Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The most fundamental assumption of Lohan's article is that access to clean drinking water is a human right. Anyone who reads the article and believes that to be the case will have no trouble agreeing with Lohan's claims; but those who do not believe that access to drinking water is a human right might disagree.
Lohan also manages to conclude the article on a positive note, thereby encouraging the reader to become involved in water politics and take action where needed. Because the audience is presumed to be primarily Americans, Lohan understandably uses American interests as one of the primary points. Yet the author also links what is happening in America with what is happening in other parts of the world. Already there are one billion people around the world, per day, without access to safe drinking water. This alarming statistic is then juxtaposed with the fact that 35 states…
Both Segerfeldt and Barlow also emphasize that the crisis especially affects the developing world. Poor people are dying from dirty water, both Barlow and Segerfeldt claim. Barlow cites the orld Health Organization, claiming that "every eight seconds, a child dies from drinking dirty water," (299). Segerfeldt agrees that "the shortage of water helps to perpetuate poverty, disease, and early death," (294). Finally, Barlow and Segerfeldt both acknowledge that technically the earth does not "run out" of water (Barlow 299). Segerfeldt similarly claims that there is "no shortage" of water, "at least not globally," (294).
Segerfeldt and Barlow disagree on what causes the water crisis and most importantly, on what to do about it. Although Barlow and Segerfeldt both agree that water is a potentially renewable resource, only Barlow notes that "there is a finite amount of available fresh water on the planet," (299). The earth cannot run out of water,…
Barlow, Maude. "Where Has All the Water Gone?" Chapter 6: Protecting the Environment.
Segerfeldt, Frederik. "Private Water Saves Lives." Chapter 6: Protecting the Environment."
Background on ater
The Planets ater Problems
Freshwater Shortage Ideas
There is an abundance of water on the planet and the melting of ice continues to contribute to even more water in the oceans through sea level rise. However, the water in the oceans is not something that can sustain life for most of the population of the world and fresh water is of key importance. Although water is the most abundant chemical compound in the universe, the fresh water cycles that support life on the planet Earth have been rapidly changing. Some have predicted that we will have a full-blown water crisis in the near future which will be followed by a range of problems that result from the lack of the availability of water. Not only does this affect people in Third orld, but there are examples in the First orld where marginalized communities have…
Barlow, M. (2015, August). The Water Crisis Comes Home. The Nation, 12-16. Retrieved from The Nation.
Burtynsky, E. (1999). Photographic Works. Retrieved July 12, 2012
CO2 Earth. (2016, April 19). Earth's CO2 Home Page. Retrieved from CO2 Earth: https://www.co2.earth/
Craig, R. (2015). Dealing with Ocean Acidification: The Problem, the Clean Water Act, and State and Regional Approaches. Washington Law Review, 1585-1654.
The Water Crisis in Flint, Michigan
The water crisis at Flint resulted from a series of poor decisions by city officials dating back to the 1960s. In 1967, the City of Flint switched from the Flint River to the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) as the primary source of drinking water (Masten, Davies & Mcelmurry, 2016). The switch was geared at ensuring sufficient water quantities for the city’s growing population (Masten et al., 2016). The decision, however, opened up the Flint River to unregulated discharges from municipalities and industries as well as continued failure by officials to properly treat the water (Masten et al., 2016). After 1967, for instance, the Flint Water Service Center only treated the Flint River water two to four times a year; yet the agency had permitted the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System to discharge treated water back into the river (Masten et al., 2016).…
Barry, A., & Honore, H. (2009). Everyday Theory: A Practical Application of the Ecological Perspective. American Journal of Health Education, 40(6), 368-72.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Kilanowski, J. F. (2017). Breadth of the Socio-Ecological Model. Journal of Agromedicine, 22(4), 295-97.
Masten, S. J.,Davies, S. H., & Mcelmurry, S. P. (2016). Flint Water Crisis: What Happened and Why? Journal of American Water Works Association, 108(12), 22-34.
Rothwell, H., Shepherd, M., Murphy, S., Burgess, S., Townsend, M., & Pimm, C. (2010). Implementing a Socio-Ecological model of Health in Wales. Health Education, 110(6), 471-89.
Ruckart, P., Ettinger, A., Hanna-Atisha, M., Jones, N., Davis, S., & Breysse, P. (2019). The Flint Water Crisis: A Coordinated Public Health Emergency Response and Recovery Initiative. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 25(1), 84-90.
Shin, T. S., Ranelucci, J., & Roseth, C. J. (2017). Effects of Peer and Instructor Rationales on Online Students’ Motivation and Achievement. International Journal of Education Research,82(1), Doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2017.02.001
The New River in California is so polluted that border patrol agents will not venture in, even when undocumented workers are crossing (Glennon 68). Another source of contamination is the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline, which significantly worsens the risks posed by gasoline spills. Gas spills with MTBE are much worse than regular gas spills because they penetrate the surface rather than hovering above -- it is more difficult to clean up and more difficult to go below the surface to find a clean source of water (Glennon 71). ithout greater regulation of this contaminant, people have little ability to limit its use, other than limiting fuel use in general.
There have been attempts to improve government regulation and oversight of the water supply. For example, the Safe Drinking ater Act requires that all municipalities regularly test their local water supplies for a series of chemicals.…
Glennon, Robert. Unquenchable: America's water crisis and what we can do about it.
Island Press, 2010.
Flint Water Crisis is one of the worst incident of toxic lead poisoning to occur in the history of the city and in Michigan. This crisis occurred in April 2014 as an unprecedented consequence of austerity measures that were adopted in the city of Flint to deal with the existing financial crisis. The measures to address Flint’s financial crisis involved utilizing the Flint river as the main water supply for the city. As a result of this decision, Flint Water Crisis emerged and affected poor communities and minorities living in the city. Since then, this issue has attracted considerable attention and become the subject of numerous studies. The existing studies on this issue focus on examining the different aspects relating to it with respect to its cause and impact on the communities. This paper examines Flint Water Crisis from an environmental perspective since its regarded as a case…
Bellinger, D.C. (2016, March 24). Lead Contamination in Flint – An Abject Failure to Protect Public Health. The New England Journal of Medicine, 374, 1101-1103.
Campbell, C., Greenberg, R., Mankikar, D. & Ross, R.D. (2016, October). A Case Study of Environmental Injustice: The Failure in Flint. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(10). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5086690/
Dettloff, D. & Bernico, M. (2017). Atmoterrorism and Atmodesign in the 21st Century: Mediating Flint’s Water Crisis. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Psychology, 13(1), 156-189.
Dicochea, P.R. (2012). Discourses of Race & Racism Within Environmental Justice Studies: An Eco-Racial Intervention. Ethnicity and Race in a Changing World: A Review Journal, 3(2), 17-28.
Duke Law News. (2017, January 13). Flint Crisis Yields Lessons in Social Justice, Law, and Policy. Duke University. Retrieved from https://law.duke.edu/news/flint-crisis-yields-lessons-social-justice-law-and-policy/
Fehlbaum, A. (2016, January 25). Don’t Drink the Water: The Crisis in Flint from a Sociological Perspective. Sociology in Focus. Retrieved from http://sociologyinfocus.com/2016/01/dont-drink-the-water-the-crisis-in-flint-from-a-sociological-perspective/
Oz, T. & Bisgin, H. (2016, October). Attribution of Responsibility and Blame Regarding a Man-made Disaster: #FlintWaterCrisis. Social Web for Disaster Management, 16. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1610.03480.pdf
Pulido, L. (2016, July 27). Flint, Environmental Racism, and Racial Capitalism. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 27(3), 1-16.
