War On Terror Essays (Examples)

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War in Afghanistan Following the

Words: 3674 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30447159



Fallout

A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.

A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…… [Read More]

Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.

Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127

Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
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War in Afghanistan

Words: 3312 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62121514

ar in Afghanistan

After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com.

This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.

Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13

Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from  http://www.latimes.com
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War in Afghanistan Is Visibly

Words: 2995 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54386899

S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.

3.1.3 Power sharing agreements

In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…… [Read More]

References

Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.

Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.

Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.

Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3]
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War and Effects the War

Words: 2490 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43569302

Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.

The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054

Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker

Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution

Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight
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War in Afghanistan the Foundational

Words: 2727 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36921389

(NYT)

Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation

Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)

The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"

Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.

Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.

Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.

Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
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Terror Memo

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47077867



There are strong and compelling arguments that suggest that through this demonstrated incompetence, many of the terror plots are in fact enabled by our organization. Aaronson (2011) explained how this failure is hurting the practical application of the law. He wrote "With three exceptions, all of the high-profile domestic terror plots of the last decade were actually FBI stings. (the exceptions are Najibullah Zazi, who came close to bombing the New York City subway system in September 2009; Hesham Mohamed Hadayet, an Egyptian who opened fire on the El-Al ticket counter at the Los Angeles airport; and failed Times Square bomber Faisal Shahzad.). " it appears that the only terrorist operations that are going on are the ones that we are creating ourselves.

Suggestions for the Future

A new vision for this department is desperately needed. It is also apparent that the leadership arm of this organization is not demonstrating…… [Read More]

References

Aaronson, T. (2011). The Informants. Mother Jones, Oct 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/08/fbi-terrorist-informants 

Thiessen, M. (2011). Eric Holder, Obama's Albatross. Washington Post, 10 Oct 2011. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/eric-holder-obamas-albatross/2011/10/10/gIQA5u8IaL_story.html

The United States Department of Justice. Mission Statement. Viewed 2 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/about/about.html
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Terror and War

Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21384356

War on Terror

Terrorism has always been with society, but since 2001 the elements of how it is handled have changed to some extent. In order to understand how that has taken place, it is vital to look carefully at the historical events of terrorism. These events were significant in that they caused serious harm to a number of people and structures, but they also matter because they provide a timeline of how things have changed and how terrorism -- and the responses to it -- has evolved over the years (Coaty, 12). As the terrorists have focused on doing different things, the people who are trained to respond to terror have also changed their focus. It is both of these sides of the terrorist issue that have to be examined to provide a proper understanding of what terrorism does and how those who combat it and fight against it…… [Read More]

References

Coaty, P. (2012). Understanding the war on terror (3rd ed.). IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing.
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War While the United States of America

Words: 957 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5580119

War

While the United States of America over the past decades has maintained its superiority over other nations in terms of political clout, there is a certain imbalance in power within the geopolitical system of the world that is causing nations to become embittered. The United States began its reign of controversy after World War II and yet, it was the Vietnam War that completed the role in unethical representation in terms of military and political power. The Vietnam War was fought on the basis of freedom, democracy and the need to hinder the spread of the evil of Communism. The slogan of the times was that if the spread of communism was not stalled, America would soon lose its freedom and democracy the world over would be wiped out. These words may seem dramatic to the rational mind but to really understand the mood of the time such words…… [Read More]

References

Potter, Paul. "Incredible War" by Paul Potter, from Takin' it to the streets: A Sixties Reader Edited by Alexander Bloom and Wini Breine. Oxford University Press, 1995.

Smith, Ted. J., III. Propaganda: A Pluralitic Perspective New York: Praeger, 1989.
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War in Iraq Can the U S Policy in Iraq Prevail

Words: 3561 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86114785

war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.

