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The Rise of the Opium Trade in Afghanistan Following the US Invasion
Words: 4271 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85024812
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Evaluating a Counterterrorism Strategy
Introduction
One of the problems with the “war on terror” as first conceived in the wake of 9/11 was that it lacked objectivity and realism (Taddeo, 2010). The mission calculus was unclear, the operation involved lacking in all the variables of iSTART (ideology, strategy, tactics, accounting/financing, recruitment, targets). What was the aim of the counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan? Numerous negative consequences of the mission followed: the liberation of the poppy fields and the spike in the heroin trade around the world that decimated communities, including American ones back home (Felbab-Brown, 2017); the rise of the Islamic State throughout the Middle East (Barton, 2016); two trillion dollars in costs in addition to the loss of 2,400 US soldiers and the deaths of nearly 40,000 Afghani civilians (Almukhtar & Nordland, 2019). Because the US lacked an adequate iSTART framework going into its counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan, the result…

War in Afghanistan Following the
Words: 3674 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30447159
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Fallout

A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.

A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…

Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.

Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127

Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press

War in Afghanistan
Words: 3312 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62121514
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ar in Afghanistan

After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…

Works Cited

Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from  http://www.npr.com .

This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.

Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13

Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from  http://www.latimes.com

War in Afghanistan Is Visibly
Words: 2995 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54386899
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S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.

3.1.3 Power sharing agreements

In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…

References

Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.

Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.

Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.

Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]

War and Effects the War
Words: 2490 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43569302
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Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.

The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…

Bibliography

Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054

Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker

Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution

Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight

War in Afghanistan the Foundational
Words: 2727 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36921389
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(NYT)

Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation

Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)

The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"

Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…

Works Cited

Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.

Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.

Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.

Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.

Terror Memo
Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47077867
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There are strong and compelling arguments that suggest that through this demonstrated incompetence, many of the terror plots are in fact enabled by our organization. Aaronson (2011) explained how this failure is hurting the practical application of the law. He wrote "With three exceptions, all of the high-profile domestic terror plots of the last decade were actually FBI stings. (the exceptions are Najibullah Zazi, who came close to bombing the New York City subway system in September 2009; Hesham Mohamed Hadayet, an Egyptian who opened fire on the El-Al ticket counter at the Los Angeles airport; and failed Times Square bomber Faisal Shahzad.). " it appears that the only terrorist operations that are going on are the ones that we are creating ourselves.

Suggestions for the Future

A new vision for this department is desperately needed. It is also apparent that the leadership arm of this organization is not demonstrating…

References

Aaronson, T. (2011). The Informants. Mother Jones, Oct 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/08/fbi-terrorist-informants 

Thiessen, M. (2011). Eric Holder, Obama's Albatross. Washington Post, 10 Oct 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/eric-holder-obamas-albatross/2011/10/10/gIQA5u8IaL_story.html 

The United States Department of Justice. Mission Statement. Viewed 2 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/about/about.html

Terror and War
Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21384356
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War on Terror

Terrorism has always been with society, but since 2001 the elements of how it is handled have changed to some extent. In order to understand how that has taken place, it is vital to look carefully at the historical events of terrorism. These events were significant in that they caused serious harm to a number of people and structures, but they also matter because they provide a timeline of how things have changed and how terrorism -- and the responses to it -- has evolved over the years (Coaty, 12). As the terrorists have focused on doing different things, the people who are trained to respond to terror have also changed their focus. It is both of these sides of the terrorist issue that have to be examined to provide a proper understanding of what terrorism does and how those who combat it and fight against it…

References

Coaty, P. (2012). Understanding the war on terror (3rd ed.). IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing.

War While the United States of America
Words: 957 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5580119
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War

While the United States of America over the past decades has maintained its superiority over other nations in terms of political clout, there is a certain imbalance in power within the geopolitical system of the world that is causing nations to become embittered. The United States began its reign of controversy after World War II and yet, it was the Vietnam War that completed the role in unethical representation in terms of military and political power. The Vietnam War was fought on the basis of freedom, democracy and the need to hinder the spread of the evil of Communism. The slogan of the times was that if the spread of communism was not stalled, America would soon lose its freedom and democracy the world over would be wiped out. These words may seem dramatic to the rational mind but to really understand the mood of the time such words…

References

Potter, Paul. "Incredible War" by Paul Potter, from Takin' it to the streets: A Sixties Reader Edited by Alexander Bloom and Wini Breine. Oxford University Press, 1995.