Flint water crisis is an issue that took place in Flint, Michigan that started in April 2014 and involved contamination of drinking water. The origin of the crisis can be traced back to the decision by Flint to change its water source to the Flint iver from treated Detroit Water and Sewerage Department. During this change, relevant officials failed to utilize corrosion inhibitors, which contributed to a series of issues that ended up in lead contamination. The lead contamination of the drinking water created a serious health danger and water crisis. This paper examines the issue or problem of drinking water contamination in Flint following the change of water source. Based on disaster management theory, the author examines the public health danger and concerns arising from the crisis and its implication to nursing. The author provides recommendations for enhance nursing practice, management, and administration in the future.
Background of the…
Cohen, S. (2016, January 19). There's Plenty of Blame for Flint, Michigan's Water Crisis. The Huffington Post. Retrieved April, 16, 2016, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steven-cohen/theres-plenty-of-blame-fo_b_9017494.html
Flint Water Advisory Task Force. (2016, March 21). Final Report. Retrieved from Office of Governor Rick Snyder State of Michigan website: https://www.michigan.gov/documents/snyder/FWATF_FINAL_REPORT_21March2016_517805_7.pdf
Frist, B. & DeSalvo, K.B. (2016, February 11). What the Flint Water Crisis Reveals About Public Health. Forbes. Retrieved April 16, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/billfrist/2016/02/11/what-the-flint-water-crisis-reveals-about-public-health/#77aebd9e6eb5
Heavey, S. (2016, January 21). How the Flint Water Crisis Has Further Exposed Health Disparities. Retrieved April 16, 2016, from http://healthjournalism.org/blog/2016/01/how-the-flint-water-crisis-has-further-exposed-health-disparities/
publicized Water Crisis at Michigan's Flint city, which first emerged in the year 2014. In specific, it will address associated challenges and concepts, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of the issue, and solutions and recommendations in order to resolve the issue.
Situated about 70 miles to the north of Michigan's largest city, Detroit, the city of Flint is home to 98,310 inhabitants, of which an alarming 41.6% are classified as economically underprivileged. The United States Census Bureau estimates reveal that the average household income of the city's residents is around 24,679 dollars, while the state average stands at 49,087 dollars. Over half (i.e., 56.6%) of the city's inhabitants belong to the African-American ethnic group. At one time, the city headquartered the biggest General Motors manufacturing unit in America. Flint suffered an economic downturn in the eighties, when the company decided to downsize this expansive industrial unit (Flint…
Bastasch, M. (2016). The Daily Caller - The Daily Caller features breaking news, opinion, research, and entertainment 24 hours a day. EPA Named in Blistering Report on Flint Water Crisis - The Daily Caller. Retrieved October 13, 2016, from http://dailycaller.com/2016/03/24/epa-named-in-blistering-report-on-flint-water-crisis/
Botelho. (2016). CNN - Breaking News, Latest News and Videos. Flint water crisis: City gets $28 million in state aid - CNN.com. Retrieved October 13, 2016, from http://www.cnn.com/2016/01/29/us/flint-michigan-water-crisis/
(2016). Business & Financial News, Breaking U.S. & International News - Reuters. EPA warns Flint, Michigan of long-term threats to water supply| Reuters. Retrieved October 13, 2016, from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-michigan-water-idUSKCN0Z32E8
(2016, October 4). CNN - Breaking News, Latest News and Videos. Flint Water Crisis Fast Facts - CNN.com. Retrieved October 12, 2016, from http://www.cnn.com/2016/03/04/us/flint-water-crisis-fast-facts/
Global ater Crisis & the Middle East
The entire premise of the hydrological cycle is apparent when one views the planet as a living organism, the Gaia idea. From condensation through evaporation and precipitation, all aspects of the cycle work together to form the basis for the Earth being an organism called "The Blue Planet." Interruptions of any aspect of the cycle have negative effects that multiply in seriousness as they progress through the cycle. Nature's filtration system, along with the balance between the large mega-forests and weather, kept the relationship between potable water and human life viable (Lovelock 2000).
The Gaia Concept - Too, taking the Gaia concept a bit further, if we look upon the world as a Global Village, with some areas that have plenty of water, and other places that are continually experiencing a shortage. In fact, the problem is so great, that the orld Health…
"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. October 2010 .
Barlow, M. Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water. New York: New Press, 2008.
Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers. "Water Woes." May 2001. The University of Wisconsin. October 2010 .
DeVillers, M. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. Baltimore: Mariner Books, 2001.
turning on the taps and nothing comes out. It wasn't like that yesterday, but today, there's no water. Maybe they're doing work on the pipes and you missed the memo, right? You call the city, and ask when it will come back on. They tell you it won't. There's no more water. They're going to truck some in so people have something to drink while they pack, but that's it, the water's gone and it's time to leave. This isn't a fantasy situation. It has actually happened throughout human history, usually when we do not have the technology to manage our water supplies. The problem is that today, even with all we know about water management, we are still facing this very situation in our lifetimes, in major cities.
California has had a drought for the past four years. Even before the drought, the state was using water at an…
Water Crisis in the Middle East
What is the Six Day War, and what are the various events that led to the War? What is the background of the War, and what were its consequences? The Six Day War took place in the month of June 1967. The crisis had actually begun in the early months of 1965, when the PLO, through Fatah, led a campaign of attacks on the borders along Jordan and Lebanon. This campaign was severely criticized and opposed by not only the people of the country but also by the Arab Government, and this led to the Fatah attempting to adopt a totally new strategy that came to be known as the 'entanglement theory'. According to this strategy, Israel would be forced to adopt an 'offensive' position with the technique of 'sabotage', and this meant that the Arabs would become more wary and would in turn…
Anita Roddick, Dame. Troubled Water - Saints, Sinners, truth & Lies about the Global Water Crisis. 1 October, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=31940 Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Grunfeld, Lilac. Jordan River Dispute. ICE Case Studies, Case number 6. Spring 1997. Retrieved From http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/jordan.htm Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Israel 1948 to 1967, the Six-Day War Background. Retrieved From
The Flint, Michigan water crisis has become a poster child for environmental injustice, environmental racism, and inequitable resource distribution in the United States. It has also represented a case of bleak mismanagement of precious natural resources and the inability of the United States to adequately respond to the most basic human needs. The water crisis was but a grim manifestation of decades of racist land use policies and political realities, which can be traced back to periods of segregation and the white flight to the suburban sprawl. Moreover, the Flint water crisis showcases the role government plays in colluding with polluters, with issues related to the not in my back yard (NIMBY) phenomenon also relevant in this case. As Bell (2012:28) points out, “environmental justice...concerns patterns of inequality in the distribution of environmental goods.” Flint residents lacked access to environmental “goods,” such as clean drinking water given the long-term contamination…
Clean Water Crisis
Every human being on earth necessitates at least 20 to 50 liters of clean, safe water on an everyday basis for the purposes of drinking, cooking, and basically maintaining themselves to be clean. However, there is a significant need for clean water in countries. In the contemporary setting, statistics indicate that 1 in 9 individuals lack accessibility to clean and safe water (Water.org). There are 844 million people across the globe that are presently living without access to clean water. This lack of clean water has resulted in a health crisis as it causes diseases. Notably, access to safe water leads to poor sanitation, which consequently adds to deteriorated health and increases the spread of infectious diseases. The inference of this is that it results in increased child and mortality rates. Statistics further indicate that every 2 minutes in the present day, a child does because…
Questions: Why are there different forms of precipitation? Why would it make sense that the water cycle regulates the amount of water on earth?