Introduction

The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…… [Read More]

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War in Vietnam

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79614149

Vietnam War provides the opportunity to learn from history. Analysis of the Vietnam War experience, from the American point-of-view anyway, sheds light on current diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and cultural/social contexts of war. Unfortunately, it would seem that the opportunities to learn from Vietnam had been squandered by the time the War on Terror began in earnest after September 11, 2001. The Vietnam conflict, for example, began as a diplomatic farce. As Young (2014) puts it, "Lyndon Johnson and obert McNamara created the illusion that attacks on North Vietnam were alternatives to war rather than war itself," (p. 1). Bombs were used as a darkly ironic form of diplomacy. Therefore, one of the most important lessons learned from Vietnam is that the United States must be more honest and straightforward in its use of force. Use of force cannot be disguised as a form of diplomatic negotiations. "There is a…… [Read More]

References

Donovan, D. (2012). Viewpoint: Counter-insurgency lessons from Vietnam. BBC. Retrieved online:  http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-19634728 

Young, R. (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/military/etc./lessons.html
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War in American History The

Words: 2275 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53426093



Katulis and Juul help put into perspective the tentative position of Iraq in saying that Iraq's leadership remains split on a draft version of SOF (Katulis and Juul, online). The Iraqi cabinet must vote a two-thirds majority in favor of their support for a plan (Katulis and Juul). This may be difficult to achieve when the cabinet is divided along religious sect lines. It is, too, perhaps the first time since the election of the cabinet by the Iraqi people that they had to put such concerted emphasis on their decision making, because, once made, there is no turning back from that decision which could result in the U.S. pulling out of Iraq beginning almost immediately. What follows will answer the question of whether or not Iraq is prepared to stand on its own against the forces of Islamic fundamentalist extremism. Leaving Iraq may see it become impossible to regain…… [Read More]

As Hanson points out, the jihadists do not need fighter jets, a navy fleet or even tanks to win their war against the west (Hoover Institution, Hanson, online). Their tools are terrorism, and this, too, seems to be one of the aspects of the present and future nature of warfare that people choose not to acknowledge. The goals of terrorism are no to destroy buildings, although the destruction of buildings as occurred on September 11, 2001, does indeed further their work; it is rather to cause a disruption of the economy, to create political division, world discord, to instill a prevailing atmosphere of fear and panic, and to bring down the society that is the target of the terrorist acts. In this regard, as we examine where America is today, and where the rest of the world is as economies are collapsing around us, it might be fair to say that the jihadists are winning their war of terrorism.

Who would have believed, as Hanson so succinctly argues, that a world amidst the technological progress where the world stands today could be brought to its knees by terrorists who have effectively enslaved the freedoms that it has taken America and its post World War II allies hundreds of years to achieve? Today, cartoon satire depicting Islamic extremists can be banned - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban ideas and images; the words "war on terror" have been ostensibly set aside because they have become too psychologically burdensome to the public - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban words from the language; and other examples of giving into the weight of terrorism as cited by Hanson (Hanson, online). Echoing Galbraith, the question must be asked, "Is this victory?"

Wordpress.com, 2008. Galbraith, Peter, GBlog. Found online at http://gunnyg.wordpress.com/2008/10/27/is-this-a-victory-by-peter-w-galbraith/,retrieved 18 November 2008.
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War in Iraq Diminish the

Words: 1979 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19344673

S. security, but on international security.

Source #7 from Google: owman, Karlyn, U.S. public opinion and the terrorist threat, June 6, 2006, available at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all, pubID.24492/pub_detail.asp.

Source evaluation: The article provides a well-documented insight into the public opinion in U.S. regarding the war in Iraq.

Source #8 from Google: Diminished Public Appetite for Military Force and Mideast Oil

Five Years Later..., released on September 6, 2006, available at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=288.

Source evaluation: An article based on opinion polls regarding the people's opinion towards the war in Iraq.

Source #9: Gunaratna, Rohan, the Terrorist Threat Five years after 9-11, September 22, 2006, available at http://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/1031/cid/6?PHPSESSID=0f987fb38af332abab79864390a755c4.

Source evaluation: The article deals with the terrorist organization al-Qaeda and the changes in this field brought by the war in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Source #10 from Google: Layne, Christopher, No adult supervision, November 23, 2004, available at http://www.realisticforeignpolicy.org/archives/2004/11/index.php.