Smith, Ted. J., III. Propaganda: A Pluralitic Perspective New York: Praeger, 1989.

War in Iraq Can the U S Policy in Iraq Prevail
Words: 3561 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86114785
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war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.

Introduction

The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…

War in Vietnam
Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79614149
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Vietnam War provides the opportunity to learn from history. Analysis of the Vietnam War experience, from the American point-of-view anyway, sheds light on current diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and cultural/social contexts of war. Unfortunately, it would seem that the opportunities to learn from Vietnam had been squandered by the time the War on Terror began in earnest after September 11, 2001. The Vietnam conflict, for example, began as a diplomatic farce. As Young (2014) puts it, "Lyndon Johnson and obert McNamara created the illusion that attacks on North Vietnam were alternatives to war rather than war itself," (p. 1). Bombs were used as a darkly ironic form of diplomacy. Therefore, one of the most important lessons learned from Vietnam is that the United States must be more honest and straightforward in its use of force. Use of force cannot be disguised as a form of diplomatic negotiations. "There is a…

References

Donovan, D. (2012). Viewpoint: Counter-insurgency lessons from Vietnam. BBC. Retrieved online:  http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-19634728 

Young, R. (2014). Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/military/etc./lessons.html

War in American History The
Words: 2275 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53426093
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Katulis and Juul help put into perspective the tentative position of Iraq in saying that Iraq's leadership remains split on a draft version of SOF (Katulis and Juul, online). The Iraqi cabinet must vote a two-thirds majority in favor of their support for a plan (Katulis and Juul). This may be difficult to achieve when the cabinet is divided along religious sect lines. It is, too, perhaps the first time since the election of the cabinet by the Iraqi people that they had to put such concerted emphasis on their decision making, because, once made, there is no turning back from that decision which could result in the U.S. pulling out of Iraq beginning almost immediately. What follows will answer the question of whether or not Iraq is prepared to stand on its own against the forces of Islamic fundamentalist extremism. Leaving Iraq may see it become impossible to regain…

As Hanson points out, the jihadists do not need fighter jets, a navy fleet or even tanks to win their war against the west (Hoover Institution, Hanson, online). Their tools are terrorism, and this, too, seems to be one of the aspects of the present and future nature of warfare that people choose not to acknowledge. The goals of terrorism are no to destroy buildings, although the destruction of buildings as occurred on September 11, 2001, does indeed further their work; it is rather to cause a disruption of the economy, to create political division, world discord, to instill a prevailing atmosphere of fear and panic, and to bring down the society that is the target of the terrorist acts. In this regard, as we examine where America is today, and where the rest of the world is as economies are collapsing around us, it might be fair to say that the jihadists are winning their war of terrorism.

Who would have believed, as Hanson so succinctly argues, that a world amidst the technological progress where the world stands today could be brought to its knees by terrorists who have effectively enslaved the freedoms that it has taken America and its post World War II allies hundreds of years to achieve? Today, cartoon satire depicting Islamic extremists can be banned - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban ideas and images; the words "war on terror" have been ostensibly set aside because they have become too psychologically burdensome to the public - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban words from the language; and other examples of giving into the weight of terrorism as cited by Hanson (Hanson, online). Echoing Galbraith, the question must be asked, "Is this victory?"

Wordpress.com, 2008. Galbraith, Peter, GBlog. Found online at  http://gunnyg.wordpress.com/2008/10/27/is-this-a-victory-by-peter-w-galbraith/,retrieved  18 November 2008.

War in Iraq Diminish the
Words: 1979 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19344673
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S. security, but on international security.

Source #7 from Google: owman, Karlyn, U.S. public opinion and the terrorist threat, June 6, 2006, available at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all, pubID.24492/pub_detail.asp.

Source evaluation: The article provides a well-documented insight into the public opinion in U.S. regarding the war in Iraq.

Source #8 from Google: Diminished Public Appetite for Military Force and Mideast Oil

Five Years Later..., released on September 6, 2006, available at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=288.

Source evaluation: An article based on opinion polls regarding the people's opinion towards the war in Iraq.

Source #9: Gunaratna, Rohan, the Terrorist Threat Five years after 9-11, September 22, 2006, available at http://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/1031/cid/6?PHPSESSID=0f987fb38af332abab79864390a755c4.