Actvities: Analyze different forms of precpitation by following a drop of water through water cycle. Why is it important that some water be stored in ice or snowpacks? (See: http://www.proteacher.com/redirect.php?goto=5347)
Focuses on a particular aspect of experience and demonstrates conceptual understanding.
Questions: Does salt water act the same way as fresh water in the water cycle?
Activity: Place appropriate terms for water cycle in visual representation, as the one from the U.S. Geological Survey. (3 stage learning technique; identification, understanding, evaluation/explanation). See: http://www.proteacher.com/redirect.php?goto=5347
Challenge and extend conceptual understanding and skills through new, deeper, and broader activities.
Questions: What impact has civilization had on the water cycle? Are there dangers to irrigation or transforming arid areas into agriculutural areas? What about the polar ice caps?…
The Water Cycle. (2009). Cited in: U.S. Geological Survey.
Water Facts. (2011). Water.org. Cited in:
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
The World Water Council estimates that approximately 1.1 billion people, which translates to one-sixth of the world population, lacks access to safe drinking water. Another 2.6 billion lack access to proper sanitation facilities (World Water Council, n.d.). It is estimated that by 2025, almost 3 billion people will be finding it almost impossible to meet their basic water needs (Concern Worldwide, 2012). This text discusses the potential causes of the current water scarcity problem, its implications on the environment, and the various strategies that could be used to ease or eliminate the problem.
Population growth, industrialization, and inefficient agricultural/food supply systems are the main causes of water scarcity in the world today. Population increases that are not matched with concurrent increases in the available resources put a strain on the existing resource base and increase the risk of faster depletion. Forests are cleared to create more room for…
Concern Worldwide. (2012). Water: How can we Improve the World's Access to Clean Water? Concern Worldwide. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Water.pdf
The World Water Council. (n.d.). Water Crisis: Towards a Way to Improve the Situation. The World Water Council. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
Toledo, V.J. & Harvey, M. (2015). Thirsty Crops Cause Water Shortages and Pollution. WWF Global. Retrieved April 22, 105 from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/ freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/
Water Awareness and Education for Sustainable Watershed Management
Today, the human society continuously deals with the issue of limited resources, as compared to an extensively growing amount of needs. Among these limited resources, water is vital, not only because mankind cannot survive without it, but also because it is essential to producing so many other secondary items, including food and clothing. At the same time, water and watersheds are an essential part of the environment, home to numerous species of animals and plants. Conservationism and environmental protection has a definite impact on the existence and evolution of mankind as well.
With that in mind, this project proposal will focus on identifying a set of solutions that the inhabitants in the Medina River Watershed (exar & Medina County TX) can use to address water pollution in this area, as well as the means by which water conservation can be consolidated and…
1. Engel, F.L. (n.d.) Geomorphic Classification of the Lower San Antonio River, Texas. Texas Water Development Board. Project 0604830637. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/0604830637_LowerSanAntonioRiver.pdf
2. HDR Engineering [HDR] (2000, December). The Edwards Aquifer Watershed Brush Control Planning Assessment & Feasibility Study. Texas State Soil & Water Conservation Board. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.nueces-ra.org/II/brush/
3. Moore, E.A., & Koontz, T.M. (2003). Research Note A Typology of Collaborative Watershed Groups: Citizen-Based, Agency-Based, and Mixed Partnerships. Society & Natural Resources, 16(5), 451. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
4. O'Neill, K.M. (2005). Can Watershed Management Unite Town and Country? Society & Natural Resources, 18(3), 241-253. doi:10.1080/08941920590908097
operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.
According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to…
Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.
Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS
Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319
Pesticides that have widespread use in California also have the same effect.
California as a state has been is water crises for decades, particularly in Southern California. The closest, most convenient resource is Northern California. The geography of Northern California is a water haven for the southern part of the state. With lakes, rivers and reservoirs, there are abundant water sources. Unfortunately these resources are not sufficient for the entire state. They are perfect for the surrounding area, but not for the southern, dry part of the state.
Although one state, the North and the South have set up trade agreements over water. The South is given a set amount each year and the remaining water is kept by the North. This is not a problem if the water resources are at a secure level for the year.
Ironically, Fountain Valley, California, is responsible for managing the groundwater basin under…
Brosman, D.R. (1999) The Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant and its role in El Paso's water supply, Microsoft Powerpoint Presnetation, 12 slides.
Brown, L.R. (2000) "Population growth sentencing millions to hydrological poverty," San Diego Earth Times.
Orance County Water District (1997) "Groudwater Replenishment System being explored to meet water supply needs," Groundwater Replensihing System, 17 Dec.
Orange County Water District (2000) Overview of Water Factory 21, OCWD Online, 19 September. http://www.ocwd.com
We do believe our design will help the kooma people to get access to cheap and clean drinking water from within their very own communities, and in addition to providing them with the health and cost benefits of having a readily available supply of clean drinking water, and make their life better and bit more comfortable.
We as a team struggled at first because of the initial delays to our progress in both the research and the design phases of this project due to various reasons. Eventually, however, everyone became engaged in the work allocated by the team leader to each individual person, and with each one of us as a team working really hard to achieve our goals we achieved much greater satisfaction from the project. The newfound fervor with which the team approached this project began with discussions on a number of various of different designs,…
In August 2016, the state of Louisiana experienced catastrophic flooding, specifically at Baton Rouge and Lafayette areas. The flooding, rated as the most terrible natural disaster since the 2012 Hurricane Sandy, resulted in 10 deaths and destruction of property worth billions of dollars, leaving thousands of residents homeless. The situation presented a major crisis for organizations mandated with disaster response, particularly the Federal Emergency Management Authority (FEMA). Many agencies and people have criticized FEMA for not attending to the disaster with adequate urgency, as well as for its failure to warn the residents adequately prior to the storm. Such criticism often puts the reputation of disaster response organizations at stake. FEMA may be subject to greater public pressure, leading to internal reorganization and even dismissal of some officials.
Public Health and Safety
In February 2016, Johnson & Johnson, a multinational firm involved in manufacturing medical devices as well…
Sustainability of the Water Supply in the Caribbean
Water sustainability is not merely an environmental problem. It is a political and social issue as well. esearch articles such as "Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean" by Iglesias (et al. 2007) focus on issues which specifically impact environmental changes such as global warming but do so in a manner to suggest specific policy prescriptions to scientists attempting to curtail crises created by the phenomenon. The paper suggests a different framework to cope with water scarcity that emphasizes preparation and prevention rather than taking a crisis management approach only after scarcity is in evidence. "The importance of local management at the basin level is emphasized, but the potential benefits depend on the appropriate multi-institutional and multi-stakeholder coordination" (Iglesias et al. 2007: 775). Stakeholder analysis is still required: something can be feasible on a technical…
Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788
Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)
Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability analysis for Yellow River.
The crises that I have chosen have a common theme. The theme is one in which a hospital is forced to share information in a manner which will not incite public panic. As such, I have chosen the following crises: 1) A terrorist attack with widespread casualties; 2) An assassination attempt on the president; and 3) An outbreak of a virulent virus whose method of transmission is unknown.
