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Water Supply by Water Health International to Honduras
This is the section that gives a brief summary of the entire project or paper, citing the particular areas of emphasis that will be expounded upon in the body of the paper. It enables one to highlight the used methods and the hypothesis being tested (Literacy Education Online, 1998). In this particular case, the abstract will briefly indicate the prompt to the research, the problem being researched into and the research methodology that is to be used. In the quest to look at the research into the possibility of Water Health International supplying water to the Hondurans, use of a mixed research method would be the most appropriate hence the qualitative and quantitative aspects of research will be used.
This is the part that gives more details in specifics about the project as well as the background of the topic. It…
Literacy Education Online, (1998). What is an abstract? Retrieved August 9, 2011 from http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/bizwrite/abstracts.html
Sam McCoy, (2004). Developing an Introduction: The Top-Down Model. Retrieved August 9,
2011 from http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/intro.html
Water Supply and Demand in 2075
Global esource Proposal
Difference in Water Demand and Supply in 2075
The World Health Organization has quantified the amount of water needed to sustain human life (Howard and Bartram, 2003), although the organization's primary concern is water quality (WHO/UNICEF, 2013). Given the projected growth rates in population and its expected peak around 2075 (U.N., 2004), there is a need to better understand whether the world's water supply will be sufficient.
The world's water supply will also be strained by growing economic activity, which is currently growing fastest in developing nations like China (Behren, Giljum, Kovanda, and Niza, 2007). Based on computer simulation models, the regions experiencing the greatest population growth will face limited water supplies that may be insufficient to sustain human life (Hanasaki, 2012).
By 2075, the world's population is expected to reach about 9.22 billion (U.N., 2004). Computer simulation models predict…
Behren, Arno, Giljum, Stefan, Kovanda, Jan, and Niza, Samuel. (2007). The material basis of the global economy worldwide patterns of natural resource extraction and their implications for sustainable resource use policies. Ecological Economics, 64, 444-453.
Hanasaki, N., Fujimori, S., Yamamoto, T., Yoshikawa, S., Masaki, Y., Hijioka, Y. et al. (2012). A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways -- Part 2: Water availability and scarcity. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussion, 9, 13933-13994.
Howard, Guy and Bartram, Jamie. (2003). Domestic Water Quantity, Service Level and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved 13 Sep. 2013 from http://www.who.int/water_sanitation _health/diseases/WSH03.02.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Water infrastructure and safety issues are far more pressing in the developing world, and large numbers of research teams and laboratories are engaged in developing better and safer water system in Africa and much of Latin America (Helmholz 2009). A lack of clean drinking water and reliable systems is a growing problem in much of the world, and so attention is shifted away from infrastructure issues in the developed world to where there is a greater need (Helmholz 2009). This leads to a lack of research in domestic water supply infrastructure issues.
Briscoe, J. (1983). "Selective primary health care revisited: water supply and health in developing countries." Arlington, Virginia, Water and Sanitation for Health Project NO. 28, pp. 18. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.popline.org/docs/0627/023354.html
Helmholz. (2009). "esearch to secure a safe water supply." Helmholz association of German research centres. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/03/20/research.secure.a.safe.water.supply
Briscoe, J. (1983). "Selective primary health care revisited: water supply and health in developing countries." Arlington, Virginia, Water and Sanitation for Health Project NO. 28, pp. 18. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.popline.org/docs/0627/023354.html
Helmholz. (2009). "Research to secure a safe water supply." Helmholz association of German research centres. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/03/20/research.secure.a.safe.water.supply
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
This also means that consumption and price will be completely and directly linked, incentivizing reductions in water uses more so than they are under current pricing structures (though consumption is still charged per-unit, the lack of marginalization distributes prices less equitably in terms of actual expenditure to supply water). This will also give clear signals as to the extent that alternative water supplies should be investigated as a means of augmenting the water supply.
The marginal costs of water will make large urban consumers (i.e. municipalities) more likely to consume and agricultural consumers somewhat less so, possibly damaging the agricultural industry in California. Pricing structures that are not attached to volume of consumption in a linear fashion might also meet with more opposition from the public. Finally, estimating long run marginal costs can be quite complex and runs the risk of underestimation, which could lead to underfunding.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Water in Sub-Saharan Africa is of special interest because of my background but water is a fascinating issue in general, one that I think will play an increasingly large role in the 21st century, as the effects of population growth and climate change bring about significant changes to our water usage and availability. A lack of water in particular has a substantial destabilizing effect.
Water as a social issue combines a lot of different elements. As an issue, water sits at the intersection of social justice, politics, economics and agriculture are all areas weather. This is probably because water is so essential to human life. We drink it, we use in for domestic purposes, agricultural, industrial, transportation. Yet clean water is not always easy to come by. Some feel that access to clean water is a human right. So there is a significant importance attached to water in most parts…
Acerman, M. & Hollis, G. (1996). Water management and wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa. IUCN: Switzerland.
Bayliss, K. & Fine, B. (2007). Privatization and alternative public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa: Delivering on electricity and water. Palgrave MacMillan.
Bojo, J. (1996). The costs of land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics. Vol. 16 (2) 161-173.
Conway, D., Persechino, A., Ardoin, S., Hamandawana, H., Dieulin, C. & Mahe, G. (2008). Rainfall and water resources variability in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/wp119.pdf
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )
Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges
Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
Sustainability of the Water Supply in the Caribbean
Water sustainability is not merely an environmental problem. It is a political and social issue as well. esearch articles such as "Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean" by Iglesias (et al. 2007) focus on issues which specifically impact environmental changes such as global warming but do so in a manner to suggest specific policy prescriptions to scientists attempting to curtail crises created by the phenomenon. The paper suggests a different framework to cope with water scarcity that emphasizes preparation and prevention rather than taking a crisis management approach only after scarcity is in evidence. "The importance of local management at the basin level is emphasized, but the potential benefits depend on the appropriate multi-institutional and multi-stakeholder coordination" (Iglesias et al. 2007: 775). Stakeholder analysis is still required: something can be feasible on a technical…
Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788
Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)
Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability analysis for Yellow River.