Source evaluation: The article deals with the terrorist organization al-Qaeda and the changes in this field brought by the war in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Source #10 from Google: Layne, Christopher, No adult supervision, November 23, 2004, available at http://www.realisticforeignpolicy.org/archives/2004/11/index.php.

Source evaluation: The article is analyzing the decision-making…

Bibliography

Mazzetti, Mark, Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Worsens Terrorism Threat, published on September 24, 2006, available at  http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/24/world/middleeast/24terror.html?ex=1316750400&en=da252be85d1b39fa&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss ;

Mueller, John, Is There Still a Terrorist Threat?: The Myth of the Omnipresent Enemy, from Foreign Affairs, September/October 2006, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060901facomment85501/john-mueller/is-there-still-a-terrorist-threat.html;

Fletcher, Michael a., Bush warns of enduring terror threat, September 6, 2006, available at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/05/AR2006090500312.html ;

Benjamin, Daniel, Two Years After 9/11: A Balance Sheet, October 2003 | Special Report No. 111, available at  http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr111.html

Do We Need to Go to War
Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12058479
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ar on Terror

Towards the end of the first week of the war against Iraq, public support for the war remained strong. To many people, Saddam Hussein's actions and failure to comply with weapons inspections leaves the United States with no choice but unlitateral military action.

Syndicated columnist Mona Charon echoes these arguments when she maintains that Saddam Hussein continues to hoard weapons of mass destruction. Even UN Inspector Hans Blix, she argues, said that Iraq has failed to provide evidence that their store of weapons have been destroyed (Charon).

Charon believes that while Muslim regimes in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt "promote violence and religious hatred" (Charon). Even in comparison to its neighbors, however, Iraq is extremist and reckless. It has sponsored terrorist groups and has proven itself to be a bitter foe of the United States.

Finally, Charon argues that disarming Iraq is crucial not only for the…

Works Cited

Charon, Mona. "War against Iraq is far from a distraction in war on terror." Insight on the News, 19(5). February 18 - March 3, 2003: 50-51. ProQuest Database.

Matthews, Jessica Tuchman. "Is There a Better Way to Go?" The Washington Post. February 9, 2003: B.01+. ProQuest Database.

Crisis of Islam Holy War Unholy Terror
Words: 1184 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99637782
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Lewis' the Crisis of Islam

On page 160 of The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis states, "There is no doubt that the foundation of Al-Qa'ida and the consecutive declarations of war by Usama bin Ladin marked the beginning of a new and ominous phase in the history of both Islam and terrorism." Indeed, based on the historical outline of Islam that Lewis provides, the new and ominous phase applies equally to non-Muslim cultures. The Crisis of Islam examines the origins of Islamic fundamentalism and its deadly application as terrorism. The September 11 attacks made Americans more conscious than ever about the threat of anti-American sentiment, a threat that existed far before Al-Qa'ida. In his book, Lewis offers several insights into Islam's current social and political crisis. First, the author describes the flourishing of Islamic culture, noting in particular its theocratic foundations. The theocratic foundation of Islamic culture and religion allow…

Works Cited

Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: The Modern Library, 2003.

War vs Peace War and
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50172725
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That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.

By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.

As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States…

Works Cited

Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,

2007. Print.

McCoy, Katherine. "Uncle Sam Wants Them." Contexts, Winter 2009, 14-19. Print.

Zinn, Howard. A Power Governments Cannot Suppress. SF: City Lights, 2007. Print.

War and Pieces of Reality
Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86138382
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Despite all the graphic, inventive detailed descriptions of the physical suffering and the mental anguish Turner has endured, in the end, it is the cliche, metaphoric image of a breaking heart that sends the strongest message. It should break any human being's heart to kill, and those who are not emotionally torn up by taking another human being's life are therefore, essentially heartless.

There is also an indication in Here, Bullet, that it is not only the heart that malfunctions in the throes of death and killing, but the brain as well. hen Turner speaks of "the leap thought makes at the synaptic gap" he is symbolizing the leap a person's mind is forced to make from have a respect for life and compassion for mankind to suddenly believe that it is okay to kill, maim and torture in the name of your country. Thus from Turner's point-of-view, after being…

Works Cited

Turner, Brian, "Here, Bullet" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005

Turner, Brian, "Sadiq" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005

Himes, Andrew, Voices in Wartime Anthology, cited in Alice James Books. Web. 17 June, 2010. http://www.alicejamesbooks.org/pages/book_page.php?bookID=43

Whetstone, David. Culture: A Poet in Tangled Battle Lines of Iraq; Plenty of Poets Described the Horrors of the First World War, but in Modern Combat Zones They Are a Rare Beast. David Whetstone Talks to American Poet Brian Turner, Who Served in Iraq. The Journal (Newcastle, England). March 17, 2008, p. 18.