Source evaluation: The article is analyzing the decision-making…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mazzetti, Mark, Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Worsens Terrorism Threat, published on September 24, 2006, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/24/world/middleeast/24terror.html?ex=1316750400&en=da252be85d1b39fa&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss;

Mueller, John, Is There Still a Terrorist Threat?: The Myth of the Omnipresent Enemy, from Foreign Affairs, September/October 2006, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060901facomment85501/john-mueller/is-there-still-a-terrorist-threat.html;

Fletcher, Michael a., Bush warns of enduring terror threat, September 6, 2006, available at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/05/AR2006090500312.html ;

Benjamin, Daniel, Two Years After 9/11: A Balance Sheet, October 2003 | Special Report No. 111, available at http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr111.html
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Do We Need to Go to War

Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12058479

ar on Terror

Towards the end of the first week of the war against Iraq, public support for the war remained strong. To many people, Saddam Hussein's actions and failure to comply with weapons inspections leaves the United States with no choice but unlitateral military action.

Syndicated columnist Mona Charon echoes these arguments when she maintains that Saddam Hussein continues to hoard weapons of mass destruction. Even UN Inspector Hans Blix, she argues, said that Iraq has failed to provide evidence that their store of weapons have been destroyed (Charon).

Charon believes that while Muslim regimes in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt "promote violence and religious hatred" (Charon). Even in comparison to its neighbors, however, Iraq is extremist and reckless. It has sponsored terrorist groups and has proven itself to be a bitter foe of the United States.

Finally, Charon argues that disarming Iraq is crucial not only for the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Charon, Mona. "War against Iraq is far from a distraction in war on terror." Insight on the News, 19(5). February 18 - March 3, 2003: 50-51. ProQuest Database.

Matthews, Jessica Tuchman. "Is There a Better Way to Go?" The Washington Post. February 9, 2003: B.01+. ProQuest Database.
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Crisis of Islam Holy War Unholy Terror

Words: 1184 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99637782

Lewis' the Crisis of Islam

On page 160 of The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis states, "There is no doubt that the foundation of Al-Qa'ida and the consecutive declarations of war by Usama bin Ladin marked the beginning of a new and ominous phase in the history of both Islam and terrorism." Indeed, based on the historical outline of Islam that Lewis provides, the new and ominous phase applies equally to non-Muslim cultures. The Crisis of Islam examines the origins of Islamic fundamentalism and its deadly application as terrorism. The September 11 attacks made Americans more conscious than ever about the threat of anti-American sentiment, a threat that existed far before Al-Qa'ida. In his book, Lewis offers several insights into Islam's current social and political crisis. First, the author describes the flourishing of Islamic culture, noting in particular its theocratic foundations. The theocratic foundation of Islamic culture and religion allow…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: The Modern Library, 2003.
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War vs Peace War and

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50172725

That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.

By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.

As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,

2007. Print.

McCoy, Katherine. "Uncle Sam Wants Them." Contexts, Winter 2009, 14-19. Print.

Zinn, Howard. A Power Governments Cannot Suppress. SF: City Lights, 2007. Print.
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War and Pieces of Reality

Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86138382

Despite all the graphic, inventive detailed descriptions of the physical suffering and the mental anguish Turner has endured, in the end, it is the cliche, metaphoric image of a breaking heart that sends the strongest message. It should break any human being's heart to kill, and those who are not emotionally torn up by taking another human being's life are therefore, essentially heartless.

