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orking for wages is the principal means for obtaining income and getting ahead in American society. ork is the key to personal independence and an effective way to achieve a meaningful role in our society. Significant participation in the workforce also is a necessary condition for receiving benefits from our nation's major social welfare programs, unemployment insurance, workmen's compensation, Social Security retirement and disability payments, Medicare health insurance, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. ith one major exception, adults living outside of an institution, who are unable to work because of their age, physical condition, or other limitations, must depend on family, friends, and/or a meager patchwork of public relief and private charities for income, food, clothing, and housing (e.g., Supplemental Security Income (SSI), food stamps, general relief, homeless shelters, soup kitchens).
Analysis -- Labor Supply and Demand
Parents of minor children (usually women), whose level of income…
1. Blank, Rebecca M. "Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States." Journal of Economic Literature 40, no. 4 (December 2002): 1105-1166.
2. Finneran, Lisa, and Morgan Kelly. "Social Networks and Inequality." Journal of Urban Economics 53, no. 2 (March 2004): 282-299.
3. Gimble, Daniel E. "Institutionalist Labor Market Theory and the Veblenian Dichotomy." Journal of Economic Issues 25, no. 3 (September 1991): 625-649.
4. Hillard, Michael, and Richard McIntyre. "Is There a New Institutional Consensus in Labor Economics?" Journal of Economic Issues 28, no. 2 (June 2005): 619-629.
Another main point that authors Grogger and Karoly point out is the fact that the samples used to help build and implement the 1996 welfare reform, specifically the TANF legislation, were skewed in their representation of specific demographics (66). As the need for welfare affects different groups, the need for reform grows out of the necessity to better serve the populations in need. As the 1996 welfare reform events fade further into history, the need to revamp and reform the system grows. As with any government assistance program there are going to be individuals who abuse it and improper fitting of certain demographics. ithout a doubt, the political and economic landscapes have changed so much since 1996 that a reform is necessary. Another key point that quickly becomes relevant when talking about the proposed fiscal austerity of most major world economies in the wake of the global economic recession is…
Blank, Rebecca M. "What We Know, What We Don't Know, and What We Need to Know
About Welfare Reform." University of Michigan Presentation. March, 2007.
Duncan, G.J. And Brooks-Gunn, J. "Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child
Development." Child Development, Vol. 71, No. 1. 2000: 188 -- 196.
Several institutions had been affected consequent to the elfare Reform Act. The U.S. health program, Medicaid, has been created in order for families with a lower income to receive medical assistance. After the enactment of the elfare Reform Act, several people that earlier enjoyed the services of Medicaid could no longer do so.
The elfare Reform Act had replaced the AFDC program with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program (TANF). Preceding the TANF program, the AFDC and Medicaid had been in a close connection, with every person benefiting from the AFDC also benefiting from Medicaid assistance.
Teresa a. Coughlin)
Even with the fact that the TANF program and Medicaid are not connected, efforts had been made in order to keep the families involved in the former AFDC program assisted by Medicaid.
Medicaid is now only meant for the families that earn less than a standard income considered…
Ku Leighton, Coughlin Teresa a. (1997). How the New Welfare Reform Law Affects Medicaid. Retrieved January, 8, 2009, from the Urban Institute Web site: http://www.urban.org/publications/307037.html
2. Rector, Robert. (2001). The Effects of Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation.
3. Welfare Reform Act (1996). Retrieved January 8, 2009, from Internet FAQ Archives Web site: http://www.faqs.org/childhood/Th-W/Welfare-Reform-Act-1996.html
In other words, that limit should be raised (or exemptions should be allowed) so that the person getting a job and experiencing the pride and increased self-esteem that goes with it, should not have to lose the other supportive components (like food stamps and health insurance for the children's needs) just because now she is making a bit over the limit that was set. Of course it would be reasonable and fair for the TANF to apply a cut-off date (within fairness guidelines). But for a mother who has just been liberated from the welfare rolls (and she was embarrassed to be on the welfare rolls to begin with) and who proudly now goes to work each day, dresses up nice, feels pretty and useful, it would be (and is) a shame to take her food stamps and children's health insurance away because she is actually progressing up the socioeconomic…
The number of years for eligibility was decreased, and this led to more people being eligible for welfare. Employers were able to increase their labor demand, and the reforms made sure that the increased labor supply would be mandated, at least to a certain extent. (Bradshaw, 2003)
These were the overall objectives and aims of the welfare reforms, at a glance, in a hospital setup: to reduce the incapacity benefit claimants drastically, by about one million people, within a single decade, get 300,000 single parents back to work, and away from welfare, within a specific time period, and at the same time, increase by about one million, the number of people aged above fifty, into productive employment. It was also one of the main aims and objectives of welfare reforms that 'Employment and Support Allowance' would be able to effectively replace IB by the year 2008. Furthermore, all new claimants,…
Andrulis, Dennis P; Duchon, Lisa M; Reid, Hailey M. (July, 2003) Before and after Welfare
Reform, the Uncertain Progress for poor families and children in the Nation's 100 largest cities and their suburbs. Retrieved at http://www.hscbklyn.edu/urbansoc_healthdata/Urban%20Center%20Website/web%20design2/pdf%20files/report3pdfs/urbanreport3.pdf. Accessed 20 July, 2006
Besharov, Douglas. J. "The past and future of welfare reform" Retrieved at http://www.welfareacademy.org/pubs/welfare/pastandfuture.pdf . Accessed 20 July, 2006
Bradshaw, Jonathan. (2003) "Children and Social Security"
Jenck's criticisms do apply to Olasky's arguments concerning the need for personal and local involvement in charity and aiding the poor, though to a lesser degree. Olasky argues in the Tragedy of American ompassion that welfare and other social programs perpetuate poverty because they do not demand any self-help from the recipients, which is similar to Murray's argument that the benefits for remaining poor in a welfare state outweigh the benefits of employment (Olasky 1992; Murray 1984). While it might be true that personal and local involvement are preferable to federal social programs, Jenck's assertion of the inherent imbalance in today's society also implies an imbalance in the degree and amount of support that could and would be offered in certain communities (Jenck 1993). That is, in communities already mostly or entirely reduced to poverty, there would be little help available at the local and personal level. A federal system…
Christopher Jenck's main contention with Murray in his own book Rethinking Social Policy is that there are still inherent imbalances in society as a whole that afford unequal opportunities to various segments of the population (Jenkcs 1993). There are also different value systems at work in a diverse society, and the bleak view of social programs that Murray possesses fails to take into account the fact there is an uneven playing field to begin with. Jencks points out that those likely to utilize social programs often have an overall disadvantage in society due to intergenerational poverty and/or a minority status (Jencks 1993).
Jenck's criticisms do apply to Olasky's arguments concerning the need for personal and local involvement in charity and aiding the poor, though to a lesser degree. Olasky argues in the Tragedy of American Compassion that welfare and other social programs perpetuate poverty because they do not demand any self-help from the recipients, which is similar to Murray's argument that the benefits for remaining poor in a welfare state outweigh the benefits of employment (Olasky 1992; Murray 1984). While it might be true that personal and local involvement are preferable to federal social programs, Jenck's assertion of the inherent imbalance in today's society also implies an imbalance in the degree and amount of support that could and would be offered in certain communities (Jenck 1993). That is, in communities already mostly or entirely reduced to poverty, there would be little help available at the local and personal level. A federal system allows for the redistribution of resources across broader areas and populations, and though this leads to the depersonalization of aid that Olasky decries, it is arguably the only solution for lifting entire segments of the population out of poverty.
Though Jenck might be a little presumptuous in the strength of his assertion, there is some merit to the points he raises. A completely ands-off system such as that advocated by both Murray and Olasky assumes a generally balanced society, and even a cursory examination of demographics relating to poverty does not support this assumption. There is an obvious imbalance in today's society, and though the current welfare system might not provide an adequate solution to poverty for many, neither would an entirely laissez-faire approach.