The role of community in achieving proper water and sanitation standards in times of disaster
It is important to note that whenever a natural or manmade disaster hits a particular region, the entire community is put at risk since it is them who suffer the direct results of the disaster. These negative outcomes of the disaster could be social, economic and even psychological. It is therefore necessary to properly educate the entire community on how they can cope with water shortage and sanitation problems that are as a result of either flooding or hurricanes. The various community drinking water treatment plants should have elaborate emergency plans that are to be put in action should there be a disruption of the service. It is integral that the community water treatment facilities comply with the stringent requirements that are laid down by both the federal and state regulations.
After the emergency for…
Associated Contents,(2010) The Importance of Water to Health and to Human Life
Copeland, C (2005). Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities:Impacts,
Needs, and Response
Operation and Data Management at the Water-Authority: will there be a sustainable water supply for the next century. A case study of Water Infrastructure Management in the Caribbean. As the research problem implies, I intend to conduct a case study examining water infrastructure management in the Caribbean with the goal of determining whether existing water infrastructure management will provide sustainable water usage for the next century. The nature of the research problem requires a comparison of the currently available water resources, the renewable water resources, current water usage, and projected water demand over the coming century to determine if the water resources are adequate and will continue to be adequate for the foreseeable time period. Although the question could be approached from a quantitative perspective or a mixed-methods perspective, I believe that water usage and water management are as much about perceptions and beliefs as they are about quantitative analysis…
Brikci, N., Green, J. 2007. A guide to using qualitative research methodology. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
Shah, A. 2010. 'Water and Development', Global Issues. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
Pricing Water From a Utility Perspective
Water is usually a scarce commodity but not in all situations, such as in Virginia, which is characterized by plentiful ground water supply. However, the relevant agencies in this state incur costs relating to drilling and pumping water from the ground, procurement and infrastructure costs. Because of this, pricing of water has become an important factor in water management. For utility companies in Virginia and other states, selling the water at the appropriate price is increasingly important since low costs do not cover operational costs, whereas high costs contribute to inadequate sales. The determination of the most suitable pricing model or scheme requires critical evaluation from a utility perspective and whether this commodity is affected by the same principles of economics as other goods and services or utilities.
Price Sensitivity of Water
From a utility perspective, water has seemingly weak price sensitivity as compared…
Gaudin, Sylvestre, Ronald C. Griffin, and Robin C. Sickles (2001). Demand Specification for Municipal Water Management: Evaluation of the Stone Geary Form. Land Economics, 77(3), 399-422.
Gaudin, S. (2007, February 2). Effect of Price Information of Residential Water Demand.Applied Economics, 38(4), 383-393.
Gaudin, S. (2004, March).Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Practices on Residential Water Use. Retrieved from Department of Economics -- Oberlin College website: https://new.oberlin.edu/dotAsset/96202.pdf
Howe, C.W. & Linaweaver, F.P. (1967).The Impact of Price on Residential Water Demand and Its Relation to System Design and Price Structure.Water Resources Research, 3(1), 13-32.
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…
Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm
Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury
Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
ater ars: Georgia, Florida and Alabama
The 'water wars' between Georgia, Florida, and Alabama specifically revolve around the ownership and allocation of water "in two major river basins that cross their borders (the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa and the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint basins)" ("Tri-State water wars"). Georgia, an 'upstream user' of these bodies of water is concerned about having enough water to fuel development in the cities of Atlanta and Columbus while also having enough money to support the state's agriculture. Alabama, in contrast, is a downstream user and needs water to support its power industry, to ensure it has enough municipal supplies for residents, and to support its fishing industry ("Tri-State water wars"). Florida is also concerned about the impact that a limited water supply could have upon its fisheries as well as its critical agricultural products such as oranges. "The dispute has involved several local, state and federal agencies, courts and mediators, and…
"Chattahoochee blues." The Economist. 16 Sept 2010. Web. 2 Apr 2015.
Cotterell, Bill. "Water wars between Florida, Georgia advance at U.S. Supreme Court."
Reuters 3 Nov 2014. Web. 2 Apr 2015.
Oforiaa-Amoah, Abigale. "Water wars and International Conflict." Water is Life. 2004. Web.
Price elasticity for this product was likely quite great, before the item was subsidized, as few consumers perceived it as a necessity. Only the costs of production limited the price elasticity, as the tanks are presumably not cheap to build. Of course, the government might protest that the product is a necessity, given the dire need for conservation, if Australia is to continue to have a sustainable source of drinking water. But preserving the environment is often a case where the micro interests of the household do not match up with the macro interests of the nation. Until the subsidy was created, a household in the short-term could save money by not purchasing the rain water tank, although in the long run the household may save both on water bills and also upon more costly solutions needed by the government, to ensure that the nation has a sustainable source of…
Economics basics: Demand and supply. Investopedia. February 15, 2010.
Economics basics: Elasticity. Investopedia. February 15, 2010.
Water, Gatorades and Powerades
I am a registered dietician, presenting my piece of work on the different types of beverages. I am giving this presentation because water is an overlooked nutrient in the hydration process while it can be an excellent sports beverage. Water is the most essential nutrient in the body because death can occur rapidly in the absence of water than any other nutrient. Knowing this, does not take much imagination when dehydration occurs during sports performance or training. Around 60% of the human body is inside water called intracellular cells, and the muscle tissues have 70% of water which is critical during exercise.
Gatorade and PowerAde contain added proteins, sodium and carbohydrates, which help in increasing blood glucose levels and high cycling performance. PowerAde has low calories while Gatorade is lightly flavored with enhanced vitamins also with low calories. These power drinks are moderately isotonic because, they…
Heather, F.A. (2011). Practical Applications In Sports Nutrients. Atlanta: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Jones, R.S. (2010). Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Publishers.