There is also an indication in Here, Bullet, that it is not only the heart that malfunctions in the throes of death and killing, but the brain as well. hen Turner speaks of "the leap thought makes at the synaptic gap" he is symbolizing the leap a person's mind is forced to make from have a respect for life and compassion for mankind to suddenly believe that it is okay to kill, maim and torture in the name of your country. Thus from Turner's point-of-view, after being…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Turner, Brian, "Here, Bullet" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005

Turner, Brian, "Sadiq" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005

Himes, Andrew, Voices in Wartime Anthology, cited in Alice James Books. Web. 17 June, 2010. http://www.alicejamesbooks.org/pages/book_page.php?bookID=43

Whetstone, David. Culture: A Poet in Tangled Battle Lines of Iraq; Plenty of Poets Described the Horrors of the First World War, but in Modern Combat Zones They Are a Rare Beast. David Whetstone Talks to American Poet Brian Turner, Who Served in Iraq. The Journal (Newcastle, England). March 17, 2008, p. 18.
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War in Literature at First

Words: 2263 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57627086

He is more interested in "things," than what those things will bring. "Nick went over to the pack and found, with his fingers, a long nail in a paper sack of nails, in the bottom of the pack. He drove it into the pine tree, holding it close and hitting it gently with the flat of the axe. He hung the pack up on the nail. All his supplies were in the pack. They were off the ground and sheltered now" (as quoted in Vernon)

However, with time Nick is able to find some semblance of his early self. He overcomes challenges and moves forward the best he can. Despite the fact that he is walking uphill through burned land with a backpack that is too heavy, he is now in a familiar place and happy to be here:

Nick slipped off his pack and lay down in the shade.…… [Read More]

References

Crane, Stepen. Red Badge of Courage. New York: Modern Library, 2000.

Hemingway, Ernest. Big Two Hearted River. In Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner's, 1987.

O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Random House, 1998.

Stewart, Matthew. Hemingway and World War I: Combatting recent psychobiographical reassessments, restoring the war. Papers on Language and Literature. (2000) 36, 198-217
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Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

Words: 1772 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30854973

Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .

In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Diamond, L. (n.d.). Winning the new cold war on terrorism. Hoover Institute. Stanford University. Retrievable from http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/papers/coldWarOnTerrorism.pdf.

Levine, D. And Levine, R. (2006). Deterrence in the Cold War and the War on Terror. National Science Foundation Grant publication. Retrievable from  http://www.dklevine.com/papers/inimical.pdf .

Tirman, J. (2006). The War on Terror and the Cold War: They're not the same. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Audit of Conventional Wisdom. Retrievable from  http://web.mit.edu/cis/acw.html .

US History (n.d). Berlin Wall. Viewable at  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1867.html .
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Iraqi War Operation Iraqi Freedom

Words: 3405 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62190091

687).

Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…… [Read More]

Works cited

American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.

Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1

(2011): p. 29-30.

Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
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Afghanistan War From All Appearances

Words: 2368 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99262579

" According to anuri "...the inference drawn here is that since there are no inherent rules (or 'guiding principles') in the international system, states act upon their natural predatory instincts in order to prove the 'initial impetus' for conflict, and therefore the states that are preyed upon must respond to the predator by defending themselves, or indeed counterattacking them." (2007)

The realist view is such that holds that the outbreak of conflict is supported alone by domestic policies and predatory practices." (anuri, 2007)

Garib (2003) writes in the work entitled: "Realism and Liberalism Reconsidered in Post 9/11 American Foreign Policy" that while the liberalism of former President George W. ush is "ostensibly present in the National Security Council's 2002 National Security Strategy, which speaks of America crating 'a balance of power that favors human freedom' and of a new American international outlook which seeks to create political and economic freedom,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ahmed, Nafeez Mossaddeq (2001) Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States: The Role of Human Rights in Western Foreign Policy. Media Monitors Network. 2 May 2001. Online available at: http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq2.html#_ednref4

Ali, Noor, U.S.-UN Conspiracy Against the People of Afghanistan, Online Center for Afghan Studies, 21 February 1998 in: Ahmed, Nafeez Mossaddeq (2001) Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States: The Role of Human Rights in Western Foreign Policy. Media Monitors Network. 2 May 2001. Online available at: http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq2.html#_ednref4

Banuri, Sheyeryar (2007) Cooperation Theory and Terrorism. Democratization, Globalization and International Relations. 2007. Online available at: http://www.utdallas.edu/~banuri/sb_cp13_prodgir_cooperation_terrorism_012007.pdf

Coleman, Markus (2007) Fitting the Facts of Life into International Political Economy Theories: The Case of Afghanistan's Poppies. International Public Policy Review. Vol. 3 No.1 June 2007. Online available at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ippr/download/volume-3-1/Coleman.pdf
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World War II Happen The

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15911546

" Military History. [online]

available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.

