran could spread to the country and topple the existing regime while replacing it with a theocracy. As Iraq's president was concerned that the Algiers Accord would be dismantled and not followed or obeyed because of the new Islamic Republic, he regarded this as a serious threat to the country's borders and sovereignty. Iraq became a more populist country several years before the emergence of the Islamic Revolution as the doors to trade liberalization were opened in the country. A war against Iran was considered as a suitable option by Saddam Hussein, Iraq's president, to build nationalist sentiments and spirit and…
Becker, Brian, "U.S. Conspiracy to Initiate the War Against Iraq," The Commission of Inquiry
for the International War Crimes Tribunal, last modified May 11, 1991, http://deoxy.org/wc/wc-consp.htm
Jacek, Brian, "U.S. Role in the Iran-Iraq War and its Negative Implications on U.S.-Iran
Relations," Kulna: For All of Us, last modified March 23, 2011, http://kulna.wordpress.com/2011/03/23/us-role-in-the-iran-iraq-war-and-its-negative-implications-on-us-iran-relations/
This solution is applied, expressly or tacitly all over the world. The usual alternative for extremely serious crimes remain life imprisonment. However, "although nearly all member states [of the EU] provide for this type of punishment in their respective penal codes either as a possibility or mandatory, it is understood rather as a principle than as common knowledge" (Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide)
What would it take to work?
There is a big a step ahead that needs to be taken in order to abolish the death penalty, and it involves the mentality of the people. Many Americans are avid for larger and more powerful guns. How would such people accept that the dead penalty is inhumane? Perhaps social campaigns could prove useful in such a case.
What is the history of the death penalty in the U.S.
The United States have a long history of applying the death…
1. Joynt, Jen, Shuchart, Carrie "Moral Justice," Atlantic Monthly, 10727825, Mar2003, Vol. 291, Issue 2 ("Moral Justice")
2. Dority, Barbara "Not In My Name," Humanist, 00187399, Mar/Apr93, Vol. 53, Issue 2 ("Not in My Name")
3. "Death Penalty Vigil" Christian Science Monitor, 08827729, 11/17/99, Vol. 91, Issue 246 ("Death Penalty Vigll")
4. "Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide," International Debates; Feb2004, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p34, ("Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide")
Beccaria and Enlightenment
Beccaria's text upon the subject on the most appropriate way to punish criminals and to adjudicate crimes epitomizes the Enlightenment project in two basic areas. Firstly, from the very beginning of his text, Beccaria upholds that all human beings, regardless of their state of birth, have a right to live in a just and fair society and to be judged upon the same principles as other member of that society. He writes, thus, against the tyranny of a mindless obedience to royalty and against to principles obeyed simply out of custom. "In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of power and happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws [is] to oppose this effort and to diffuse their influence universally and equally." (Chapter 1) Humanity's basest instincts,…
An Essay on Crimes and Punishments by Cesare Beccaria, 4th ed. F. Newberry: London, 1775. Republished by International Pocket Library. With an Introduction by Adolph Caso." Branden Press, 1983.
War in Afghanistan from a Liberal Pluralist Perspective
The term "liberal" has taken on a specific meaning in Western politics that is somewhat different than the actual stated definition of the word. The word truly means "favorable to progress or reform" (Liberal, 2012) and is seen as the opposite of conservative which is being "disposed to preserve existing conditions" (Conservative, 2012). These terms have become politicized and the groups which carry the two labels may be better described by the opposite literal use of the word at any given time. However, another term, liberal pluralist, is something else again.
The book "The Practice of Liberal Pluralism" discusses introduces the topic of how liberal democracy has changed from it original meaning into something that is wholly different, at times, from the origins of the term (Galston, 2005,1). Democracy is a government which is focused on the people being served rather than…
Bajoria, J. (2011). The Taliban in Afghanistan. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved June 17, 2012 from http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/taliban-afghanistan/p10551
Conservative. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/conservative
Galston, W.A. (2005). The practice of liberal pluralism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Liberal. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/liberal
Society answer is to throw them back behind bars for even the smallest infraction of the law. This is why examining the policies for drug crimes needs to be carefully examined. There is no one size fits all in these situations and each needs to be judge separately.
Some say that the mandatory minimum sentences for illegal drug offences is fair while critics say that these sentences are too harsh, especially for first time offenders whose crimes are of low severity. Proponents say that if the sentences are too lenient it has the effect of increasing the crime rate (Thompson, 1998). Again, each case needs to be looked at on an individual basis. The severity of the crime as well as the perpetrators past record should play a large factor in the punishment handed down. Also, rehabilitation efforts should play a factor in the sentencing. Instead of putting these individuals…
Bobo, L. And Thompson, V. (2006). Unfair by design: The war on drugs, race and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Social Research, 73(2), 445-472.
