Welfare Reform Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Welfare System Welfare Programs Are

Words: 1523 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53734405

Furthermore, it is agreed that those who are working tend to earn low wages, about $7.00 per hour on average, thus making it difficult for them to support their families (Sawhill pp). Another concern is that the poverty rate has not fallen as much as the caseload (Sawhill pp). Fewer poor children are receiving assistance, and the incomes of the poorest one-fifth of single-parent families have continued to fall (Sawhill pp). Many families remain in deep poverty, and according to some reports, requests for emergency assistance have grown (Sawhill pp). Overall, some 700,000 families were significantly worse off in 1999 than their counterparts in 1995 (Sawhill pp).

Since welfare reform was implemented during an unprecedented economic expansion, questions remain about how much of the good news should be attributed to the 1996 law and how much to a strong economy or to the growth of other programs such as the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sawhill, Isabel. (2001, June 22). From Welfare to Work.

Brookings Review. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Sommerfeld, David. (2002, March 01). Race, welfare reform, and nonprofit organizations. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575466/Welfare.html
View Full Essay

Welfare System Temporary Aid for

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22207850

For the year June 2000 there were 5,780,543 TANF families as against 14,111,992 TANF families during January 1993. (Total TANF ecipients by State)

Graph

The following graph shows the percentage of the U.S. population on Welfare since 1960. As it can be seen that there was a gradual rise from the year 1960 when the program was launched till 1972 after which there was a plateau phase till 1978. It remained range bound from 1979 till 1990 with minor rise and fall. The years 1993 and 1994 was the peak with more than 5.5% of the U.S. population covered under TANF. After 1994, coverage came down sharply from 1996 till 1999 when it was 2.5%. (Statistics: Percentage of U.S. Population on Welfare since 1960)

Percentage of the U.S. Population on Welfare Since 1960 http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/news/stats/uspops.gif

eferences

Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. etrieved at…… [Read More]

References

Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. Retrieved at  http://www.results.org/website/article.asp?id=965Accessed  on 12 May, 2005

Administration for Children and Families: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program. Retrieved at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/exsumcl.htm. Accessed on 12 May, 2005

Besharov, Douglas J. The Past and Future of Welfare Reform. Retrieved at  http://www.welfareacademy.org/pubs/welfare/pastandfuture.pdf . Accessed on 12 May, 2005

Gorman, Angie O. Playing the Rules and Still Losing Ground. Retrieved at http://www.americamagazine.org/gettext.cfm?articleTypeID=1&textID=2419&issueID=397Accessed on 12 May, 2005
View Full Essay

Mothers -- Transitioning From Welfare to Corporate

Words: 2273 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96265813

Mothers -- Transitioning from elfare to Corporate America

elfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. e first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burnett, R. (2010, May 28). Social Welfre: Does it Really Help or Does it Really Hurt? Retrieved from The Cypress Times: http://www.thecypresstimes.com/article/Columnists/The_Hard_Truth/SOCIAL_WELFARE_DOES_IT_REALLY_HELP_OR_DOES_IT_REALLY_HURT/30509

Galster, G. (Ed.). (1996). Reality and Research: Social Science and U.S. Urban Policy since 1960. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Gyamfi, P., Brooks-Gun, J., & Jackson, A. (2005). Moving Towards Work: The Effects of Employment Experiences on Welfare-Dependent Women and their Children. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 12(2-3), 39-62.

Hamilton, G. (2002, July). Moving People from Welfare to Work. Retrieved from MDRC Policy Analysis: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/52/summary.html
View Full Essay

Discriminations in Welfare Groups The

Words: 1961 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68015485

Nearly all of the existing models for financial redistribution available in American politics isolate potential applications on lines of income, while others divide along racial, ethnic, and religious lines to help insure the same standard of living for all of those in need -- adults and families included.

The current situation in America highlights the need to isolate welfare recipients further, by more than just income and instead to also take into account the idea of regional differences that foster not only varied opportunities of employment, but also a wide array of external sources of lifetime substance. Because America is still trying to balance the difference of tax revenues, budget allotments, and other sources of welfare subsidy, it is most important that both social scientists and legislators illuminate the regional discriminations that exist between the urban and rural poor.

Deavers, Kenneth L. "Social Science Contributions to Rural Development Policy in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Poverty Welfare and Sociology Poverty

Words: 2176 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47217994

" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:

Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)

Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:

The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.

Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97923049

Baron, J.N., & Hannan, M.T. (1994). The Impact of Economics on Contemporary Sociology. Journal of Economic Literature, 32(3), 1111-1146. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95261988

Hale, S.M. (1987). The Documentary Construction of Female Mismanagement. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 24(4), 489-513. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001982198

Levison, D., Ritter, J.A., Stock, R., & Anker, R. (2002). Distribution of Income and Job Opportunities: Normative Judgements from Four Continents. International Labour Review, 141(4), 385+. Retrieved January 20, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001346748
View Full Essay

Sociology - Welfare the Conceptual

Words: 1342 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44035160

Instead, the welfare system encouraged perpetual social dependency and provided a reason for poor people not to work at all when the most reliable method of achieving financial independence (besides continuing education) is precisely, to begin working at minimum wage jobs while gradually learning skills and establishing contacts and a record of regular employment that are essential in the long- term goal of qualifying for better work in time (Healey, 2003 p56).

The Need for Welfare Reform:

While elements of government assistance programs are still subject to epidemic abuse (Schmalleger, 2007 p104), the reconfiguration mandated by Congress in 1996 are designed to rectify some of the most glaring problems plaguing the federally administrated programs previously. First and foremost, the new state-run welfare programs must, by federal law, establish caps limiting welfare eligibility to discourage perpetual (even permanent) reliance on public funds as a substitute for making the necessary effort and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Healey, Joseph F. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. London: Pine Forge (2003).

Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon (2002).

Macionis, John J. Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall (2003).

Schaefer, Richard T. Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper-Collins (2001).
View Full Essay

Government Welfare Discussed Should the Government Provide

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49840928

government welfare. Discussed: should the government provide fewer or more benefits for single parents on welfare. Thesis, three reasons to support, at least 4 quotes and paraphrases on each page from experts.

Should the Government Provide More or Fewer Benefits for Single Parents on elfare?

elfare reforms have been a continuous debate for years. The latest reform regarding single parents and government benefits has stirred controversy and initiated studies to determine the effects of new policies. hile many critics believe the new reforms are too harsh and simply increase the number of poverty level families, the new policies with reduced benefits are making a positive significant impact in reducing the number of single parent recipients and placing them in the employment arena. Therefore, the government should provide less benefits to single parents on welfare.

Many critics argue that the economy is responsible for caseload declines (New B7). However, according to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adkisson, Richard V. "Welfare reform: What are the numbers, and does anyone care?" Journal of Economic Issues. March 01, 2001; pp 184.

New, Michael. "Helping the Poor: Strong Work Requirements are the way out of Welfare." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. October 01, 2002; pp B7.

Welfare Reform - More Research Needed on TANF Family Caps and other Policies for Reducing Out-of-Wedlock Births." Government Accounting Office Report. September 11, 2001. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Government_Accounting_Office_Report&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.emediamillworks.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=&title=WELFARE+REFORM+%2D+MORE+RESEARCH+NEEDED+ON+TANF+FAMILY+CAPS+AND+OTHER+POLICIES+FOR+REDUCING+OUT%2DOF%2DWEDLOCK+BIRTHS++&date=09%2D11%2D2001&query=welfare+and+single+parents&maxdoc=24&idx=5.(accessed 12-01-2002).
View Full Essay

UK Welfare the Following Review of Current

Words: 5011 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7004083

UK elfare

The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.

The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arai, L.; (2003) British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 89 -- 102

Bingley, P.J., Douek, I.F., Rogers, C.A. And Gale, E.A.M. (2000) Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of Type 1 Diabetes in childhood: Prospective population-based family study, British Medical Journal, Vol. 321, pp 420 -- 424.

Brewer, M.; Ratcliffe, A.; dSmith, S.; (2011) Does welfare reform affect fertility: Evidence from the UK, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 245 -- 266

Doling, J. & Ford, J.; (2007) A union of homeowners? European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, pp. 113 -- 127.
View Full Essay

Lives of Welfare Recipients Investigating

Words: 2136 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22151891

275).

By conducting a peer led focus group the interaction between the participants allows for sharing of stories and experiences and opens up the lines for a deeper, more meaningful discussion. Instead of the participants directing their responses to questions and statements asked of the researcher to the researcher, participants will be able to converse with one another. The researcher will still be a part of the focus group, but his role will not be as prominent as it would be in a traditional style focus group. Instead, the researcher will observe, take notes and steer the group in the right direction if they start to discuss other topics which are not a part of the study.

Conclusion

Because this research deals with the dynamics of welfare recipients as opposed to how many people are on welfare, a qualitative approach is best. The only information that could be dealt with…… [Read More]

References

Berg, B.L. (2009). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (7th edition ed.). Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.

Childstats.gov - America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2010 - Economic Circumstances. (n.d.). Childstats.gov - Home. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from  http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/eco.asp 

Lofland, J., Snow, D.A., Anderson, L., & Lofland, L.H. (2005). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis (4th ed. ed.). Gwenn Wilson: Wadsworth Publishing.

Murray, C. (2006). Peer led focus groups and young people. Children and Society, 20(4), 273-286.
View Full Essay

Sociology of Poverty and Welfare

Words: 3817 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79188435

Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology

Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.

Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
View Full Essay

U S Welfare and Financial Situation

Words: 4624 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13150102

In this case there are differences due to the income level of the person who is replying.

The Americans who are making more than $34,000 a year generally say that the persons getting aid from welfare could manage their own lives without help from the government if they really tried, while the replies from the lower income groups feel that they could not manage. This continues on in the opinion of the comparatively richer group to say that the people getting poverty assistance could manage without assistance as they get the assistance without having to do anything for it. This continues on with persons having little knowledge of the changes in law that has come up. Only half the respondents were aware of the changes in the law. However of the persons who are aware of the changes in the law 61% think that the new law is working well,…… [Read More]

References

America's most costly welfare recipients are Fortune 500 companies. Cato Institute News Releases. June 30, 1999. Retrieved at http://www.cato.org/new/catonew-06-99.html. Accessed on 30 June, 2005

Bumpass, Larry. Ryder, N.B. The Changing Contexts of Parenting in the United States. Retrieved at  http://parenthood.library.wisc.edu/Bumpass/Bumpass.html . Accessed on 29 June, 2005

Cauchon, Dennis. State, local spending up despite downturn. USA Today. 14 January, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-01-14-state-budgets-usat_x.htm. Accessed on 30 June, 2005

Danziger, Sheldon; Loury, Glenn; Murray, Charles; Wilkins, Roger. Does Welfare Cause Illegitimacy? 9 April, 1994. Retrieved at http://www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/murray-loury-welfareAccessed on 29 June, 2005
View Full Essay

Bias in Voter Turnout and State Welfare

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20534811

Bias in Voter Turnout and State Welfare Changes

The authors of the article are predominantly concerned with the welfare policies that were passed after 1996 when the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) was signed into law. Centrally, the article highlights the influences that the class bias in the voter turn-out had on the welfare changes especially in state welfare policies since the passing and signing into effect the TANF.