Heath.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.

Carr, p. 117.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Hickman, p. 1.

Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.

Corum, p. 4.

Corum, p. 5.

Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…… [Read More]

References

Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great

War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic

Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
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Iraq War the War in

Words: 2990 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87275099

6). At home, though, the media can often be co-opted by being made to feel that public opinion would be against it if it reported something other than the prevailing public sentiment. After't he 9-11 attacks, the public wanted the perpetrators and their leaders punished, so the war in Afghanistan had the support of the public. By extension, the idea of the war on terror also had support, though the parameters of that war were never clearly defined and were certainly not explained to the public. The Bush Administration made use of this support when it decided to invade Iran and suggested in many ways that this was a continuation of the war on terror and even that Saddam Hussein was responsible for 9-11. The news media did not do its job as well as it should and did not question most of these assertions until some time had passed.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boylan, James. "When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina." Columbia Journalism Review, Volume 46, Issue 2 (July-August 2007), 59.

Kamiya, Gary. "Iraq: Why the Media Failed." Salon.com (10 April 2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.salon.com/opinion/kamiya/2007/04/10/media_failure/.

Kellner, Douglas. "Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the 'War on Terror.'" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Volume 37, Issue 4 (2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5024109830?title=Bushspeak%20and%20the%20Politics%20of%20Lying%3a%20Presidential%20Rhetoric%20in%20the%20%22War%20on%20Terror%22.

Payne, Kenneth. "The Media as an Instrument of War." Parameters, Volume 35, Issue 1 (2005). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5011208618?title=the%20Media%20as%20an%20Instrument%20of%20War.Smith, Sylvia a. "Media Faulted on War's Lead-up." Outside Cab le News (12 March 2008). July 22, 2008. http://outsidecablenews.blogsome.com/2008/03/12/media-faulted-on-wars-lead-up/.
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The concept of proportionality in war

Words: 3930 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60461985

Proportionality in War

The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).

Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/.

"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense.  http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .

Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
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The West S War Against Assad and the Reason for it

Words: 737 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51240953

ar in the Middle East: A Classification Issue

A lot of people don't understand the wars in the Middle East or what they are all about (Collum). Since 9/11, the Middle East has been a prime focus of countries in the est, but today Russia is also involved and Putin is painted in estern media as an aggressor and an enemy even though he is actually leading the fight against ISIS in Syria. The reality is that the est and its allies are conducting a war against Assad in Syria rather than a war against the terrorist group ISIS. Thus, the classification of this war in the est as a war against Terror is incorrect. It should be classified as a war in support of Terror, as the est continues to send arms and munitions to aid the "rebels" (aka terrorists) who are fighting Assad, the Russians and the Iranians…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collum, David. "2015-Year in Review." Peak Prosperity, 2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.

Durden, Tyler. "ISIS: The 'Enemy' the U.S. created, Armed and Funded." Zero Hedge,

2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.

Escobar, Pepe. "Syria: Ultimate Pipelineistan War." Strategic Culture Foundation,
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Effects of War Against Iraq

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6202949

War against Iraq

War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…… [Read More]

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Media's Role in the War

Words: 2402 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15757235

47).

The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, anum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…… [Read More]

References

Allan, S. & Zelizer, B. (2004). Reporting war: Journalism in wartime. New York: Routledge.

Beale, S.S. (2006). The news media's influence on criminal justice policy: How market-driven news promotes punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48(2), 397-399.

Billeaudeaux, A., Domke, D., Hutcheson, J.S. & Garland, P. (2003). Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 166-167.

Crockatt, R. (2003). America embattled: September 11, anti-Americanism, and the global order.
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Traditional Principles of Just War Guide States

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1640134

traditional principles of just war guide states in fighting terrorism, or do new rules have to apply?

