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One benefit of using thoriated tungsten electrodes is that they require a much lower temperature for welding than pure tungsten. This means that exposure occurs at a relatively slow rate. Still, exposure must be limited.
It is possible to minimize hazards by using thorium-free tungsten electrodes when possible. The American Welding Society (2003) lists cerium, lanthanum, yttrium, and zirconium as possible alternatives to the radioactive thorium. A second line of defense listed by the American Welding Society (2003) is the installation of an effective dust collection system as well as an effective ventilation system. Of course, training and intelligent storage of thorium are also crucial workplace safety measures. Dust generated by grinding should also be collected and properly disposed of, in accordance with local, state and federal regulations (American Welding Society 2003). When adequate precautions and controls are taken, the ill effects of thoriated tungsten electrodes are likely to be…… [Read More]
When he was rehired in September, he received a month of training and again failed to pass the test standardized by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, for at-LH welding again. When he was laid off after four months, along with five other welders, he had never passed the test Bechtel had designed for high level welders to qualify for the at-LH welding level.
It appears that Bechtel corporation was conscientiously trying to train Ligon to maintain and upgrade his welding competence, as he was trained for four more weeks than other employees (five weeks in all), and was allowed to take the test twice.
Bechtel did not deliberately discriminate against him in testing, as the test was standardized and every welder in the company, African-American or white, had to pass it. The test was designed according to objective criteria that tested welders on various types of welding work…… [Read More]
American Welding Society
Compare and contrast the confined space recommendations made by the American Welding Society with those found in Chapter 13 of the textbook.
Chapter thirteen explains confined spaces, as open - topped areas of more than 4 feet in depth. The American Welding Society (AWS) defines this as small rooms, pits, vats, sewers and many other enclosed compartments. The differences between them, is chapter thirteen defines these areas specifically, based upon certain dimensions in contracts with the AWS. ("AWS Safety & Health Fact Sheets," 2013) (Suruda & Pettit, 1994)
Using other web resources, compare and contrast the AWS recommendations for controlling exposure to chromium and nickel welding fumes with those of other organizations. If you were the safety professional reviewing the hazards for manual welding involving exposure to these substances, what controls would you establish?
The AWS recommends not breathing gases and staying away from clouds of toxic…… [Read More]
Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry -- a literature review" and this was published in the Annals of Occupational Hygiene. This paper notes that welding presents a challenge for industrial hygienists with respect to controlling exposure to fumes. The reason is that arc welders typically move from site to site, and these frequent changes in site make it difficult to set up ventilation systems or utilize other similar controls. Thus, the welders are exposed to fumes, because the nature of their work creates such fumes, in these environments where it is impractical to install ventilation systems. Some of the worst industries for this type of exposure are the construction and shipbuilding industries.
The authors looked at the literature on this subject. In particular, they were interested in finding out if LEVs have proven to be a solution. Portable LEV systems are the most…… [Read More]
Confined Space, Electrodes, Chromium
A confined space is an enclosed or partially enclosed space that is not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy, it has a restricted entrance or exit by way and size, fined spaces as well poor ventilation. Confined spaces can be below or above ground, it can be found in almost any workplace. A confined space, despite its name, is not necessarily small. Examples of confined spaces include silos, vats, hoppers and utility vaults.
The AS defined confined spaces as having limited space and modes of ingress and egress as well as poor ventilation (American elding Society, 2003a). hile the NIOSH defined confined spaces as sufficient space enough for a person to enter and conduct work, limited means of entry and exit, and does not suit continuous employment. The AS definition is more restricted than that of the broader (Hammer & Price, 2001).
Safety…… [Read More]
Develop a get a small trailer free for bringing in a new customer promotion to drive up word-of-mouth advertising.
As the word-of-mouth campaign is running also get brochures, testimonials and even small MPEG files for use on the Internet to further strengthen the expertise of BC in this market.
Roll out the section of the website with landscaping products including the MPEG files.
Develop a four-color brochure that is heavily weighted with customer testimonials and mail it to all landscapers within 300 miles.
Using the call center that is also calling other businesses, start calling landscapers and setting up appointments for a demonstration of the trailers.
Attend as many landscaping shows as possible to keep the name of the company active in this market.