The long-term results are that lower income and working class families are suffering more from these transformations. ("Illinois Economic Outlook," 2012) (Clary, 2012)
Once this theory has been supported or refuted, is the point that actuaries can begin to show how the PWOA is impacting stakeholders. ("Illinois Economic Outlook," 2012) (Clary, 2012) ("Illinois," 2013)
Statement of the Problem
Describe the nature of the problem / policy
The state of Illinois is facing a dilemma with the stagnant economy adversely affecting the unemployed. Many have been turning to welfare and other programs for assistance. However, the changes introduced in the last 15 years are creating hardships for a number of working class families. This is resulting in an estimated 35% not receiving the help they need to deal with everyday challenges. ("Illinois Economic Outlook," 2012) (Clary, 2012) ("Illinois," 2013)
How long has this problem existed?
The problem has existed for the…
Illinois. (2013). BLS. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/eag/eag.il.htm
Illinois Economic Outlook. (2012). Chase.com. Retrieved from: https://www.chase.com/online/commercial-bank/document/Illinois.pdf
Clary, J. (2012). Illinois Poverty. Chicago Gazette. Retrieved from: http://www.gazettechicago.com/index/2012/01/illinois-poverty-reaches-highest-point-in-decades-study-reveals/
Lewis, D. (2004). The Two Worlds of Welfare Reform. Northwestern University. Retrieved from: http://www.ipr.northwestern.edu/publications/papers/IFSyear4.pdf
welfare reform first took hold a few years ago many states jumped at the chance to implement its practices. he states hoped that by adopting and implementing welfare reform they could improve the financial situation their current system was in as well as improve the lives of those who were welfare participants. Urban areas faced different challenges than rural areas when it came to welfare reform and those challenges sometimes caused the participants to fall through the cracks of the system and be lost. here were considerations such as shortages in affordable housing, transportation issues and other aspects of welfare reform that were specific to city life. One major metropolitan area that has implemented welfare reform policies is Philadelphia. Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia has adopted and implemented many welfare reform policies that are supposed to benefit the recipients of the systems. he reforms that have been implemented since 1997 in Philadelphia…
The welfare reform act in Philadelphia has been in place for more than five years. The thousands of recipients who were told to comply came onto the program just as the economy took a downward turn. Those who were first up to bat have reached the five-year mark and many others are coming up on it next year and the year after. While the program has promised to move people off of the welfare roles and into to workforce the full impact of welfare reform in Philadelphia has yet to be measured. While there have been many studies conducted to convince the public iof the plan's success potential. Before the plan was adopted studies concluded it was time for reform so that the financial burden of the system could be reduced. The five-year mark has passed and there are still many impoverished areas of Philadelphia. This study will attempt to determine what the impact of welfare reform has been on those areas. The study will focus on the areas of About two years after beginning operations, WtW programs were approaching their planned enrollment levels. By April 2001, three of the 11 study grantees had reached or exceeded their planned goals for participation -- West Virginia-HRDF, Philadelphia-TWC, and Chicago. Two other grantees -- Yakima and Indiana-RVR -- were nearing their overall goal (94% and 88% of their goals, respectively), and Fort Worth and Phoenix had reached about 70% of their goals.
Participation Goals vs. Actual Participation, by Study Site
The expansion of the article then proceeds to logically and statistically provide strength to the authors' arguments.
The authors minimize the probability of bias by carefully considering both the historical and current opposition views: 1) That the welfare reform legislation would result in disaster in terms of poverty and hunger; and 2) that any results to the contrary is connected to the financial stability of the country rather than directly to the reform program.
The authors, however, disprove both of these opposition views by means of historical and statistical fact. Their views are strengthened by the use of legitimate and highly respected sources such as the U.S. Census Bureau and USDA Economic Research Service. They use data from these and other entities to prove irrefutably that no historical period of financial stability can be compared to the results…
Furthermore, it is agreed that those who are working tend to earn low wages, about $7.00 per hour on average, thus making it difficult for them to support their families (Sawhill pp). Another concern is that the poverty rate has not fallen as much as the caseload (Sawhill pp). Fewer poor children are receiving assistance, and the incomes of the poorest one-fifth of single-parent families have continued to fall (Sawhill pp). Many families remain in deep poverty, and according to some reports, requests for emergency assistance have grown (Sawhill pp). Overall, some 700,000 families were significantly worse off in 1999 than their counterparts in 1995 (Sawhill pp).
Since welfare reform was implemented during an unprecedented economic expansion, questions remain about how much of the good news should be attributed to the 1996 law and how much to a strong economy or to the growth of other programs such as the…
Sawhill, Isabel. (2001, June 22). From Welfare to Work.
Brookings Review. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Sommerfeld, David. (2002, March 01). Race, welfare reform, and nonprofit organizations. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575466/Welfare.html
For the year June 2000 there were 5,780,543 TANF families as against 14,111,992 TANF families during January 1993. (Total TANF ecipients by State)
The following graph shows the percentage of the U.S. population on Welfare since 1960. As it can be seen that there was a gradual rise from the year 1960 when the program was launched till 1972 after which there was a plateau phase till 1978. It remained range bound from 1979 till 1990 with minor rise and fall. The years 1993 and 1994 was the peak with more than 5.5% of the U.S. population covered under TANF. After 1994, coverage came down sharply from 1996 till 1999 when it was 2.5%. (Statistics: Percentage of U.S. Population on Welfare since 1960)
Percentage of the U.S. Population on Welfare Since 1960 http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/news/stats/uspops.gif
Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. etrieved at…
Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. Retrieved at http://www.results.org/website/article.asp?id=965Accessed on 12 May, 2005
Administration for Children and Families: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program. Retrieved at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/exsumcl.htm . Accessed on 12 May, 2005
Besharov, Douglas J. The Past and Future of Welfare Reform. Retrieved at http://www.welfareacademy.org/pubs/welfare/pastandfuture.pdf . Accessed on 12 May, 2005
Gorman, Angie O. Playing the Rules and Still Losing Ground. Retrieved at http://www.americamagazine.org/gettext.cfm?articleTypeID=1&textID=2419&issueID=397Accessed on 12 May, 2005
Mothers -- Transitioning from elfare to Corporate America
elfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. e first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…
Burnett, R. (2010, May 28). Social Welfre: Does it Really Help or Does it Really Hurt? Retrieved from The Cypress Times: http://www.thecypresstimes.com/article/Columnists/The_Hard_Truth/SOCIAL_WELFARE_DOES_IT_REALLY_HELP_OR_DOES_IT_REALLY_HURT/30509
Galster, G. (Ed.). (1996). Reality and Research: Social Science and U.S. Urban Policy since 1960. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Gyamfi, P., Brooks-Gun, J., & Jackson, A. (2005). Moving Towards Work: The Effects of Employment Experiences on Welfare-Dependent Women and their Children. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 12(2-3), 39-62.
Hamilton, G. (2002, July). Moving People from Welfare to Work. Retrieved from MDRC Policy Analysis: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/52/summary.html
Nearly all of the existing models for financial redistribution available in American politics isolate potential applications on lines of income, while others divide along racial, ethnic, and religious lines to help insure the same standard of living for all of those in need -- adults and families included.
The current situation in America highlights the need to isolate welfare recipients further, by more than just income and instead to also take into account the idea of regional differences that foster not only varied opportunities of employment, but also a wide array of external sources of lifetime substance. Because America is still trying to balance the difference of tax revenues, budget allotments, and other sources of welfare subsidy, it is most important that both social scientists and legislators illuminate the regional discriminations that exist between the urban and rural poor.
Deavers, Kenneth L. "Social Science Contributions to Rural Development Policy in…
" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:
Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)
Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:
The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.
Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=97923049' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Instead, the welfare system encouraged perpetual social dependency and provided a reason for poor people not to work at all when the most reliable method of achieving financial independence (besides continuing education) is precisely, to begin working at minimum wage jobs while gradually learning skills and establishing contacts and a record of regular employment that are essential in the long- term goal of qualifying for better work in time (Healey, 2003 p56).
The Need for Welfare Reform:
While elements of government assistance programs are still subject to epidemic abuse (Schmalleger, 2007 p104), the reconfiguration mandated by Congress in 1996 are designed to rectify some of the most glaring problems plaguing the federally administrated programs previously. First and foremost, the new state-run welfare programs must, by federal law, establish caps limiting welfare eligibility to discourage perpetual (even permanent) reliance on public funds as a substitute for making the necessary effort and…
Healey, Joseph F. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. London: Pine Forge (2003).
Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon (2002).
Macionis, John J. Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall (2003).
Schaefer, Richard T. Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper-Collins (2001).
government welfare. Discussed: should the government provide fewer or more benefits for single parents on welfare. Thesis, three reasons to support, at least 4 quotes and paraphrases on each page from experts.
Should the Government Provide More or Fewer Benefits for Single Parents on elfare?
elfare reforms have been a continuous debate for years. The latest reform regarding single parents and government benefits has stirred controversy and initiated studies to determine the effects of new policies. hile many critics believe the new reforms are too harsh and simply increase the number of poverty level families, the new policies with reduced benefits are making a positive significant impact in reducing the number of single parent recipients and placing them in the employment arena. Therefore, the government should provide less benefits to single parents on welfare.
Many critics argue that the economy is responsible for caseload declines (New B7). However, according to…
Adkisson, Richard V. "Welfare reform: What are the numbers, and does anyone care?" Journal of Economic Issues. March 01, 2001; pp 184.
New, Michael. "Helping the Poor: Strong Work Requirements are the way out of Welfare." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. October 01, 2002; pp B7.
Welfare Reform - More Research Needed on TANF Family Caps and other Policies for Reducing Out-of-Wedlock Births." Government Accounting Office Report. September 11, 2001. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Government_Accounting_Office_Report&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.emediamillworks.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=&title=WELFARE+REFORM+%2D+MORE+RESEARCH+NEEDED+ON+TANF+FAMILY+CAPS+AND+OTHER+POLICIES+FOR+REDUCING+OUT%2DOF%2DWEDLOCK+BIRTHS++&date=09%2D11%2D2001&query=welfare+and+single+parents&maxdoc=24&idx=5.(accessed 12-01-2002).
The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.
The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…
Arai, L.; (2003) British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 89 -- 102
Bingley, P.J., Douek, I.F., Rogers, C.A. And Gale, E.A.M. (2000) Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of Type 1 Diabetes in childhood: Prospective population-based family study, British Medical Journal, Vol. 321, pp 420 -- 424.
Brewer, M.; Ratcliffe, A.; dSmith, S.; (2011) Does welfare reform affect fertility: Evidence from the UK, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 245 -- 266
Doling, J. & Ford, J.; (2007) A union of homeowners? European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, pp. 113 -- 127.
By conducting a peer led focus group the interaction between the participants allows for sharing of stories and experiences and opens up the lines for a deeper, more meaningful discussion. Instead of the participants directing their responses to questions and statements asked of the researcher to the researcher, participants will be able to converse with one another. The researcher will still be a part of the focus group, but his role will not be as prominent as it would be in a traditional style focus group. Instead, the researcher will observe, take notes and steer the group in the right direction if they start to discuss other topics which are not a part of the study.
Because this research deals with the dynamics of welfare recipients as opposed to how many people are on welfare, a qualitative approach is best. The only information that could be dealt with…
Berg, B.L. (2009). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (7th edition ed.). Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.
Childstats.gov - America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2010 - Economic Circumstances. (n.d.). Childstats.gov - Home. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/eco.asp
Lofland, J., Snow, D.A., Anderson, L., & Lofland, L.H. (2005). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis (4th ed. ed.). Gwenn Wilson: Wadsworth Publishing.
Murray, C. (2006). Peer led focus groups and young people. Children and Society, 20(4), 273-286.
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…
Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology
Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.
Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
In this case there are differences due to the income level of the person who is replying.
The Americans who are making more than $34,000 a year generally say that the persons getting aid from welfare could manage their own lives without help from the government if they really tried, while the replies from the lower income groups feel that they could not manage. This continues on in the opinion of the comparatively richer group to say that the people getting poverty assistance could manage without assistance as they get the assistance without having to do anything for it. This continues on with persons having little knowledge of the changes in law that has come up. Only half the respondents were aware of the changes in the law. However of the persons who are aware of the changes in the law 61% think that the new law is working well,…
America's most costly welfare recipients are Fortune 500 companies. Cato Institute News Releases. June 30, 1999. Retrieved at http://www.cato.org/new/catonew-06-99.html . Accessed on 30 June, 2005
Bumpass, Larry. Ryder, N.B. The Changing Contexts of Parenting in the United States. Retrieved at http://parenthood.library.wisc.edu/Bumpass/Bumpass.html . Accessed on 29 June, 2005
Cauchon, Dennis. State, local spending up despite downturn. USA Today. 14 January, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-01-14-state-budgets-usat_x.htm . Accessed on 30 June, 2005
Danziger, Sheldon; Loury, Glenn; Murray, Charles; Wilkins, Roger. Does Welfare Cause Illegitimacy? 9 April, 1994. Retrieved at http://www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/murray-loury-welfareAccessed on 29 June, 2005
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).
All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Significance of the Study
Every year more than 600,000…
Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.
Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.
Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.
Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
However, there have been both positive and negative outcomes from these changes. Some of the positive changes are: reduced welfare caseloads, they have increase unemployment / income levels for the recipients' and it improves family security. While some of the negative outcomes would include:: low wages, dead end jobs, difficulty obtaining health / child care and inconsistent performance from social workers. This is significant, because it shows how the law has made an impact upon reducing the overall amounts of waste. Like any change there will be obvious positive and negatives outcomes. In the case of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, these changes would impact the way various social services are provided, to low income individuals and families.
Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm
Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html
Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49…
Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm
Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html
Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49 (2), pg. 185.
Grogger, J. (n.d). Conflicting Benefits. Rand. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/rr.12.02/benefits.html
unemployment and tax reform on our social structure including theoretical framework on functionalism, social conflict and symbolic framework and so on and so forth. The orks Cited eight sources in MLA format.
Unemployment has long been the cause of ruin of the American society as well as the global social structure. Persistence in unemployment and the related tax reforms have done much harm than have benefited the mankind on this face of earth. There have been several effects of unemployment and tax reforms on our social structure. The passages below of our research paper will look into not only these effects but will also include theoretical framework on functionalism and social conflict. Before we begin our discussion on the effects of unemployment on the social structure as well as on the effects of tax reforms, it is essential that the readers have a look at the precise yet comprehensive…
Social Structure." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2003. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=117544 .
Functionalism, Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.*****/free_essays/4/sociology/functionalism-confict-theory-and-symbolic-interaction.shtml
Social and psychological effects of unemployment. Retrieved July 10, 2003 at http://www.e-resaneh.com/English/Social/Social%20and%20Psychological%20Effects%20of%20Unemployment.html
Saunders P. Direct and indirect effects of unemployment. Paper presented at the Australian National University in the F.H. Gruen Lecture Series on Welfare and the Labor Market: The New Frontier for Reform.
Last year, 76 minors were homicide victims."
The child has lost her life and the government is now trying to take actions to revamp the system. Under the new system, Children's Trusts will be set up "at the local level to bring experts - psychologists, social workers, education officials - together, with a local director ultimately accountable."