Scenario #1: Terrorist Attack
Today, January 1st, 2012, U.S. General Hospital is currently caring for over 1,257 victims from yesterday's attack. In order to see if a loved one has been admitted please call the following toll-free [HIDDEN], operators are on standby and will be able to check patient admission lists. We ask that family members stay at nearby hotels and motels: the hospital is filled to capacity including waiting rooms and corridors and unfortunately cannot accommodate any non-essential staff…
Rachel Carson, she asserts that water is our most precious natural resource and goes on to state that "most of the earth's abundant water is not usable for agriculture, industry, or human consumption because of its heavy load of sea salts" (1) and therefore "in the midst of this plenty we are in want" (1).
Okay, so let's examine this particular argument; first she says that the earth's abundant water is not usable for consumption etc., due to the fact that the water contains a heavy load of sea salts. Really? Rachel offers no facts and no figures to back up her assertion, instead she implies that we are desperately in need of drinking water because most of the water is so heavily sedated with salt that it is undrinkable.
Even assuming that her assertion was true, the logical answer to the dilemma is that the water would have to…
Efforts are made to make healthier choices in terms of energy and transport in both developed and developing countries. All legislators now acknowledge the need for alternative energy and transport choices to promote the health and well-being not only of current generations, but also those of the future. Indeed, on a wider scale, healthier choices can eventually mean the difference between the longevity of the human race or its ultimate destruction. It can therefore be said with certainty that the impact of the 1952 event can still be felt today. It forms the basis of the fundamental realization that air pollution is very detrimental to human health, and that alternative fuel sources are essential if the situation is to improve.
II the Fire at andoz Ltd.
II.1 the Crisis
The 1986 fire at andoz Ltd. occurred near Basel, witzerland on 1 November. Like the London smog, was more or less…
BBC News. 1986: Chemical spill turns Rhine red. On this day: 1 November. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/1/newsid_4679000/4679789.stm
BBC News UK. (2002, Dec. 5). The Great Smog of London. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/2545759.stm
Bitzer, Dirk. 1986 Environment: So many dead fish! Geschichte
Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…
'Boards of Directors Need to Oversee Corporate Sustainability more Effectively', 2010, PR Newswire, Available from Proquest. [19 June 2010] http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=2054701491&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1276983049&clientId=45065
'BP Engineer Called Deepwater Horizon Nightmare Well Days Before Blast', 2010, Huffington Post, Available from: [21 June 2010].
'BP Establishes a $20 Billion Claims Fund', 2010, BP, Available from: . [21 June 2010].
'Estimating Cleanup Costs for Oil Spills', 1999, Cutter Information Corporation, Available from: . [19 June 2010].
The people cannot do it themselves, although they have been making a valiant effort in Detroit, New Orleans, and other areas. They need help, and help quickly, and that help is not forthcoming.
The federal government seems to operate in a mode that initially recognizes a crisis, throws some initial aid toward management of the crisis, and then moves on to the next crisis, leaving the citizens and local governments to cope on their own. This strategy should be overthrown, replaced by a strategy that recognizes long-term support and aid is necessary in the face of crisis. Without urgent rethinking of this policy, and urgent aid to these suffering cities, the urban crisis in America is only going to continue, grow, and multiply until it is unmanageable and unsolvable.
Dyson, M.E. Come hell or high water: Hurricane Katrina and the color of disaster.
Sugrue, T. Origins of the Urban…
Dyson, M.E. Come hell or high water: Hurricane Katrina and the color of disaster.
Sugrue, T. Origins of the Urban Crisis.
The establishment of the MWD right after the aqueduct was approved is another milestone, because the MWD administers the water even today, and regulates how much water goes to each of its member water districts. The final milestone in the Colorado iver Aqueduct is the Seven States Water Management Agreement, which was signed in April 2007. The agreement spells out how the river's water will be managed in the future, and allows for more freedom for some of the member states to access water. Many people feel it is the most important milestone of Colorado iver management since the original Compact was signed in 1922. Obviously, all the milestones help spell out how the water is managed and who gets how much of the stored water in Lake Powell and Lake Mead. However, the agreement also encourages water agencies to develop alternative forms of water management, some of which the…
Editors. (2007). California's Colorado River allocation. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2008 from the Metropolitan Water District's Web page: http://www.mwdh2o.com/mwdh2o/pages/yourwater/supply/colorado/colorado04.html.
Editors. (2008). The Colorado River. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2008 from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Web site: http://wsoweb.ladwp.com/Aqueduct/historyoflaa/coloradoriver.htm.
Hofer, G. (2007). A new day on the Colorado. Aqueduct. 1-2.
Schulte, S.C. (2002). Wayne Aspinall and the shaping of the American West. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
However, the lack of internal communication, particularly as to underground communication, is a leading cause of the Sago Mining crisis.
y lack of underground communication, it is meant both a lack of direct communication between the rescue teams and the trapped miners and a lack of scientific communication as to the actual conditions of the underground mines and the ability of the rescue teams to go into the mines for the rescue. If there would have been updated technologies implemented into the mines prior to the explosion, the disaster could have been avoided. Underground communication capabilities would have made it possible for the rescue teams to communicate with the trapped miners, allowing for a more efficient finding of their location and the ability to guide them to a safe area of the mine. Underground communication between the mine's condition and the rescue teams would have allowed for the rescue process…
ABC News. "Rescuers Break Ground in Miner Mission. 3 Jan. 2006.
BBC News and Current Affairs. "Fury Over U.S. Mine Rescue Fiasco." 4 January 2006.
Dao, James. "Blast Traps 13 in a Coal Mine in West Virginia." The New York Times. 3 Jan. 2006.
McLachlan, Justin. "West Virginia Mine Explosion, My Time There." New York Times. 3 Jan. 2006.
Controlling water infrastructure
Much contemporary research and literature over the need for water include recognition of ethical issues for example water like a public good assert Gleick (2004) and Tipping et al. (2005). Hence, overall scope of management should be extended to incorporate the social size of water systems; which means all stakeholders have to be informed and incorporated in making decisions for the development and use of long-term sustainability water systems. Exterior systems or water stresses could possibly be the primary change motivators for controlling water systems. Global warming might be one particular example heavily affecting water systems because of elevated frequency of extreme weather for example flooding, storms and droughts (Clemitt, 2007). Around Australia, droughts and water stress within the primary metropolitan areas forced the adoption of an entire new selection of methods to controlling water. Water sector is facing institutional changes that need modernization as well…
Ashley, R. And Cashman, A. (2006). The impacts of change on the long-term future demand for water sector infrastructure. Infrastructure to 2030, Chapter 5 OECD, pp. 241 -- 349.
Clemitt, M. (2007). Ageing infrastructure: is neglected maintenance putting Americans in danger? Congressional Quarterly Researcher, 17 (34), pp. 793 -- 816.
Copeland C, Tiemann M. (2008). Water infrastructure needs and investment: review and analysis of key issues. Congregational research service report, RL31116.
Doshi, V., Schulman, G. And Gabaldon, D. (2007). Lights! water! motion! Booz Allen Hamilton.