Freight and Logistics
An entirely new market segment for BC, this is one that will require the enclosure of trailers. BC needs to do…… [Read More]
Project Management: Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Project in Singapore
Background of Complex Shipyard Construction Project
Project Overview and Objective
ork Process of Building Construction
Issue Analysis in Shipyard Construction Project Management
Literature Review of Project Management
Issues in Scope Management
Methodology of Scope Management
Lessons Learned from Scope Management
Issues in Cost Management
Methodology of Cost Management
Lessons Learned from Cost Management
Issues in Human Resources
Methodology of HR Management
Lessons Learned from Human Resource Management
Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Construction Project in Singapore
This paper introduces the special features of a completed shipyard project, together with its construction and human resource management processes as well. The organization of the paper provides an introduction to the topic, an overview and background of the In the first part, this project illustrates overview of the complex background of a complex ship-building project as…… [Read More]
The economic realities of globalization goes beyond just the affects of direct competition for Lincoln. Globalization has significantly affected Lincoln's customers as well increasing their need to continuously improve competitiveness. For this reason, even small improvements on cost efficiency or quality can equate to big profits for customers. In fact, Lincoln's mission is centered on providing the most innovative, cost-effective, quality welding and cutting solutions to their company ("Corporate").Lincoln has capitalized on this with producing one of the few technologically differentiated products in the marketplace.
Another important social trend affecting the company is unionization. In it's long history, Lincoln has never felt the effects of unionization. Much of this is due to management's continued belief from early on that management and employees were an intrinsically intertwined team. Currently, the average employee earns nearly twice as much as other Cleveland area factory workers. However, despite this significant difference in payroll costs,…… [Read More]
Although the precise mechanics involved remain unclear, it is likely that during this phase, the high defect boundaries serve as attractors for any imperfections that already existed in the crystal lattice and that the nanocrystals which are, by contrast, relatively defect -- free, become increasingly refined and near crystalline perfection.
3. The final step in the process involves random reorientations of the single-crystalline grains with regards to their neighboring grains. At the point where the grain structure achieves its limiting size (this size limit relates to the particles' crystal symmetry and the energy and amount of mechanical milling employed), the material become amenable to plastic deformation through grain boundary sliding. In fact, this type of deformation mechanism has been discerned in superplasticity in which a high diffusion rate stage is capable of accommodating such forces at any strain rate. esearchers have posited that in the case of the nanocrystalline, the…… [Read More]
PPE (personal protective equipment) on the job.
esearch shows that Personal protective equipment (PPE) actually denotes to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other clothes or gear intended to protect the wearer's body from damage. The dangers that are addressed by protective equipment have to do with the following: physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter (Sakaguchi, 2010). Protective equipment is normally worn for job connected occupational health and safety purposes, in addition to for sports and other recreational actions. "Protective clothing" is useful to traditional groups of clothing, and "protective gear" has something to do with for instance guards, shields, pads, or masks, and others. With that said, this paper will discuss the how important it is to have the PPE protection
The main purpose of personal protective equipment has a lot to do with reducing employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not…… [Read More]
Pieces must first be cut down to the sizes and specifications listed on the plans you have selected, and shaped into the various different parts for both the siding and the interior of the submarine. This shaping and cutting can require some heavy-duty laser and cutting-edge equipment -- again, keep those friends close, unless you happen to have enough funds to acquire several dozen different pieces of heavy machinery. The heavy equipment needs continue with the next step, which is joining the individual pieces called for in the design through heavy-duty welding, utilizing electric arcs. A watertight craft able to withstand the pressures of deep-sea dives is of course essential to your happiness in your new sub, so make sure those welds are complete.
Once the craft is built, you will need some fissionable material -- enriched uranium is most typically used -- to power the vessel (and, if you're…… [Read More]
Engineering Materials: High Strength Steel and Bus Seat Frames
The purpose of this paper is to conduct research and the review the findings. This paper seeks an understanding of the engineering material of high strength steel, the process in which it is made and the items it is used to build specifically that of bus seat frames. Over the course of the research, it is has been determined that high strength steel is effective when used in building lightweight yet safe and sturdy bus seat frames. This construct lends to the overall safety of buses using this material, specifically in existing models found in buses designed by a company called Fainsa located in Barcelona, Spain. This paper explores the process and design of these seats by looking at the process in which high strength steel is created. By understanding how high strength steel is made, one can better understand its…… [Read More]
Installing Handrails at Victoria BC Ogden Point Breakwater:
Zapco elding and Fabricating, a Victoria Company, has been awarded the contract to construct an aluminum and stainless steel cable handrail at the Ogden Point breakwater. The firm was awarded this contract because of the good price, capacity, and past working relations with the Greater Victoria Harbour Authority. hile it's a non-profit organization, the Greater Victoria Harbour Authority owns the property and invited 10 firms to present proposals for handrails based on its design, cost, and timeline specifications. Zapco elding and Fabricating has constructed handrails in the past at Fisherman's
harf and in the Inner Harbour (Petrescu par, 4). The main reason for the construction of the aluminum and stainless steel cable handrail at Ogden Point breakwater is because it will lessen the installation time and the duration the breakwater is closed. Despite of these goals, the project has attracted split opinions…… [Read More]
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]
As compared to carbon steel, the development of high speed steel has many advantages over carbon and is therefore more popular in high speed applications (lack, 2010).