There may appear to be few similarities between EPL and current social welfare policy but when we closely study their impact, we fail to accept the notion that a lot has changed. EPL was ineffective in controlling child-related problems. Children were subjected to cruel working conditions, they had hardly any proper means of nutrition and overseers probably did not care much about them. The same is true today. While there are protection agencies, social workers and others working for welfare of children, there is little if any improvement in their condition especially in…
1. Mark Rice-Oxley, Child-abuse tragedy spurs British overhaul of social services; the government unveiled a plan last week to keep better records on children and streamline the bureaucracy.(WORLD) the Christian Science Monitor; 9/16/2003
2. Bliss (1908), "Elizabethan Poor Laws" pp. 918-920.
United States is a country of settlers, anti-immigrant sentiment has permeated public discourse and is damaging the social fabric of the nation. Early anti-immigrant sentiment is symbolized most powerfully by the Nativist movement, which closely resembled white supremacy (Committee on US-Latin American Relations, 2014). What fueled anti-immigrant sentiment included fears of losing jobs and other conflict theory perspectives showing how immigrants are perceived of as threats to the existing social order (Social Work Speaks). The NASW Policy Statement supports the rights of immigrants and refugees to live without discrimination.
Committee on US-Latin American Nations (2014). Similar Anti-immigrant rhetoric used throughout US history. Retrieved online: https://cuslar.org/2014/10/23/similar-anti-immigrant-rhetoric-used-throughout-u-s-history/
NASW Policy Statement
Social Work Speaks
The pre-Civil War/antebellum era was tumultuous, with a series of failed political compromises leading to a breakdown of morals and ethics. At the same time, there were reform movements most notably the abolitionist movement, that took root as a…
Addams included a large amount of environmental reforms in her program for Hull House. One of the most prominent incorporated her labors to address the unhealthful heaps of garbage in immigrant areas because of a lack of public interest. The mayor of Chicago ultimately appointed Addams garbage inspector for her region a job that she took very seriously. Addams managed garbage collectors and took violators of garbage policies to court. Even though Addams and her associates frequently started reforms, the immigrants had a dynamic role as well, helping in knowledge gathering and its communication to their neighbors (Settlement House Movement, 2011).
ichmond's devotion and professionalism, along with her scientific charity has been documented and developed over the years. Her casework practice, managerial talents, research, and stress on social work education fashioned a professional environment in what was beforehand thought to be just charity work. This professionalized social work permitted philanthropic…
Settlement House Movement. (2011). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Smith, Mark K. (2002). Casework and the Charity Organization Society. Retrieved March 23,
2011, from Web site: http://www.infed.org/socialwork/charity_organization_society.htm
TOUGH LOVE, a Documentary about the Child Welfare System
Directed by Emmy-nominated director, Stephanie Wang, Tough Love depicts the life and struggle of a couple, Patrick (hailing from Seattle) and Hannah (hailing from the city of New York), as they traverse the US child welfare structure’s red tape to reclaim custody over their kids. The two have undergone the trauma of having their children taken away by governmental authorities. The film features vérité-type footage, besides exclusive views of child welfare courts, portraying a personal and intimate record of the couple’s challenges and victory while they tackle prior mistakes and try to assert their eligibility to enjoy another chance at raising their children. All through the course of the movie, the kids’ foster parents are shown, in addition to judges in charge of the case and child welfare specialists who can clearly grasp the working of this complicated system (Stephanie, 2015).…
Nineteenth Century Reform
The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/
Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.
Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842. http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.
Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.
U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
Immigrant Welfare Policy Summary & Critique
Immigration into the United States has historically come in waves, with the current upward trend beginning in 1965 and gaining steam through the 1980s, to the point where nearly one million immigrants a year, on average, have been admitted to the United States throughout the 1990s and the current decade. any of these newer immigrant gained legal status as U.S. citizens through back or side doors, such as entering the country with a temporary visa and then applying for citizenship, or even seeking citizenship after living as an illegal immigrant for some years. Such side-door entry has had a significant impact not only on the number of immigrants made citizens each year, but also on the ability of these immigrants to adequately provide for themselves and their families without depending on federal assistance.
This has inextricably tied the issue of immigration to that of…
Martin and Midgley (2006) do not really present an argument in their paper, but rather an overview of the current immigration situation. The same is largely true of Currie's article concerning Medicaid (1997). Both of these articles detail the complexities ofteh problems this country is facing, but fail to provide any sense of appropriate direction. Martin and Midgley especially merely detail the trends that have been observed in immigration, without offering any real solutions on how to deal with the ongoing immigration explosion. In suggesting that we could be experiencing a historical immigration peak before dipping into the trough the follows, the authors reaffirm their own conclusions without providing any immediately useful value judgments. The converse, however -- that is, behaving as though this were not a peak but simply a new trend in immigration -- renders the rest of their historical argument moot.
Currie provides somewhat more useful exploration and analysis of the conclusions he draws from his hard data. Yet while clearly suggesting that Medicaid reform is necessary in regards to immigrants, if only to make the program more equitable across regional, familial, and ethnic lines, he fails to note the added costs of medical care for children and other immigrants who are either not eligible for or are not receiving Medicaid benefits. There is a brief mention in the editor's note of emergency costs outstripping preventative care, but more in depth explanations and analyses are needed to make this argument logically viable (which it certainly is).
The shorter articles that comprise this reading deal with specific areas of the immigration aid issue in similarly quantitative ways, while rarely mentioning the qualitative aspects or making recommendations. The logic used is impeccable, but the scant number of real conclusions drawn in these articles does not make this especially impressive. For instance, while Ku (2001) and Capps et al. (2005) respectively note the lower rates of heath insurance amongst immigrants and the lower success rates of immigrant children in the No Child Left Behind Act, neither provides information regarding a response to these issues other than suggesting that reform is necessary. The same is true of Ruby's (2004) article concerning the need to ensure success for children in the early years of formal schooling. Few would argue that things like health insurance and adequate education are less beneficial or necessary to immigrants than they are to U.S. citizens; the questions is who ought to -- and who is wiling to -- pay for these things. This country has always had an interesting relationship with the concept of taxation, and this issue lies at the heart of the matter.
The President intended to implement safeguards to prevent another series of depression from occurrence. The President was convinced that the second series of reforms will provide assistance to the American people. The President introduced different programs; Works Progress Administration and the National Youth Administration. The government hired people, particularly men for the vacancies available in government departments. The President also introduced the Emergency elief Appropriation Act, the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, the ural Electrification Act, the Social Security Act, the Wagner-Connery Act, the esettlement Administration, and the Federal Housing Act. Both the houses of the government adopted the resolution, and supported with minor amendments.
The first and second series of reforms introduced by the oosevelt's administration provided relief and assistance to the American people, particularly the backward people of Ohio State. The resident of Ohio State received grants from government through one or more of these programs or…
David M. Kennedy., Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War 1929-1945.
William (EDT) Dudley. The Great Depression: Opposing Viewpoints.
August Constantino Bolino., From Depression to War: American Society in Transition.
John Eric Nordskog., Contemporary Social Reform Movements: Principles and Readings.
China's Urban Housing Development -- a Shift from Welfare Housing to Home Ownership
The challenge of housing in China has been on the national agenda for more that four decades now. A lot of efforts have been directed by the government to help solve the challenge and it has substantially achieved a significant mileage. This paper will delve into the policies informing the urban housing reforms, the evolution that the housing reforms has undergone over the years, the challenges it faced, the current situation of China in terms of housing and also discuss the trend that are prevalent in China and what the government is currently doing to ensure the dream of housing for every China citizen is achieved.