The widely held position that the low voter turn out in the disenfranchised sections of the population like the minority and the economically week regions contributes to the bad policies that have been passed since 1996 is the basic question the authors discuss. They try to evaluate and see whether it is true that the lower voter turn out in such regions as mentioned above do directly contribute to bad policies that do not care for the poor in the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Reform and Rehabilitation Program to

Words: 6267 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71084368

These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).

All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Significance of the Study

Every year more than 600,000…… [Read More]

References

Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.

Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.

Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.

Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
View Full Essay

Political Social & Economic Reforms

Words: 2180 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51729702

However, the act only applied to larger towns and the rural districts were still left under the administrative control of the Justices of the Peace until the establishment of elected county councils in 1888. Even though it was quite inadequate for the immediate needs of the common peoples of England, this act made it possible for main urban areas to form their own powerful authority, subject to popular control, and thus able to levy a local rate. From this simple beginning, a concentration of new functions arose and throughout the 20th century powers would continue to be added to municipal corporations. One of the best results of the Municipal Corporations Act was that it created new possibilities, such as the education of children, and supplied the public with trams, light, water and housing.

efore the years of the 19th century in England, those that worked in coal mines which furnished…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Birnie, Arthur. An Economic History of the British Isles. New York: Crofts & Company,

Brown, John. The British Welfare State: A Critical History. UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1980.

Churchill, Winston S. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: The Great Democracies. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1958.

Graham, Gerald S. A Concise History of the British Empire. New York: Viking Press, 1971.
View Full Essay

TANF Program Social Welfare TANF

Words: 1704 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66256058

However, there have been both positive and negative outcomes from these changes. Some of the positive changes are: reduced welfare caseloads, they have increase unemployment / income levels for the recipients' and it improves family security. While some of the negative outcomes would include:: low wages, dead end jobs, difficulty obtaining health / child care and inconsistent performance from social workers. This is significant, because it shows how the law has made an impact upon reducing the overall amounts of waste. Like any change there will be obvious positive and negatives outcomes. In the case of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, these changes would impact the way various social services are provided, to low income individuals and families.

ibliography

Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm

Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html

Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from  http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm 

Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from  http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html 

Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49 (2), pg. 185.

Grogger, J. (n.d). Conflicting Benefits. Rand. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/rr.12.02/benefits.html
View Full Essay

Unemployment and Tax Reform on Our Social

Words: 3043 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50300321

unemployment and tax reform on our social structure including theoretical framework on functionalism, social conflict and symbolic framework and so on and so forth. The orks Cited eight sources in MLA format.

Unemployment

Unemployment has long been the cause of ruin of the American society as well as the global social structure. Persistence in unemployment and the related tax reforms have done much harm than have benefited the mankind on this face of earth. There have been several effects of unemployment and tax reforms on our social structure. The passages below of our research paper will look into not only these effects but will also include theoretical framework on functionalism and social conflict. Before we begin our discussion on the effects of unemployment on the social structure as well as on the effects of tax reforms, it is essential that the readers have a look at the precise yet comprehensive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Social Structure." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2003. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=117544.

Functionalism, Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.*****/free_essays/4/sociology/functionalism-confict-theory-and-symbolic-interaction.shtml

Social and psychological effects of unemployment. Retrieved July 10, 2003 at  http://www.e-resaneh.com/English/Social/Social%20and%20Psychological%20Effects%20of%20Unemployment.html 

Saunders P. Direct and indirect effects of unemployment. Paper presented at the Australian National University in the F.H. Gruen Lecture Series on Welfare and the Labor Market: The New Frontier for Reform.
View Full Essay

British Social Welfare and Elizabethan

Words: 821 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13539461

Last year, 76 minors were homicide victims."

The child has lost her life and the government is now trying to take actions to revamp the system. Under the new system, Children's Trusts will be set up "at the local level to bring experts - psychologists, social workers, education officials - together, with a local director ultimately accountable."

There may appear to be few similarities between EPL and current social welfare policy but when we closely study their impact, we fail to accept the notion that a lot has changed. EPL was ineffective in controlling child-related problems. Children were subjected to cruel working conditions, they had hardly any proper means of nutrition and overseers probably did not care much about them. The same is true today. While there are protection agencies, social workers and others working for welfare of children, there is little if any improvement in their condition especially in…… [Read More]

REFERENCE:

1. Mark Rice-Oxley, Child-abuse tragedy spurs British overhaul of social services; the government unveiled a plan last week to keep better records on children and streamline the bureaucracy.(WORLD) the Christian Science Monitor; 9/16/2003

2. Bliss (1908), "Elizabethan Poor Laws" pp. 918-920.
View Full Essay

Social Work and Welfare the

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7572883



Addams included a large amount of environmental reforms in her program for Hull House. One of the most prominent incorporated her labors to address the unhealthful heaps of garbage in immigrant areas because of a lack of public interest. The mayor of Chicago ultimately appointed Addams garbage inspector for her region a job that she took very seriously. Addams managed garbage collectors and took violators of garbage policies to court. Even though Addams and her associates frequently started reforms, the immigrants had a dynamic role as well, helping in knowledge gathering and its communication to their neighbors (Settlement House Movement, 2011).

ichmond's devotion and professionalism, along with her scientific charity has been documented and developed over the years. Her casework practice, managerial talents, research, and stress on social work education fashioned a professional environment in what was beforehand thought to be just charity work. This professionalized social work permitted philanthropic…… [Read More]

References

Settlement House Movement. (2011). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:

 http://www.pollutionissues.com/Re-Sy/Settlement-House-Movement.html 

Smith, Mark K. (2002). Casework and the Charity Organization Society. Retrieved March 23,

2011, from Web site:  http://www.infed.org/socialwork/charity_organization_society.htm
View Full Essay

Nineteenth Century Reform

Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1976691

Nineteenth Century Reform

The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/

Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.

Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842.  http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm 

Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.

Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.

U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
View Full Essay

New Public Management Reforms the

Words: 4090 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65984502

Indeed, the reference to "institutional sclerosis" concerns the fact that virtually every conceivable interest in contemporary society is protected by a variety of laws that provide for extensive advising, participation and appeal procedures, a process that further exacerbates the inability of public administrators to remain responsive to their constituents (Klijn & Koppenjan 241). These authors emphasize that, "This results, among other things, in the Not In My Backyard (NIMBY) syndrome, where parties block the creation of arrangements of collective interest (such as the location decision concerning an industrial site, a road, an asylum centre, etc.) based on their own private interests" (Klijn & Koppenjan 241).

According to King and her associates, current public participation processes have four major components as follows:

The issue or situation;

The administrative structures, systems, and processes within which participation takes place;

The administrators; and,

The citizens (318).

This arrangement means that those with the most…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barzelay, Michael. The New Public Management: Improving Research and Policy Dialogue. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001.

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.

Brudney, Jeffrey L., Sergio Fernandez, Jay Eungha Ryu and Deil S. Wright. (2005). "Exploring and Explaining Contracting Out: Patterns among the American States." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15(3):393.

Feltey, Kathryn M., Cheryl Simrell King and Bridget O'Neill Susel. (1998). "The Question of Participation: Toward Authentic Public Participation in Public Administration." Public Administration Review 58(4):317-319.
View Full Essay

Immigration Welfare Policy

Words: 1153 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58565067

Immigrant Welfare Policy Summary & Critique

Immigration into the United States has historically come in waves, with the current upward trend beginning in 1965 and gaining steam through the 1980s, to the point where nearly one million immigrants a year, on average, have been admitted to the United States throughout the 1990s and the current decade. any of these newer immigrant gained legal status as U.S. citizens through back or side doors, such as entering the country with a temporary visa and then applying for citizenship, or even seeking citizenship after living as an illegal immigrant for some years. Such side-door entry has had a significant impact not only on the number of immigrants made citizens each year, but also on the ability of these immigrants to adequately provide for themselves and their families without depending on federal assistance.

This has inextricably tied the issue of immigration to that of…… [Read More]

Martin and Midgley (2006) do not really present an argument in their paper, but rather an overview of the current immigration situation. The same is largely true of Currie's article concerning Medicaid (1997). Both of these articles detail the complexities ofteh problems this country is facing, but fail to provide any sense of appropriate direction. Martin and Midgley especially merely detail the trends that have been observed in immigration, without offering any real solutions on how to deal with the ongoing immigration explosion. In suggesting that we could be experiencing a historical immigration peak before dipping into the trough the follows, the authors reaffirm their own conclusions without providing any immediately useful value judgments. The converse, however -- that is, behaving as though this were not a peak but simply a new trend in immigration -- renders the rest of their historical argument moot.

Currie provides somewhat more useful exploration and analysis of the conclusions he draws from his hard data. Yet while clearly suggesting that Medicaid reform is necessary in regards to immigrants, if only to make the program more equitable across regional, familial, and ethnic lines, he fails to note the added costs of medical care for children and other immigrants who are either not eligible for or are not receiving Medicaid benefits. There is a brief mention in the editor's note of emergency costs outstripping preventative care, but more in depth explanations and analyses are needed to make this argument logically viable (which it certainly is).

The shorter articles that comprise this reading deal with specific areas of the immigration aid issue in similarly quantitative ways, while rarely mentioning the qualitative aspects or making recommendations. The logic used is impeccable, but the scant number of real conclusions drawn in these articles does not make this especially impressive. For instance, while Ku (2001) and Capps et al. (2005) respectively note the lower rates of heath insurance amongst immigrants and the lower success rates of immigrant children in the No Child Left Behind Act, neither provides information regarding a response to these issues other than suggesting that reform is necessary. The same is true of Ruby's (2004) article concerning the need to ensure success for children in the early years of formal schooling. Few would argue that things like health insurance and adequate education are less beneficial or necessary to immigrants than they are to U.S. citizens; the questions is who ought to -- and who is wiling to -- pay for these things. This country has always had an interesting relationship with the concept of taxation, and this issue lies at the heart of the matter.
View Full Essay

President's Reforms and Era of

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53106752

The President intended to implement safeguards to prevent another series of depression from occurrence. The President was convinced that the second series of reforms will provide assistance to the American people. The President introduced different programs; Works Progress Administration and the National Youth Administration. The government hired people, particularly men for the vacancies available in government departments. The President also introduced the Emergency elief Appropriation Act, the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, the ural Electrification Act, the Social Security Act, the Wagner-Connery Act, the esettlement Administration, and the Federal Housing Act. Both the houses of the government adopted the resolution, and supported with minor amendments.

The first and second series of reforms introduced by the oosevelt's administration provided relief and assistance to the American people, particularly the backward people of Ohio State. The resident of Ohio State received grants from government through one or more of these programs or…… [Read More]

References

David M. Kennedy., Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War 1929-1945.

William (EDT) Dudley. The Great Depression: Opposing Viewpoints.

August Constantino Bolino., From Depression to War: American Society in Transition.

John Eric Nordskog., Contemporary Social Reform Movements: Principles and Readings.
View Full Essay

China Housing Reforms

Words: 3775 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19974636

China's Urban Housing Development -- a Shift from Welfare Housing to Home Ownership

The challenge of housing in China has been on the national agenda for more that four decades now. A lot of efforts have been directed by the government to help solve the challenge and it has substantially achieved a significant mileage. This paper will delve into the policies informing the urban housing reforms, the evolution that the housing reforms has undergone over the years, the challenges it faced, the current situation of China in terms of housing and also discuss the trend that are prevalent in China and what the government is currently doing to ensure the dream of housing for every China citizen is achieved.

