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War and Peace: The War on Terror
The first time "war on terror" was used was in the aftermath of the infamous 9/11 al Qaeda attack. Even though this phrase has been used severally in passing to describe a wide variety of aims, policy guidelines and actions, the major moves made specifically under the direct explanation of the phrase is much more complex than just words. There are two major goals of the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, which was established in 2006. The short-term aim of this strategy is to bring about a quick end to the al Qaeda group while its long-term aim is to create a worldwide intolerance for any form of terrorist groups and their affiliates. The objective of this study is to determine if the aims of this strategy and other programs on the front line on the war on terror has been achieved. To…
Belasco, Amy. Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11. Diane Publishing, 2009.
Crawford, Neta. "US Costs of Wars Through 2014: $4.4 Trillion and Counting." Boston University (2014).
Dobrot, Laurence A. The Global War on Terrorism: A Religious War? ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, 2007.
Goepner, Erik W. "Measuring the effectiveness of America's war on terror." Parameters 46, no. 1 (2016): 107.
In my opinion, the 'war on terror' like all other wars is irrational and the mainstream media is not playing an objective role in getting the average American involved in the matter. If terrorism as defined in some strict sense does not exist, on what exactly is the war all about? The needs to answer this question and to have faith and belief in the government are confusing and require correct information and deliberation by the people.
In the Town Hall.com's article, Chavez clearly disagrees with the very action of raising a question when she said nothing about the justifications done by the Federal Government in engaging the nation to a protracted war, where this war clearly is not and will never benefit the people. In addition, how will questioning the validity of invading two sovereign nations, be a threat to one's own government?
The First Amendment of the U.S.…
Chomsky, Noam. "There Is No War on Terror." December 23, 2005. Interview by Geov Parrish.
Chomsky, Noam. "On 9-11, Noam Chomsky debates with Bill Bennett." 30 May 2002.
CNN. 9 November 2008.
Zbigniew, Brzezinski. "Terrorized by 'War on Terror', How a Three-Word Mantra Has Undermined America." 25 March 2007. The Washington Post. 9 November 2008.
(enner, 2002, p. 26)
The Taliban committed millions of acts of fundamentalist-based violence. They isolated women, forced them to wear the Burka, the most conservative of Islamic veils, closed girls schools, forced women to stop working and beat people on the street for even the most minor infractions. Additionally they devastated the cultural history of the nation and added to the general destruction of the nation.
The Overthrow of the Taliban by U.S. Invasion
The Taliban was not overthrown until around 2001, when the U.S. invaded the nation, with UN forces, post the 9-11 terrorist attacks. The Taliban, who had never been recognized by most foreign nations as the legitimate government of Afghanistan refused to turn over the leader of Al Qaeda who was reported to be hiding there and being sheltered and aided by the Taliban. Though the regime toppled under U.S. force, the devastation of their wake was…
Assifi, a.T. (1982). The Russian Rope: Soviet Economic Motives and the Subversion of Afghanistan. World Affairs, 145(3), 253-266.
Carpenter, T.G. (1994). The Unintended Consequences of Afghanistan. World Policy Journal, 11(1), 76-87.
Afghanistan. (2007). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Donini, a., Niland, N., & Wermester, K. (Eds.). (2004). Nation-Building Unraveled? Aid, Peace and Justice in Afghanistan. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.
Others say Omar "was chosen by God," Rashid writes. hen interviewed by a journalist from Pakistan (Rahimullah Yousufzai) after taking control of Kabul, according to Rashid's book, Omar stated, "e had complete faith in God Almighty. e never forgot that. He can bless us with victory or plunge us into defeat."
Omar was born around 1959 (albeit much of his life is carefully guarded in secrecy), he has only one eye, and he never meets with or speaks with anyone who is not Muslim. He was born into a "family of poor, landless peasants who were members of the Hotak tribe" (Rashid, 25). The Rashid book (24-25) describes him as a "tall, well-built man with a long, black beard and a black turban." He has a "dry sense of humor and a sarcastic wit," albeit he is "extremely shy of outsiders" and is a "poor public speaker," according to Rashid…
Afghanistans. (2008). Afghanistan History. Retrieved March 22, 2009, at http://www.afghanistans.com/information/history/default.htm .
Bhatia, Michael. (2007). The Future of the Mujahideen: Legitimacy, Legacy and Demobilization in Post-Bonn Afghanistan. International Peacekeeping, 14(1), 90-107.
Cogan, Charles G. (2008). Afghanistan: Partners in Time. World Policy Journal, 3(25), 153-156.
Gibbs, David N. (2006). Reassessing Soviet Motives for Invading Afghanistan: A Declassified
War on Terror and Racial Profiling
Ten years removed from the horrific and fatal attacks launched by Al-Qaeda on 9-11, U.S. leadership continues to grapple with the challenges and complexities of protecting our nation from terrorist threats. Domestic security agencies such as the FBI utilize a myriad of information sources, channels, and platforms to collect intelligence which may prove useful in unlocking potential clues to homeland security threats. One of these essential tools is the gathering of data based on certain demographic characteristics: "certain terrorist and criminal groups target particular ethnic and geographic communities for victimization and/or recruitment purposes, this reality must be taken into account when determining if there are threats to the United States" (Knickerbocker, B. October 21, 2011. P.2). While the FBI views this activity as essential in the prevention of domestic terrorist attacks, civil liberties groups denounce the practice as "industrial scale racial profiling" (Knickerbocker, B.…
Democracy can be imposed only if the right example is given in this sense.
Torture is always completely arbitrary in the sense that you never know whether the person you are working it on is actually a terrorist or, perhaps, an innocent victim. The testimonies given by some of the prisoners are clear to show this.