Overview of housing reform agenda
The landscape of China as a whole has been undergoing several changes and shifts in the political, social and the economic aspect of it. This prompted…
Hui X., (2009). The Chinese Hoiusing reform and the Following New Urban Question. Retrieved April 2,2015 from http://newurbanquestion.ifou.org/proceedings/3%20The%20Urbanized%20Society/full%20papers/B008_Xiaoxi_The%20Chinese%20Housing%20Reform%20and%20the%20following%20New%20Urban%20Questions-fullpaper_revised.pdf
Liu Z. & Mei C., (2013). Experiment-based Policy Making or Conscious Policy Design? The Case of Urban Housing Reform in China. Retrieved April 2,2015 from http://www.icpublicpolicy.org/IMG/pdf/panel_11_s1_mei_liu.pdf
Yang Z. & Chen J., (2014). Housing Affordability and Housing Policy in Urban China. SpringerBriefs in Economics. Retrieved April 2,2015 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDYQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fcontent%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9783642540431-c2.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-1440212-p176464947&ei=R80fVZDVG4XVaoCXgdgE&usg=AFQjCNEhb1RhJuJyvxM0gC1oOaTU9ocbJA&sig2=vA52GOb75JR6iaesZq0cRQ&bvm=bv.89947451,d.bGg
Youqin H., (2013). Lack of Affordable Housing Threatens China's Urban Dream. Retrieved April 2,2015 from https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/6365-Lack-of-affordable-housing-threatens-China-s-urban-dream
American Anti-Corruption Act: The Tipping Point for American Citizens
The American Anti-Corruption Act:
A tipping point for American citizens
In the wake of increasing concerns about the undue influence of money and special interest groups in American politics, the anti-corruption advocacy group epresent.Us created a grassroots campaign in support of a law called the American Anti-Corruption Act. The Act is "a nine-point plan to crack down on lobbyists, strengthen the flimsy law intended to prevent super-PACs from coordinating with campaigns, and put a stop to undisclosed donations funneled through dark-money nonprofits" (Aronsen 2013). It should be noted that ironically, "epresent.Us is a project of United epublic, a campaign finance reform group that, like many of the outside spending organizations it takes aim at, is a 501(c)(4)" although it is bipartisan in its composition (Aronsen 2013). Its bipartisan membership includes "former Federal Elections Commission chair (and Stephen Colbert's 'personal lawyer') Trevor…
American Anti-Corruption Act. (2014). Official website.
Retrieved from: http://anticorruptionact.org/
Aronsen, G. (2012). New group unveils its plan to get money out of politics. Mother Jones.
Retrieved from: http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2012/11/represent-us-campaign-finance-reform
Introduction and Coalition Building
H.. 890 is bill to prohibit the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from granting a waiver relating to compliance with the work requirements of the provision of Welfare. The most recent bill title is: Preserving the Welfare Work equirement and TANF Extension Act of 2013. I stand in opposition to this bill and provide a detailed basis for my position in the following discussion. In brief, my support for the action taken by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is derived from endorsements that more effective ways to meet TANF goals are and can be developed and effectively implemented, and that much of the current legislation derives from a deeply ingrained suspicion of the poor and of needy families that this nation must outgrow in order to be truly innovative and effectively achieve the honorable objective of TANF.
____. Section 1115 of the Social Security Act. [42 U.S.C. 1315], Section 402 of the Social Security Act. [42 U.S.C. 602]
Haynes, K.S. & Mickelson, J.S. (2006). Affecting change: social workers in the political arena. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
TANF Time Limits
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or TANF for short, is one of the more controversial and maligned or one of the most lauded and touted social safety net programs in the United States. Whether it is praised or denigrated depends a lot on who is doing the talking and what their motivations are. TANF has turned in a political football on a scale that dovetails quite nicely with the words of awls (1985) when it was noted in an essay of that author that there are sometimes periods (some of them quite long in duration) that are bereft and full of political divisiveness and vitriol (awls, 1985).
History of TANF & its Predecessor
A bulk of the TANF program is to provide cash-based payments to needy families who are living in destitution or are otherwise in stark financial peril and how those funds are allocated, to…
Alcoff, Linda. "The Problem of Speaking For Others." Cultural Critique 20.1 (1992): 5-
Burns, M. (2010, October 28). Welfare Reform Failing Poor Single Moms, Books Claim. Pacific Standard - Politics, Health, Economy, Environment, Culture, Education. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from http://www.psmag.com/politics/welfare-reform-failing-poor-single-mothers-24778/
CDSS. (2013, April 16). Child Welfare Services Stakeholder Group Questions and Answers. CA CDSS. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from http://www.cdss.ca.gov/cdssweb/PG51.htm
Smith, Goldsmith Blakely observe ' burden poverty falls heavily women children disproportionately African-Americans Latinos/Hispanics' (pg.
The issue of poverty in the United States is not merely an issue of economic shortcomings of the system or a lack of coordination at the level of the state in terms of ensuring a proper social welfare protect system. Poverty in America, such as in any other democratic and complex state, depends on a multitude of factors that mix and provide an important shortcoming that in turn affects the lives of millions of people throughout the world and in the U.S. alike.
The combination of factors is varied and depending on the way in which these factors combine, they affect certain parts of the society. In the case of the United States there is a clear recognition of the fact that women, children, African-Americans and Latinos / Hispanics are more prone and vulnerable to…
Goldsmith, William W. And Edward J. Blakely. Separate Societies: Poverty and Inequality in U.S. Cities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010.
Smith, Anne Marie. Welfare Reform and Sexual Regulation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Many of the busts in the ghetto are drug-related, and Hilfiker notes that our society punishes petty drug offences far more severely than crimes committed by people who are wealthy. Meantime, the mandatory minimum sentence takes away the possibility of any plea bargaining; it takes away the judge's previous alternative of giving probation for a petty crime and hands the power to the prosecutor, who runs for office on a "law and order" theme.
"Deserving" poor vs. "Undeserving" poor:
It has been customary in America for society to attempt to separate the "undeserving" poor from the "deserving" poor. The deserving poor are those who have supposedly found themselves down on their luck through no fault of their own; while the undeserving are reportedly "lazy" and likely on some government assistance program (Hilfiker, pp. 69-71). As a token offer of help to the very poor the government makes "TANF" benefits available…
Hilfiker, David. (2002). Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Incentive Programs Among Low Income
The effects of work incentive programs in encouraging low income individuals to participate in employment depend on the income thresholds of reforms in whether the individual gains benefits that are equal to or greater than what they would receive by not working. The factors in the determination include after tax income plus benefits, such as Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and fixed work costs, compared to the total change in revenue received. If the loss of welfare is greater than the total change in revenue, work incentives have no value and discourage employment participation. On the other hand, if the total amount of changed revenue is greater than the welfare loss and compensates for fixed work costs, incentives encourage employment among the low income.
The Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) expanded EITC benefits by increases in the standard deduction, personal deductions, and favorable tax…
Elissa, Nada. Taxation and Labor Supply of Married Women: The Tax Reform Act of '1986 as a Natural Experiment. Feb 1995. working paper. 20 July 2013.
Elissa, Nada, Kleven, Henrick Jacobsen, & Kriener, Claus Thustrup. Welfare Effects of Tax Reform and Labor Supply at the Intensive and Extensive Margins. May 2004. working paper. 20 July 2013.
Riccio, Jim. Promoting Employment Stability and Advancement Among Low-Income Adults. Mar 2013. article. 20 July 2013.
Rothstein, Jesse. The Unintended Consequences of Encouraging Work: Tax Incidence on the EITC. May 2008. pdf. 20 July 2013.
In addition to these 'syndromes,' many women do not have adequate psychological support or counseling to help them with their mental health woes. Between 10 and 31% of all mothers on welfare have physical disabilities that limit their ability to work or the kinds of employment they can take, as well as mental health conditions that make stable employment extremely difficult. The presence of preschool children in these women's lives are another impediment to free and full access to the world of employment, a reason that creates what Hays calls "feminization of poverty" inherent to modern American life.