This type of steel works due to several very important factors such as the type of metals used, high treatment temperatures and its ability to melt metals. eing an alloy that combines several metals, high speed steel can be kept hard even under extreme temperatures because the steel can provide heat resistance. The steel also remains hard even under intensive high temperatures due to the high temperature treatment.
This steel is an alloy which combines several metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, cobalt and others. The most commonly used type of steel in high speed steel products is tungsten. Nonetheless, various types and designations of high speed steel exist with each of these steels having their own special combinations. Due to its ability…… [Read More]
Tennessee Scrap ecyclers Association v. Bredesen, the court affirmed the law in question and upheld the state's ability to set the terms under which it would allow transactions regarding scrap metal to take place. The court noted that the problem the law was designed to thwart was a local issue and thus did not violate the Fifth Amendment's Commerce Clause (State law, 2009, Cengage). Also, the additional burdens imposed upon the scrap metal dealers were so minimal it did not affect their ability to participate in interstate commerce, nor did it give additional privileges to in-state dealers. "The government did not take possession of any property; it only regulated the method in which the business is lawfully transacted" and there was a compelling law enforcement issue at stake -- to prevent transactions in stolen merchandise (State law, 2009, Cengage).
In the case of American Canine Foundation v. City…… [Read More]
The main hazards related to LNG include:
upture due to Corrosion
upture while excavation
upture while excavation
upture during an earthquake
upture due to mechanical failure
upture at compressor
upture at inspection stations
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire
Gas leak from infrastructure
Fire involving combustible
LPG or Diesel
Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks
Welding failure welding casting failure
Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration
Failure due to external loading or impact
Underground pipe rupture of transmission pipeline
Pipe rupture at main line valve sites.
upture of adjacent gas pipeline
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Gas leak from pipeline infrastructure
Drop of pipe from pipe lifts
Accommodation fire involving combustible construction LPG or Diesel
Diesel fire involving mobile fuel tanker
Uncontrolled release of LNG
Uncontrolled release of refrigerant gas
Uncontrolled release of by- product…… [Read More]
The vertical spread of the fire (with temperatures in the $1,000-1500 range) to the stage area resulted in tensile strength of the steel to weaken which caused the roof to fall on the lobby fire wall. The horizontal spread of the fire towards the hallways made steel pieces fall into the prop assembly (Poole & Stambaugh, 1997)
On receiving the emergency call at 9:19 AM, the Strasburg fire department dispatched their team by 9:21 AM. However due to several instances of false alarms in the past, the dispatch center had informed their units that the warning had not been issued by an alarm system. There were not a lot of windows to see the fire from, so the employees in the theater guided the firemen on where to position their engine. On receiving the signal that all the workers had been removed from the building, the firefighters started their hoses.…… [Read More]
086 per foot. Welding gas and welding wire are $0.031 and $0.156 per foot respectively. The steel cost is $4.50 per foot. Overhead costs are not included in the calculation as they are not incremental cash flows. Only incremental cash flows should be included -- arbitrary overhead allocations are irrelevant. Whether made in house or purchased, the pipes cost will eventually contribute to the company's fixed costs, but it is not appropriate to consider this as this stage. The total cost per foot of $5.77.
However, there is a wild card to the costs. The cost of joining two eight-foot pipes to make a longer pipe is $9.78 in labor costs per long pipe. There are "many" of these in the project. It is not known how many, but even if we assume that one of these joints will be required for every two pipes, that only adds $0.62 to…… [Read More]
Oh now, there was no social life after work. e had work at home to do. I had a husband and two boys to feed. The housecleaning was my job too. My mom was very sick and she moved in with us in Massachusetts. e had a rough go of it, but we made it.
Question. hat did they pay you at the munitions factory?
Aunt Etta. I think we got about $25 a week. It wasn't a lot of money but money went a lot farther back then. Plus we had a big garden and I canned vegetables and froze some too, like corn and lima beans. The worst day I had at that factory was the day they fired us all. It was one week after VJ day, and when we came in the place was quiet, no machines running. They lined us up, gave us our paychecks,…… [Read More]
Lincoln Electric Expansion to India
The purpose of this assignment is to evaluate whether Lincoln Electric should expand its operations to India or not. In this assignment, firstly the facts are presented. Secondly, an analysis is presented about the Lincoln Electric's business strategies and its suitability to operate in India. Lastly, some recommendations are given which can help Lincoln Electric to expand in India successfully.
Lincoln Electric (LE) is a U.S.-based company headquartered in Cleveland. LE is a manufacturing concern generally deals in consumables and equipment related to arc welding. Lincoln Electric is a large set-up having 39 plants world-wide.