War in Literature at First
Words: 2263 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57627086
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He is more interested in "things," than what those things will bring. "Nick went over to the pack and found, with his fingers, a long nail in a paper sack of nails, in the bottom of the pack. He drove it into the pine tree, holding it close and hitting it gently with the flat of the axe. He hung the pack up on the nail. All his supplies were in the pack. They were off the ground and sheltered now" (as quoted in Vernon)

However, with time Nick is able to find some semblance of his early self. He overcomes challenges and moves forward the best he can. Despite the fact that he is walking uphill through burned land with a backpack that is too heavy, he is now in a familiar place and happy to be here:

Nick slipped off his pack and lay down in the shade.…

References

Crane, Stepen. Red Badge of Courage. New York: Modern Library, 2000.

Hemingway, Ernest. Big Two Hearted River. In Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner's, 1987.

O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Random House, 1998.

Stewart, Matthew. Hemingway and World War I: Combatting recent psychobiographical reassessments, restoring the war. Papers on Language and Literature. (2000) 36, 198-217

Iraqi War Operation Iraqi Freedom
Words: 3405 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62190091
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687).

Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…

Works cited

American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.

Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1

(2011): p. 29-30.

Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.

World War II Happen The
Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15911546
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" Military History. [online]

available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.

Heath.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.

Carr, p. 117.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Hickman, p. 1.

Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.

Corum, p. 4.

Corum, p. 5.

Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…

References

Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great

War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic

Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.

The concept of proportionality in war
Words: 3930 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60461985
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Proportionality in War

The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…

Bibliography

Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).

Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com.  http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .

"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense.  http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .

Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).

The West S War Against Assad and the Reason for it
Words: 737 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51240953
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ar in the Middle East: A Classification Issue

A lot of people don't understand the wars in the Middle East or what they are all about (Collum). Since 9/11, the Middle East has been a prime focus of countries in the est, but today Russia is also involved and Putin is painted in estern media as an aggressor and an enemy even though he is actually leading the fight against ISIS in Syria. The reality is that the est and its allies are conducting a war against Assad in Syria rather than a war against the terrorist group ISIS. Thus, the classification of this war in the est as a war against Terror is incorrect. It should be classified as a war in support of Terror, as the est continues to send arms and munitions to aid the "rebels" (aka terrorists) who are fighting Assad, the Russians and the Iranians…

Works Cited

Collum, David. "2015-Year in Review." Peak Prosperity, 2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.

Durden, Tyler. "ISIS: The 'Enemy' the U.S. created, Armed and Funded." Zero Hedge,

2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.

Escobar, Pepe. "Syria: Ultimate Pipelineistan War." Strategic Culture Foundation,

Effects of War Against Iraq
Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6202949
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War against Iraq

War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…

Critical Analysis War is a Racket
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72874333
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Critical Analysis: War is a Racket
Butler is correct: war is racket. He describes a racket as an operation that costs many but benefits a few—and that describes war well enough. Hundreds of thousands of lives are put on the line while a handful profit—investors, bankers, speculators and industrialists, for example, all of whom stood to make out like bandits from the Spanish-American war. Wars are invariably fought over some pretense: the Spanish-American War was launched because of an explosion on The Maine, which our yellow journalists quickly blamed on Spain, which allowed our leaders (who always have a cozy relationship with our bankers, speculators and industrialists) to go take the Philippines. In WWI, it was the Lusitania. In Vietnam, it was Gulf of Tonkin. In WWII, it was Pearl Harbor. For the current ME disaster, it was 9/11 and then the mobile weapons labs and phony evidence regarding yellow…

Media's Role in the War
Words: 2402 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15757235
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47).

The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, anum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…

References

Allan, S. & Zelizer, B. (2004). Reporting war: Journalism in wartime. New York: Routledge.

Beale, S.S. (2006). The news media's influence on criminal justice policy: How market-driven news promotes punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48(2), 397-399.

Billeaudeaux, A., Domke, D., Hutcheson, J.S. & Garland, P. (2003). Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 166-167.