Overview of housing reform agenda

The landscape of China as a whole has been undergoing several changes and shifts in the political, social and the economic aspect of it. This prompted…… [Read More]

References

Hui X., (2009). The Chinese Hoiusing reform and the Following New Urban Question. Retrieved April 2,2015 from http://newurbanquestion.ifou.org/proceedings/3%20The%20Urbanized%20Society/full%20papers/B008_Xiaoxi_The%20Chinese%20Housing%20Reform%20and%20the%20following%20New%20Urban%20Questions-fullpaper_revised.pdf

Liu Z. & Mei C., (2013). Experiment-based Policy Making or Conscious Policy Design? The Case of Urban Housing Reform in China. Retrieved April 2,2015 from http://www.icpublicpolicy.org/IMG/pdf/panel_11_s1_mei_liu.pdf

Yang Z. & Chen J., (2014). Housing Affordability and Housing Policy in Urban China. SpringerBriefs in Economics. Retrieved April 2,2015 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDYQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fcontent%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9783642540431-c2.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-1440212-p176464947&ei=R80fVZDVG4XVaoCXgdgE&usg=AFQjCNEhb1RhJuJyvxM0gC1oOaTU9ocbJA&sig2=vA52GOb75JR6iaesZq0cRQ&bvm=bv.89947451,d.bGg

Youqin H., (2013). Lack of Affordable Housing Threatens China's Urban Dream. Retrieved April 2,2015 from https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/6365-Lack-of-affordable-housing-threatens-China-s-urban-dream
View Full Essay

British Cannabis Policy Reform

Words: 11793 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41229071

Cannabis in the UK: De-Penalisation, Decriminalisation, or Legalisation?

In October of 2015, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was forced to debate whether the current prohibition on cannabis should end in some way. "Forced" is the correct word here, because Parliament seems otherwise unwilling to address the issue, but in this case it was obliged by its own policy, whereby any petition signed by at least one hundred thousand people must necessarily trigger a parliamentary debate. In the case of the issue of ending the prohibition on cannabis, the petition requesting that Parliament address the issue received well over the required number of signatures; it was, in the words of Smith (2015), "a petition signed by 220,000 people - the third most popular on Parliament's website." Therefore on 12 October 2015, Parliament was obliged to take up the matter for debate. Liberal Democrat MP Norman Lamb ultimately took up the…… [Read More]

References

Abel, EA. (1980) Marihuana: The first twelve thousand years. New York: Springer.

Adda, J, McConnell, B, Rasul, I. (2014). Crime and the depenalisation of cannabis possession: Evidence from a policing experiment. Journal of Political Economy 122:5.

Aoyagi, MT. (2006). Beyond punitive prohibition: Liberalizing the dialogue on international drug policy. International Law and Politics 37:3.

Atuesta-Becerra, LH. (2014) Internally displaced populations in Columbia and Mexico. In Quah, D, Collins, J, et al. (2014) Ending the drug wars: Report of the LSE Expert Group on the economics of drug policy. London: London School of Economics.
View Full Essay

Campaign Finance Reform

Words: 2053 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22619292

American Anti-Corruption Act: The Tipping Point for American Citizens

The American Anti-Corruption Act:

A tipping point for American citizens

In the wake of increasing concerns about the undue influence of money and special interest groups in American politics, the anti-corruption advocacy group epresent.Us created a grassroots campaign in support of a law called the American Anti-Corruption Act. The Act is "a nine-point plan to crack down on lobbyists, strengthen the flimsy law intended to prevent super-PACs from coordinating with campaigns, and put a stop to undisclosed donations funneled through dark-money nonprofits" (Aronsen 2013). It should be noted that ironically, "epresent.Us is a project of United epublic, a campaign finance reform group that, like many of the outside spending organizations it takes aim at, is a 501(c)(4)" although it is bipartisan in its composition (Aronsen 2013). Its bipartisan membership includes "former Federal Elections Commission chair (and Stephen Colbert's 'personal lawyer') Trevor…… [Read More]

References

American Anti-Corruption Act. (2014). Official website.

Retrieved from: http://anticorruptionact.org/

Aronsen, G. (2012). New group unveils its plan to get money out of politics. Mother Jones.

Retrieved from: http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2012/11/represent-us-campaign-finance-reform
View Full Essay

Legislative Advocacy for TANF Reform

Words: 1345 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94924777

Legislative Advocacy

Introduction and Coalition Building

H.. 890 is bill to prohibit the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from granting a waiver relating to compliance with the work requirements of the provision of Welfare. The most recent bill title is: Preserving the Welfare Work equirement and TANF Extension Act of 2013. I stand in opposition to this bill and provide a detailed basis for my position in the following discussion. In brief, my support for the action taken by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is derived from endorsements that more effective ways to meet TANF goals are and can be developed and effectively implemented, and that much of the current legislation derives from a deeply ingrained suspicion of the poor and of needy families that this nation must outgrow in order to be truly innovative and effectively achieve the honorable objective of TANF.

Background…… [Read More]

References

____. Section 1115 of the Social Security Act. [42 U.S.C. 1315], Section 402 of the Social Security Act. [42 U.S.C. 602]

Haynes, K.S. & Mickelson, J.S. (2006). Affecting change: social workers in the political arena. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
View Full Essay

Analyzing the Policy Making Process

Words: 1299 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94960725

Policy Making Process

Welfare eform Policy Analysis

Success of welfare reform is ambiguous. Media and well-known public officials claim to have had achieved welfare reforms. However, after 4 years of new policy regime, majority also accepts that welfare reforms have been successfully achieved. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) also validates this by stating that welfare rolls have dropped by 53% to 6.28 million recipients in June 2000 from 12.24 million recipients in August 1996 (Administration for Children and Families 2001). Moreover, researches have also stated that people are becoming well (Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation [ASPE] 2000). Observers suggest that welfare reform is indisputably successful and is self-evident.