Hemmens, C., & Walsh, a. (2010). The Law and Social Control. Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction (2 ed., pp. 211-240). New York: Oxford University Press, USA.
Pettit, B. And Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69(2), 151-169.
Thompson, S.P. (1998). Which policies are working in the war on drugs? The war on drugs: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 102-141). San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press.
The current designation of the major categories of crime in the U.S. can be traced to England following the Norman Conquest in 1066. Prior to this period the Church was the primary regulator of morality, but over time the Church began to lose control over the lives of people and the local governments began making regulations (Dworkin, 1978). After 1066 Henry II institutionalized law throughout England in order that it would be "common" to the country and he reinstated the jury system. Judges went from London across Great Britain to see cases and they would discuss cases with one another upon returning. This developed "case" law and judges used case law to decide future cases allowing the law to be "common" throughout England. Statutory law did not occur for several hundred years later. There were three basic crimes under the common law: treason (high and petty), felonies (with and…
Dworkin, R.M. (1978). Taking rights seriously. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gaines, L.K. & Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal justice in action: The core. Belmont, CA:
Robinson, P.H. & Dubber, M.D. (2010). An introduction to the Model Penal
War on Drugs
The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.
Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…
Duzan, M.J. (1994). Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life inside the Cocaine Wars, ed. And trans. By Peter Eisner. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, p. 4.
Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narcoterrorism. Basic Books, pp. 31 -- 36.
Falcoff, M. (2000). Colombia: The Problem that Will Not Go Away. AEI Latin American Outlook March 2000: 1, http://www.aei.org/lao/lao11476.htm
Hudson, R.A. (1995). Colombia's Palace of Justice Tragedy Revisited: A Critique of the Conspiracy Theory. Terrorism and Political Violence 7: 100 -- 103, 119 -- 121.
War on drugs is one of the biggest human rights and social justice atrocities currently in the United States. There are actually no winners in the war on drugs, not unless leaders of drug smuggling operations can be considered "winners." Law enforcement loses because their precious resources are being diverted from serious crimes to drug crimes. Ordinary citizens lose because police officers are overly concerned with non-violent drug possession and even distribution cases than they are with actual societal harm. Drug use causes no more harm than alcohol use, and it makes no sense to retain drug prohibition when harm reduction seems to call for more open approaches to drug regulation.
As Benavie (2009) points out, the damage caused by the war on drugs includes an uptake in violence because of the operations of organized crime, contaminated drugs like the recent fentanyl crisis leading to preventable deaths, property crimes due…
Benavie, A. (2009). Drugs: America's holy war. In Charon, J. M., & Vigilant, L. G. (2012). Social problems: readings with four questions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)
It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…
Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…
Alarid, L.F. And Carmen, R.V.D., 2010. Community-Based Corrections. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Barak, G., 2007. Battleground: Criminal Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2012. Latest Crime Stats: Annual Crime in the U.S. Report Released. [online] Available at: < http://www.fbi.gov /news/stories/2012/october/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov /congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This creates an environment for criminal organizations where they "... can operate in parallel to existing business and government institutions"
Shaw uses the Soviet Union as a good example of this phenomenon. "...the collapse of communist rule allowed the emergence of literally thousands of criminal organisations involving current and former members of the establishment " (Shaw). As Shaw and others points out, a situation where there are functional links between government and organized crime has parallels in many other regions and countries, particularly in the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
In essence, the changing international stage and the disappearance of boundaries and barriers between counties and nations provide the opportunity for criminal organizations to grow. Furthermore, it also provides for the possibility of greater interaction between criminal organizations and governments that may be dependent on these organizations for certain political and social needs.
Government and organized crime
Attorney general targeting international organized crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-crime24apr24,1,3582903.story
Carter D. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME.
Retrieved April 26, 2008, at http://www1.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/security/orgcrime.html
CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESOURCES: Organized Crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/orgcrime.htm
organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.
The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."
The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…
Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html
Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm
Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm
Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003. http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html
The foremost reason cited for pessimism with regard to global arms trading is technological smuggling, overseas systems’ reverse engineering, and the intense merchant rivalry when it comes to delivering more superior offset agreements, increasing advanced weapon manufacture capability worldwide. The above trend has brought about a significant decline in the need for buying on the global market (Naylor, 2004). One may witness synergy between trade of illegal imports, weapon proliferation and political revolts. On the face of it, an abrupt decrease was apparent in global arms trade following the Cold War. But if one delves deeper, one will find several reasons suggesting the weapon proliferation issue hasn’t dwindled similarly. One factor is, decreased measured weapon flow has accompanied a seeming growth in arms sales via the global black market that is not officially recorded.