Hays stresses that the barriers to a successful transition from welfare to work are emotional and practical. Even women who wish to comply with the requirements of law have trouble finding decent childcare, care for their relatives, or transportation, and the law shows little compassion for their struggles, as they must meet…
Hays, Sharon. Flat Broke With Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Another example is drinking laws are defined by each state, but the federal government passed a law stating they would not provide monies to any state that did not raise their drinking age to twenty-one years of age .
lock grants have been part of the United States federal system as early as the late 1960's . lock grants are fixed -- sum of federal grants to state and local governments which allows them to design and implement programs . Examples: Child Welfare: gives states option to receive Title IV-E Foster Care funding as flexible Grant; Medicaid: gives states the option to consolidate Medicate and SCHIP funding into state acute care and long-term care allotments. A block grant has different budgetary implications from an entitlement. While both block grants and categorical grants are normally financed by fixed appropriations, entitlement funding is usually open-ended . lock grants give Congress…
Block grants have been part of the United States federal system as early as the late 1960's . Block grants are fixed -- sum of federal grants to state and local governments which allows them to design and implement programs . Examples: Child Welfare: gives states option to receive Title IV-E Foster Care funding as flexible Grant; Medicaid: gives states the option to consolidate Medicate and SCHIP funding into state acute care and long-term care allotments. A block grant has different budgetary implications from an entitlement. While both block grants and categorical grants are normally financed by fixed appropriations, entitlement funding is usually open-ended . Block grants give Congress more authority and be in command of over future spending, entitlements are more responsive to macroeconomic conditions .
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was signed into law by President Clinton on August 22, 1996. This law changes how government financial assistance is administered including: changing federal funding to states from an open-ended entitlement to a series of capped block grants allocations; sets time limits on entitlements and cash assistance to welfare recipients; requires more welfare recipients to engage in job programs, and enforces collection of unpaid child support, and denies legal immigrants from collecting SSI and food stamps. The legislative goals of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was to reduce dependence, to reduce child poverty, and to reduce illegitimacy and strengthen marriage. This reform has been effective in meeting each of these goals.
Pure Policy: The Kantian Inquiry System
The philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote his treatise, A Critique of Pure Reason, as a way of striking a balance between rationalistic and empiricist modalities of acquiring knowledge. It was not possible, Kant stated, to live in the world and to merely understand knowledge through one's mind and preexisting rational cognitive faculties. The mind could have tricks played upon it in terms of its sensory perceptions that affected such faculties. Thus, the mind was not a perfectly receptive organ. However, he also believed that pure empiricism, the idea that there was nothing other than experience of the immediate present, not to be perfectly valid either.
Rather, Kant suggested that we glean information through pre-existing human mental frameworks and sensations, but process such data in unique ways, commensurate and shifting with experience. In other words, one must think one's way as a human being, both inductively…
Mitroff, Ian I. & Louis R. Pondy. 1974. "On the Organization of Inquiry: A Comparison
of Some Radically Different Approaches to Policy Analysis," Public Administration
Review. 34: 471-479.
The Problems of ace & the Myths of Urban Poverty
ace is a social construct. There is exists very little genetic difference among the various "races" of humans on Earth. This construct is central to many, and perhaps even most people on our planet. ace is a physical difference that draws clearly defined boundaries between people. ace can be the inspiration for war. ace is hardly an inspiration for peace, unfortunately. This paper will briefly examine situations when race has been used to hurt and subordinate others. This paper will reference examples of groups of people that are systematically via the social realms and institutions who suffer due to their race, an aspect over which they had no choice or say. Drawing from the series, The Wire, and a few readings, the paper will propose what the myths of urban poverty are, who are the authors of such myths,…
Dreier, P. And J. Atlas. 2009. The Wire - Bush-Era Fable About America's Urban Poor. City & Community, 8: 329-340.
Edin, K. And K. Harris. 1998. Getting Off and Staying Off: Racial Differences in the Work Route off Welfare. Pages 270-301: Latinas and African-American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Newman, K. 2001. Hard Times on 125th Street: Harlem's Poor Confront Welfare Reform. American Anthropologist, 103(3): 762-778.
Local government plays a decisive role in applying the social reform in Ontario. However, national government continues to be crucial in shaping the parameters for reform.
One of the most important steps for the reform of Ontario's welfare was made in 1995, when the Progressive Conservative (PC) party was elected after promising to transform welfare through a "Common Sense Revolution." The hart of the reform was represented by the welfare replacement program, Ontario Works. The program focuses on finding a job for every participant in the program, thus driving participants away from welfare and into workfare. The focus of OW is on supporting as few people as possible through welfare and providing participants with training and jobs that would allow them to support themselves.
Despite the success that was presented to be OW, data confirms that Ontario's government does not have sufficient proof to state that the program actually improved…
Allahwala a., Rescaling the Canadian welfare state: the experience of Ontario and Qeubec, June 2005, available at http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~jfkpolhk/mm/Teaching/PastCourses/SS05/C_Probleme/Allahwala.RescalingCanadianWS.doc;
Herd D., Rhetoric and Retrenchment: 'Common Sense' Welfare Reform in Ontario, 2002, available at http://www.socialwork.utoronto.ca/fsw/fswsupport/sane/doc/herd_rhetoric.pdf ;
Moskovitch a., "The Canada Health and Social Transfer" in: Raymond Blake, Penny Bryden and J. Frank Strain (eds) the Welfare State in Canada. Concord: Irwin Publishing, 1997;
National Council on Welfare, Another Look at Welfare Reform: A Report, 1997;
Utility of Political Inquiry Models: Scientific vs. Interpretive
Scientific methods of inquiry, also called empirical, positivist, or rational approaches, are used by the vast majority of researchers in the social sciences (deLeon, 1998). The scientific approach has largely relied on a behaviorist approach, which defines human behavior as following the laws of nature and therefore inherently predicable. The logical conclusion from this is that the goal of political research is being able to predict the behavior of humans as they engage in politics. As Douglas Torgerson stated in 1986, "… knowledge would replace politics" (as cited by deLeon, 1998, p. 148).
In contrast, the interpretive school of political inquiry advocates for a more nuanced approach, one that recognizes that human behavior, whether by individuals or groups, is far too complex to render it reducible to quantitative measures (deLeon, 1998). Rather than having a goal of being able to…
Coffield, C. Ditmar. "Welfare Reform in Indiana: The Political Economy of Restricting Access to Education and Training." Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23.3 (2002): 261-284. Print.
Connolly, William. The Terms of Political Discourse, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 1993. Print.
deLeon, Peter. "Models of Policy Discourse: Insights vs. Predictions." Policy Studies Journal, 26.1 (1998): 147-161. Print.
Manos, Steven S. "From Welfare to Work and Vice Versa." New York Times 30 June 1994: A22. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
Working Poor and the Efficacy of the Earned Income Credit and T.A.N.F.
When many Americans think of poverty, they think of people who are not working. Moreover, when they think of social welfare programs, they think of those programs aimed at assisting families without wage earners. However, many of America's poor are the working poor; families with one or two wage earners that are still mired in the depths of poverty. The government has implemented two different programs aimed at providing financial assistance to these Americans: the Earned Income Credit (EIC) is a special income tax rebate for low-income workers which can actually help low-wage workers avoid paying any income taxes and entitle them to a cash rebate beyond any taxes that they have paid; while the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program provides for the direct distribution of cash payments to families struggling with poverty.
These two programs…
Anderson, S.G., Halter, A.P., & Gryzlak, B.M. (2004). Difficulties after leaving TANF: Inner-
city women talk about reasons for returning to welfare. Social Work, 49(2),
Cancian, M. & Meyer, D. (2004). Alternative measures of economic success among TANF
Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations
In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.
Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…
Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).
Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.
Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.
Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.