Water Crisis in the Middle East
What is the Six Day War, and what are the various events that led to the War? What is the background of the War, and what were its consequences? The Six Day War took place in the month of June 1967. The crisis had actually begun in the early months of 1965, when the PLO, through Fatah, led a campaign of attacks on the borders along Jordan and Lebanon. This campaign was severely criticized and opposed by not only the people of the country but also by the Arab Government, and this led to the Fatah attempting to adopt a totally new strategy that came to be known as the 'entanglement theory'. According to this strategy, Israel would be forced to adopt an 'offensive' position with the technique of 'sabotage', and this meant that the Arabs would become more wary and would in turn…
Anita Roddick, Dame. Troubled Water - Saints, Sinners, truth & Lies about the Global Water Crisis. 1 October, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=31940 Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Grunfeld, Lilac. Jordan River Dispute. ICE Case Studies, Case number 6. Spring 1997. Retrieved From http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/jordan.htm Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Israel 1948 to 1967, the Six-Day War Background. Retrieved From
In addition, outsourcing is seen as one way of freeing HR professionals within the client organization from more mundane and time-consuming tasks so as to better concentrate on core competencies and provide a more consultative and strategic role (Cooke 186). Although the growth of HR outsourcing business has been dramatically facilitated by the introduction of innovations in information and communication technologies (ICT) throughout China in recent years, many companies also report an increasing use of e-HR in-house. For example, in some large Chinese organizations, employees are encouraged and even expected to use e-HR to update their personnel records as a cost-saving initiative (Cooke 186).
Based on the available evidence from secondary sources of data, the outsourcing of HR in general remains relatively limited in China; however, there are trends of the increasing use of external providers for their services such as recruitment and training (Cooke 186). According to the atson…
Bielski, Lauren. (2006). "Outsourcing Success: It's All in the Governance Making Deals Work Daily Takes a Long-Term View." ABA Banking Journal 98(7):38.
Chow, Garland. (2007). "Outsourcing and Third-Party Logistics." Centre for Transportation Studies & Operations and Logistics Division: The University of British Columbia.
2000). "Outsourcing Logistics." Class notes: Supply Chain Management: The University of British Columbia.
Cooke, Fang Lee. HRM, Work and Employment in China. London:
"Water is starting to become an issue" in Harper County, Kansas, where groundwater reserves are running dry (Vaidyanathan and Gilmer, 2012). Low rates of precipitation, coupled with diversion of groundwater to the oil industry, are threatening to diminish available water used for farming and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of groundwater in Harper County, Kansas and the flow rate of pumps in order to prepare for the future.
Harper County is in south-central Kansas, and abuts Oklahoma. The county "lies partly in the Wellington Lowland minor division of the Arkansas iver Lowland section of the Central Lowland province and partly in the ed Hills minor division of the Dissected High Plains section of the Great Plains province," (Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960). More recent geological surveys divide Harper County into six main areas: the Upland area, the Bluff Creek area (with Pleistocene deposits), the…
Barlow, Paul M. And Leake, Stanley A. 2012. Streamflow Depletion by Wells -- Understanding and Managing the Effects of Groundwater Pumping on Streamflow. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved online: http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1376/pdf/circ1376_barlow_report_508.pdf
Ellis, Blake. Water grab in Kansas oil boom. CNN Money. 12 June 2012. Retrieved online: http://money.cnn.com/2012/06/12/pf/kansas-water-america-boomtown/index.htm
Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960. Geology of groundwater resources of Harper County, Kansas. Retrieved online: http://www.kgs.ku.edu/General/Geology/Harper/index.html
Kansas Geological Survey, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/ED10/04_occur.html
operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.
According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to…
Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.
Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS
Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319
Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment
Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.
A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…
Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8
Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246
Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364
Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
Gray Water System
As the world's population continues to grow, there will be an ever greater need for potable or purified water. Most people are completely unaware of just how big the problem of world water consumption is because they never think past turning on their sink or sprinkler system. Take into consideration the demands on the water supply by less obvious factors such as livestock and farming. There is an economy of scale: those massive agricultural irrigation systems that suck water out of rivers, lakes, streams and ponds consume hefty amounts of water that cannot then be used for any other purpose. Farms, cities, industry and the many other levels of human consumption place a great deal of pressure on Mother Nature. Globalization has actually increased the demand for water and has strained many regionally dry areas into even worse water deficits. For example, "industries and communities located in…
Humanity's Global Need For Water
As the Earth's population of human inhabitants continues to swell in exponential fashion, moving from 6 billion to 7 billion during the last decade alone, humanity has been forced to confront a crisis it has long ignored: the finite amount of fresh water on the planet. Seemingly every human behavior, from agriculture to armed conflict, requires massive amounts of potable water for a wide array of reasons. Drinking, bathing, waste disposal, washing clothes and dishes, watering lawns and gardens; all of these daily activities are dependent on an available supply of running water. Even specialized activities like cooling heavy machinery during construction projects, clearing silt and debris within mine shafts, and extinguishing house or wild fires necessitate the collection, storage and dispersal of tremendous reserves of water. Despite the seemingly endless supply of fresh water emanating from the world's creeks, streams, rivers, lakes and ground…
Hoekstra, A.Y., & Chapagain, A.K. (2007). Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water resources management, 21(1), 35-48.
Controlling water infrastructure
Much contemporary research and literature over the need for water include recognition of ethical issues for example water like a public good assert Gleick (2004) and Tipping et al. (2005). Hence, overall scope of management should be extended to incorporate the social size of water systems; which means all stakeholders have to be informed and incorporated in making decisions for the development and use of long-term sustainability water systems. Exterior systems or water stresses could possibly be the primary change motivators for controlling water systems. Global warming might be one particular example heavily affecting water systems because of elevated frequency of extreme weather for example flooding, storms and droughts (Clemitt, 2007). Around Australia, droughts and water stress within the primary metropolitan areas forced the adoption of an entire new selection of methods to controlling water. Water sector is facing institutional changes that need modernization as well…
Ashley, R. And Cashman, A. (2006). The impacts of change on the long-term future demand for water sector infrastructure. Infrastructure to 2030, Chapter 5 OECD, pp. 241 -- 349.
Clemitt, M. (2007). Ageing infrastructure: is neglected maintenance putting Americans in danger? Congressional Quarterly Researcher, 17 (34), pp. 793 -- 816.
Copeland C, Tiemann M. (2008). Water infrastructure needs and investment: review and analysis of key issues. Congregational research service report, RL31116.
Doshi, V., Schulman, G. And Gabaldon, D. (2007). Lights! water! motion! Booz Allen Hamilton.