Furthermore, a mere analysis of total value fails to account for the dangerous move in reasons…
The person was Tomoya Kawakita and it should be understood from this case that treason is a very difficult charge to prove. And even when proved, it is hardly every easy to sentence the person to death. In the case of Kawakita, the last person to be accused of treason, (with the exception of the latest case against Adam Gandhan), Kawakita was first sentenced to death. His sentence was later turned into life imprisonment by President Eisenhower. This life imprisonment was also pardoned and he was deported to Japan.
There are actually five different forms of treason as mentioned in the English Law. However the U.S. Constitution adopted only two of those forms and they have already been mentioned above. Treason will be levied if the person has waged war against America or if he aided enemies of the country.
The Supreme Court has decided some of these important treason…
US Constitution, Section 3
Dark Figure of Crime
The amount of crime in society gets known when it is reported to the police, through public response to victim surveys and studies of offenders who admit committing crime, and when transmitted to other agencies, such as hospital accident wards, battered women's refuge centers and similar ones (Young 2001). Other than these, the amount of crime committed is unknown. That unknown volume (of crime) that does not get reported, thus not registered, in criminal statistics, constitutes the dark figure of crime.
Statistician Adolphe Quetelet of the 1830s recognized this problem and modern statisticians do, too. All current methods of collecting crime incidence still have a dark figure. Victimization surveys, like the ritish Crime Survey (CS) and the National Crime Survey (NCS) are more accurate (Young). In 2000, CS estimated that the dark figure, or the actual extent of crime, was 4 1/2 more than what was…
Dougherty, J. (2000) Britain, Australia Top U.S. In Violent Crime. World Net Daily. http://power.consumercide.com/aust-uk-us-crimefigs.html
George, M. (2002) Tackling Crimes: Drug Links. BBC News Online. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/uk/2253559.shtm
Kury, H. (2000) Concerning the Dark Figure of Crime in Eastern Europe. Max-Planck Institute. http://www.asc41/www/2000/absdm005.htm
Mason, T. (1991) Official Statistics and the Dark Figure. Lecture 2, p 196. Social Trends. HMSO: Central Statistical Office. http://peso-click-internet.fr/tmason/WebPages/Deviance/Deviance2.htm
Traditional Crime Policy
Over the last several decades, the policy approach that is used in enforcing the law has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a sharp rise in the crime rates around the world since the end of World War II. At first, these increases were believed to be a part of the adverse changes from the war and its impact on society. (Gilling)
However, by the 1950s it was obvious that society was facing tremendous challenges with these rates. In response, a series of studies were conducted to effectively deal with the root causes of criminal activity (by focusing on the pathology of the individual). This created heated debates between traditional and evidence based advocates, who believed that the current approach can address these issues (by serving as a deterrent for everyone). (Gilling)
As a result, tough sentences were handed down to…
"Key Facts at a Glance." BLS, 2011. Web. 5 Sept. 2012
Gilling, Daniel. Crime Prevention. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Walker, Samuel. Sense and Nonsense about Drugs. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
Jewish crime organization as a whole fails to live up to the elements that define organized crime. It certainly is violent, it recruits members, it uses monopolies to retain power, and it is a functional and individual culture. It's firm and unrelenting connection to Israel and Jewish rights, however, raises questions as to whether it is a crime syndicate. Its grounding in the promotion of Jewish rights likens it more to the terrorist groups of today than with the Sicilian mob of the 40s. It uses criminal means to support a national and religious ideology. Either Jewish groups shouldn't be labeled Organized Crime or the definition of that term should be re-examined.
Ebban, Abbas. (1968). My People. The Story of the Jews. New York: Behrman House.
Finckenauer, James O., & Waring, Elin J., (1998). ussian Mafia in America:
immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeaster Uni. Press.
Friedman, Jeanette, (1996).…
Ebban, Abbas. (1968). My People. The Story of the Jews. New York: Behrman House.
Finckenauer, James O., & Waring, Elin J., (1998). Russian Mafia in America:
immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeaster Uni. Press.
Friedman, Jeanette, (1996). Our Dirty Little Secret is No More. Sh'ma, 26/506, Jan. 19,
The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.
This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.
In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.