The testimonies given in the transcription are those of different prisoners that have experienced the conditions in these secret CIA centres of detention. It is difficult not to be impressed by everything the victims have told the radio. The structure of their presentations follows the general forms of violent interrogations. For example, Binyam Mohamed tells us about his interrogation and describes it as almost the interrogators wanted to hear specific denunciations on his behalf and almost as if the torture was senseless after a point where the victim was already unable to provide any…
War on Terror
INTRO: Given recent events, it would be impossible to write this essay without first acknowledging the biggest victory in the War on Terror since its inception, the targeted assassination of Osama Bin Laden by U.S. Navy SEALS. With the kingpin of al-Qaeda, and mastermind behind the September 11 attacks on the United States, officially out of the picture, the world is a better place. Yet, a "better" place does not necessarily mean a "safer" place. There are still radicals and Islamic fundamentalists (Jihadists and Ba'athists) and enemies of the United States who would like to see this country suffer and who will stop at nothing to see their terrorist plans actualized. In short, the world is still a dangerous place. With that in mind we must continue to safeguard this country from terrorist attacks and it is the thesis of this essay to investigate ways in which…
" (Meyer, 2009, p. 10) He argues that the Bush Administration forcefully framed the terms of the debate about the response to the terrorist threat and critics of his policy "missed an opportunity to advance broader political agendas." (Meyer, 2009, p. 10) The idea of fighting back with soft power and a law enforcement approach was ridiculed by those in power and made to seem as illegitimate way of attacking the terrorists.
The concept of a "war on terror" is difficult to explain because terrorism is a tactic, not a definable group of people. Airplanes, missiles, tanks, and infantry cannot defeat terror, and the ability to use terrorism is in the hands of small groups or even individuals, which again makes it hard to fight war against it. Also, unlike past American wars against distinct groups or nations, the war on terror relies on people agreeing on what defines terror…
Due to the negative aspects of the war on terror -- the pre-mature declaration of "mission accomplished," the abuses at Abu Gharib, the questionable legality of Guantanamo Bay, the warrantless wiretaps at home, and the difficulty in beating down the insurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan -- by Bush's second term, the idea of the war on terror was losing some of its luster in the United States. In the presidential election year of 2008, the Democratic candidate Barack Obama refused to refer to the campaign against terrorists as the "war on terror" because the term had become so weighted down with negative connotations, and by not using it, he was signaling a change in approach. Once elected, Obama referred to the ongoing struggle as the "Overseas Contingency Operation."
In a very interesting article in the journal American Behavioral Scientist, David S. Meyer (2009) argues that the idea of a war on terror was not inevitable, and an alternative response could have been fashioned around so-called "soft power" measures. These could have included "expanded funding for language instruction and comparative religion in American schools, improved training for first responders in medical emergencies, and an overhaul of the health care system to provide rapid responses to crises." (Meyer, 2009, p. 10) He argues that the Bush Administration forcefully framed the terms of the debate about the response to the terrorist threat and critics of his policy "missed an opportunity to advance broader political agendas." (Meyer, 2009, p. 10) The idea of fighting back with soft power and a law enforcement approach was ridiculed by those in power and made to seem as illegitimate way of attacking the terrorists.
The concept of a "war on terror" is difficult to explain because terrorism is a tactic, not a definable group of people. Airplanes, missiles, tanks, and infantry cannot defeat terror, and the ability to use terrorism is in the hands of small groups or even individuals, which again makes it hard to fight war against it. Also, unlike past American wars against distinct groups or nations, the war on terror relies on people agreeing on what defines terror itself. As the old saying goes, one man's terrorist in another man's freedom fighter, and this gray area can make building domestic and international support somewhat challenging. Under the current administration, the rhetoric of the war on terror has been shelved in favor of a more multi-lateral approach abroad and a focus on civil liberties at home. However, many of the military tactics, such as the surge in Afghanistan, remain the same. Still, it seems helpful to have moved past the excesses of the early stages of the war on terror.
doubt whatsoever that September 11, 2001 will forever remain one of our country's darkest days. On this day, terrorists successfully launched one of the worst terror attacks the world has witnessed in modern times. In an attempt to come up with a reliable account of the background of the terror attacks, a commission was set up. This came to be referred to as the 9/11 commission.
The Major Interest Groups Surrounding the 9/11 Commission
From the onset, it is important to note that "family members of 9/11 victims were instrumental in the creation of the 9/11 commission" (Bolton, 2008, p. 240). They, therefore, constitute a key interest group in this case. These were people who lost and had their loved ones injured. In addition to ensuring that they got closure, they also needed safeguards and assurances that what had befallen their loved ones would not happen again -- one of…
Bolton, M.K. (2008). U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking after 9/11: Present and the Re-Creation. New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield.
Badino, D. (2010). Democratic Oversight of Intelligence Services. Sydney: Federation Press.
Prevent Another 911
hat to Do to Prevent Another 9/11 and How to Fight the ar on Terror
On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda caught many Americans off guard. ith the exception of a few intelligence officers and politicians who had access to classified information, no one imagined that a foreign terrorist organization could attack the United States with such a precise and deadly strike. The attack left around 3,000 Americans dead, many others crippled and scarred (both physically and psychologically) caused billions of dollars worth damage to American people and the state, and fundamentally affected the American society. In response to 9/11, the U.S. government unleashed a war on terror to prevent another attack and defeat terrorism once and forever. The effort turned out to be partly successful -- no attack has been carried out against America on its soil since then -- and partly a failure since al-Qaeda still…
Coaty, Patrick C. Understanding the War on Terror. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Pub. Co, 2009. Print
Cold ar and the ar on Terror
The Cold ar (C) and the ar against Terror (AT) were similar in several ways and different in other important aspects. Each is situated in its own particular political and social era. The C emerged in the post-2 years and was inextricably linked with a number of dynamic variables then shaping the global geopolitical spectrum: these variables included the rise of the Military-Industrial Complex, identified by Eisenhower as a threat to global peace and American security/prosperity in his outgoing speech on the eve of his departure from the hite House (Stone, Kuznick); also included was the propaganda campaign regarding the containment of Communism (even though this was not an issue in 2, as the U.S. was allied with the leader of the largest Communist nation in the world, Stalin of the Soviet Union -- and together they fought one of the only countries…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. IN: Feral Press, 2008. Print.
Davis, John. Presidential Policies and the Road to the Second Iraq War. VT: Ashgate,
Ferguson, Niall. Colossus. NY: Penguin, 2004. Print.
he war on terror does not have boundaries, because terrorists can be anywhere, and can target many different types of locations and people. Expanding the war on terror is justified, because there are many Americans overseas, and many foreign countries support America, and they become targets, too. his means we have to support our allies as well as our own internal war on terrorism, and supporting our allies helps keep us safer, as well.