TANF progress is successful as reform is evaluated by putting leavers and caseloads in a shared frame of reference. Undoubtedly, mass media has played an important role in framing this reference. Similar stories by different journalists are often given hype…… [Read More]

References

Administration for Children and Families. (2001). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 1936-2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/news/stats/3697.htm

Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. 2000. Leavers and Diversion Studies: Summary of Research on Welfare Outcomes Funded by ASPE. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

LAC. (2000). Policy Toolkit for Strengthening Health Sector Reform. LAC Health Sector Reform Initiative.

Rossetti, A.G. And Bossert, T.J. (1999). Comparative Analysis of Policy Processes: Enhancing the Political Feasibility of Health Reform. LAC, Health Sector Reform Initiative.
View Full Essay

Propositions That Pertain to the Policy-Making Process

Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97803657

propositions that pertain to the policy-making process. After that, these propositions are to be tested. The author of this response will offer these three propositions, and the rationale behind them, one by one. The first proposition is that policy-making should be based less on simply facets of compassions and "fairness" and more on the results that would be garnered. A lot of people, for example, say that welfare was an absolutely needed lifeline for people while others say that allowing welfare-usage in perpetuity is a bad thing. Second, it should be questioned whether extensions of government health programs (e.g. ObamaCare) actually contribute to their usage (or, more importantly, over-usage and abuse) or if the aggregate results is good overall. Third, the question should be asked whether legislative mechanisms like the filibuster hurt or harm the overall process.

As for concerns about compassion and fairness, the author of this author posits…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hacker, Jacob. "The Road to Somewhere: Why Health Reform Happened." Perspectives on Politics 8.3 (2010): 861-876. Print.

Kahlenberg, Richard D.. Improving on No Child Left Behind: getting education reform back on track. New York: Century Foundation Press, 2008. Print.

Kingdon, John W.. Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Updated 2nd ed. Boston: Longman, 2011. Print.

NYSHealth. "Analysis of Five Health Insurance Options for New York State." NYS Health Foundation 1.1 (2009): 1-45. Print.
View Full Essay

TANF Time Limits

Words: 4248 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66121844

TANF Time Limits

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or TANF for short, is one of the more controversial and maligned or one of the most lauded and touted social safety net programs in the United States. Whether it is praised or denigrated depends a lot on who is doing the talking and what their motivations are. TANF has turned in a political football on a scale that dovetails quite nicely with the words of awls (1985) when it was noted in an essay of that author that there are sometimes periods (some of them quite long in duration) that are bereft and full of political divisiveness and vitriol (awls, 1985).

History of TANF & its Predecessor

A bulk of the TANF program is to provide cash-based payments to needy families who are living in destitution or are otherwise in stark financial peril and how those funds are allocated, to…… [Read More]

References

Alcoff, Linda. "The Problem of Speaking For Others." Cultural Critique 20.1 (1992): 5-

32. Print.

Burns, M. (2010, October 28). Welfare Reform Failing Poor Single Moms, Books Claim. Pacific Standard - Politics, Health, Economy, Environment, Culture, Education. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from http://www.psmag.com/politics/welfare-reform-failing-poor-single-mothers-24778/

CDSS. (2013, April 16). Child Welfare Services Stakeholder Group Questions and Answers. CA CDSS. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from  http://www.cdss.ca.gov/cdssweb/PG51.htm
View Full Essay

Smith Goldsmith Blakely Observe ' Burden Poverty

Words: 1561 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9176247

Smith, Goldsmith Blakely observe ' burden poverty falls heavily women children disproportionately African-Americans Latinos/Hispanics' (pg.

The issue of poverty in the United States is not merely an issue of economic shortcomings of the system or a lack of coordination at the level of the state in terms of ensuring a proper social welfare protect system. Poverty in America, such as in any other democratic and complex state, depends on a multitude of factors that mix and provide an important shortcoming that in turn affects the lives of millions of people throughout the world and in the U.S. alike.

The combination of factors is varied and depending on the way in which these factors combine, they affect certain parts of the society. In the case of the United States there is a clear recognition of the fact that women, children, African-Americans and Latinos / Hispanics are more prone and vulnerable to…… [Read More]

References

Goldsmith, William W. And Edward J. Blakely. Separate Societies: Poverty and Inequality in U.S. Cities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010.

Smith, Anne Marie. Welfare Reform and Sexual Regulation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
View Full Essay

Urban Injustice How Ghettos Happen

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58307582

Many of the busts in the ghetto are drug-related, and Hilfiker notes that our society punishes petty drug offences far more severely than crimes committed by people who are wealthy. Meantime, the mandatory minimum sentence takes away the possibility of any plea bargaining; it takes away the judge's previous alternative of giving probation for a petty crime and hands the power to the prosecutor, who runs for office on a "law and order" theme.

"Deserving" poor vs. "Undeserving" poor:

It has been customary in America for society to attempt to separate the "undeserving" poor from the "deserving" poor. The deserving poor are those who have supposedly found themselves down on their luck through no fault of their own; while the undeserving are reportedly "lazy" and likely on some government assistance program (Hilfiker, pp. 69-71). As a token offer of help to the very poor the government makes "TANF" benefits available…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hilfiker, David. (2002). Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen. New York: Seven Stories Press.
View Full Essay

Have Work Incentive Programs in US Been Effective in Promoting Employment Among Low Income Families

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51846491

Incentive Programs Among Low Income

The effects of work incentive programs in encouraging low income individuals to participate in employment depend on the income thresholds of reforms in whether the individual gains benefits that are equal to or greater than what they would receive by not working. The factors in the determination include after tax income plus benefits, such as Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and fixed work costs, compared to the total change in revenue received. If the loss of welfare is greater than the total change in revenue, work incentives have no value and discourage employment participation. On the other hand, if the total amount of changed revenue is greater than the welfare loss and compensates for fixed work costs, incentives encourage employment among the low income.

The Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) expanded EITC benefits by increases in the standard deduction, personal deductions, and favorable tax…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elissa, Nada. Taxation and Labor Supply of Married Women: The Tax Reform Act of '1986 as a Natural Experiment. Feb 1995. working paper. 20 July 2013.

Elissa, Nada, Kleven, Henrick Jacobsen, & Kriener, Claus Thustrup. Welfare Effects of Tax Reform and Labor Supply at the Intensive and Extensive Margins. May 2004. working paper. 20 July 2013.

Riccio, Jim. Promoting Employment Stability and Advancement Among Low-Income Adults. Mar 2013. article. 20 July 2013.

Rothstein, Jesse. The Unintended Consequences of Encouraging Work: Tax Incidence on the EITC. May 2008. pdf. 20 July 2013.
View Full Essay

Hayes Cry for Change in

Words: 2129 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7330647



In addition to these 'syndromes,' many women do not have adequate psychological support or counseling to help them with their mental health woes. Between 10 and 31% of all mothers on welfare have physical disabilities that limit their ability to work or the kinds of employment they can take, as well as mental health conditions that make stable employment extremely difficult. The presence of preschool children in these women's lives are another impediment to free and full access to the world of employment, a reason that creates what Hays calls "feminization of poverty" inherent to modern American life.

Hays stresses that the barriers to a successful transition from welfare to work are emotional and practical. Even women who wish to comply with the requirements of law have trouble finding decent childcare, care for their relatives, or transportation, and the law shows little compassion for their struggles, as they must meet…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hays, Sharon. Flat Broke With Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
View Full Essay

Framers of U S Constitution Created

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94237090

Another example is drinking laws are defined by each state, but the federal government passed a law stating they would not provide monies to any state that did not raise their drinking age to twenty-one years of age .

lock Grants

lock grants have been part of the United States federal system as early as the late 1960's . lock grants are fixed -- sum of federal grants to state and local governments which allows them to design and implement programs . Examples: Child Welfare: gives states option to receive Title IV-E Foster Care funding as flexible Grant; Medicaid: gives states the option to consolidate Medicate and SCHIP funding into state acute care and long-term care allotments. A block grant has different budgetary implications from an entitlement. While both block grants and categorical grants are normally financed by fixed appropriations, entitlement funding is usually open-ended . lock grants give Congress…… [Read More]

Block grants have been part of the United States federal system as early as the late 1960's . Block grants are fixed -- sum of federal grants to state and local governments which allows them to design and implement programs . Examples: Child Welfare: gives states option to receive Title IV-E Foster Care funding as flexible Grant; Medicaid: gives states the option to consolidate Medicate and SCHIP funding into state acute care and long-term care allotments. A block grant has different budgetary implications from an entitlement. While both block grants and categorical grants are normally financed by fixed appropriations, entitlement funding is usually open-ended . Block grants give Congress more authority and be in command of over future spending, entitlements are more responsive to macroeconomic conditions .

Welfare Reform Act of 1996

Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was signed into law by President Clinton on August 22, 1996. This law changes how government financial assistance is administered including: changing federal funding to states from an open-ended entitlement to a series of capped block grants allocations; sets time limits on entitlements and cash assistance to welfare recipients; requires more welfare recipients to engage in job programs, and enforces collection of unpaid child support, and denies legal immigrants from collecting SSI and food stamps. The legislative goals of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was to reduce dependence, to reduce child poverty, and to reduce illegitimacy and strengthen marriage. This reform has been effective in meeting each of these goals.
View Full Essay

Pure Policy The Kantian Inquiry System the

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66199689

Pure Policy: The Kantian Inquiry System

The philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote his treatise, A Critique of Pure Reason, as a way of striking a balance between rationalistic and empiricist modalities of acquiring knowledge. It was not possible, Kant stated, to live in the world and to merely understand knowledge through one's mind and preexisting rational cognitive faculties. The mind could have tricks played upon it in terms of its sensory perceptions that affected such faculties. Thus, the mind was not a perfectly receptive organ. However, he also believed that pure empiricism, the idea that there was nothing other than experience of the immediate present, not to be perfectly valid either.

Rather, Kant suggested that we glean information through pre-existing human mental frameworks and sensations, but process such data in unique ways, commensurate and shifting with experience. In other words, one must think one's way as a human being, both inductively…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Mitroff, Ian I. & Louis R. Pondy. 1974. "On the Organization of Inquiry: A Comparison

of Some Radically Different Approaches to Policy Analysis," Public Administration

Review. 34: 471-479.
View Full Essay

Race the Problems of Race & the

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67570269

ace

The Problems of ace & the Myths of Urban Poverty

ace is a social construct. There is exists very little genetic difference among the various "races" of humans on Earth. This construct is central to many, and perhaps even most people on our planet. ace is a physical difference that draws clearly defined boundaries between people. ace can be the inspiration for war. ace is hardly an inspiration for peace, unfortunately. This paper will briefly examine situations when race has been used to hurt and subordinate others. This paper will reference examples of groups of people that are systematically via the social realms and institutions who suffer due to their race, an aspect over which they had no choice or say. Drawing from the series, The Wire, and a few readings, the paper will propose what the myths of urban poverty are, who are the authors of such myths,…… [Read More]

References:

Dreier, P. And J. Atlas. 2009. The Wire - Bush-Era Fable About America's Urban Poor. City & Community, 8: 329-340.