Due to fast-paced growth of India, Lincoln Electric is considering to expand its operations to India. This is a proposal and LE has to evaluate it considering the business opportunities in India. It is a fact that India provides foreign businesses to reduce their costs by offering…… [Read More]
Lincoln Electric Company is seen as the world leader in arc welding and cutting products. The demand for welding products is consistently rising given exponential growth in important sectors of construction and energy and similar infrastructure projects. Important end markets for Lincoln Electric include pipeline, building, metal forming, power facility construction, defense and construction industries etc. McKinsey's 7-S Model can be applied to Lincoln Electric Company to analyze the company's strategy and management policies. These seven S. cover some important strategic areas of operations including strategy, structure, systems, style, skills, staff and shared values. These are some core-competencies which are to be addressed carefully in order too successfully proceed in a competitive market. Lincoln Electric Company operates in a very tough environment where industry has place for only a limited number of players. Every single player has to literally fight for shrinking projects in order to survive and for this…… [Read More]
Solutions to the Present Value Problems
The study uses the formula below to solve the problems.
Original Equation: FV = PV * (1+ i) n
Manipulation: Divide both sides by (1 +i) n
Final Equation: PV = FV / (1+ i) n or PV = FV * (1+i) -n
PV = Present Value
FV =Future Value
i= interest rates n = Number of years.
Using the formula presented above, the paper calculates the PV of the $10,000 bond with the 6% of annual coupon at the end of the five-year. Using the Excel Software 2007 for the calculation, the answers to the problems are as follows:
At 6% interest rates, the PV is as follows:
PV = $10,000 / (1 + 0.06)
Using the excel formula, the solution is as follows:
=B1 / (1+B2)^
Number of Years…… [Read More]
Safety within the workplace is a central issue that Occupational Safety and Health Authority hold with the highest consideration than any other matter within the workplace that can potentially affect the employees. OSHA has in place lucid rules and regulations guiding the safeguarding of the employees safety within organizations. There are various initiatives taken by organization to ensure that there is safety within the workplace. egardless of the safety initiative taken, employees should feel free to report any illnesses or injuries in the workplace if not then the entire workforce will be at risk. With a sound safety program in place there will be a reduction of accidents at the workplace. This paper will hence concentrate on the issue of workplace safety, its application and the different approaches that both the employees and the employers can always put into practice in order to ensure safety of the employees…… [Read More]
Type A Project:
Team of 3-4 students will study a manufacturing or service company operation; the objective is to improve the equality of their final product. This could be done through improving any task in product realization process (Design, raw material, manufacturing, packaging, after sale …). The subject of the improvement has to be directly related to quality. The team will use quality analysis and improvement methods / techniques we learn in this course (six sigma methodologies in recommended).
Ideal project will focus on problems doable during time span of the course (i.e. not to much complex, also not trivial) and demonstrate the use of quality improvement tools on solving the problem at hand.
• Full description of your company,
• It’s quality management system.
• Quality improvement opportunities
• Implementation of quality improvement tool
• Final outcomes
• Conclusion "
Each of these aspects of the instructions…… [Read More]
229). The John Howard government cemented the lesson as a "significant shift in our dealings with the South Pacific," (quoted in McDougall and Sherman, p. 178) and as a result Australia now effectively reserves the right to step in to maintain (or restore) the rule of law throughout the region.
If anything, Australia's relationship to Papua New Guinea is stronger than its interest in the Solomon Islands (Wainwright 2003, p. 26), given its colonial history there. Somewhat more recently, Australia provided tacit material support for Papua's invasion of the breakaway Bougainville faction (McMillan 1997, p. 8) before the Sandline mercenary scandal and ensuing general strike made policy makers rethink their role in the affair and, by extension, the nightmare prospect of a true state failure in the region:
In today's globalized world, the failure of [a] modern nation state would not simply mean that its people would revert to the…… [Read More]
Pluto is the Roman god of the underworld, and Poe is foreshadowing a hellish and horrific experience for the narrator. He also sets up an expectation in the reader and truly tests the thin but palpable sympathetic emotional response that is built in the opening lines of the story. He foreshadows the narrator's actions by stating subtly that the narrator has begun to feel strangely as the story unfolds. The narrator states, "(I) experienced a radical alteration for the worse. I grew, day by day, more moody, more irritable, more regardless of the feelings of others. I suffered myself to use intemperate language to my wife. At length, I even offered her personal violence. My pets, of course, were made to feel the change in my disposition. I not only neglected, but ill-used them.." The reader, now draw into the story, begins to feel like the narrator is not quite…… [Read More]
The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).
Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…… [Read More]
If Nigerian local content law is not complied with equires licensee to submit a detailed programme for recruitment and training of Nigerians
(Nigerian Local Content Policy)
2.3. History of the LCL
The Local Content Law was signed into law in April 2010 by acting President Goodluck Jonathan. In brief, the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry Local Content Development Bill 2010 places "…obligations on upstream oil companies in the areas of finance, community and local workforce" (Examining Nigeria's Local Content Act). The process that led to this Bill began in 2007. The initiator of the Bill, Senator Lee Maeba, provides some interesting insight into the originating impetus that led to the final acceptance of the Act. He states,
I saw that there is no law guiding the activities of Nigerian companies in the oil and gas industry and because of that, there has been a capital drift...and that is the reason…… [Read More]
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…… [Read More]
Their endeavor adds more value to the fields of mathematics and engineering as it has a dual significance. On the one hand, the study is valuable from a theoretical standpoint as it deals with theoretical aspects and finds a theoretical conclusion. The authors finally find that "double closed-loop control can improve dynamic characteristics of arc welding power source, which can meet request of SAW technology."
The finding virtually means that those interested in modeling and analysis of arc weld power supply can seek the article and expand their knowledge on the subject. As a parenthesis, most research endeavors also have the academic advantage of being based on through research of the available literature. This research is integrated in a Literature review section which restates the most important findings in the specialized literature, in a centralized manner and through the lenses of relevance to the study at hand. The absence of…… [Read More]
We are also able to provide facilities for accommodation, transportation, and interim lodging. We are your Human Resource solution for each of these issues, and any others.
Contract Employment (Engineering, IT, Construction, Hospitality, and Logistics)
The 21st century has brought a number of innovations to the Asian-Oceanic region. Many of these innovations focus on engineering and workers who can handle more complex techniques, machinery, and processes; IT and software; transportation and logistics; and hospitality. We provide highly-qualified, competent manpower and engineering professionals to fulfill the high demand of organizations that specialize in a number of construction and production segments. We have six recruitment divisions to specifically handle manpower needs in the following areas:
MECHANICAL (Metal Stamping, Metal Fabrication, Precision, Plastic Injection)
Engineering expertise: Process, Tooling, Design Mechanical; CNC Machinists and Technicians.
ELECTRICAL (Electronics, Semiconductor, PCBA, etc.)
Engineering expertise: M&E, Instrument, R&D, Telecommunications, Testing, QA & QC
OIL &…… [Read More]
We spent a lot of time thinking about the investment into our fixed costs including the welding machine and work shed. During the design phase, we also evaluated the cost of each and every item that went into the manufacture of the lawn ornament. Knowing that the cost of every screw would affect the eventual price, we kept in mind the cost of other similar products on the market. For example, we noticed that similar lawn ornaments do not sell for much more than $20 and we therefore wanted to keep our product within that range. We differentiated our product because of its inclusion of familiar items in the manufacturing process, which offer a "green" look and feel to the ornament. For example, we painted washers white then used them as eyes instead of finding a supplier of specially-made eyes. This not only kept costs down, but was integral to…… [Read More]
(Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer Data ook, 2009)
asic components of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers include the following basic components although there is a plethora of existing specific features used in design of the Shell and Heat Tube Exchanger. The components specifically are:
(1) Tubes -- "...the basic component of the shell and tube exchanger, providing the heat transfer surface between one fluid flowing inside the tube and the other fluid flowing across the outside of the tubes. The tubes may be seamless or welded and most commonly made of copper or steel alloys. Other alloys of nickel, titanium, or aluminum may also be required for specific applications. The tubes may be either bare or with extended or enhanced surfaces on the outside." (Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer Data ook. 2009) Corrugated tubes have been more recently developed and is stated to have heat transfer enhancement both inside and out as…… [Read More]
The EPA had been developing new regulations at a pace that was deemed too slow by Congress. Only one of the interim standards set in 1975 had been updated. There were also deficiencies in the implementation. Microbial contamination had not been sufficiently addressed. By the early 1980s, synthetic chemicals were being found in drinking water with increasing frequency. The 1986 Amendment therefore addressed these issues. Maximum levels for many contaminants were either set or updated. The Federal government also took a greater role in the provision of drinking water by compelling the EPA to establish regulations within specific time frames.
Further amendments to the law were enacted in subsequent years, governing specific issues that had not been addressed in the original legislation. New components included stricter crackdown on coliform, the elimination of giardia, legionella and other pathogens and rules governing pipes and welding, specifically to curtail the use of lead…… [Read More]
egulations and requirements
The Federal Aviation Authority -- FAA passed the "Vision100 - Century of Aviation eauthorization Act," which among other regulations also allowed for the allocation of the AIP funds for the facilities like hangars and fuel farms. This is stated in the law that the secretary can pay the funds "apportioned to the airport sponsor under section 47114 (d) (3) (a) and if the Secretary determines that the sponsor has made adequate provision for financing airside needs of the airport." ("Airport Improvement Program," 2004) Therefore all planners and builders are required to submit a business plan. In the event where the promoter of the proposed airport is not requiring the genera fund, still considering these guidelines will help in determining the profitability and the types of facility and structures required. The foremost concern is to evaluate the need. The plan must show the demand envisaged for the facility.…… [Read More]
Meantime, while he was doing those simple tasks in the construction trades thirty-five years ago, Mike began to dream big. In those dreams Mike could see himself advancing in this industry, making a successful career out of construction and building, and eventually becoming a teacher. So he always showed up to work early, he always worked hard, learning everything he could while on the job, and he showed respect and loyalty to those in supervisory positions.