Finally, the war on terrorism is justified because it has made people more aware of the threat of terrorism, and it has made them more aware of their surroundings and the people around them. errorists can be anywhere, and people understand that now. People are more diligent about their safety, and the safety of others. he war on terrorism does not promote hysteria or paranoia, it attacks terror in a logical way, and makes the people…
The war on terrorism is not just taking place in America, it is happening around the world. A good example is the terror ring in Germany that was broken up and uncovered enough materials to bomb and kill thousands of people. The war on terror does not have boundaries, because terrorists can be anywhere, and can target many different types of locations and people. Expanding the war on terror is justified, because there are many Americans overseas, and many foreign countries support America, and they become targets, too. This means we have to support our allies as well as our own internal war on terrorism, and supporting our allies helps keep us safer, as well.
Finally, the war on terrorism is justified because it has made people more aware of the threat of terrorism, and it has made them more aware of their surroundings and the people around them. Terrorists can be anywhere, and people understand that now. People are more diligent about their safety, and the safety of others. The war on terrorism does not promote hysteria or paranoia, it attacks terror in a logical way, and makes the people feel safer as a result. I think it is vital that we remain vigilant about the threat of terrorism, and do not become complacent or distanced from it. We have to remain on guard at all times, and the war on terror helps people remember that we still have enemies, and we have to be vigilant about protecting ourselves from them. The war on terror is conducted so that we do not become complacent, but we also do not become paranoid about every person or activity. People need to remain calm and yet concerned, and I think the war on terror has helped promote those feelings, and that is another reason it is totally justified.
In conclusion, the war on terrorism has made things very different in this country, and we may never feel as safe as we did on September 10, 2001. However, the war on terror is justified because it has prevented more attacks, it saves lives, and it ensures our safety and well-being as much as it possibly can. The war on terrorism is justified, and it should, and will, continue in this country and around the world.
Arab League and the War on Terror
CONCRETE REFORMS OR LIP SERVICE?
The Arab League's Contributions to the War on Terror
The League of Arab States, also called Arab League, is a voluntary group of Arab-speaking countries, aiming at strengthening shared ties, coordinate common policies and direct these countries towards a common good (C NEWS 2007). It has 22 members, including Palestine, regarded by the League as an independent state. These 22 member-states have a combined population of 300 million, occupying 5.25 million square miles.. The concept of the League was originated by the ritish in 1942 when they intended to use Arab countries against the Axis powers during World War II. ut the intent did not materialize until March 1945 after the War. The preoccupation of the League at the time was to liberate colonized Arab countries and to prevent the Jewish minority in Palestine from turning it into…
Associated Press Staff (2002). Why War? Arab League Chief Warns U.S. Against Wider War. 3 web pages. Associated Press. Retrieved September 1, 2007 at http://www.why-war.com/news/read.php?id=1816&printme
BBC News (2007). Profile: Arab League. 3 pages. BBC co.uk. Retrieved September 1, 2007 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/1550797.stm
Bhadui, A. (2004). Arab League Turns on Itself. 9 web pages. Asia Times: Asia Times Online Ltd. Retrieved September 1, 2007 at http://atimes.com/atimes/Middl_East/FE26Ak04.html
Bush, G.W. (2002). Remarks on the Situation in the Middle East. 4 pages. Compilation of Presidential Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office: Gale Group
Defeating Islamic Terrorism
According to Chan (2007), in his article "Defeating Islamic terrorism," to win the war against terror, the U.S. must wage a battle for the hearts and minds of people living in the Muslim world, not simply fight the battle on the level of a military conflict. A largely negative perception of the U.S. In the Middle East has stoked the fires of radicalism and without counterbalancing that mindset the U.S. will always be fighting radical fundamentalist groups, even if it successfully defeats every last member of Al Qaeda. However, the U.S. must also be aware of the fact that to build trust it must reach out to Muslim moderates. Physically, the effort to defeat terrorist groups in the short-term has been more successful than long-term efforts (Chan 2007:2).
The Islamic world has been difficult for the U.S. To understand because it is not monolithic although it is…
Chan, W. (2007). Defeating Islamic terrorism. USAWC Strategy Research Project.
Rights of Enemy Combatants
hat rights to enemy combatants have when in United States custody? hat are the rules of war in that regard according to the Geneva Accords? This paper uses scholarly publications to examine the aforementioned important issues.
Clearly the U.S. attempt at the administration of justice with regard to enemy combatants -- an invented term that had no legal standing until the High Court accepted it -- has failed miserably. The image of the United States, the world's most visible democracy, has been sullied by the continuing saga of the way enemy combatants have been treated.
The rights of enemy combatant prisoners at Guantanamo
President Obama vowed during his first few days in office that he would work to close the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay within a year -- but that plan has not worked out for the president. As late as February 23, 2016, Obama…
Cutler, L. (2006). Enemy Combatants and Guantanamo: The Rule of Law and Law of War
Post-911. Peace & Change, 31(1), 35-56.
Frakt, D.J.R. (2015). Persuasion in Civil Rights Advocacy: Lessons Learned in Representing
Guantanamo Detainees. Michigan State Law Review, 2015 (4), 1599-1615.
(Reese, Killgore & Ritter 22)
Another well documented myth is that Iraq and some active terrorist organization, of which Iraq is not one, have benefited from the dissolution of the Soviet Union, through the proliferation of Soviet weapons scientists and their knowledge.
A another fear of MD proliferation was through Soviet "brain drain." Yet there has been no open-source evidence indicating that MD materials or knowledge has reached terrorist hands from the breakup of the former Soviet Union.  Though the potential proliferation of weapons and expertise has to be taken seriously, several factors mitigate the danger of chem-bio defectors. First, most chemical and biological scientists who departed the Soviet Union have emigrated to the United States, Britain, Israel, and Germany for commercial jobs. Second, there is no evidence to suggest that scientists have alternately gone to Libya, Syria, North Korea, or Iraq to sell their weapons expertise. Third, some…
Ackerman, Spencer. "War in Iraq 2003-?