Bureaucracies can become self-justifying systems, and replicate ineffective administrative behaviors long after they have ceased to work. The Winter Commission eport (1993) was an attempt to provide advice to states and the federal government on the subject of civil service reform. Both bureaucratic as well as political reforms were deemed necessary to 'clean up' the civil service system and render it more effective in addressing the needs of the public. For some states such as Georgia, this has meant eliminating the traditional examination-based hierarchies and systems in which employees had virtual guaranteed employment for life, and instead employing administrators 'at will' (Nigro & Kellough 2008: 550). Merit-based systems have fallen out of favor and there has been greater deference to the independent opinions of managers to decide which employees can provide superior service to the public.
However, the Winter Commission's view of the civil service system was far from dismissive…
Kenney, John. (2011). Who owns snow? The New Yorker. Retrieved:
Van Ryzin, G.G., Immerwahr, S., & Altman, S. (2008). Measuring street cleanliness:
A comparison of New York City's scorecard and results from a citizen survey. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 295-303. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1435702201).
Patronage jobs allowed local and regional businesses to flourish, offered political viability for minority groups, and ensured welfare services that state or federal funding would not have provided.
However, urban machines also colluded with organized crime, created impenetrable legacies of city boss cabals, and fomented corruption. Voters cast ballots based on the spoils system, diminishing the relevance of democratic freedoms. The patronage system also boosted special interests and prevented businesses from thriving independently of the machine. Around the 1920s, muckrakers began exposing the inner workings of the urban machine. Progressive politicians championed legitimate social welfare reform at the local level, speaking out against government corruption and collusion with big business (Caswell 2001).
The Progressive movement helped to eliminate or at least to diminish the scope of urban machine governments, even though Chicago's would persist well into the 1970s. In other cities like New York and Boston, the strong mayor system…
Biles, R. "Machine Politics." (2004). The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/774.html
Caswell, T. (2001). "Progressive Era Reform." Regents Prep: U.S. History. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://regentsprep.org/Regents/ushisgov/themes/reform/progressive.htm
Stave, B.M. (nd). "Urban Bosses and Machine Politics." Answers.com. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://www.answers.com/topic/urban-bosses-and-machine-politics
Urban Political Machines." (2007). Digital History. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/us28.cfm
UK Pensions Policy" - Social Policy Area
The pension policy of the UK is one that is followed as a model by various other parts of the world for its efficient dealing with the problem of pensions for the aged of the UK. The government takes a ken interest in reforms in the area of pensions, and it was for this reason that it announced the latest set of reforms in the year 2000, in its 'pre-budget report' that was released in the month of November of the same year. The report contained a series of reforms and improvements for pensioners. Some of the measures were: increases in the pensions according to the above- inflation rates, above inflation increases in the rates of the 'minimum income guarantee', also known as the MIG, and the introduction of the newly formulated 'pension credit' that was basically a means tested benefit for the…
An Introduction to Social Policy. Social policy in the UK. Retrieved from http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm Accessed on 3 November 2004
Clark, Tom. Pensions Policy and pension Credit. The Institute for Fiscal Studies. Briefing Note: No: 17. Retrieved From http://www.ifs.org.uk/pensions/bn17.pdf
Accessed on 3 November 2004
Contractors Face Bleak Retirement. Contractor, UK. Retrieved From
Public Administration Review, 47, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1987): 17-25.
All three of the works described by Bertelli and Lynn focus on the separation of responsibility among the branches of government. John Mabry Matthews asserted that "the work of government can be divided into the formulation and execution of public policy" (p. 35). He was a strong advocate of transparent government and believed that public administration should not be treated as an afterthought.
The key elements of illoughby's Principles of Public Administration, were based on the notion that the government should be run like a corporation, with the President acting as, essentially, the general manager. He complained of a "failure to apply scientific principals" (p. 40) such as those outlined by Taylor, as well as the abundant administrative responsibilities of legislative branch, which he believed should belong to the executive branch.
Leonard hite's key points centered on the mechanical nature…
Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
We don't look at their psychological well-being. it's almost as though, psychologically, they're a blank. And we know very little about the differences among black women. Some cope better than others. We don't know who they are, why they cope better, what resources they have access to. If we can understand that, then we can understand the needs of those who cope less well. What I am finding so far is that almost all the mothers in my study, when asked whether they would prefer employment to public assistance, say they would rather have a job. However, having a job is very difficult for this group of mothers because it is difficult for them to find and keep jobs that support them and provide adequate benefits. And there's another consideration: When we say we're going to put these women to work, what is it going to mean in terms of…
The Impact of the Welfare State on the American Economy (1995) Joint Economic Committee Study. December 1994. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.house.gov/jec/welstate/vg-1/vg-1.htm
Paternal State, the Liberal State, and the Welfare State (nd) Online available at http://www.friesian.com/freestat.htm
Overview of the Nixon-Ford Administration at the Department of Labor 1969-1977 (1977) U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Managementy. 20 Oct 2007. Online available at http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/webid-nixonford.htm
Social Work Experts Predict: Disaster With a Ray of Hope (1996) Columbia University Record -- September 20, 1996 -- Vol. 22, No. 3. Online available at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol22/vol22_iss4/Welfare_Reform.html
Whereas in 1963, 70% of all African-American families were headed by married couples, that rate had dipped to 46.1% by 1996. In 2001, the rate had increased to 47.9%, the first uptrend in 40 years (Kinnon, 2003). The rate of African-American crime and incarceration, which is closely linked to males from single-parent households, has also dipped since 1996.
Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs
While the statistics are compelling, there are a series of questions which have not been addressed by these welfare reforms. There are still about 50% of the former welfare population which has not been able to graduate from the welfare-poverty cycle, nor have they been able to find work. In states where the TANF provisions were enacted, including the 5-year limitation on welfare benefits, there has been a back-sliding on the part of state legislatures to extend welfare assistance for the "hard core" unemployed.
Bush, L. (2000). African-American Mothers/African-American Sons: A Critical Examination of the Social Science Literature. Western Journal of African-American Studies, 145-167.
Cherry, F. & . (1977). Physical and cognitive development in children of low-income mothers working in the child's early years. Child Development, 158-166.
Garfinkle, I. a. (1986). Single Mothers and their children: A new American dilemma. Washington: Urban Institute.
Haskins, R. (1989). Beyond metaphor: The efficacy of early childhood education. American Psychologist, 274-282.
American Mother's Living In Poverty
Welfare reform in the United States has been hailed as a great success, reducing the number of people on the welfare rolls from 4.4 million in 1996 to 2.1 million in 2001. But these figures hide the suffering of the multitude of American women who are living on or below the national poverty line. In this paper we will challenge the argument that the welfare reform initiative is 'working' and suggest instead that according to credible sources women are in fact penalized by the very system that has been put in place to 'help' them.
The United States Census bureau shows how the 'poverty threshold" is calculated each year. This figure is a dollar amount that the department has determined is what is required for a number of people living together. The two main characteristics of the threshold formula are the size of a family…
For Crying Out Loud: Women's Poverty in the United States. Eds. Diane Dujon and Ann Withorn. Boston: South End Press, 1996.
Hays, Sharon. Flat Broke with Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Katz, Michael. The Undeserving Poor: From the War on Poverty to the War on Welfare. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.
The Congress was exasperated with the AFDC's (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) cost, nature and scope, and thus decided to put an end to it. In 1994, a record number of families (5 million, with over 1/8th of American children) were enrolled in the program. Over 50% of the kids enrolled were born out of wedlock, and around 75% had a physically-fit parent not living with them (lanche, 1995). Nearly 50% of the enrolled families received program benefits for over 5 years (including repeat spells). In the 1994 financial year, benefit costs reached their peak (22.8 billion dollars, with 12.5 billion dollars from Federal funds and 10.3 billion dollars from local/State funds). Some legislators pressed for curbing AFDC coffers for controlling expenses, while others believed that permanent help offered to the needy kids from single-parent households helped encourage family breakups, allowed births out of wedlock, and promoted long-run…
Alfred, Mary V. (August 2007).Welfare Reform And Black Women's Economic Development, Adult Education Quarterly 57: 293-311
Benjamin E. Sasse and Kerry N. Weems, (February 2009). The Return of Welfare as we Knew it, The Wall Street Journal, 10
Blanche, Coll. (1995). Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 1929-1979. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, p. 104.