Using a timeline from the peak of new housing construction to the present day, the following occurred. GDP growth slowed, followed by a three-quarter recession and slow growth has resumed on the other side of that recession. The unemployment rate skyrocketed, more than doubling in a short period of time, and has lingered at high levels for over a year. The rate of inflation fell well below the Fed's target rate, this despite aggressive expansionary monetary policy. The federal government, whose budget had previously oscillated between monthly surpluses and deficits, has been in deficit every single month -- and deeper deficits than every before -- as it has taken several fiscal policy measures to contain the economic damage. This evidence makes the clear case that steps should be taken to avoid a repeat of this housing crisis in the future, since the economic impacts are uniformly negative and in many…
US Census Bureau: New housing starts. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://www.census.gov/const/startssa.pdf
Bureau of Economic Analysis: Gross Domestic Product. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/national/index.htm#gdp
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Unemployment. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet-data_tool=latest_numbers&series_id=LNS14
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Consumer Price Index -- all Urban Consumers (all items less food and energy). Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost
Humanity's Global Need For Water
As the Earth's population of human inhabitants continues to swell in exponential fashion, moving from 6 billion to 7 billion during the last decade alone, humanity has been forced to confront a crisis it has long ignored: the finite amount of fresh water on the planet. Seemingly every human behavior, from agriculture to armed conflict, requires massive amounts of potable water for a wide array of reasons. Drinking, bathing, waste disposal, washing clothes and dishes, watering lawns and gardens; all of these daily activities are dependent on an available supply of running water. Even specialized activities like cooling heavy machinery during construction projects, clearing silt and debris within mine shafts, and extinguishing house or wild fires necessitate the collection, storage and dispersal of tremendous reserves of water. Despite the seemingly endless supply of fresh water emanating from the world's creeks, streams, rivers, lakes and ground…
Hoekstra, A.Y., & Chapagain, A.K. (2007). Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water resources management, 21(1), 35-48.
reputed "health crisis" currently facing Americans. The author explores several aspects of the health care crisis and analyzes the validity of those claims. The author presents an argument that there really is not a health care crisis and it is a fallacy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Why do People Believe the Crisis is eal?
What Evidence is There That it is Not eal?
What are some of the things giving the appearance it is...shortage of students etc.
What are some of the ideas that can help the problem?
For several years now Americans have been inundated with information about the health care crisis. News channels cover the crisis and pipe it into living rooms. Magazines publish articles about the causes and history of the health care crisis and politicians use the health care crisis to sell their platform and garner votes. It seems that everywhere…
There. (U.S. health care crisis and crime problem)
St. Louis Journalism Review; May 1, 1994; Blumenthal, H.T.
Health Care Crisis Is Not a Misnomer
Newsday; November 30, 2002; Robert Reno
As banks faltered and default rates rose, rates of consumption and demand plummeted. Unemployment began to increase, and in a predictable Keynesian fashion, as individuals grew more insecure about their job prospects they began to spend less money. The United States has a particularly consumer-driven economy -- Americans are known for having historically low rates of savings and to engage in high rates of spending -- so this was particularly disruptive to the usual rhythms of the economy.
Young people graduating from college suffered some of the worst effects of the recession. "Unemployment rates for individuals younger than 25 are currently 21% in the euro area and 19% in the U.S." (Branchflower 2010). They were competing with older, more experienced workers who had recently lost their jobs. The fear is that today's low starting salaries create a class of permanently low-earning graduates, many of whom have high levels of college…
Branchflower, David G. "Credit crisis creates Lost Generation." Bloomberg Business.
January 21, 2010. August 28, 2001.
Ferguson, Niall. "Where did all the money go?" From the Great Hangover. Edited by Graydon
It deals with inbuilt societal problems that cannot simply be dealt with due to the fact that they are so internalized. They therefore require a restructuring of societal systems -- that is, a transition and this can be done -- according to Rotman and Loorbach (2008) - by looking into the social structure of the problem
Transition management has already come a long way. As Rotman and Loorbach D (2008) observe:
The progress made in practice as well as the theoretical developments shows that modern times require experimental, innovative, multidisciplinary and participative forms of governance like transition management. In line with the underlying philosophy we cannot be certain about this, but transition management seems to be in tune with present societal demands, research and policy.
At the same time: "We are, however, also a long way from realizing a sustainable society, which means that there are ample challenges for the…
Australian Govt (2007)Tackling Wicked Problems. pdf.
BBC How many people can live on planet earth?
Castro (2004) Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives Organization Environment; 17; 195
What kind of neighborhood is it in?
Lower middle class apartment complex
What is its structure?
Constantly bustling, full of many cultures and ethnicities, although Cuban-Americans predominate.
What does it look like?
Clean, functional, but very impersonal-looking apartment blocks.
What does it contain?
Mainly recent Cuban immigrants
What is its aesthetic?
The aesthetic is very functional, since the area is mainly dominated by recent immigrants coming from underdeveloped countries to the United States.
What does it say about the characters who inhabit that space?
The characters are very new to the United States and are unfamiliar with its social expectations.
Target Demographic: Hispanic-Americans
Gender: As with most relationship-driven sitcoms, more female than male.
Geographic Location: Residents of Latin American-dominated neighborhoods in Miami, New York, and Los Angeles
Age Range: 20 something and older
Education: high school to some college
Ethnicity: Latino, with heavily skewed towards Cubans
Conservative/Liberal Status: Cubans tend…
Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Debate over the Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Tonkin Gulf Crisis 1964 ranks with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as events that David Kaiser of the U.S. Naval War College refers to as "controversies in American political history that dwarf all others (Ford, 1997)."
There is evidence that President Lyndon Johnson deliberately lied about the incidents leading to the Vietnam War to ensure that plans for war were supported. However, many opponents of this claim say that this is not so. According to Sedgwick Tourison in the book Secret Army, Secret War and Dr. Edwin Moise's Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War, evidence that Johnson's administration was deceitful is becoming clearer than it was (Ford, 1997).
Today, Tonkin Gulf researchers are still examining the evidence to determine whether or not Johnson's administration intentionally instigated the…
Austin, Anthony. (1971). The President's War. Lippincott.
Cohen, Jeff. Solomon, Norman. (July 27, 1994). 30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War. Media Beat. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.fair.org/media-beat/940727.html .
Department of State Bulletin. (August 24, 1964) The Tonkin Gulf Incident: President Johnson's Message to Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/tonkin.htm.
Ford, Ronnie. (August, 1997). New Light On Gulf Of Tonkin. Vietnam Magazine, pp. 165-172.
Waste Crisis in Campania, Italy
Since early 1990s to late 2000s, the Italian government issued a formal State of Emergency in the region of Campania, south-west Italy because of the saturation of regional waste treatment facilities. During this period, there was huge evidence including a study by World Health Organization that showed increased accumulation of legal, illegal, urban and industrial waste, which in turn contaminated water, air, and soil. The contamination was brought by a series of toxic pollutants from the waste including dioxins. This case provides significant insights regarding sustainability and demonstrates various ecological economics sustainability concepts. Moreover, this case study raises some sustainability challenges or questions that are helpful when considering environmental sustainability.
Synopsis of the Case
Campania region in south-west Italy was under a formal State of Emergency for nearly 14 years i.e. between 1994 and 2008 (Civil Society Engagement with Ecological Economics, 2010). This emergency was…
Barker, T. (2013, March 6). What is Ecological Economics, as Distinct from the Neoclassical Environmental Economics? Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.camecon.com/Libraries/Downloadable_Files/Ecological_Economics-Barker2013.sflb.ashx
Civil Society Engagement with Ecological Economics. (2010). The CEECEC handbook: ecological economics from the bottom-up. CEECEC, Belgium.
Role of Communication in Crises
"In crisis management, the threat is the potential damage a crisis can inflict on an organization, its stakeholders, and an industry. A crisis can create three related threats: a) public safety; b) financial loss; and c) reputation loss" (Coombs, 2007).
Good quality communication is among the most vital components of any good organization -- at any moment, in good or bad times. But during a crisis, good communication becomes even more pivotal to helping solve urgent problems. ithout a well-thought-out, professional understanding of the media and how its coverage of the crisis will unfold, the company is at the mercy of a potentially harmful and very negative image. This paper delves into the importance of good communication management in times of crisis and offers an analysis that any company should pay attention to well before any crisis happens.