Mike also began attending classroom training and continued with his on-the-job training and began to work himself into a career that he enjoyed very much. Seeing the fruits of one's labor - building a house from ground up, from start to finish - is among the many joys that Mike receives from his efforts.
NUTS and BOLTS of LEARNING and TEACHING:
Becoming knowledgeable and skilled in the construction business doesn't mean just learning how…… [Read More]
According to Montgomery (2003), "Higher floors of buildings tended to rent at a substantial discount, due to the need to climb several flights of stairs to reach one's workplace or residence. Otis's invention of the safety elevator at mid-century heralded the end of this constraint on vertical real estate development" (495). Likewise, Masden notes that the increasingly confident use of the relatively new ' elevators' also fueled demand for more steel frame structures; such new steel-framed buildings were known during this early period as "elevator buildings" instead of skyscrapers, a term that was first coined in 1883 (Marsden 78).
The underlying theory behind steel frame construction during its early use, though, fueled some well-intentioned but misguided efforts that adversely influenced future applications, selection of building materials, site selection and other salient factors involved in construction. In this regard, Mumford (1959) reports that, "Unfortunately, the skyscraper was an almost automatic response…… [Read More]
It was observed by Cowper that the smallest loads could change the shape of the chain and thus the calculations for the load bearing capacities came to be formulated. Finally the movement of the load itself, where the curve is distorted when the load is at one end and not yet approached the middle, the curve at the middle takes a parabola. Thus the suspension bridges were modified as per Cowper's theory to include an arch in the bridge length that matched the curves of the chains, and it was also a feature that was named the 'inverted arch bridge.' (Cowper, 1847, p. 7)
In many ways the suspended bridge is superior over a span that is very long and for hundreds of years it has demonstrated its superiority over the other types by being consistently selected as the model for bridges. The origin of the suspension bridge was traced…… [Read More]
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…… [Read More]
This could be strengthened by exploring the issue of whether or not governmental guidelines were established on firm science and not simply using anecdotal evidence of perceived safety and a low risk of getting caught as reasons to pursue this course of action.
The format very clearly and directly follows the guidelines given, and is quite clear in its argument because of this. Each section and each paragraph develops its own focused idea, while at the same time each of these individual ideas serve the central ideas and arguments of the paper quite well and logically flow, building information and ideas in a logical manner. No irrelevant information is included, though again certain issues are ignored.
There are very few grammar errors in this paper (one unnecessary comma use and one improper sentence construction were noted), and none were recurring nor issues of proofreading or editing, exactly. The…… [Read More]
Other important information for each item is also available such as details of the suppliers, lead-time, and lot size policy. The inventory record also contains changes in order that may result from withdrawals, canceled orders, stock receipts, or similar events.
4. What benefits and what problems would you expect given the company's level production policy?
The company's policy of level output works in such a way that prior to peak demand periods, excess output is placed in the inventory to be used in case it is needed. This excess output is then used when the demand for supply exceeds the production capacity during the periods of peak production. To be more specific: Demand is highest in the first and third quarters. During the second and fourth quarters, therefore, excess output goes into inventory, and this excess output is then used during the first and their quarters.
This seems a sensible…… [Read More]
Michael Cooley (1972) has suggested that the drawing office has been downgraded in importance as a result of the finer division of labor in engineering that began in the 1930s. He described how the creative design element had become increasingly separated from the work of executing drawings. The fragmentation of shop floor jobs was, according to Cooley, paralleled by fragmentation of the job of the designer/drafter. Until the 1930s, drafters in ritain were responsible for designing a component, stress testing it, selecting materials for it, writing the specifications, and liaising with the shop floor and customers. ut starting in the 1930s, these functions were progressively broken down into separate jobs and taken over by various specialists, such as stress testers, metallurgists, tribologists, methods and planning engineers, and customer liaison engineers, leaving drafters with only the job of drawing (3D Systems Corporation, 2001).
In effect, in the ritain of the 1930s,…… [Read More]
Porfirio Diaz "began as an activist against reaction and privilege and ended as a longtime dictator and staunch defender of the very forces he had once opposed," (Tuck). Indeed, Porfirio's life is characterized by a series of ironies. Porfirio was a Mestizo. His mother was a Native woman and his father was a working class Criollo (Mexican-born Spaniard). Some sources trace the Diaz family on both sides to Mestizo, "descended from both Mixtec Indians and Spaniards," (Mabry). In any case, Porfirio Diaz's father Jose de la Cruz Diaz died when Porfirio was three years old. Porfirio was one of eight children. Although Porfirio was "born into extreme poverty and never even reached complete literacy," and although the "early years of his life were filled with economic hardship and tragedy, the man would become one of the enemies of Mexico's poor (Minster n.d.; "Porfirio Diaz - from Military Hero…… [Read More]
physical agents that exposes health and safety hazards to workers within the work places. Some of the physical agents are noise, vibrations, explosive atmospheres, electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiations as well as optical radiation. It should be noted that there are huge risks that are associated with these physical agents and unless measures are taken to contain the situation, serious health and safety risks may occur. There are also a number of directives that have laid down the minimum requirements aimed at protecting the workers.