Crockatt, R. (2003). America embattled: September 11, anti-Americanism, and the global order.

Traditional Principles of Just War Guide States
Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1640134
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traditional principles of just war guide states in fighting terrorism, or do new rules have to apply?

War has been waged much in the same manner, barring technological advances, for centuries. Wars are fought between sovereign nation states and the regimes that control them or against civil challenges to sovereign nation states from within, and yet the current so called war on terror is very obviously a different animal all together than any previous war. Yet, like so many other national and international challenges there is a reluctance to change.

The questionable link that the ush administration established between its war on terror and its military intervention in Iraq, as well as its apparent willingness to suspend fundamental rights if the 'war' requires it (exemplified by its practices in Guantanamo ay and its exhortations to extradite terror suspects across Europe), have contributed much to the striking fact that many citizens…

Bibliography

Arquilla, J. (2007). The End of War as We Knew It? Insurgency counterinsurgency and lessons from the forgotten history of early terror networks. Third World Quarterly, 369-386.

Michta, A.A. (2008, January). Double or Nothing. National Interest, 58-61.

Monar, J. (2007). The EU's approach post-September 11: global terrorism as a multidimensional law enforcement challenge. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20 (2), 267-283.

Richard H. Fallon, J. (2010). The Supreme Court, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror: an Essay on Law and Poltical Science. Columbia Law Review, 352-398.

Front-Page War How Media Complicity
Words: 3781 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19321252
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The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald umsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)

In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out'…

Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518 

Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004.  http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798 

Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004.  http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer

Global Terror War Policy Advice
Words: 1797 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 48239500
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Conclusion:

The resolution of this policy counsel meeting is the endorsement of a refinement of Australia's terror policy with respect both to the preservation of constitutional rights and in terms of approach its relationship to the United States with balance and diplomacy. Recognizing the severity the security threat but simultaneously recognizing the need to refine policies so as to diminish the tendency toward inflaming the political and ideological anger of the developing world, Australia must spend the coming decades finding ways to quell such hostility. This will mean a closer consideration of the economic, political and trade policies that often have run aground of the interests of the developing world. Likewise, it means that Australia must function as a continued partner to the U.S. But also as a voice of conscience with respect to the discretionary use of military force or diplomatic finesse.

orks Cited:

Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim…

Works Cited:

Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim Responses to the Discourse on Terrorism in the Australian Popular Media. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1).

Australian Federal Police (AFP). (2009). Fighting Terrorism in Australia. www.afp.gov.au

BBC News. (2006). Australian Loses Terrorism Appeal. BBC News.

Brown, M. (2009). Al-Shabaab terrorists 'living in Australia.' ABC News. Online at  http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/09/23/2693927.htm?section=justin

President Bush's War on Iraq President Bush
Words: 1941 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13023442
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President Bush's ar On Iraq

President Bush feels the United States should launch a preemptive strike on Iraq, rather than waiting for sanctions by the United Nations.

He has received support from some political groups while facing opposition from others. Each side presents valid arguments on why they believe the U.S. should or should not go to war with Iraq.

Sanctions

In 1990, the United Nations imposed sanctions on Iraq after it invaded Kuwait. The invasion eventually lead to the Gulf ar in 1991.

The U.N. agreed to lift the sanctions if Iraq would allow international inspectors to certify it had removed its weapons.

However, since 1998, Baghdad has refused to allow inspectors into the country until the sanctions are lifted, claiming the weapons no longer exist (Yacoub, 2002).

In May 2002, a new Security Council resolution dealing with U.N. sanctions was accepted by Iraq for a period of 6…

Works Cited

COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.

DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001):

03 December. Pp. 38A.

IRAQ CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TO IDENTIFY TERROR.

Theory Analysis Why We'll Keep Going to War
Words: 1814 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1771271
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overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…

Bibliography

ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army,  http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf  (accessed 23 July 2014).

Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).

Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),

Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University,  http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328  / (accessed 23 July, 2014

U S War in Iraq Ever
Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83414686
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The terrorists responsible for 9/11 were not Iraqi

. The only reason for entering Iraq was the fact that there was a significant Al Qaeda base. The Iraqis themselves are the victims of their position amid the violence. In effect, they are paying for hostility and a war that is not theirs and that they have no involvement in. Perpetuating a war like this in a country that is essentially innocent is a gross violation not only of human rights, but also of ethics in general.