War has been waged much in the same manner, barring technological advances, for centuries. Wars are fought between sovereign nation states and the regimes that control them or against civil challenges to sovereign nation states from within, and yet the current so called war on terror is very obviously a different animal all together than any previous war. Yet, like so many other national and international challenges there is a reluctance to change.

The questionable link that the ush administration established between its war on terror and its military intervention in Iraq, as well as its apparent willingness to suspend fundamental rights if the 'war' requires it (exemplified by its practices in Guantanamo ay and its exhortations to extradite terror suspects across Europe), have contributed much to the striking fact that many citizens…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arquilla, J. (2007). The End of War as We Knew It? Insurgency counterinsurgency and lessons from the forgotten history of early terror networks. Third World Quarterly, 369-386.

Michta, A.A. (2008, January). Double or Nothing. National Interest, 58-61.

Monar, J. (2007). The EU's approach post-September 11: global terrorism as a multidimensional law enforcement challenge. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20 (2), 267-283.

Richard H. Fallon, J. (2010). The Supreme Court, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror: an Essay on Law and Poltical Science. Columbia Law Review, 352-398.
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Front-Page War How Media Complicity

Words: 3781 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19321252

The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald umsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)

In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out'…… [Read More]

Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518

Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004.  http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798 

Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer
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Global Terror War Policy Advice

Words: 1797 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48239500



Conclusion:

The resolution of this policy counsel meeting is the endorsement of a refinement of Australia's terror policy with respect both to the preservation of constitutional rights and in terms of approach its relationship to the United States with balance and diplomacy. Recognizing the severity the security threat but simultaneously recognizing the need to refine policies so as to diminish the tendency toward inflaming the political and ideological anger of the developing world, Australia must spend the coming decades finding ways to quell such hostility. This will mean a closer consideration of the economic, political and trade policies that often have run aground of the interests of the developing world. Likewise, it means that Australia must function as a continued partner to the U.S. But also as a voice of conscience with respect to the discretionary use of military force or diplomatic finesse.

orks Cited:

Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim Responses to the Discourse on Terrorism in the Australian Popular Media. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1).

Australian Federal Police (AFP). (2009). Fighting Terrorism in Australia. www.afp.gov.au

BBC News. (2006). Australian Loses Terrorism Appeal. BBC News.

Brown, M. (2009). Al-Shabaab terrorists 'living in Australia.' ABC News. Online at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/09/23/2693927.htm?section=justin
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President Bush's War on Iraq President Bush

Words: 1941 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13023442

President Bush's ar On Iraq

President Bush feels the United States should launch a preemptive strike on Iraq, rather than waiting for sanctions by the United Nations.

He has received support from some political groups while facing opposition from others. Each side presents valid arguments on why they believe the U.S. should or should not go to war with Iraq.

Sanctions

In 1990, the United Nations imposed sanctions on Iraq after it invaded Kuwait. The invasion eventually lead to the Gulf ar in 1991.

The U.N. agreed to lift the sanctions if Iraq would allow international inspectors to certify it had removed its weapons.

However, since 1998, Baghdad has refused to allow inspectors into the country until the sanctions are lifted, claiming the weapons no longer exist (Yacoub, 2002).

In May 2002, a new Security Council resolution dealing with U.N. sanctions was accepted by Iraq for a period of 6…… [Read More]

Works Cited

COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.

DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001):

03 December. Pp. 38A.

IRAQ CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TO IDENTIFY TERROR.
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Targeted Killing and War on

Words: 1110 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75805706

In this aspect, Israel is one of the most active countries in targeted killings which have resulted in significant victories against their enemies but only for a short time: the killings of Abd al-Aziz al-Rantisi and Sheik Ahmed Yassin in 2004 or Yusuf al-Najjar in 1973 have not destroyed the significant of neither Hamas or Fatah -- to enumerate just three of the many targeted killings.

In the case of Osama bin Laden, his killing has obviously weakened the organizational structure and chain of command of al Qaeda. Together with the elimination of other leaders it has created severe fractures in the power of the terrorist activities, but, in the same time, has created a large number of martyrs, which help these type of organizations to gather more and more followers.