From this report, it has been noted that the various hazards that are associated with the construction work include dust, hard physical labor, vibration, chemical vapors, radon as well as atmospheres lacking oxygen. Similarly, construction work is always done in pressurized environments. Therefore, underground casuals are exposed to serious risks as well as fatal injuries. Other physical hazards are exceptional as far as underground work is…… [Read More]
The confidence of non-native speaker teachers is expected to be strengthened by better, more direct, access to the way native speakers use the language. ut an option not on offer so far (and, of course, a task impossible for a corpus called the ritish National Corpus) is to give these non-native speaker teachers access to a corpus capturing the successful use of English among non-native speakers, as a lingua franca, thus offering supremely relevant models for many learners wishing to use the language for similar purposes. So when Aston and urnard refer to ?the political implications of changing the basis on which assessments of correctness or appropriateness of usage are made? what has changed about the "basis" is how it can be accessed, not how it is defined. There is also another problem that operates at a deeper and unrecognized level: the language attitudes of those who, paradoxically, are themselves…… [Read More]
The painting begged me to ask of it why intermittent shadows struck its sides, why yellow-golden light graced its innards. I guessed that it must have been nighttime that Stella tried to capture, for at night the shining lights from the city would flicker against the bridge and bring out the character of the steel in ways sunlight could not. Sunlight was too harsh and strong; it would overpower the subtleties of steel. Steel appreciated the gentle caress of moonlight and streetlamp and the headlights of cars.
The more I questioned Stella's use of light in "Old Brooklyn Bridge," the greater the painting shone. I was starting to see colors where I had not previously seen. Rich and joyful blues complemented the blood red; yellows and greens accented the thick black background. Orbs of soft white light emanating from the underbelly of the bridge illuminated its sides proudly. Contrast between…… [Read More]
total quality management (TQM), and statistical process control (SPC) implementation in a manufacturing plant set up by a foreign company in the border zone of North Mexico, in order to produce finished goods for export. Information on this type of organization was made available by a 2003 study conducted by Nael Aly and Daniel Scholss and published in The TQM Magazine (Vol. 15, Iss. 1; pg. 30). These companies offer a world of opportunities for an intrepid business-person, as labor is cheap, there are many commercial facilities, government support is high and Mexico's proximity to the United States makes it perfect for developing such a business. Effects on the American economy are difficult to evaluate -- both from a producer's and a consumer's points-of-view. Lower salaries than in the U.S. translate into higher work productivity, while low transportation costs and North American commercial agreements mean that access to the U.S.…… [Read More]
This requires talented employees and excellent management of them. At this time, judging from the mission statement and case study, it looks like Lincoln is more focused on its global presence and product innovation as well as diversification. These three elements work well together and bring the company into the 21st century. By employing new technologies not only to product development but also to communications, allows the company to exist and grow over the miles. Without clear objectives, it can be difficult to lead and produce. Still Lincoln is pursuing the acquisition and joint ventures to allow their product a global presence without setting up the company for too much risk. These ventures also serve as investments and although require some risk will payoff over the long run.
Lincoln has pursued a global strategy of acquisition and joint venture to better its global identity. At the same time, it has…… [Read More]
Gordon Adam's petition is not only well argued and properly reasoned, but, additionally, it managed to prove that all the arguments given against his petition were based on false reasoning. From the entire set of arguments, the only one that could actually be used against his argumentation was the one stating that he needed college algebra in order to "satisfy the university math requirement in order to graduate." Something like when you ask why you have to pay all kinds of different taxes: you see no real benefit, but some higher authority, in this case the state, in Gordon's case, the educational system and the college authorities, convinces you that this is necessary because it is so required!