In conclusion, the worst part of the war in Iraq is probably its duration. Despite increasing public calls for a stop to the lack of ethical footing surrounding the war in Iraq, the American presence in the country has been ongoing for more than a decade under the premise of maintaining order and security

. However, since the start of the war, and even…

References

Cowan, Steven B. "The Ethics of War and the War in Iraq." Apologetics Resource Center. 9 November 2005.  http://www.arcapologetics.org/articles/article04.htm  19 March 2012.

Rane, M.A. "The Iraq War -- the first Unlawful and Unethical War of the Third Millennium." International Humanist and Ethical Union, 4 November 2004.  http://www.iheu.org/node/1177  19 March 2012.

M.A. Rane. "The Iraq War -- the first Unlawful and Unethical War of the Third Millennium." International Humanist and Ethical Union, 4 November 2004.

Iraq War President George W
Words: 1754 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83384447
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" (Campo, PAGE) Such statements remind historians of colonialism, where invaders believed that their society was superior to the culture they were supplanting, while reaping significant financial rewards for doing so. However, the United States has never claimed financial gain. The real criticism of this war is the rush to get there. The United States planned to solve the Iraqi war with force of arms even while the U.N. was still working diligently to confirm whether WMD even existed in Iraq. As we all know now, they were never found, and that was the strongest and most primary reason for the war.

ibliography

Campo, Juan E. "enign Colonialism? The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and abylonian Intrigue." Harvard International Review. Volume: 26. Issue: 1, 2004.

Fuss, Toni. "Germany's Opposition to the Iraq War and Its Effect on U.S.-German Relations." Social Education. Volume: 68. Issue: 4, 2004.

Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and…

Bibliography

Campo, Juan E. "Benign Colonialism? The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and Babylonian Intrigue." Harvard International Review. Volume: 26. Issue: 1, 2004.

Fuss, Toni. "Germany's Opposition to the Iraq War and Its Effect on U.S.-German Relations." Social Education. Volume: 68. Issue: 4, 2004.

Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.

Jackson, Richard. "Between Iraq and a Hard Place: Richard Jackson Suggests That the United States Is Losing Its War on Terror." New Zealand International Review. Volume: 29. Issue: 4, 2004.

Civil Wars it Is Estimated That Between
Words: 3550 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85083177
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Civil ars

It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.

According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…

Work Cited

"Civil Wars Throughout the World."

http://www.cwc.lsu.edu/cwc/inter-aspects/world1.htm

Cramer, Christopher. "Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: exploring growth, distribution and conflict linkages."

 http://64.233.187.104/search?q=cache:N00ZR7tRHzsJ:mercury.soas.ac.uk/economics/workpap/adobe/wp73.pdf+countries+that+have+had+civil+wars& ; hl=en

Rosa Luxemburg's View of World War I
Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39558264
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osa Luxemburg's view of World War I, as demonstrated in her political tract "The Workers and the War," was relatively simple. She vehemently protested against the war on political grounds, arguing that it actually represented a dissolution of the socialist principles which had largely animated Europe and large portions of Germany at the time. This fact is readily underscored by the notion that the author was imprisoned for the majority of World War I due to her protesting this war as violating many of the crucial tenets of socialism. The author's primary thesis is that large international conflicts such as World War I were fundamentally contrary to the ideologies of socialism, which strove to unite and empower the working class. Luxemburg widely believed that World War I and the very conception of nationalism itself merely led to the disempowerment of socialists, and regulated the working class to its substandard living…

References

Luxemburg, R. (1916). "The war and the workers." www.h-net.org. Retrieved from  http://www.h-net.org/Y ?\?X[???^ ??Z\?\??ZX? ?^ ?[

Break Out of War in Afghanistan and
Words: 6023 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 66939679
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break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. he chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. hey feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.

Psychiatry ratified the PSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly,…

Trochim, W. (2006). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing.

Vogt, Dawne S.; Samper, Rita E.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Martin, James A. (2008). Deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress symptomatology: Comparing active duty and National Guard/Reserve personnel from Gulf War I. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol. 21 Issue 1, p66-74. 9p.

Yin, R.K. (2008) Case study research: design and methods. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication Inc.

American Experience With War
Words: 2615 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85444445
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American Experience With War

Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?

While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.

But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…

References

Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The

MacMillan Company, 1969.

Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),

Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.