: The Pentagon Had No Intention of Staying in Iraq Forever. But the White House Won't Answer a Simple Yes-or-No Question about Permanent Bases, and the Situation Keeps Getting Worse. So Pentagon Brass Are Planning -- and Building-for the (Very) Long Haul." The American Prospect, November 2006, 17.
American Policy and Islam; Attack on Iraq Will Hurt War on Terrorism." The Washington Times, 18 March 2002, A19.
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25.
This works stated problem is effectively addressed as it leads the reader to a logical conclusion that the problem of terrorism is ideological, rather than military and secular and that the West and the Middle East in their collective denial of change create even greater conflict and in fact feed the fire of extremism, on the one hand through heavy handed action and on the other through inaction and outside blame. The heavy emphasis of the "war on terror" as one that can somehow be magically resolved by a secular and military intervention from the West is not only irrational but it is counter productive in that it simply reiterates long held hatreds toward the West as aggressive and threatening to the way of life in the Islamic world. The purpose of the article to call both sides to a more logical point of action is very clear and logically…
Additionally there is no research base to this article, as it is mostly opinion based, with no intention of researching a hypothesis, but rather stating one for the utilization of other researchers and experts to begin from. The work does focus a great deal of direct attention on one single aspect of terrorism as the only global threat, from this standpoint it the work could be considered macroanalytic.
The results of this work, again ar limited as it is largely an opinion work that stresses logical findings of one expert on the subject. The summation of the article, can again be demonstrative of the major point of the work, demonstrating through a logical flow that the source of the problem of Islamic extremism can only be dealt with at that source, and only after the region acknowledges such a threat as both internal and global, and stops associating all ills, on an ideological and political level with the interventions both current and historical of the West.
Anthony B. Cordesman (September 18, 2006) "Winning the "War on terrorism"; the Need for a Fundamentally Different Strategy" at http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_pubs/task , view/id,3490/type,1
ar on Terrorism vs. The Bill of Rights
Conveniently capitalizing on the fear of another terrorist attack, the United States Department of Defense and other branches of the federal government have erected a series of security measures since September 11. The most notable of these is the so-called USA PATRIOT Act (HR-3162), passed in October of 2001. The whopping acronym stands for "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism." Cloaked in parental protectiveness, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act permits wiretapping without judicial orders, deportation of legal residents of the United States based on mere suspicion, secret searches of citizens' offices and homes, and a slew of other invasive measures. Many of the permissible acts included in the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act are discriminatory. Obviously, there is nothing "patriotic" about violating Fourth Amendment rights or stripping ordinary citizens from their basic civil liberties. In the name…
Herman, Susan. "The U.S.A. Patriot Act and the U.S. Department of Justice: Losing Our Balances?" Jurist. December 3, 2001.
McCullagh, Declan. "Patriot Bill Moves Along." Wired News. October 2001. http://www.wired.com/news/conflict/0,2100,47312,00.html
Mueller, Robert S. "Congressional Statement 2003." Federal Bureau of Investigation. February 11, 2003. http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/mueller021103.htm
Shapiro, Steven R. "Supreme Court Faces 9/11 Cases and Other High Profile Issues in a Term Destined to Produce Landmark Decisions." American Civil Liberties Union. October 3, 2002. http://www.aclu.org/court/court.cfm?ID=10834&c=200
The establishing of healthy diplomatic relationships with other nations is an important tool in guaranteeing a safer nation with peace. In efforts aimed at improving the diplomatic ties with some Middle East countries like Pakistan, the United States embarked on strategies of cooling hostilities with these countries. For a long period, some Middle East countries have been considered as nations which sponsor terrorism particularly against the United States. This notion has always contributed to diplomatic hostilities between the United States and these countries. Diplomacy is an effective way of fighting terrorism that yields positive results. For instance, the improvement of diplomatic ties between the U.S. And Pakistan has transformed the public image of the U.S. The United States has also continued to strengthen friendly ties with most of its friendly and non-friendly nations like the South Korea, a hardliner in its bid to developing nuclear weapons.
Due to the…
Beinart, Peter. "Obama Shrinks the War on Terrorism." TIME: In Partnership with CNN. Time Inc., 7 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 May 2010. .
Kessler, Glenn. "U.S. Drops North Korea From Terrorism List." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 12 Oct. 2008. Web. 4 May 2010. .
Taylor, Francis X. "TERRORISM: U.S. POLICIES and COUNTERTERRORISM MEASURES." IWS - the Information Warfare Site. Iwar.org, Nov. 2001. Web. 4 May 2010. .
"What Is Terrorism?" Terrorism RESEARCH: International Terrorism and Security Research. Terrorism-Research.com. Web. 4 May 2010. .
Even governments who supported the use of force, most notably Britain, did not support the regime change."
Motivating U.S. position, author Robert J. Lieber justifies the preemptive and preventive use of force by the American policymakers: "militant Islamic terrorism plus weapons of mass destruction pose a threat and require us to alter the way we think about the preemptive and even preventive use of force." Supporting the human rights argument presented by the U.S. officials as the primary cause for invading Iraq in March 2003, the author affirms that "despite the subsequent bloodshed, chaos and insurgency, resort to force against Saddam Hussein was a lesser evil because of the dangerous long-term strategic threat he posed to the region and to U.S. national interests" (Lieber, introduction).
Therefore, it can be argued that invoking humanitarian reasons for invading Iraq was in fact, a pretext for deeper, more profound regime and political change…
Evaluating a Counterterrorism Strategy
One of the problems with the “war on terror” as first conceived in the wake of 9/11 was that it lacked objectivity and realism (Taddeo, 2010). The mission calculus was unclear, the operation involved lacking in all the variables of iSTART (ideology, strategy, tactics, accounting/financing, recruitment, targets). What was the aim of the counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan? Numerous negative consequences of the mission followed: the liberation of the poppy fields and the spike in the heroin trade around the world that decimated communities, including American ones back home (Felbab-Brown, 2017); the rise of the Islamic State throughout the Middle East (Barton, 2016); two trillion dollars in costs in addition to the loss of 2,400 US soldiers and the deaths of nearly 40,000 Afghani civilians (Almukhtar & Nordland, 2019). Because the US lacked an adequate iSTART framework going into its counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan, the result…
This did not occur, and that in fact flawed the structure and strength of the strategic plan that was in place. This further affirms that stated in the answer to the memo; restructuring was needed. Combined forces were needed, better training and efforts in support of the military were needed. Most of all there was and is still a need for reunification of forces. The memo discusses the importance of forces coming together and supporting and sustaining the views of the UN and its principles, not only would this give everyone involved a more global perspective it will also allow all parties an opportunity to focus their initiatives in unison. There is a need for unification, support, boosting of military morale, and various other initiatives. A fresh perspective is always a great first step.