Many parts of the United States have had droughts at one time or another. However, they generally go away and they generally do not last all that long. That being, California has been a different story in more than one way. The high agricultural use of water in the state combined with the lack of rainwater coming into the water table has led to a situation that is already dire and is getting worse by the day. This issue is important because the long-term viability of the water in California is a major concern for everyone that works and lives there or that will do either in the future years and generations. This report shall cover the totality of the problem and then offer solutions. While desalinization and shifting of agricultural priorities are seemingly on the horizon, the current prospects of the water resources and status in California…
territory flow understand conflicts water mexico-U.S. border region
Across the borders throughout the world there have been numerous cases of disputes for different reasons, which vary from illegal immigrants to the use of natural resources that cross the borderlines. A situation is also at the American border with Mexico concerning the water resources available and their use.
The issues between the two countries are not necessarily a matter of conflict but rather one that needs constant monitoring and international regulations. The problem revolves around the sites that are shared by the two countries that are the aquifer region of the Colorado iver and the io Grande. In 1944 a Treaty was signed between the two countries that share the water potential available on the shared border and initially it was believed that such international law would solve the matter. Moreover, "The 1944 Treaty also provides each country one-half of all…
Vina, Stephen. "The United States -- Mexico Dispute over the Waters of the Lower Rio Grande River" CRS Report for Congress. 2005. Available online at http://www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/4079.pdf
Wolf, Aaron T. And Joshua T. Newton. "Case Study of Transboundary Dispute Resolution: U.S./Mexico shared aquifers" Oregon State University. N.d. Available online at http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/US_Mexico_Aquifer_New.htm
In many ways, this is also responsible for and compounded by the bad eating habits and obesity so prevalent in today's Western societies.
Electrolytes work in conjunction with the water levels in the body, and is responsible for conducting electricity within the body. This is essential for the normal functioning of cells and organs. odium and potassium are both positive ions, or cations, within the body, while chloride is a negatively charged anion. odium and Chloride are found in fluids outside of cells, while potassium is found inside of cells. odium is responsible for water regulation in the body, as well as electrical signals to and from the brain. Too much or too little sodium can be fatal. Excess is discarded through urine. Inside cells, potassium regulates the heartbeat and function of muscles. A lack or excess of this electrolyte can also be fatal, as it can lead to heart…
Klotter, Jule. (2001, Aug). Physiological Effects of Dehydration: Cure Pain and Prevent Cancer. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Article database: FindArticles.com.
REACT. (2007). Functions of Water in the Human Body. http://www.resultsproject.net/water_functions.html
Stoppler, Melissa Conrad. (2007). Dehydration: How to Recognize and Prevent its Effects. Medicinenet.com. http://www.medicinenet.com/dehydration/article.htm
Stoppler, Melissa Conrad (2006). Electrolytes. Medicinenet.com. http://www.medicinenet.com/electrolytes/article.htm
It is clear that conservation is needed. If the water that is left in the Southwest asin is squandered, it will disappear completely. Land use planning is also vital, because there are many different things that land around the Southwest asin can be used for - or not used for. When farms expand and urban areas are built, they cut into the water that currently exists, and this cannot continue without some way to get more water. It is necessary for leaders who have control over these types of issues to stop people from continuing to deplete water resources through the use of conservation measures and proper planning for the land that is left. While more land is often needed for development, consideration needs to be given to how fast that development takes place and the resources that are available to support it.
Great asin Water Issues. (n.d.). Great…
Great Basin Water Issues. (n.d.). Great Basin Water Network. http://www.greatbasinwater.net/issues/index.php
Sharp, Jay W. (2008). Part II: Southwest Water Resources - the Problems We Face. DesertUSA. http://www.desertusa.com/mag08/jun08/water-southwest-problems.html
Water Demands (n.d.). http://ibcc.state.co.us/Basins/Southwest/MajorWaterIssues/WaterDemandsProjections/SouthwestBasinWaterDemandsProjections.htm
Assess Supply Base
The supply base is a function of the airport capacity, specifically the terminal and lanes leased specifically for the use of Aer Lingus jet and air plane usage in addition to the actual supply of jets/planes and the parts used to effectively repair and operate each unit. The supply base is assessed by assessing the supply chain for the airline. The supply chain is a function of all vendors that provide supply to Aer Lingus to maintain operational performance.
Functional capacity is the ability of the supply base to utilize full operating capacity to maximize profit through the efficient use of supply to drive performance. However, the supply base assessment can also be a method to pass-through costs. According to Chandler (2009), "enaud recognizes that it's sometimes a matter of "sanding our folks out to suppliers to help them [avoid] costs." Mike Madsen couldn't agree…
"A Change of Direction." International Financial Law Review (2011): n/a. ABI/INFORM Global. Web. 25 Mar. 2011.
Brouwer, Onno W., Joanna Goyder, and Daniel Mes. "Developments in Ec Competition Law in 2007: An Overview." Common Market Law Review 45.4 (2008): 1167. ABI/INFORM Global. Web. 25 Mar. 2011.
Brown, John Murray. "Dublin Eyes State Asset Sell-Off." FT.com (2011): n/a. ABI/INFORM Global. Web. 25 Mar. 2011.
"Business and Finance." Wall Street Journal: A.1. ABI/INFORM Global. 2006. Web. 25 Mar. 2011 .
Pesticides that have widespread use in California also have the same effect.
California as a state has been is water crises for decades, particularly in Southern California. The closest, most convenient resource is Northern California. The geography of Northern California is a water haven for the southern part of the state. With lakes, rivers and reservoirs, there are abundant water sources. Unfortunately these resources are not sufficient for the entire state. They are perfect for the surrounding area, but not for the southern, dry part of the state.
Although one state, the North and the South have set up trade agreements over water. The South is given a set amount each year and the remaining water is kept by the North. This is not a problem if the water resources are at a secure level for the year.
Ironically, Fountain Valley, California, is responsible for managing the groundwater basin under…
Brosman, D.R. (1999) The Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant and its role in El Paso's water supply, Microsoft Powerpoint Presnetation, 12 slides.
Brown, L.R. (2000) "Population growth sentencing millions to hydrological poverty," San Diego Earth Times.
Orance County Water District (1997) "Groudwater Replenishment System being explored to meet water supply needs," Groundwater Replensihing System, 17 Dec.
Orange County Water District (2000) Overview of Water Factory 21, OCWD Online, 19 September. http://www.ocwd.com
As a consequence, social unrest can then be avoided only by subsidies. The town is socially and entinancially heavily burdened. Another problem is that the spontaneous rainwater flow, mixed with wastewater in a heavy downpour, pollutes the river or lake once again and provides more problems for gaining potable water.