The Literature on Communication in Times of…
Coombs, Timothy W. (2004). Impact of Past Crises on Current Crisis Communication: Insights
From Situational Crisis Communication Theory. Journal of Business Communication, 41(3),
Coombs, Timothy W. (2007). Crisis Management and Communications. Institute for Public
edland Wastewater Treatment Plant
edland Water is the department of the edland City council that oversees the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste water in edland City. esidential households and commercial premises such as shopping centers, cafes, commercial laundries, butchers, car-washing centers, and restaurants are the main sources of waste water in edland City. Once collected, waste water is stored temporarily in abattoirs, before being released for treatment in one of the seven treatment plants located in Point Lookout, Dunwich, Mount Cotton, Victoria Point, Thorneside, Cleveland, and Capalaba (edland City Council, 2012). The author paid the Capalaba Treatment Plant a visit, and found that the plant had just upgraded to a new waste water treatment technique referred to as the Vetiver Grass System, herein referred to as the VS. The Vetiver system, "a green and environmentally-friendly waste water technology as well as natural recycling method," had just been approved by…
AMPC, 2005. Waste Water. AMPC [online] Available at http://www.ampc.com.au/site/assets/media/reports/Resources/Wastewater-enviromental-best-practice-manual.pdf
Ash, R. And Truong, P., n.d.The Use of Vetiver Grass Wetlands for Sewerage Treatment in Australia. Dokuz Eylul University Library [online] Available at http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana58/new80.pdf
Piemonte, V., De Falco, M. And Basile, A. Eds., 2013. Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering: Innovative Technologies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons
Redland City Council, 2010. Waste Water. Redland City Council [online] Available at http://www.redland.qld.gov.au/EnvironmentWaste/Water/Pages/Wastewater.aspx
But amid the celebration, crucial opportunities have been lost: In September 2009, the "inspector general for the Troubled Asset Relief Program, a k a, the bank bailout fund, released his report on the 2008 rescue of the American International Group, the insurer. The gist of the report is that government officials made no serious attempt to extract concessions from bankers, even though these bankers received huge benefits from the rescue. And more than money was lost. By making what was in effect a multibillion-dollar gift to all Street, policy makers undermined their own credibility -- and put the broader economy at risk" (Krugman 2009). Many banks have given back their TARP funds, in exchange for the ability to once again engage in risky activities, to pay traders the bonuses they desire, and to pay executives what seems to be overinflated compensation. In June ten of the largest recipients of aid,…
Cohan, William. "A tsunami of greed." The New York Times. March 11, 2009.
December 8, 2009.
"Credit Crisis." Special feature. The New York Times. Last September 22, 2009.
ater conservation can only provide so much of the resource. Other resources need to be developed to keep up with demand. The Clavey-ards Ferry project will create a reservoir that will provide an extra 12,000 acre of water for supply to the growing population needs of the San Francisco Bay area (Ibid, 3)
2) Due to the energy crisis, all sources of clean energy must be exploited. Hydroelectric power emits no air pollution. The increased energy needs of the state are graphically indicated in Exhibit 1 (Ibid, 11). The energy supplies have to come from somewhere, the Clavey-ards Ferry project is the most energy for the least cost in terms of finances and environmental impact, in particular air pollution which is a major problem in California. By 1983, the 150-megawatt power station at the new Don Pedro Dam met only half of the electricity demand in the two irrigation districts.…
Kincaid, Linda. "Saving the Tuolumne." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management. Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, 2011. Web. 19 Mar 2011. .
Japan abolishes current nuclear plant Fukushima Crisis. What effects immediately long-term Japan world a case stop operation of nuclear power plants.
As a brief description, Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant was an operating energy facility in Japan particularly in the Fukushima prefecture or province. The plant was established in 1971, which occupied a total of 3.5-kilometer site that makes it as one of the largest nuclear power plants in the world by land area. This nuclear power plant was very useful in the Japanese energy regulation system because it has an economical generation costs that is more reliable than using hydroelectric power sources from dams and streams. It is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company that is the largest operating agency around Japan as claimed by Arnold (2010).
On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake hit the northeastern portion of Japan with an epicenter just off the coast of Fukushima…
Arnold, Wesley., 2010. Nuclear Power Plant facilities. New York: McGraw Hill, 78-97.
Cousins, C., (2011). Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Retrieved from: http://www.scj.go.jp/ja/info/jishin/pdf/t-110405-3e.pdf .
Fraser, Scotty., 2009. Environmental Issues: Natural Disasters. Alexandria: Tim and Gale Publishing, 35-38.
Gilbert, L.F., 2011. Application of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Accessed at: http://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/book-4/4.12App%20of%20Non%20conventional.pdf.
child in crisis; what would your immediate response be? For those in the field of social work, the response would be to act without hesitation. The question arises, however, if whether a preventative, community based approach benefits service recipients better than a crisis management approach. The issue of how to best allocate limited resources is but one of the issues facing the field of social work today. Another issue is the exclusion of front line service providers from the decision-making process. Service providers who relate to clients directly have an inside view on what action is needed to bring about positive change; however, life-altering decisions are often made by remote administration unfamiliar with the needs of their clients, resulting in change that often is too little, and occurs too late. Finally, middle level management walks a delicate tightrope in the social work field. Their job of balancing compliance with directives…
The Face of Poverty in Lincoln, Nebraska. The Center for People in Need. 2009.
Graham, John. What Makes Social Workers Happy? Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from http://www.edmontonjournal.com/health/What+makes+social+workers+happy/
McKenzie, Brad, and Wharf, Brian. Connecting Policy to Practice in the Human Services. Oxford:
WHY ARE WE SO FAT?
Whole books have been written (and movies made) about why Americans are becoming the obesity leaders of the Western world. Some people point to biology. Others blame the restaurants, particularly the fast-food ones. Yet others suggest that we are fat, and lazy, and unmotivated to take control of our weight. Each of these arguments has its merits, and there is probably a lot of truth to each one. But perhaps the problem is not quite so obvious. That could help explain why otherwise intelligent people don't notice that when they stuff their faces, they're stuffing their jeans as well.
Two very recent events have focused media attention on this issue. The first was the production of the movie "Supersize Me," where a man deliberately stuffed himself full of high-calorie food from McDonald's for a month, gaining 25 pounds in 30 days. The other was…
Adaptation, Culture Scale, and the Environmental Crisis.
The article deals with the important issue of how the scale of a cultures dictates how that culture will adapt to its environment, and the role that this adaptation plays in damaging the environment and depleting resources.
This interesting article begins with the following telling quote. "Nor are those cultures that we might consider higher in general evolutionary standing necessarily more perfectly adapted to their environments than lower. Many great civilizations have fallen in the last 2,000 years, even in the midst of material plenty, while the Eskimos tenaciously maintained themselves in an incomparably more difficult habitat. The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong."
This quote raises some of the most salient points that are brought out further in the article. First, it notes that the scale of the culture and the concentration of social power have…
Sahlins, M. & Service, E.R. Adaptation, Culture Scale, and the Environmental Crisis.
Though the director claimed to have no knowledge of the accounting fraud, analysts wonder what other than his silence could possibly warrant such a high compensation package (English 2002). This is yet another company where slews of jobs were lost, pensions and benefits disappeared, and yet many top executives received lucrative compensation and severance packages, five years before any TAP funds were available to provide them.