Smith, D. (2003, October 16). Your October 16, 2003 Memo e: Global War on…
Smith, D. (2003, October 16). Your October 16, 2003 Memo Re: Global War on Terrorism. Memo, pp.1-9.
Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror
On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…
It is difficult to state that the national security apparatus is underperforming when you have clear statistical results: no attacks in the last five years. This means that something must be functioning at full parameters there and that the informational community is also operating with those in other countries to obtain these results (the attacks planned for London and stopped are a good example in this sense).
On the other hand, a counter argument to this statement is that the war is not against national terrorism: it is a global war on global terrorism, the U.S. have pledged to wipe out terrorism on a global scale and this, as shown in the article, is not yet giving full results. Indeed, the attacks in London and Madrid are a good example in this sense, if we consider only some of the most important cases of extremist Arab terrorism.
As to the…
1. Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at http://web0.foreignpolicy.com/issue_julyaug_2006/TI-index/index.html
Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.
The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…
Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054
Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker
Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution
Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight
Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation
Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)
The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"
Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…
Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.
Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.
Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
There are strong and compelling arguments that suggest that through this demonstrated incompetence, many of the terror plots are in fact enabled by our organization. Aaronson (2011) explained how this failure is hurting the practical application of the law. He wrote "With three exceptions, all of the high-profile domestic terror plots of the last decade were actually FBI stings. (the exceptions are Najibullah Zazi, who came close to bombing the New York City subway system in September 2009; Hesham Mohamed Hadayet, an Egyptian who opened fire on the El-Al ticket counter at the Los Angeles airport; and failed Times Square bomber Faisal Shahzad.). " it appears that the only terrorist operations that are going on are the ones that we are creating ourselves.
Suggestions for the Future
A new vision for this department is desperately needed. It is also apparent that the leadership arm of this organization is not demonstrating…
Aaronson, T. (2011). The Informants. Mother Jones, Oct 2011. Retrieved from http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/08/fbi-terrorist-informants
Thiessen, M. (2011). Eric Holder, Obama's Albatross. Washington Post, 10 Oct 2011. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/eric-holder-obamas-albatross/2011/10/10/gIQA5u8IaL_story.html
The United States Department of Justice. Mission Statement. Viewed 2 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/about/about.html
War on Terror
Terrorism has always been with society, but since 2001 the elements of how it is handled have changed to some extent. In order to understand how that has taken place, it is vital to look carefully at the historical events of terrorism. These events were significant in that they caused serious harm to a number of people and structures, but they also matter because they provide a timeline of how things have changed and how terrorism -- and the responses to it -- has evolved over the years (Coaty, 12). As the terrorists have focused on doing different things, the people who are trained to respond to terror have also changed their focus. It is both of these sides of the terrorist issue that have to be examined to provide a proper understanding of what terrorism does and how those who combat it and fight against it…
Coaty, P. (2012). Understanding the war on terror (3rd ed.). IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing.
While the United States of America over the past decades has maintained its superiority over other nations in terms of political clout, there is a certain imbalance in power within the geopolitical system of the world that is causing nations to become embittered. The United States began its reign of controversy after World War II and yet, it was the Vietnam War that completed the role in unethical representation in terms of military and political power. The Vietnam War was fought on the basis of freedom, democracy and the need to hinder the spread of the evil of Communism. The slogan of the times was that if the spread of communism was not stalled, America would soon lose its freedom and democracy the world over would be wiped out. These words may seem dramatic to the rational mind but to really understand the mood of the time such words…
Potter, Paul. "Incredible War" by Paul Potter, from Takin' it to the streets: A Sixties Reader Edited by Alexander Bloom and Wini Breine. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Smith, Ted. J., III. Propaganda: A Pluralitic Perspective New York: Praeger, 1989.
war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.
The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…
Vietnam War provides the opportunity to learn from history. Analysis of the Vietnam War experience, from the American point-of-view anyway, sheds light on current diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and cultural/social contexts of war. Unfortunately, it would seem that the opportunities to learn from Vietnam had been squandered by the time the War on Terror began in earnest after September 11, 2001. The Vietnam conflict, for example, began as a diplomatic farce. As Young (2014) puts it, "Lyndon Johnson and obert McNamara created the illusion that attacks on North Vietnam were alternatives to war rather than war itself," (p. 1). Bombs were used as a darkly ironic form of diplomacy. Therefore, one of the most important lessons learned from Vietnam is that the United States must be more honest and straightforward in its use of force. Use of force cannot be disguised as a form of diplomatic negotiations. "There is a…
Donovan, D. (2012). Viewpoint: Counter-insurgency lessons from Vietnam. BBC. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-19634728
Young, R. (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/military/etc./lessons.html
Katulis and Juul help put into perspective the tentative position of Iraq in saying that Iraq's leadership remains split on a draft version of SOF (Katulis and Juul, online). The Iraqi cabinet must vote a two-thirds majority in favor of their support for a plan (Katulis and Juul). This may be difficult to achieve when the cabinet is divided along religious sect lines. It is, too, perhaps the first time since the election of the cabinet by the Iraqi people that they had to put such concerted emphasis on their decision making, because, once made, there is no turning back from that decision which could result in the U.S. pulling out of Iraq beginning almost immediately. What follows will answer the question of whether or not Iraq is prepared to stand on its own against the forces of Islamic fundamentalist extremism. Leaving Iraq may see it become impossible to regain…
As Hanson points out, the jihadists do not need fighter jets, a navy fleet or even tanks to win their war against the west (Hoover Institution, Hanson, online). Their tools are terrorism, and this, too, seems to be one of the aspects of the present and future nature of warfare that people choose not to acknowledge. The goals of terrorism are no to destroy buildings, although the destruction of buildings as occurred on September 11, 2001, does indeed further their work; it is rather to cause a disruption of the economy, to create political division, world discord, to instill a prevailing atmosphere of fear and panic, and to bring down the society that is the target of the terrorist acts. In this regard, as we examine where America is today, and where the rest of the world is as economies are collapsing around us, it might be fair to say that the jihadists are winning their war of terrorism.