Blank, Rebecca. (2002). Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States. Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association 40(4): 1105-116.
Human Service Programs
In the ongoing attempt to recover human service programs, policymakers, funders, and service providers are progressively acknowledging the position of difficult program evaluations. They want to distinguish what the programs achieve, what they cost, and how they should be functioned to achieve supreme cost-effectiveness. They want to identify which programs work for which areas, and they want suppositions based on proof, rather than impassioned pleas and testimonials. With that said, it is important to understand what are the strengths and weaknesses in the Human Service Programs.
What is Human Services?
Human services are provide assistance aid to citizens that need help in getting or upholding basic human essentials, such as shelter, health and food," to name a few." Social programs also delivers human services, such as psychological requirements, help in distributing with trauma from abuse or sickness as well as complications of disasters, such as climate provoked…
Boessenkool, K. (1997). Back to work: Learning from the Alberta welfare experiment. Commentary - C.D.Howe Institute, (91), 1-1.
Hays, Sharon (2004). Flat broke with children. New York: Oxford University Press.
Holl, J., Kristen, S.S., & Amy, B.S. (2005). Welfare reform and health insurance: Consequences for parents. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 279-85.
Vozoris, N., & Tarasuk, V. (2004). The health of Canadians on welfare. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 115-20.
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
From a national fiscal point-of-view, after the Clinton's Personal esponsibility and Work Opportunity reconciliation Act gave welfare control back to the states, there was a 60 per cent overall drop in welfare recipients, but critics point out that much of this was part of a reclassification from welfare to workfare during an unusually strong economic time (the late 1990s) (DeParle, 2009). Into the 21st century, the $16.5 billion that the states received as welfare rolls dropped were spent on block grants or other types of assistance, rather than saving for economic downturns or recessionary times (Goldstein, 2008).
Scholars point out that the perceptions of welfare also contribute to the cycle of underfunding. In America, one Political Science professor noted, "while Americans with the most exaggerated misunderstandings of the racial composition of the poor are the most likely to oppose welfare," which, in turn, perpetuates racial stereotypes and could increase Americans'…
The Burning Bed. (1984). Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved from: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/24570/Burning-Bed-The/
DeParle, J. (February 1, 2009). Welfare Aid Isn't Growing as Economy Drops Off. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/02/us/02welfare.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&pagewanted=all Dutton, D. (1994). Patriarchy and Wife Assault: The Ecological Fallacy. Violence and Victims. 9 (2): 167-82. Retrieved from: http://lab.drdondutton.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/DUTTON.-1994.-PATRIARCHY-AND-WIFE-ASSAULT-THE-ECOLOGICAL-FALLACY..pdf
Giles, M. (1996). Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and the American New Media. Public Opinion Quarterly. 60 (4): 515-41.
Goldstein, A. (December 17, 2008). Welfare Rolls See First Increase in Years. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/16/AR2008121602978.html
Canada: Comparative Politics
Canada, like any other nation suffered terribly from the effects of the global financial crisis. The economic impacts from Global Financial Crisis were resolved through Canada's political and provincial administration structures. The Great ecession further intensified such trends towards elements of the precarious unemployment across Canadian provinces such as British Columbia mostly with certain population groups. This paper intends to illustrate how the global fiscal crisis has affected provincial economies in Canada.
Global Financial Crisis Impact on Provincial economies
The goal was to establish suitable forms of welfare states that mediated on the effects of forces of the global market forces through the determination of levels of state intervention within the provincial economic marketplaces. The liberal welfare regime in Canada as compared to the conservative one in Germany and social democratic from Scandinavian countries focused less on welfare provision and citizen security. This translated into…
Brownsey, K., & Howlett, M. (2001). The Provincial State in Canada: Politics in the Provinces and Territories. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.
Ciro, T. (2013). The Global Financial Crisis: Triggers, Responses and Aftermath. New York: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Dunn, C. (2003). Provinces: Canadian Provincial Politics, Second Edition. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Farlow, A. (2013). Crash and Beyond: Causes and Consequences of the Global Financial Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press.
In fact, over two million more families lived below the poverty line at the time of Murray's research than they had a decade before he published -- and this estimate may have even been conservative (Murray 1994, pp. 133). egardless of the intentions behind American social policy and the welfare reform JFK called for that Murray alludes to in the chapter's opening, it is obvious that all such policies are failing and evening worsening the situation.
In Losing Ground: American Social Policy 1950-1980, Charles Murray argues quite compellingly from a consequentialist perspective that social policy in this country is in massive need of reform. In the chapter dealing with the American family, as in much of the rest of his book, Murray basically implies if not outright states that racism and sexism have become institutionalized and monetized, and that this trend has been increasing in recent decades despite efforts to…
Murray, C. (1994). Losing ground: American social policy 1950-1980. New York: Basic Books.
At the same time that movement activists were pushing for the enactment of new legal measures, they were also working to develop a grass-roots community-based approach to providing direct services to victims of domestic violence. In 1979, the first domestic violence shelter in the United States was opened in an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota, staffed entirely by volunteers. Today more than 2,000 shelters and crisis centers dot the North American landscape. Some are funded through private donations and staffed by volunteers but most are sustained by a combination of public and private monies and are run by a mix of professional and nonprofessional, paid and unpaid staffs. Thus we see that contemporary efforts to address domestic violence are characterized by a pattern of service provision and problem definition that from the outset has involved a reliance on state and community measures.
The dual focus on the development of both…
Ellsberg, Mary, et al. "Researching Domestic Violence against Women: Methodological and Ethical Considerations." Studies in Family Planning 32.1 (2001): 1. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001004940.
Feather, N.T. "Domestic Violence, Gender and Perceptions of Justice." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 35.7-8 (1996): 507+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005
Women's Issues: Poor Single Mothers
Poverty single Mothers
Poor Single Mothers
Does Parker's 1971 definition of poverty still have relevance today? The purpose of this work is to discover the answer to this question as well as research the plight of single mothers in America today and explain the major economic and social problems that are faced by single mothers. Further this work will discuss the assistance available today that would have improved Parker's life in the decade of the seventies.
According to Parker, 1971 there is shame in being poor and poverty is to be viewed with anger and not pity. Poverty is "dirt," "being tired" states Parker who uses much small definition that poignantly catch the reader's attention. Parker reveals to the reader the vicious cycle of poverty. The facts concerning poverty are not the kind that are encouraging or inspiring and quite unfortunately the cycle…
Is There Such a Thing as an Absolute Poverty Line Over Time? Evidence from the United States, Britain, Canada, and Australia on the Income Elasticity of the Poverty [Online] available at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/papers/elassmiv.htm
Fisher, Gordon M. (1996) Relative or Absolute -- New Light on the Behavior of Poverty Lines Over Time Department of Health and Human Services [Online] available at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/papers/relabs.htm
Poverty Rate Among Single-Mother Families Remain Stagnant in Late 1990's despite Strong Economy (2001) Center on Budget and Policy Priorities 16 AUG 2001 [Online] available at: http://www.cbpp.org/8-16-01wel.pdf
Sherman, Arloc, et al. (2004) Employment Rates for Single Mothers Fell Substantially During Recent Period of Labor Market Weaknesss 22 June 2004 [Online] available at: http://www.cbpp.org/6-22-04ui.htm