Scenario 3: As a result of climatic and geological conditions there is little potable water available; the resources are quickly exhausted. The possibilities for development by the town are therefore restricted. The cost of a long-distance water supply is prohibitive.
This paper examines possible applications of rainwater utilization and application in an urban context. In doing so, it examines some of the more available technologies for this purpose, and draws on Germany's experience in dealing with the related issues. As part of this discussion, variants of practice and boundary conditions of decentralization issues are raised.
Questions and demands
Clean Water Crisis
Every human being on earth necessitates at least 20 to 50 liters of clean, safe water on an everyday basis for the purposes of drinking, cooking, and basically maintaining themselves to be clean. However, there is a significant need for clean water in countries. In the contemporary setting, statistics indicate that 1 in 9 individuals lack accessibility to clean and safe water (Water.org). There are 844 million people across the globe that are presently living without access to clean water. This lack of clean water has resulted in a health crisis as it causes diseases. Notably, access to safe water leads to poor sanitation, which consequently adds to deteriorated health and increases the spread of infectious diseases. The inference of this is that it results in increased child and mortality rates. Statistics further indicate that every 2 minutes in the present day, a child does because…
ater conservation can only provide so much of the resource. Other resources need to be developed to keep up with demand. The Clavey-ards Ferry project will create a reservoir that will provide an extra 12,000 acre of water for supply to the growing population needs of the San Francisco Bay area (Ibid, 3)
2) Due to the energy crisis, all sources of clean energy must be exploited. Hydroelectric power emits no air pollution. The increased energy needs of the state are graphically indicated in Exhibit 1 (Ibid, 11). The energy supplies have to come from somewhere, the Clavey-ards Ferry project is the most energy for the least cost in terms of finances and environmental impact, in particular air pollution which is a major problem in California. By 1983, the 150-megawatt power station at the new Don Pedro Dam met only half of the electricity demand in the two irrigation districts.…
Kincaid, Linda. "Saving the Tuolumne." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management. Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, 2011. Web. 19 Mar 2011. .
The Flint, Michigan water crisis has become a poster child for environmental injustice, environmental racism, and inequitable resource distribution in the United States. It has also represented a case of bleak mismanagement of precious natural resources and the inability of the United States to adequately respond to the most basic human needs. The water crisis was but a grim manifestation of decades of racist land use policies and political realities, which can be traced back to periods of segregation and the white flight to the suburban sprawl. Moreover, the Flint water crisis showcases the role government plays in colluding with polluters, with issues related to the not in my back yard (NIMBY) phenomenon also relevant in this case. As Bell (2012:28) points out, “environmental justice...concerns patterns of inequality in the distribution of environmental goods.” Flint residents lacked access to environmental “goods,” such as clean drinking water given the long-term contamination…
existence of tap water contamination. The topic interests me due to the fact that I have long heard that tap water is contaminated and that, in order to avoid this contamination, one has to spend money on any number of schemes ranging from the comparatively cheapest of buying bottled water to the enormously expensive project of retrograding and dismantling the entire water system with a purification procedure. It strikes me that it is particularly important to find out whether this is simply a moneymaking scam on the part of businesses or whether there is any reality to this situation. Even were I to adopt the cheapest of all alternatives, which were to buy bottled water, in the long run the accumulation of expense is worrisome. On the other hand, purifying the tap water may be a necessary step as safeguard for my health. To that end, it may be well…
McGeehin, M.A., Reif, J.S., Becher, J.C., Mangione, E.J. (1993).Case-control study of bladder cancer and water disinfection methods in Colorado. Am J. Epidemiol 138, 492-501.
Weisel, C.P. & Jo, W.K. (1996). Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 48 -- 51.
West, L. Tap Water in 42 States Contaminated by Chemicals. About.com. http://environment.about.com/od/waterpollution/a/tap_water_probe.htm
Commercial Use of Michigan Groundwater
Appropriately named the "Great Lakes State," Michigan is the only state whose borders lie completely within the world's largest system of fresh surface water, the Great Lakes basin, which constitutes 18% of the world's water supply.(4)
Traditionally, Michigan has relied primarily on "riparian" rights analyses derived from English common law to regulate the commercial use of its largest natural resource. Since riparian concepts focus primarily on the relative rights of competing users of surface waters, there has, until very recently, been comparatively little regulation of the underground springs or aquifer system which feeds the surface water system, or of the rights of the state to control removal of water resources for use or sale elsewhere.
On November 25, 2003, Mecosta County Circuit Court Judge Lawrence Root issued a lengthy opinion that finally addressed the problem and defined many of the issues under the laws of…
1. Howlett, D., Water Battle Dredges Up Acrimony; USA Today (June 22, 2003)
Accessed at http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/mi/062203_great_lakes.htm