Who would have believed, as Hanson so succinctly argues, that a world amidst the technological progress where the world stands today could be brought to its knees by terrorists who have effectively enslaved the freedoms that it has taken America and its post World War II allies hundreds of years to achieve? Today, cartoon satire depicting Islamic extremists can be banned - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban ideas and images; the words "war on terror" have been ostensibly set aside because they have become too psychologically burdensome to the public - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban words from the language; and other examples of giving into the weight of terrorism as cited by Hanson (Hanson, online). Echoing Galbraith, the question must be asked, "Is this victory?"
Wordpress.com, 2008. Galbraith, Peter, GBlog. Found online at http://gunnyg.wordpress.com/2008/10/27/is-this-a-victory-by-peter-w-galbraith/,retrieved 18 November 2008.
S. security, but on international security.
Source #7 from Google: owman, Karlyn, U.S. public opinion and the terrorist threat, June 6, 2006, available at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all, pubID.24492/pub_detail.asp.
Source evaluation: The article provides a well-documented insight into the public opinion in U.S. regarding the war in Iraq.
Source #8 from Google: Diminished Public Appetite for Military Force and Mideast Oil
Five Years Later..., released on September 6, 2006, available at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=288.
Source evaluation: An article based on opinion polls regarding the people's opinion towards the war in Iraq.
Source #9: Gunaratna, Rohan, the Terrorist Threat Five years after 9-11, September 22, 2006, available at http://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/1031/cid/6?PHPSESSID=0f987fb38af332abab79864390a755c4.
Source evaluation: The article deals with the terrorist organization al-Qaeda and the changes in this field brought by the war in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Source #10 from Google: Layne, Christopher, No adult supervision, November 23, 2004, available at http://www.realisticforeignpolicy.org/archives/2004/11/index.php.
Source evaluation: The article is analyzing the decision-making…
Mazzetti, Mark, Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Worsens Terrorism Threat, published on September 24, 2006, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/24/world/middleeast/24terror.html?ex=1316750400&en=da252be85d1b39fa&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss ;
Mueller, John, Is There Still a Terrorist Threat?: The Myth of the Omnipresent Enemy, from Foreign Affairs, September/October 2006, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060901facomment85501/john-mueller/is-there-still-a-terrorist-threat.html;
Fletcher, Michael a., Bush warns of enduring terror threat, September 6, 2006, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/05/AR2006090500312.html ;
Benjamin, Daniel, Two Years After 9/11: A Balance Sheet, October 2003 | Special Report No. 111, available at http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr111.html
ar on Terror
Towards the end of the first week of the war against Iraq, public support for the war remained strong. To many people, Saddam Hussein's actions and failure to comply with weapons inspections leaves the United States with no choice but unlitateral military action.
Syndicated columnist Mona Charon echoes these arguments when she maintains that Saddam Hussein continues to hoard weapons of mass destruction. Even UN Inspector Hans Blix, she argues, said that Iraq has failed to provide evidence that their store of weapons have been destroyed (Charon).
Charon believes that while Muslim regimes in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt "promote violence and religious hatred" (Charon). Even in comparison to its neighbors, however, Iraq is extremist and reckless. It has sponsored terrorist groups and has proven itself to be a bitter foe of the United States.
Finally, Charon argues that disarming Iraq is crucial not only for the…
Charon, Mona. "War against Iraq is far from a distraction in war on terror." Insight on the News, 19(5). February 18 - March 3, 2003: 50-51. ProQuest Database.
Matthews, Jessica Tuchman. "Is There a Better Way to Go?" The Washington Post. February 9, 2003: B.01+. ProQuest Database.
Lewis' the Crisis of Islam
On page 160 of The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis states, "There is no doubt that the foundation of Al-Qa'ida and the consecutive declarations of war by Usama bin Ladin marked the beginning of a new and ominous phase in the history of both Islam and terrorism." Indeed, based on the historical outline of Islam that Lewis provides, the new and ominous phase applies equally to non-Muslim cultures. The Crisis of Islam examines the origins of Islamic fundamentalism and its deadly application as terrorism. The September 11 attacks made Americans more conscious than ever about the threat of anti-American sentiment, a threat that existed far before Al-Qa'ida. In his book, Lewis offers several insights into Islam's current social and political crisis. First, the author describes the flourishing of Islamic culture, noting in particular its theocratic foundations. The theocratic foundation of Islamic culture and religion allow…
Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: The Modern Library, 2003.
That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.
By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.
As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States…
Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,
McCoy, Katherine. "Uncle Sam Wants Them." Contexts, Winter 2009, 14-19. Print.
Zinn, Howard. A Power Governments Cannot Suppress. SF: City Lights, 2007. Print.
Despite all the graphic, inventive detailed descriptions of the physical suffering and the mental anguish Turner has endured, in the end, it is the cliche, metaphoric image of a breaking heart that sends the strongest message. It should break any human being's heart to kill, and those who are not emotionally torn up by taking another human being's life are therefore, essentially heartless.
There is also an indication in Here, Bullet, that it is not only the heart that malfunctions in the throes of death and killing, but the brain as well. hen Turner speaks of "the leap thought makes at the synaptic gap" he is symbolizing the leap a person's mind is forced to make from have a respect for life and compassion for mankind to suddenly believe that it is okay to kill, maim and torture in the name of your country. Thus from Turner's point-of-view, after being…
Turner, Brian, "Here, Bullet" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005
Turner, Brian, "Sadiq" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005
Himes, Andrew, Voices in Wartime Anthology, cited in Alice James Books. Web. 17 June, 2010. http://www.alicejamesbooks.org/pages/book_page.php?bookID=43
Whetstone, David. Culture: A Poet in Tangled Battle Lines of Iraq; Plenty of Poets Described the Horrors of the First World War, but in Modern Combat Zones They Are a Rare Beast. David Whetstone Talks to American Poet Brian Turner, Who Served in Iraq. The Journal (Newcastle, England). March 17, 2008, p. 18.