On the other hand, because the college authorities' argumentation is based on all kind of fallacies, clearly dismantled one by one in Gordon's argumentation, it is my opinion that Gordon should be…… [Read More]
The scanner's ability to translate typewriter characters into bit-mapped image into ASCII text depends on a number of factors, including the sensitivity of the device itself and the legibility and method of preparation of the original document; however, improvements are being made all of the time and even formerly graphic-based scanning systems such as Adobe's notoriously slow PDF applications have incorporated character recognition systems that allow for textual scanning. Some of these character recognition systems incorporate features that provide output options to convert the text into a format used by common word-processing programs such as TF, Word and so forth. According to Dry and Lawler, the term "scanning" is frequently used today to describe the process of creating digitized images; in this approach, a graphic picture of the page, rather than an actual transcription of the text itself, is stored in the computer. "While this provides an effective means of…… [Read More]
Criminal Court Observation
I must admit that when I entered the courthouse I was a bit nervous. It was my first time to attend any trial, let alone a criminal one. However, I thought that a criminal case would be far more interesting than a civil one. Yet, despite my decision, and my belief that it would be "no big deal" to watch a criminal court case, I began to feel very nervous the minute I hit the line for the metal detector. It's funny -- but I always feel just a little bit paranoid before I go through one of those machines -- almost as if I really were hiding some kind of weapon without knowing it.
Anyway, as I finally made my way into the courtroom after a long wait at security, I certainly did not feel any more at ease. For one, the room was too warm,…… [Read More]
Increased tear production, inflammation, accumulation of blood, clouding of the cornea, burns.
Unlikely, due to gaseous state: frost-bite of the lips, mouth, and throat possible.
Upper airway irritation, cough, choking, shortness of breath, breathing difficulty, vomiting, narrowing of major airways, fluid in lungs, lung lesions, upper airway closure resulting in death, cardiovascular collapse due to low oxygen.
Irritation, ulceration, first, second, and third degree burns, frost-bite.
Chemical Name: Acetylene
Acetylen, Ethine, Ethyne, Narcylene
DOT Hazard Class:
In pure form, gas is odorless; commercial form, odor is garlic-like.
119°F, -84° C
Vapor:.906 (air=1), Liquid: N/A
0.00117 g/ml @ 0° C
Flammable Limits (% by volume)
Lower: 2.5, Upper: 100
Solubility in Water:…… [Read More]
The worker on a fast line such as a candy cane maker has little control over their environment. They must perform more like machines themselves. The welder on an auto manufacturing line may have more control over their environment. For instance they may make the welds necessary and then press a button to send the car on down the line. They control how fast the line moves. However, it is much more important for the welds to be performed correctly. If an imperfect candy cane goes out, the consequences are less serious than if a car frame is welded incorrectly. This is the different amounts of control that a worker has in the speed of production.
More experienced welders would be able to make the welds faster than inexperienced welders. However, speed is not the most important element when welding automobile frames. They must be done right, even if a…… [Read More]
It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…… [Read More]
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…… [Read More]
Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones
THEE SHOULD BE NO GOVENMENT MANDATED GUN-FEE ZONES IN PUBLIC SPACE.
Banning guns for masses and establishing gun-free zones are one of the most controversial topics in American politics. There are clearly two schools of thoughts on this subject. The right to keep a gun and displaying it publically is directly related to individual's rights under the second amendment of the prevailing constitution. However, despite the recognition of the citizens' rights, one cannot ignore the dangers of gun-free zones. Every year, there are cases reported, resulting from arms used in the gun-free zones. Maximum cases were reported in educational institutions where ammunition was used by children and teenagers. Publically mandated gun-free zones have resulted in loss of many precious lives.
There have been many cases reported where emotionally unstable individuals killed number of individuals in the public place. Majority of these massacres took place in educational…… [Read More]
Caro and DeMaria
Anthony Caro and Walter DeMaria:
wo Masters of Modern Art
Modern art is a conglomeration of talented individuals and unique means of expressing oneself. Each piece of art is therefore a process of inspiration and thought provocation incomparable to any other. wo pieces that are truly unique in this movement are Anthony Caro's sculpture entitled "Midday," and Walter DeMaria's installation, "he Earth Room." hese two singular installations are perhaps not very well-known, but they are important to analyze. he paper below will thus explore the specific processes of these two works of art, but also their place in art history.
o begin, one must analyze Caro's "Midday." he sculpture was made in 1960 out of steel. he dimensions are approximately 240 x 96.5 x 366 centimeters, and the work is painted yellow. here is no easy way to describe Caro's work, which has traveled from the MoMA…… [Read More]
Different Fuel Cell Technologies
U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…… [Read More]
Designing a Safety System
Safety management system is a management policy to prevent or minimize injury within a workplace. Top organizations across the United States are increasingly investing in safety management because of the general believe that safety is central precondition to market competitiveness and "an integral part of high quality business operations." (Tervonen, Haapasalo, & Niemela, 2009 P. 17). Safety is defined as a state where all the business related risks are managed at acceptable level. Typically, safety management is a management policy used to protect workers from undetermined accidents. Safety management is very similar to corporate safety where corporate safety is a holistic management strategy to protect an organization as a whole against accidents, misuse, harm and crime.
Objective of this project is to design safety management system for Hobart Brothers Co. To design safety management system for the company, the paper provides essential components that could prevent…… [Read More]