2. Michigan Citizens for Water Conservation v. Nestle Waters North America Inc.
49th Judicial Circuit Mecosta County Circuit Court Opinion (Nov 25, 2003) Accessed at http://www.envlaw.com/decisions/MCWC2.txt
Arab-Israeli region is one in which water is a critical problem, and being able to get access to clean, safe water on a regular basis is one element of the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict. While there may be serious, conflicting views on political and religious issues, along with many other aspects of the way people in the various areas live their lives, it is no secret that they all have to work together if everyone is going to have enough water to enjoy. A report in 2010 indicated that there were a number of challenges with ensuring that everyone in the region received enough clean water for drinking, irrigation, and other needs (Schneider, 2012). In order to attempt to combat that, Israel, Jordan, and Palestine all have water departments who are looking into working with one another. Without that level of cooperation, there will be numerous people in those areas without…
Schneider, V. (2012). Regional water data banks -- Overview of Middle East water resources. USGS International Programs. Retrieved from http://international.usgs.gov/projects/pawc-overview.htm
Drinking Inadequate water
One must drink enough pure water on a daily basis for good health. However, many people forego water and concentrate on other fluids which have additional ingredients. These cannot be compared to water when it comes to health benefits. (McLennan, 2000)
Take the example of young kids, who mostly prefer sweet drinks such artificial juice and sodas. Likewise, teens go for energy drinks and sports drinks in lieu of water. (Simpson, & Mazzeo, 2017)
A recent Havard study found out that over half of the children in America are dehydrated. This has many negative implications on their health and academic performance. (McLenan, 2000)
Another study showed that a quarter of American children do not drink water daily. Boys were found to be 75% more likely to be dehydrated than the girls. (Valtin, 2002)
65 % of the human body is made up of water. This water helps…
There is a direct correlation between the lack of clean safe water for drinking and cooking with nutritional problems. The lack of clean drinking water leads to diseases like diarrhea. Nutritional deficiencies are directly related to lack of potable water. This is because a person does not get enough calories, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals in their body. Undernutrition has been associated with 45 percent of global deaths and nearly 7.4 percent of the world's children are at risk of undernutrition. Malnourished children have weakened immune systems that make them more susceptible to diarrhea when they are exposed to dirty water. The lack of clean water means that individuals will be living in non-sanitized environments and this increases the risk of suffering from diarrhea. People suffering from diarrhea will eat less and they are unable to absorb the nutrients they need from the food they eat, which results in…
Type A Project:
Team of 3-4 students will study a manufacturing or service company operation; the objective is to improve the equality of their final product. This could be done through improving any task in product realization process (Design, raw material, manufacturing, packaging, after sale …). The subject of the improvement has to be directly related to quality. The team will use quality analysis and improvement methods / techniques we learn in this course (six sigma methodologies in recommended).
Ideal project will focus on problems doable during time span of the course (i.e. not to much complex, also not trivial) and demonstrate the use of quality improvement tools on solving the problem at hand.
• Full description of your company,
• It’s quality management system.
• Quality improvement opportunities
• Implementation of quality improvement tool
• Final outcomes
• Conclusion "
Each of these aspects of the instructions…
Preventing Terrorist Attacks on the Water and Wastewater Systems Sector
Terrorism is nowadays an already established threat that is part of every security strategy of modern states. It is not only an un-conventional threat at the address of national security but also it drove the re-definition of the term of security as it was understood and worked with some twenty years ago. Currently, there is talk about economic, political, social security as part of the areas that the state must take into account when drafting and enabling a national security strategy. At the same time though, especially after the events from September 2001, the security of the infrastructure and that of natural resources has become an increasingly important aspect to consider.
Currently in the United States, the country considered to be the most targeted by terrorist threats, an important part of the security strategy is related to the economic sectors…
Copeland, C. 2005. "Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities: Impacts, Needs, and Response" CRS Report for Congress. Available at http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=463973
Copeland, C. 2010. "Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector" Congressional Research Center Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32189.pdf
Dept. Of Homeland Security. 2013. Water and Wastewater Systems Sector. Available online at http://www.dhs.gov/water-and-wastewater-systems-sector
Leuven, L. 2011. "Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Security: Threats and Vulnerabilities" in R.M. Clark et al. (eds.), Handbook of Water and Wastewater Systems Protection, 27 Protecting Critical Infrastructure, available online.
Rachel Carson, she asserts that water is our most precious natural resource and goes on to state that "most of the earth's abundant water is not usable for agriculture, industry, or human consumption because of its heavy load of sea salts" (1) and therefore "in the midst of this plenty we are in want" (1).
Okay, so let's examine this particular argument; first she says that the earth's abundant water is not usable for consumption etc., due to the fact that the water contains a heavy load of sea salts. Really? Rachel offers no facts and no figures to back up her assertion, instead she implies that we are desperately in need of drinking water because most of the water is so heavily sedated with salt that it is undrinkable.
Even assuming that her assertion was true, the logical answer to the dilemma is that the water would have to…
Landscape ecology conventionally has been constrained to the knowledge of earthly methods; nevertheless, the inquiries and approaches describing the science are similarly linked for oceanic and seaside structures. The author points out that the shared relationship among longitudinal design, and ecological processes and the overarching sense of proportion on this relationship was being explored in some marine, and coastal settings as the general rule of landscape ecology were changing throughout the last 20 years of the last century. It was clear that the author intent of this article was to highpoint a study regarding changing the tools of landscape ecology to answer questions that are ecological.
The article stressed that there was a risky strategy for many organisms that inhabited spatially extensive marine landscapes which were the larval dispersal. It was fascinating to learn that a lot of the present work has put a lot of emphasis on the biophysics…
Elizabeth K. Hinchey, M.C. (2007, July). Preface: Marine and coastal applications in landscape. Landscape Ecology, 1-5.
The World Water Council estimates that approximately 1.1 billion people, which translates to one-sixth of the world population, lacks access to safe drinking water. Another 2.6 billion lack access to proper sanitation facilities (World Water Council, n.d.). It is estimated that by 2025, almost 3 billion people will be finding it almost impossible to meet their basic water needs (Concern Worldwide, 2012). This text discusses the potential causes of the current water scarcity problem, its implications on the environment, and the various strategies that could be used to ease or eliminate the problem.
Population growth, industrialization, and inefficient agricultural/food supply systems are the main causes of water scarcity in the world today. Population increases that are not matched with concurrent increases in the available resources put a strain on the existing resource base and increase the risk of faster depletion. Forests are cleared to create more room for…
Concern Worldwide. (2012). Water: How can we Improve the World's Access to Clean Water? Concern Worldwide. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Water.pdf
The World Water Council. (n.d.). Water Crisis: Towards a Way to Improve the Situation. The World Water Council. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
Toledo, V.J. & Harvey, M. (2015). Thirsty Crops Cause Water Shortages and Pollution. WWF Global. Retrieved April 22, 105 from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/
The establishment of the MWD right after the aqueduct was approved is another milestone, because the MWD administers the water even today, and regulates how much water goes to each of its member water districts. The final milestone in the Colorado iver Aqueduct is the Seven States Water Management Agreement, which was signed in April 2007. The agreement spells out how the river's water will be managed in the future, and allows for more freedom for some of the member states to access water. Many people feel it is the most important milestone of Colorado iver management since the original Compact was signed in 1922. Obviously, all the milestones help spell out how the water is managed and who gets how much of the stored water in Lake Powell and Lake Mead. However, the agreement also encourages water agencies to develop alternative forms of water management, some of which the…
Editors. (2007). California's Colorado River allocation. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2008 from the Metropolitan Water District's Web page: http://www.mwdh2o.com/mwdh2o/pages/yourwater/supply/colorado/colorado04.html.