He is more interested in "things," than what those things will bring. "Nick went over to the pack and found, with his fingers, a long nail in a paper sack of nails, in the bottom of the pack. He drove it into the pine tree, holding it close and hitting it gently with the flat of the axe. He hung the pack up on the nail. All his supplies were in the pack. They were off the ground and sheltered now" (as quoted in Vernon)
However, with time Nick is able to find some semblance of his early self. He overcomes challenges and moves forward the best he can. Despite the fact that he is walking uphill through burned land with a backpack that is too heavy, he is now in a familiar place and happy to be here:
Nick slipped off his pack and lay down in the shade.…
Crane, Stepen. Red Badge of Courage. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Hemingway, Ernest. Big Two Hearted River. In Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner's, 1987.
O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Random House, 1998.
Stewart, Matthew. Hemingway and World War I: Combatting recent psychobiographical reassessments, restoring the war. Papers on Language and Literature. (2000) 36, 198-217
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…
American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.
Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1
(2011): p. 29-30.
Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
The writer of this article, Victor David Hanson, states that since earlier times, this sort of disparity in power has been in evidence, and it is a fact that the others have been attempting to build up their innate strength and power by merely imitating the West. This is sometimes referred to as a type of 'military parasitism', wherein those who were weak would often try to steal or buy or clone those weapons of the West that they found to be powerful. One example of this phenomenon is that of Japan. This country had no munitions manufacturing unit, no organized naval fleet, yet she managed to defeat a ussian Armada during 1905. (Post-Modern War)
The main reason for this success was that Japan had been sending thousands of her students to foreign universities and to military academies to study, and this resulted in the gaining of certain knowledge in…
Best of Counter terrorism and Security" Counter Terrorism and Security International. Retrieved at http://www.iacsp.com/a4.html . Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Clements, Kevin. (2002) "The War on Terrorism and its Aftermath" The Second eSymposium on Conflict Prevention Dialogue Session 2. February. Retrieved at http://www.dwcw.org/e-symposium/cgi/wwwbbs.cgi-Symposium_2&88Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Corera, Gordon. (2004). "War on Terror vanishes from agenda" 24 November. Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4034833.stm . Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Hanson, Victor Davis. (2005) "Post-Modern War." Free Republic. 10 January. Retrieved at http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1317714/postsAccessed on 17 January, 2005
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
ar in the Middle East: A Classification Issue
A lot of people don't understand the wars in the Middle East or what they are all about (Collum). Since 9/11, the Middle East has been a prime focus of countries in the est, but today Russia is also involved and Putin is painted in estern media as an aggressor and an enemy even though he is actually leading the fight against ISIS in Syria. The reality is that the est and its allies are conducting a war against Assad in Syria rather than a war against the terrorist group ISIS. Thus, the classification of this war in the est as a war against Terror is incorrect. It should be classified as a war in support of Terror, as the est continues to send arms and munitions to aid the "rebels" (aka terrorists) who are fighting Assad, the Russians and the Iranians…
Collum, David. "2015-Year in Review." Peak Prosperity, 2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.
Durden, Tyler. "ISIS: The 'Enemy' the U.S. created, Armed and Funded." Zero Hedge,
2015. Web. 8 Mar 2016.
Escobar, Pepe. "Syria: Ultimate Pipelineistan War." Strategic Culture Foundation,
War against Iraq
War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…
Critical Analysis: War is a Racket
Butler is correct: war is racket. He describes a racket as an operation that costs many but benefits a few—and that describes war well enough. Hundreds of thousands of lives are put on the line while a handful profit—investors, bankers, speculators and industrialists, for example, all of whom stood to make out like bandits from the Spanish-American war. Wars are invariably fought over some pretense: the Spanish-American War was launched because of an explosion on The Maine, which our yellow journalists quickly blamed on Spain, which allowed our leaders (who always have a cozy relationship with our bankers, speculators and industrialists) to go take the Philippines. In WWI, it was the Lusitania. In Vietnam, it was Gulf of Tonkin. In WWII, it was Pearl Harbor. For the current ME disaster, it was 9/11 and then the mobile weapons labs and phony evidence regarding yellow…
The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, anum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…
Allan, S. & Zelizer, B. (2004). Reporting war: Journalism in wartime. New York: Routledge.
Beale, S.S. (2006). The news media's influence on criminal justice policy: How market-driven news promotes punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48(2), 397-399.
Billeaudeaux, A., Domke, D., Hutcheson, J.S. & Garland, P. (2003). Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 166-167.
Crockatt, R. (2003). America embattled: September 11, anti-Americanism, and the global order.
traditional principles of just war guide states in fighting terrorism, or do new rules have to apply?
War has been waged much in the same manner, barring technological advances, for centuries. Wars are fought between sovereign nation states and the regimes that control them or against civil challenges to sovereign nation states from within, and yet the current so called war on terror is very obviously a different animal all together than any previous war. Yet, like so many other national and international challenges there is a reluctance to change.
The questionable link that the ush administration established between its war on terror and its military intervention in Iraq, as well as its apparent willingness to suspend fundamental rights if the 'war' requires it (exemplified by its practices in Guantanamo ay and its exhortations to extradite terror suspects across Europe), have contributed much to the striking fact that many citizens…
Arquilla, J. (2007). The End of War as We Knew It? Insurgency counterinsurgency and lessons from the forgotten history of early terror networks. Third World Quarterly, 369-386.
Michta, A.A. (2008, January). Double or Nothing. National Interest, 58-61.
Monar, J. (2007). The EU's approach post-September 11: global terrorism as a multidimensional law enforcement challenge. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20 (2), 267-283.
Richard H. Fallon, J. (2010). The Supreme Court, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror: an Essay on Law and Poltical Science. Columbia Law Review, 352-398.