There is some hope that the situation might change, however. In the wake of the financial scandal, and even in the years leading up to it, many CEOs signed deals agreeing to limit their own pay should their companies hit troubled waters (Penttila 2009). Congress has also been considering legislation that would either directly limit executive compensation in public companies, or allow for direct shareholder say in the compensation of company officers, but often this type of "consideration" is really political double-speak for seeming…
English, Simon. "WorldCom Chief was Aware of Fraud." The Telegraph. Feb 27, 2009
Kopecki, Dawn & Goldman, Julianna. "Obama Calls Bonuses Shameful and as Dodd Vows to Reclaim Money." Bloomberg. Feb 27, 2009 .
Oliphant, James. "Stimulus' Cap on Executive Bonuses is Too Sweeping, Experts Warn." Los Angeles Times. Feb 27, 2009
Pentilla, Chris. "Rethinking CEO Salaries." Entrepreneur Magazine. Feb 27,2009
Obesity, Prevention and Control in Teens
Obesity refers to accumulation of harmful body fat levels, with excessive loose connective adipose tissues relative to lean body mass (Donatelle, 2002). One of the causes of obesity is high calorie consumption and the individual's inability to burn up the consumed calories. Obesity is said to be the outcome of imbalance of food consumed with energy expended (Venes, 2005). However, there are also considerable studies demonstrating genetic and metabolic deficiencies and disorders in cases of obesity; these include an inactive mechanism by which the body signals 'satiety', as well as deficiency of important proteins that turn off 'hunger'.
Obesity is presently the second reason for preventable deaths in the U.S., after tobacco consumption (Flegal, Carroll, Orden, & Johnson, 2000). Moreover, obesity is considered to be the leading cause for preventable deaths on a worldwide scale. In accordance with a study conducted by the World…
Beyea, C.S., & Slattery, J.M. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: A Guide to Successful Implementation. Marblehead: HcPro, Inc.
Bray, G. (2003). Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. In Third (Ed.), Handbooks in Health Care (Third Edition ed.). Newtown, Pennsylvania.
Donatelle, R. (2002). Health: the Basics (6th ed.). (6th, Ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Pearson Education.
Flegal, K., Carroll, M., Orden, C., & Johnson, C. (2000). Prevalence and Trends among U.S. Adults. JAMA, 288(1723-7).
The promising areas of Dutch expertise are in modeling, risk management, water quality management and also institutional strengthening. The Dutch stakeholders across the board can also contribute through a cooperative and integrated approach to river basin management. All of this has to be taken into account as well as the spatial aspects of water for te new water management to be effective. It is a recognition of the need for wetlands as a water retention resource that has to be maintained in the balance. Then, there will not be a crisis. The water-shed will be most sustainable if it can be developed as a protective barrier ("aterland Information Network") .
The Biesbosch is also becoming as an economic as well as a water retention resource. The future of the area lies in the field of sustainable tourism. In the history of the place, man has worked both with and against…
Biswas, Asit K. Water Management in 2020 and Beyond. 1st. New York, NY: Springer, 2009. 190.
De Velliers, Marq. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. 1st. New york, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001. 3.
Hobbelen, P.H.F., J.E. Koolhaas, and C.A.M van Gestel. "Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account." Environmental Pollution . 129. (2004): 40919. Print.
Hopkins, Anna. "Communities and Waterpoint Management." The Chapter Buzz. / blogs.ewb.ca/annahopkin, 21 Oct 2011. Web. 25 Oct 2011.
The second argument used by my uncle was a kind of blend of fuzzy logic and inductive reasoning. The argument essentially looks like this: there is a water problem; keeping a green lawn is not part of the problem; let's find out where the problem lies.
The assumption made here is that the water used to keep lawns green is not part of the water problem. Countering this assumption would require some form of statistical analysis or syllogism. Since my uncle is arguing from a generalization that he apparently discerned at some point, it becomes necessary to correct that generalization. If my uncle is swayed by facts, facts then are what are necessary. One could look to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power -- an authority on the subject -- to find out the statistical analyses.
By doing so, one could also see the benefit of cutting water…
Psychology: Environmental Problems
Facing its worst drought in 40 years, the State of California took a number of measures to conserve water. It first used positive consequences to compel a 20% reduction in water usage by homes and businesses. The disappointing results led to the addition of negative consequences to compel conservation. In addition, California is now taking emergency measures against the oil and gas industry, which was previously exempt from some of the State's environmental laws. California has shown that an environmental policy must use positive and negative consequences, along with carefully given exemptions, in order to be most effective.
ater Control During Drought
Evaluate 2 Strategies for Promoting Positive Environmental Behavior
The State of California is currently enduring a 3-year drought that is its worst in 40 years and is expected to continue for the foreseeable future (Associated Press, 2014). Californians continued to use water with too little…
Associated Press. (2014, July 16). California seeks to send message to water-wasters. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from sacramento.cbslocal.com Web site: http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2014/07/16/california-seeks-to-send-message-to-water-wasters/
Lustgarten, A. (2014, July 18). California halts injection of fracking waste, warning it may be contaminating aquifers. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from www.propublica.org Web site: http://www.propublica.org/article/ca-halts-injection-fracking-waste-warning-may-be-contaminating-aquifers
McCarty, J.A., & Shrum, L.J. (Spring 2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104.
State of California. (2014). California drought. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from ca.gov Web site: http://ca.gov/drought/
Certainly, one could tell from your presentation that your political past and present has not yet left you, but the valid ideas remain. My discourse is structured less on what we should do, but rather on how water is both a commodity and a public good.
Moderator: Excellent, but please make sure you don't get into a fight with Paul's rigorous political approach!
Karen akker: Right, will do. We can all understand why water is a public good: because the public drinks it, washes with it and uses it for water balloons. On the other hand, there are companies who see that water can also be a commodity and, as such, they stock the water in water balloons and them sell them, either to the state, in public-private partnerships, or directly to the population. France is a good example in this sense, but then, it was also them who had…
1. Muldoon, Paul, and Theresa McClenaghan. 2007. "A tangled web: Reworking Canada's water laws." In Eau Canada: The future of Canada's water, ed. Karen Bakker, 245-261. Vancouver: UBC Press
2. Barlow, Maude. 2007. Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right Water.
3. Boyd, David. 2003. Unnatural Law: Rethinking Canadian Environmental Law and Policy. Vancouver UBC Press.
4. Bakker, Karen. 2003. Liquid Assets. Alternatives Journal. 29 (2). P. 17-21
For example, if birds feed on seeds and a certain variety of insect, without the seeds, the birds may disappear, and the insects would then overpopulate the area.
In addition, the cost of GM crops is initially high to the farmer. These seeds cost much more to develop and test, and so, they are much more costly to the farmer. They might benefit Third World agriculture in many ways, but few Third World farmers could possibly afford the increased cost of these seeds, and so, they would not be available to a majority of the people that need them the most. Cost is an important factor in the continued growth of GM crops, and so, manufacturers must eventually address the cost of these seeds, and reduce the cost so that more people can afford to plant them.
While no study has found GM food to be harmful to humans, opponents…
Black, Richard. 2004, 'Study Finds Benefits in GM Crops.' BBC.com. [Online]. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4046427.stm .
Editors. 2005, 'Genetically Modified Foods.' World Health Organization. [Online]. Available at http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/ .