Editors. (2008). The Colorado River. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2008 from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Web site: http://wsoweb.ladwp.com/Aqueduct/historyoflaa/coloradoriver.htm.
Hofer, G. (2007). A new day on the Colorado. Aqueduct. 1-2.
Schulte, S.C. (2002). Wayne Aspinall and the shaping of the American West. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Waste Water Treatment
Inadequately treated waste water poses hazards such as water-borne diseases and water-body pollution. People generate wastewater (sewage) in numerous ways, including laundry and toilet use. To prevent pollution and ensure public health, waste water ought to be treated adequately. Today, waste water is not so much a problem as it was in earlier centuries, a trend that is attributable to the development of efficient sewer lines and treatment plants, otherwise referred to as centralized wastewater collection and treatment facilities. Not long ago, however, these were not as effective as they are today, and worse still, were not available to a majority of the population. People used the conventional decentralized waste systems to take care of, among others, the black waters, and still managed to lead hygienic lives.
Septic Systems: these consisted of a "septic tank, the drain field, and the soil beneath the drain field" (NCSU, 2013).…
NCSU. (2013). Septic Systems and their Maintenance. North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-13/
Rapaport, D. (1995). Sewage Pollution in Pacific Island Countries and how to Prevent It. Center for Clean Development.
UNL. (2011). A Place in the Country: the Acreage Owner's Guide. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://lancaster.unl.edu/acreageguide/waste.shtml
Whirl Pool Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management
Critical appraisal of Whirlpool's Supply Chain Management
Products and Services
Critical review of Operations
Contribution to business performance
Changes in Internal Forecasting Process
usiness Performance Results
Criteria for trade Partner Fit
Critical Evaluation of System
Customer Centric-Supply Chain Management System
Collaborative Supply Chain
Current System Changes
Planning and sourcing decisions
Drawbacks of Whirlpool delivery system
Factors for taking supply chain management decision
Figure: Supply Chain Performance factors
Reduced Cost and Inventory
Future trends in home appliances supply chain management
RFIDs to Individual Products
Vendor Managed Inventories
Challenges for home appliances businesses in managing supply chain
Multiple Channels Conflicts
Short life Cycles
Whirlpool is renowned as a global electronic appliances manufacturer and marketer. The company's products and…
Basu, R. & Wright, J.N. 2008, Supply Chain Management, Elsevier, USA.
Chang, S.J. 2011, Sony vs. Samsung: The Inside Story of the Electronics Giants' Battle For Global Supremacy, Wiley, USA.
Coyle, J.J, Langley, C.J., Gibson, B & Novack, RA 2008, Supply chain management: a logistics perspective, South-Western Pub, USA.
Ding, S, Guariglia, A, & Knight, J. 2012, Investment and financing constraints in China: does working capital management make a difference, Journal of Banking & Finance.
Petroleum fuels supply and storage
Switching to more energy-efficient ambulatory vehicles, such as hybrids, might be a necessary consideration in the future, should long-term access to fuel during a disaster become a problem. This would lessen the need for refueling, as well as make emergency stores of gas (if there are any such stores) last longer.
Natural gas supply
Loss of access to gas can result in the loss of hot running water, and the ability to boil water for sanitary purposes. Before an emergency, bottled, fresh water should be kept on hand for drinking and other functions requiring bacteria-free water. Food that can be prepared without heating and boiling is required to be kept on hand. All efforts should be made to ensure conditions such as toilets remain sanitary and water remains running to maximize sanitation and minimize water usage and need for boiling.
Bovender, Jack O.…
Bovender, Jack O. Jr. & Bill Carey. (2006). A week we don't want to forget: Lessons learned from Tulane. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 23(1), 3-12; discussion 25-30.
Retrieved September 17, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1127531361).
Curiel, Tyler J. (2006). Murder or mercy? Hurricane Katrina and the need for disaster training. The New England Journal of Medicine, 355(20), 2067-9. Retrieved September
17, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library. (Document ID: 1165594021).
This allows for greater levels of planning and cooperation, and fills in the information gap that currently exists between the factory floor and the rest of the supply chain.
Lexmark provides an example of waste. Recently, the company found itself with more than $1 million in scrap from one lot. Engineers had insufficient information to isolate and fix the problem, so were instead relegated to crisis control. With more accurate data from each step of the operation, the engineers could have been more involved in the process and made improvements along the way before it became a large-scale crisis.
Through web-based business applications, engineers can now examine a defective printer cartridge and then use a thin client to put a hold on the entire batch if necessary, regardless of its physical location (anywhere in the world)
In conclusion, it is apparent that e-business is making its mark on the business…
Alexander, Michael. (2001). Factory Floors Go Online -- Pioneering manufacturers close the final gap in their supply chains. InternetWeek; Manhasset; Mar 12, 2001.
2002) Automotive Design & Production. Cincinnati, 114(8), 70-72.
Steele, a.L. (2001). Cost drivers and other management issues in the JIT supply chain environment. Production and Inventory Management Journal. Alexandria, 42(2), 61-68
Drickhammer, D. (2001, May 21). Peak performance. Industry Week. Cleveland, 250(8) 36-40.
Differentiations are always brought up by the contemporary mainstream economists and their theories regarding ontological questions and assumptions or mere recognition regarding conformity of preference structures regarding some rules can be approximated usefully. This is done by the commodities' association or there quantities uses. Taking into account that preference can as well be taken as a usefulness determinant, departing of this conception from the usefulness concept should not take place. Different marginal utilities may occur for diverse people regarding same object for any customary conception.
Market price and diminishing marginal utility
In a case whereby the stock flow or the flow of goods and services in a country is of lower marginal utility as compared to the commodities that the same country trade for with other country, then decision to affecting that trade is only upon the country. Evidently, business transaction involves a case of exchange of goods whereby there…
Venkatesh, B. (2003). The diamond-water paradox. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/iw/2003/01/05/stories/2003010500241300.htm
Yousuf, D (1996). Adam Smith and the division of labour. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
Supply Chain (Barbecue Grill)
Barbeque Grill Supply Chain Analysis
The Brinkmann Corporation is a leading manufacturer of outdoor cookers, smokers, outdoor lighting, hand-held lighting, lawn and garden products, pet products, camping equipment, boat covers, and fishing gear. The company's strong position on the market relies on its quality, selection, innovation, performance, styling, and reliability. The Brinkmann Corporation develops new products, and improves designs in order to provide customers quality, value, and customer satisfaction (Brinkmann, 2014). The company provides a wide variety of grills, like charcoal smokers, gas smokers, and electric smokers.