The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald umsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)
In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out'…
Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518
Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004. http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798
Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer
The resolution of this policy counsel meeting is the endorsement of a refinement of Australia's terror policy with respect both to the preservation of constitutional rights and in terms of approach its relationship to the United States with balance and diplomacy. Recognizing the severity the security threat but simultaneously recognizing the need to refine policies so as to diminish the tendency toward inflaming the political and ideological anger of the developing world, Australia must spend the coming decades finding ways to quell such hostility. This will mean a closer consideration of the economic, political and trade policies that often have run aground of the interests of the developing world. Likewise, it means that Australia must function as a continued partner to the U.S. But also as a voice of conscience with respect to the discretionary use of military force or diplomatic finesse.
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim…
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim Responses to the Discourse on Terrorism in the Australian Popular Media. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1).
Australian Federal Police (AFP). (2009). Fighting Terrorism in Australia. www.afp.gov.au
BBC News. (2006). Australian Loses Terrorism Appeal. BBC News.
Brown, M. (2009). Al-Shabaab terrorists 'living in Australia.' ABC News. Online at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/09/23/2693927.htm?section=justin
President Bush's ar On Iraq
President Bush feels the United States should launch a preemptive strike on Iraq, rather than waiting for sanctions by the United Nations.
He has received support from some political groups while facing opposition from others. Each side presents valid arguments on why they believe the U.S. should or should not go to war with Iraq.
In 1990, the United Nations imposed sanctions on Iraq after it invaded Kuwait. The invasion eventually lead to the Gulf ar in 1991.
The U.N. agreed to lift the sanctions if Iraq would allow international inspectors to certify it had removed its weapons.
However, since 1998, Baghdad has refused to allow inspectors into the country until the sanctions are lifted, claiming the weapons no longer exist (Yacoub, 2002).
In May 2002, a new Security Council resolution dealing with U.N. sanctions was accepted by Iraq for a period of 6…
COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.
DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001):
03 December. Pp. 38A.
IRAQ CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TO IDENTIFY TERROR.
overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…
ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).
Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).
Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),
Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014
The terrorists responsible for 9/11 were not Iraqi
. The only reason for entering Iraq was the fact that there was a significant Al Qaeda base. The Iraqis themselves are the victims of their position amid the violence. In effect, they are paying for hostility and a war that is not theirs and that they have no involvement in. Perpetuating a war like this in a country that is essentially innocent is a gross violation not only of human rights, but also of ethics in general.
In conclusion, the worst part of the war in Iraq is probably its duration. Despite increasing public calls for a stop to the lack of ethical footing surrounding the war in Iraq, the American presence in the country has been ongoing for more than a decade under the premise of maintaining order and security
. However, since the start of the war, and even…
Cowan, Steven B. "The Ethics of War and the War in Iraq." Apologetics Resource Center. 9 November 2005. http://www.arcapologetics.org/articles/article04.htm 19 March 2012.
Rane, M.A. "The Iraq War -- the first Unlawful and Unethical War of the Third Millennium." International Humanist and Ethical Union, 4 November 2004. http://www.iheu.org/node/1177 19 March 2012.
M.A. Rane. "The Iraq War -- the first Unlawful and Unethical War of the Third Millennium." International Humanist and Ethical Union, 4 November 2004.
" (Campo, PAGE) Such statements remind historians of colonialism, where invaders believed that their society was superior to the culture they were supplanting, while reaping significant financial rewards for doing so. However, the United States has never claimed financial gain. The real criticism of this war is the rush to get there. The United States planned to solve the Iraqi war with force of arms even while the U.N. was still working diligently to confirm whether WMD even existed in Iraq. As we all know now, they were never found, and that was the strongest and most primary reason for the war.
Campo, Juan E. "enign Colonialism? The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and abylonian Intrigue." Harvard International Review. Volume: 26. Issue: 1, 2004.
Fuss, Toni. "Germany's Opposition to the Iraq War and Its Effect on U.S.-German Relations." Social Education. Volume: 68. Issue: 4, 2004.
Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and…
Campo, Juan E. "Benign Colonialism? The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and Babylonian Intrigue." Harvard International Review. Volume: 26. Issue: 1, 2004.
Fuss, Toni. "Germany's Opposition to the Iraq War and Its Effect on U.S.-German Relations." Social Education. Volume: 68. Issue: 4, 2004.
Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
Jackson, Richard. "Between Iraq and a Hard Place: Richard Jackson Suggests That the United States Is Losing Its War on Terror." New Zealand International Review. Volume: 29. Issue: 4, 2004.
It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.
According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…
"Civil Wars Throughout the World."
Cramer, Christopher. "Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: exploring growth, distribution and conflict linkages."
http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:N00ZR7tRHzsJ:mercury.soas.ac.uk/economics/workpap/adobe/wp73.pdf+countries+that+have+had+civil+wars& ; hl=en
osa Luxemburg's view of World War I, as demonstrated in her political tract "The Workers and the War," was relatively simple. She vehemently protested against the war on political grounds, arguing that it actually represented a dissolution of the socialist principles which had largely animated Europe and large portions of Germany at the time. This fact is readily underscored by the notion that the author was imprisoned for the majority of World War I due to her protesting this war as violating many of the crucial tenets of socialism. The author's primary thesis is that large international conflicts such as World War I were fundamentally contrary to the ideologies of socialism, which strove to unite and empower the working class. Luxemburg widely believed that World War I and the very conception of nationalism itself merely led to the disempowerment of socialists, and regulated the working class to its substandard living…
Luxemburg, R. (1916). "The war and the workers." www.h-net.org. Retrieved from http://www.h-net.org/Y ?\?X[???^??Z\?\??ZX??^?[
break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. he chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. hey feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.
Psychiatry ratified the PSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly,…
Trochim, W. (2006). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing.
Vogt, Dawne S.; Samper, Rita E.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Martin, James A. (2008). Deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress symptomatology: Comparing active duty and National Guard/Reserve personnel from Gulf War I. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol. 21 Issue 1, p66-74. 9p.
Yin, R.K. (2008) Case study research: design and methods. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication Inc.
American Experience With War
Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?
While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.
But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…
Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The
MacMillan Company, 1969.
Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),
Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.