Various question appear therefore regarding targeted killings from an international law perspective, as well as one from a morality…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lonsdale, David. The Nature of War in the Information Age. Routlege, 2004

Hunter, Thomas. Targeted Killing: Self-Defense, Preemption, and the War on Terrorism. BookSurge Publishing; 1st edition. 2009

Melzer, Nils. Targeted Killing in International Law. Oxford University Press. 2009

W.W. "The ethics of realpolitik and assassination," The Economist, May 4, 2011.
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Theory Analysis Why We'll Keep Going to War

Words: 1814 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1771271

overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army,  http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf  (accessed 23 July 2014).

Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).

Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army,  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf  (accessed 23 July 2014),

Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014
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Just War Theory Sweeping Changes in the

Words: 1702 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92690826

Just ar Theory

Sweeping changes in the way wars are fought have brought current scholars' attention to the ethical concept of the Just ar. The concept of the Just ar is nearly as old as war itself; it is perhaps best codified in Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian ar. There have historically been two main approaches to deciding what is, in fact, fair in war: deontological and consequentialist. In short, these opposing poles represent: on the one hand, duty, what war "ought" to be, and the notion that war requires a moral motivation and morally justifiable means; on the other hand, realpolitik, pragmatic considerations, and an account based on justifiable ends rather than means. The deontological approach takes many cues from Kant's ethics, while the consequentialist or Realist school finds its roots in John Stuart Mill, among others.

Recent work in political philosophy and ethics has attempted to place international…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Walzer, Michael (1991). Just and Unjust Wars: 2nd Edition. New York: Basic Books.

Kaufman, Whitley. "Rethinking the ban on assassination: Just war principles in the age of terror." Rethinking the Just War Tradition. Ed. Michael W. Brough et al. Albany: SUNY Press, 2007.

Tirimanna, Vimal. "Mass Media and its Effects on Just War Criteria in the Gulf War." New Blackfriars. 73.859 (1992): 235-246.

Oliver, Kelly. "Bodies against the law: Abu Ghraib and the War on Terror." Continental Philosophy Review. 42.1 (2009): 63-80.
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Break Out of War in Afghanistan and

Words: 6023 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66939679

break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. he chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. hey feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.

Psychiatry ratified the PSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly,…… [Read More]

Trochim, W. (2006). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing.

Vogt, Dawne S.; Samper, Rita E.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Martin, James A. (2008). Deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress symptomatology: Comparing active duty and National Guard/Reserve personnel from Gulf War I. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol. 21 Issue 1, p66-74. 9p.

Yin, R.K. (2008) Case study research: design and methods. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication Inc.
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American Experience With War

Words: 2615 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85444445

American Experience With War

Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?

While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.

But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…… [Read More]

References

Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The

MacMillan Company, 1969.

Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),

Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
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U S Policy Concerning Iraq War

Words: 3455 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93404755

However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East.

At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and opposing attitude of the majority in the Middle East; on the other hand, there are those who take Saudi Arabia as reference point for the possible success of future strategies concerning the democratization process and the way in which a totally Muslim country can change and improve its standards. From this point-of-view, the situation in Saudi Arabia, the progress it made in areas such as social activities, political participation, education, and other levels at which the population can express itself…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bennis, Phyllis et al. "U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives." Foreign Policy in Focus. N.d. 18 February 2008. http://www.fpif.org/pdf/iraqStmt.pdf

Carothers, Thomas. "Is gradualism possible? Choosing a strategy for promoting democracy in the Middle East." Middle East Studies. Democracy and Rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2003

Cortright, David et al.. "Contested Case: Do the Facts Justify the Case for War in Iraq?" Policy Brief F8. Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame. 2003.

Fisher-Thompson, Jim. "Mechanics Training for Iraqi Army Fuels Engine for Change." America. Gov website. 2008. 18 February 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2008/January/200801071712331EJrehsiF0.7347071.html