The biggest dilemma for some of barbeque chefs is whether to use charcoal or electric grills. This analysis focuses on the charcoal grill segment. The barbecue grill market seems to be stable, reaching a $1.373 billion in 2011. The market is dominated by warehouse home centers. More than half of barbecue grill sales are attributed to such centers.
1. Cahill, J. (2013). Weber's BBQ Secret: Quality Sells. Retrieved May 22, 2014 from http://www.chicagobusiness.com/article/20130720/ISSUE10/307209979/webers-bbq-secret-quality-sells .
2. Company Info (2014). The Brinkmann Corporation. Retrieved May 22, 2014 from http://www.brinkmann.net/info/company_info.aspx .
Raw materials ordered by Brinkmann
Component manufacture by Brinkmann
trouble with Philadelphia's water billing system is a technical problem or a people problem? Why?
From the case study it is at first difficult to separate the two and decide whether the issue rests mainly with the people involved or the system. The people who developed the system did not anticipate using it for such a broad application, so they are responsible for not preparing the system for such an application before they tried to use it. The system itself cannot handle the complex load required of a water billing system to the 500,000 customers that reside in Philadelphia. In the end, it seems more likely that this was "operator error" more than something that was wrong with the system itself. This will become apparent in the following discussion.
The first group of people who made an error were the city officials who did not conduct an adequate amount of…
(Illicit Drugs or Nutritional Supplements?) It is more likely that some illegal gratification was sought and not received and that led to this action. Since this was also a case for medicines, one should also be careful of the problems that may come up.
What has been stated earlier is that it would be better to leave the enterprise to operations by South Africans and in that case, they will determine most of the staffing. It is not advisable clearly that many ozambicans be depended on for operations at least due to their ability. An example of this has just been stated.
2. Training and Development
When we are talking about a business and a possible collaboration with an existing business owner, they would have completed the training in an operating business. This would be helpful as the culture of South Africa and ozambique would be similar.…
Mozambique- people and society. Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozpeop.htm . Accessed 11 October, 2005
Mozambique-South Africa - Investment climate generally favorable, new report. 2 June 2004.
Retrieved at http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41385 . Accessed 11 October, 2005
A farmer in each year can produce enough food to feed a hundred people, according to Pollan (2001), but this productivity comes with a heavy price: "The modern industrial farmer cannot grow that much food without large quantities of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, and fuel. This expensive set of 'inputs,' as they are called, saddles the farmer with debt, jeopardizes his health, erodes his soil and ruins its fertility, pollutes the groundwater, and compromises the safety of the food we eat" (Pollan, 2001, p. 190). These accrued costs accumulated through generations may lead to catastrophic consequences such as global warming and scarcity of edible food and drinkable water.
The drive to industrial efficiency blinded us to several hidden costs of food production. Orr (1994) identifies six of the costs that, if we intend to maintain sustainable growth, need to be curbed. The first obvious cost of industrial food production is…
McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002) From cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. New York: North Point Press.
Orr, D.W. (1994) Earth in mind: on education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Pollan, M. (2001) The Botany of desire: a plant's eye view of the world. New York: Random House.
Salee Company Limited suffers this setback. Therefore, it should align itself in a position to maximize profits by looking in to the ways of reducing the loss. Mr. Somsak Pruksawan of the Salee Industry Public Company Limited admits that every organization, large or small businesses suffers various types of obstacle when performing businesses. Their problem is the management of the waste and the plastic defects. The management of the company notes that the company faces various difficulties. These problems range from the upstream of supply chain processes to the end customers or the consumers of their products. The material cost varies with the mass of material that that facilitates the process and the price unit of that material. The heaviness of material is vividly a result of the proportion volume and material density. However, the fraction's maximum wall widths play a role (Lindsay, 2010, p.57).
The weight of raw material…
Packham, D. (2010). Mould sticking, fouling and cleaning. Shropshire: Rapra Technology.
Groover, M.P. (2010). Fundamentals of modern manufacturing: Materials, processes, and systems. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
ASM International. (2009). Characterization and failure analysis of plastics. Materials Park,
OH: ASM International.
Though municipal untreated tap water can be used for premix (as opposed to post mix when soda syrup was mixed on site) that comes from the beloved soda fountain in most restaurants the marketing of the Aquafina brand is still likely to be present and bottled Aquafina is often sold there. If on the other hand an individual asks for a cup for water and then pours water from the "water" bypass tap on the soda fountain they are getting municipal tap water, usually unfiltered.
Endorsements are often developed in a similar way to those associated with other types of soft drinks and sports endorsements are common in the bottled water industry as even the Aquafina spin off products that contain the Aquafina (seven step) water and additional flavorings and sweeteners are considered by many to be healthier than soda, but to some degree this remains to be seen. As…
Aquafina (2010) Website Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
Brown, Bruce. The Skinny on Bad Bottled Water: Due diligence reveals why America drinks Coke & Pepsi. (January 2005) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
"Factory Accident Risks and Injuries" (November 2010) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
Quantus Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Drinking Water Alternatives & Consumer Beverage Consumption in North America (February 2010) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from < http://beveragelcafootprint.com/?page_id=102// >
Blair Water Purifiers, India
There are two sets of key issues in the potential entry of Blair Company, Inc.', and its projected entry into the Indian consumer water purification market in India. The first set of issues involves the structure of the company. The second set of issues involves the positioning of the product in the market.
Concerning the issues of company structure, several alternates are possible. There are advantages and disadvantages to each of the three possibilities Chatterjee identified.
The first alternative was a joint working arrangement. If this manner of entry were chosen, the Indian company, to which Blair would supply key purifier components, would remit license fees to Blair for, typically, five years with an additional three-year renewal option.
In a joint venture, Blair Company would partner with an existing Indian company to produce the water purifiers. The third option would be for Blair Company to purchase…