Economic growth, unemployment…
Becker, Gary 1999, Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, Journal of Political Economy
Becker, Gary and Murphy, Kevin 1999, A Theory of Rational Addiction, Journal of Political Economy
Richardson, Isaac, (2009) Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, Journal of Political Economy
Ehrlich, Isaac 1975, The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life
The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following major crimes:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following minor crimes:
Profile/Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondent
Personal annual income
Access to mass media
Viewing behavior of TV crime programs
Kind of TV crime programs usually watch
Frequency of watching TV crime programs
Duration of crime TV-watching
Personal concern for crime and public safety
Self-ratings on attitude statements about the respondent's level of concern about issues concerning crime and public safety
Units of Analysis
Primary units of analysis will be the students and staff members in the Hong Kong University (HKU). There will be no restrictions on…
Bollhofer, B. (2006). "Screenscapes': placing TV series in their contexts of production, meaning and consumption." Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 98, No. 2.
Hennigan, K., L. Heath, and J. Wharton. (1982). "Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: empirical findings and theoretical implications." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 3.
Holbert, R., D. Shah, and N. Kwak. (2004). "Fear, authority, and justice: crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 2.
Yanich, D. (2004). "Crime creep: urban and suburban crime on local TV news." Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 5.
Dark figure of crime is a term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime (Maguire & Reiner, 2007, p. 129). The notion of a dark figure undetected by standard crime reporting system casts doubt on the reliability of these systems. It also raises questions about the true magnitude of criminal activity in the United States.
The main source of crime data in the U.S. is the Uniform Crime Database, which is operated by the Federal ureau of Investigation. The UCR records crimes which are identified through the observation of a law-enforcement officer or reported by a victim or witness to law enforcement authorities. The UCR is not an exhaustive source of crime data because many crimes are neither observed by law enforcement officials nor reported by victims or witnesses.
There are two sources of crime data in the U.S. that try to ascertain…
Lynch, J.P. & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lewis, D.A., & Salem, G. (1986). Fear of crime: Incivility and the production of a social problem. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books.
Lilly, R.J., Cullen, F.T., & Ball, R.A. (2007). Criminological theory: context and consequences
Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.
The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)
OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…
Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…
"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
Philosophy Crime Punishment Shifted
Social Context and the Justification of Punishment
Punishment is an authoritative exercise aimed to impose a negative or unwanted response to a behavior considered wrong or unjust by an individual or group. Philosophies surrounding crime and their punishment have changed between centuries, and even decades, to reflect the societies in which they occur. The legal mandate of punishment enforces a source of pain or deprivation to place suffering on the convicted individual, and is an action not morally matched by all citizens. The justification of punishment shares a unique relationship with social context, particularly in the legal sense. Over the course of history, society's beliefs about crime have translated into specific policies. This is exemplified by the present "get tough on crime" belief that has weaved its way into punishment policies in modern correctional systems. Although not all citizens within a specific society may not share…
Currie, E. (1998). Crime and punishment in America. New York, NY: Henry Hold and Company, LLC.
Garland, D. (1993). Punishment and modern society: a study in social theory. Chicago:
Lynch, J, & Sabol, W. (1997). Did getting tough on crime pay?. Crime Policy Report, 1.
Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/publications/307337.html
Causes of Crime
Natural Causes of Crime
The factors and precursors that are associated in whole or in part with the causes of crime are prolific and many. Many of those causes fall under one of three major categories, those being biological, sociological and psychological. Indeed, many crimes are caused in whole or in part by inherent biological attributes, external factors or a combination thereof. Crimes can be committed of a person knowing better and not caring enough to not do or stop the behavior or they can be committed from a person that is at least temporarily unable to process and realize what they are doing due to being on alcohol, an illicit street drug or prescription medication. This report will cover all of those and provide examples of each, either general or specific. While some people perhaps lean a little too heavily on crimes causing them to commit…
Carroll, A. (2008). Drug-associated psychoses and criminal responsibility. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 26(5), 633-653.
Collins, R. (2013). Micro and macro sociological causes of violent atrocities. Sociologia,
Problemas E. Praticas, (71), 9-22. doi:10.7458/SPP2013712327
Moskalenko, S., & McCauley, C. (2011). The psychology of lone-wolf terrorism. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 24(2), 115-126.
But as obvious as their presence might have been, Jewish crime remained a hushed subject in the history of Jews in the U.S. This oversight was intentional and by no means an evidence of lack of criminal activities in Jewish circles. In fact it was the nefarious activities of Jewish entrepreneur Joseph Seligman that led to the stock market crash in late 1800s as Ginsberg notes:
"[the crash] ruined thousands of investors, implicated President Grant, and led to a Congressional investigation of [Jay] Gould and Seligman ... Similarly, in the early 1890s, Jacob Schiff collaborated with E.H. Harriman in the latter's attempts to wrest control of the Northern Pacific ailroad from J.P. Morgan and James Hill ... When the price of the Northern Pacific Stock collapsed, the entire market crashed in the notorious 'Black Thursday' panic that led to a nationwide economic depression." [Ginsberg., p. 73]
Thus Jewish organized crime…
Ginsberg, Benjamin. The Fatal Embrace: Jews and the State. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1994.