Goldstein, M.C., & Goldstein, M.A. 2002, Controversies in Food and Nutrition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Pickrell, John. 2004, 'GM Organisms: Instant Expert.' NewScientist.com. [Online]. Available at http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35 .
hile this investment has flourished to this point despite strained cross-strait relations, deterioration in the China-Taiwan relationship would threaten Taiwanese investment in China. Taiwan's firms have already been warned by their Ministry of Economic Affairs to increase their level of risk assessment on account of increased risk that China's government poses to Taiwanese investments (Central News Agency, 2007). More important, however, are the damaging effects on total FDI that deterioration in China-Taiwan relations would have. hile Hong Kong is the largest source of FDI, much of that is estern and Taiwanese money that is merely funneled through Hong Kong intermediaries, rather than bona fide HK-sourced capital (Ibid). Some of this money may even be China-sourced (Hou, 2001). If China loses substantial amounts of foreign investment as a consequence of turmoil with regards to Taiwan, its economic growth could stall. However, this remains a lower concern than some of the other…
Xiong, Tong. (2009). Beijing Reports 80% Blue Sky Days in First Quarter. China View. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/31/content_11108454.htm
No author. (2003). China's Resource Shortage May be Beneficial in Long Run. Voice of America. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2003-01/a-2003-01-14-18-China-s.cfm?moddate=2003-01-14
Kejun, Jiang. (2005). Management of Energy Resources in China. Energy Research Institute/World Bank. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDECABCTOK2006/Resources/Kejun_Energy_China.pdf
No author. (2009). International Energy Outlook 2009. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved August 2, 2009 from http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/coal.html
regal obligations owed by private individuals and company can help to protect community from environmental damage, and consider the effectiveness of such a system in preventing future harm.
The research proposal tries to explain how private laws owed by private individuals and companies have being applied in environmental conservation and effectiveness of these laws in terms of being able to prevent any form of environmental threat in the future.
The first section introduces the research topic, then the paper tries to answer the question; whether private law are more inclined towards environmental preservation or not?, After which the research explores more in-depth on private law by considering issues such as; advantages and disadvantages of private law, the difference between public and private law then a case study is given to show how cases involving private law are dealt with in court of law and another alternative case is also given…
Aristides, N., 2002. "The Nature of the Firm." European Journal of Law and Economics 14 (3): 253-263.
Barlow. M., 2009, Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water, New York: The New Press.
Boyce, J., & Shelley, B. 2003, Natural Assets: Democratizing Environmental Ownership, Washington, DC: Island Press
Cunningham, W., Mary Cunningham, M., & Saigo.W. 2007,Environmental Science: a Global Concern, McGraw-Hill.
Yellow River Pollution
A report published by Terra Daily (2006) reports that the famous Yellow River of China "is becoming more polluted, with water flow dropping despite billions of tons of waste being pumped into it…" The largest part of the discharge is reported to be coming from factories in China and the discharge increased "by 88 million tons from 2004, and more than 66% of the water in the river was unfit for drinking." (Terra Daily, 2006) According to officials, "excessive exploitation of the river's water resources had resulted in lower sections totally drying up on more than 1,000 days between 1972 and 1999." (Terra Daily, 2006)
Another source reports that in 1972 that the Yellow River, for the first time in the recorded history of China had "dried up in patches and failed to reach the sea." (Time World, 2006) It is reported that while the central government…
China Invests in Yellow River Tributary Treatment (2012) China Xinhuanet News. Retrieved from: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-04/26/c_131554014.htm
China's Yellow River Choking On Pollution (2006) China.Org.CN. Retrieved from: http://www.china.org.cn/english/environment/192263.htm
China's Yellow River Plagued by Pollution (2005) Environmental News Network. 26 May 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/1643
City Governments Fined for Yellow River Pollution (2010) China Daily. 11 Mar 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-03/11/content_9574818.htm
The only hope rests in being sensible and alert to the danger we have incurred upon ourselves. Going green and seriously focusing on renewable forms of energy is the only way that we could save this planet from the impending disaster.
1) World Water Council, 'Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
2) U.S. Census ureau, 'World Population Summary', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php
3) WWF, 'Water: Our Rivers Lakes and Wetlands', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/
4) Lester rown, (Oct 2001), 'China's Water Table Levels are Dropping Fast', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.grist.org/article/table/
5) lue Planet, 'The Facts about the Global Drinking Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://blueplanetnetwork.org/water/facts
6) Pew Center, 'Coal and Climate Change Facts', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-basics/coalfacts.cfm
7) Science Daily 'Environmental Scientists Estimate That China Could Meet Its Entire Future Energy Needs y Wind Alone', retrieved Oct…
1) World Water Council, 'Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
2) U.S. Census Bureau, 'World Population Summary', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php
3) WWF, 'Water: Our Rivers Lakes and Wetlands', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/
4) Lester Brown, (Oct 2001), 'China's Water Table Levels are Dropping Fast', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.grist.org/article/table/
In the 21st century, great strides have been made that have decreased poverty, increased income and quality of life in the developing world, and brought the world closer together in a spirit of cooperation. However, there remains an evolving water crisis -- actually three separate paradigms that form a serious global crisis: decreased freshwater, problems with access to potable water globally, and large corporations' control over access to water. Too, climate change has, in many areas of the globe, resulted in a diminishing supply of potable water. This trend has occurred so much that it is becoming a measurement of national wealth and comparison between nations -- private interests or public/private interest dominant in terms of available water supplies. This is particularly serious from a human biological perspective -- water is required for survival, agriculture and industry. Without access to water, or with limited access, the gulf between…
Atlas of a Thirsty Planet. (2011). Nature. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/nature / focus/water/map.html
Global Water Crisis. (2003). Nature Publishing Group. Cited in:
moves further along the 21st century, many of its necessities are often taken for granted. The resources that sustain the human population today may not be readily available tomorrow, which will ultimately lead to an overwhelming rise in cost and perhaps a global crisis. Among these depleting resources, and probably the most important, is water. Although it makes up 70% of our earth, only a fraction of that is drinkable. In addition, clean water is also important to support the planet's agricultural needs, which, as the population grows, continue to become more demanding. These factors may lead to a severe increase in the cost of water and make conservation efforts remarkably important.
If one could visit a local store and spend less than '$500.00 today on something that would be dramatically more valuable tomorrow and bury it for future generations to discover, clean drinking water would be an intelligent choice.…
1. West, Larry "World Water Day: A Billion People World Wide Lack Safe Drinking Water." About.com
products or service of your chosen organization, and two (2) key factors in the organization's external environment that can affect its success. Provide explanation to support the rationale.
De Beers is the world's famous diamond company, established in 1888, with proficiency in exploration, mining and marketing of diamonds. More than 20,000 employees make contribution to the communities in which we work. De Beers carries out profitable business which helps the government reach their aims of turning natural resources into natural wealth and is working to provide good long-term development for Africa. Anglo American and the Government of the epublic of Botswana are the two shareholders of De Beers, 85% and 15% respectively. This company is made up of fully owned partnerships, investments and subsidiaries. It is involved in most of the diamond chain value such as exploration in four continents, mining in Namibia, Canada, South Africa and Botswana; valuation, arrangement,…
Austin JE (2000) The Collaboration Challenge: How Nonprofits and Businesses Succeed Through Strategic Alliances. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Baker, R (2010). Pepsi Reveals Sustainable Business Plan', Marketing Week U.K., 19 October. Available from: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/sectors/sustainability/pepsico-reveals-sustainable-businessplan/3019459.article
Barkay, T. (2013). When Business and Community Meet: A Case Study of Coca-Cola. Critical Sociology, 39: 277.
Bieri1, F. And Boli, J. (2011). Trading Diamonds Responsibly: Institutional Explanations for Corporate Social Responsibility. Eastern Sociological Society.