Silberman, Laurence J. Mapping Jewish Identities. New York University Press, New York & London, 2000
Katcher, Leo (1959/1994). The Big Bankroll. The Life and Times of Arnold Rothstein, New York: Da Capo Press
Civil War and Reconstruction Question 2: What does the Civil War show that failed in the United States in this period?
The Civil War and its aftermath showed that the United States failed to create a cohesive national character and ethical identity. The nation was truly divided, symbolized by the fact that Abraham Lincoln received not a single Southern electoral vote, and less than half of the popular vote, but still became President (Slide 5). The majority of Southerners allied themselves with the Southern Democrat platform, and failed to align their outdated beliefs about race and economic exploitation with the more progressive norms evident in the North.
Yet slavery was only one of the meaningful points of divergence between different geographic and cultural segments of the nation. The economies of North and South were completely different from one another, with the North cornering the market on manufactured goods and the…
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…
Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.
Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.
Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…
American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.
Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1
(2011): p. 29-30.
Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
Organized Crime elated Intelligence
Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)
The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…
Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.
Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/
Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.
Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from https://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/
Computers in Solving Non-computer-Based Crime
This proposal for research involves a survey of law enforcement officials to determine how much they use computers as a tool to help solve crimes that are not committed by computer, such as murder and robberies. Using a questionnaire that utilizes a numerical scale for responses with opportunities for written comments as well, it will quantify the results and indicate areas for further research. Since little research has been done in this area, it should be considered a preliminary study.
Law enforcement has traditionally struggled to keep up, technologically, with the criminals they are charged with catching. During Prohibition, gangsters had machine guns and government agents did not. Now, in the year 2002, law enforcement may have a powerful and relatively new tool available to them in the war against crime: computers.
However, an exploration of the literature reveals little if any systematic study about…
Author not available. Nov. 17, 1998. "APB online launches police and crime Internet service." PR Newswire.
Author not available (ANA). June 2001. "The Long Arm of the Law." Internet Magazine.
Garber, Lee. June 2001. "A new tool for law enforcement." Computer.
Hitt, Stephanie L. July 2000. "National Crime Information Center." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
The result was horrifying, when opposing forces destroyed the region with war weaponry, and slaughtered entire villages where mostly women, young children, and the aged remained in their homes while the young divided themselves into the service of the opposing forces (Friedman, 2004). The violations of human rights were on a wide scale, and widespread, with both sides committing atrocities. However, by the time the United Nations intervened with peacekeeping forces, the impact of the war was obvious in the despair and destruction that the UN forces encountered. Families and friendships were destroyed, senseless loss of lives, economic interruption of work and production resulted in the need for humanitarian aid in the way of food, clothing, and to rebuild the infrastructure of the area (Friedman, 2004)..
Slobodan Milosevi? was arrested, and tried before an international tribunal at the Hague, and found guilty of crimes against humanity. "In response to the…
Duyvesteyn, Isabelle, and Jan Angstrom, eds. Rethinking the Nature of War. London: Frank Cass, 2005. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109146932 .
Friedman, Francine. Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Polity on the Brink. New York: Routledge, 2004. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108775016 .
Lasker, John. "Genocide Not Enough to Send in Troops? Observers Question Bush's Military Deployment to Oil-Rich Africa." Black Enterprise Oct. 2006: 40. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017455433 .
Peterson, Scott. Me against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda: a Journalist Reports from the Battlefields of Africa. New York: Routledge, 2000. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108063184 .
Vietnam War Effects
The Vietnam war was a game-changer in many ways. Just one of the major ways that things changed was the power of the political machine in Washington DC. Vietnam had very much devolved into a political war whereby the government's civilian leaders were controlling (or trying to) what was going on in Vietnam in terms of what the soldiers were doing and what the goal was. Concurrently, this made the politicians very unpopular and the people revolted. As a result, the policy and power of the government changed in many ways in the 1960's and the power gained by the people is still invoked to this very day.
Everyone that knows Vietnam and what came of that war knows how it changed American politics and how wars are fought by the United States forever. Just one example of this was that the "bombs" were dropped in World…
Foner, E. (2014). Give me liberty! (1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co.