Edin, K. And K. Harris. 1998. Getting Off and Staying Off: Racial Differences in the Work Route off Welfare. Pages 270-301: Latinas and African-American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Newman, K. 2001. Hard Times on 125th Street: Harlem's Poor Confront Welfare Reform. American Anthropologist, 103(3): 762-778.
View Full Essay

Ontario Provincial Politics Ontario Canada's

Words: 3196 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56160248

Local government plays a decisive role in applying the social reform in Ontario. However, national government continues to be crucial in shaping the parameters for reform.

One of the most important steps for the reform of Ontario's welfare was made in 1995, when the Progressive Conservative (PC) party was elected after promising to transform welfare through a "Common Sense Revolution." The hart of the reform was represented by the welfare replacement program, Ontario Works. The program focuses on finding a job for every participant in the program, thus driving participants away from welfare and into workfare. The focus of OW is on supporting as few people as possible through welfare and providing participants with training and jobs that would allow them to support themselves.

Despite the success that was presented to be OW, data confirms that Ontario's government does not have sufficient proof to state that the program actually improved…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allahwala a., Rescaling the Canadian welfare state: the experience of Ontario and Qeubec, June 2005, available at http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~jfkpolhk/mm/Teaching/PastCourses/SS05/C_Probleme/Allahwala.RescalingCanadianWS.doc;

Herd D., Rhetoric and Retrenchment: 'Common Sense' Welfare Reform in Ontario, 2002, available at http://www.socialwork.utoronto.ca/fsw/fswsupport/sane/doc/herd_rhetoric.pdf;

Moskovitch a., "The Canada Health and Social Transfer" in: Raymond Blake, Penny Bryden and J. Frank Strain (eds) the Welfare State in Canada. Concord: Irwin Publishing, 1997;

National Council on Welfare, Another Look at Welfare Reform: A Report, 1997;
View Full Essay

Political Inquiry

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34320208

Political Inquiry

Utility of Political Inquiry Models: Scientific vs. Interpretive

Scientific methods of inquiry, also called empirical, positivist, or rational approaches, are used by the vast majority of researchers in the social sciences (deLeon, 1998). The scientific approach has largely relied on a behaviorist approach, which defines human behavior as following the laws of nature and therefore inherently predicable. The logical conclusion from this is that the goal of political research is being able to predict the behavior of humans as they engage in politics. As Douglas Torgerson stated in 1986, "… knowledge would replace politics" (as cited by deLeon, 1998, p. 148).

In contrast, the interpretive school of political inquiry advocates for a more nuanced approach, one that recognizes that human behavior, whether by individuals or groups, is far too complex to render it reducible to quantitative measures (deLeon, 1998). Rather than having a goal of being able to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coffield, C. Ditmar. "Welfare Reform in Indiana: The Political Economy of Restricting Access to Education and Training." Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23.3 (2002): 261-284. Print.

Connolly, William. The Terms of Political Discourse, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 1993. Print.

deLeon, Peter. "Models of Policy Discourse: Insights vs. Predictions." Policy Studies Journal, 26.1 (1998): 147-161. Print.

Manos, Steven S. "From Welfare to Work and Vice Versa." New York Times 30 June 1994: A22. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
View Full Essay

Social Need & Public Services

Words: 2277 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39350462



The current state of the British welfare state is in flux, and according to Field (1999), only time will tell whether the reformation schemes and ideals are actually effective. Whether they are or not, they are nonetheless somewhat more realistic than the views held in the past.

When tephen Berry wrote his article in 2004, little seems to have improved, particularly for the NH. The author focuses on the health crises that have occurred in the health care field throughout the last decade. Indeed, such problems as bed shortages in hospitals, even for very serious accident victims, and low morale among hospital personnel exacerbate the financial problems experienced by the ervice.

Like Field, Berry also addresses the high expectations and ideals held for the Welfare state during its inception in the 1940s. Mainly, the system was projected to provide not only cheap housing for the poor - based upon the…… [Read More]

Sources

Berry, Stephen. 2004. The Rise and Fall of the British Welfare State. Libertarian Alliance.  http://www.la-articles.org.uk/ws.htm 

Erickson, Lynda & Matthews, J. Scott. 2003. The Mass Politics of Social Citizenship. Canadian Political Science Association, June 1. http://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/paper-2003/erickson.pdf

Field, Frank. 1999. The Welfare State - Never Ending Reform. The Making of Modern Britain, BBC History. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/field_03.shtml

Introduction to Social Policy. Social Policy in the UK.  http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm
View Full Essay

Working Poor and the Efficacy of the

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76193622

Working Poor and the Efficacy of the Earned Income Credit and T.A.N.F.

When many Americans think of poverty, they think of people who are not working. Moreover, when they think of social welfare programs, they think of those programs aimed at assisting families without wage earners. However, many of America's poor are the working poor; families with one or two wage earners that are still mired in the depths of poverty. The government has implemented two different programs aimed at providing financial assistance to these Americans: the Earned Income Credit (EIC) is a special income tax rebate for low-income workers which can actually help low-wage workers avoid paying any income taxes and entitle them to a cash rebate beyond any taxes that they have paid; while the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program provides for the direct distribution of cash payments to families struggling with poverty.

These two programs…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, S.G., Halter, A.P., & Gryzlak, B.M. (2004). Difficulties after leaving TANF: Inner-

city women talk about reasons for returning to welfare. Social Work, 49(2),

185-194.

Cancian, M. & Meyer, D. (2004). Alternative measures of economic success among TANF
View Full Essay

Benefits Role and Criticisms of Labor Unions

Words: 3319 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16689905

Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations

In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.

Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).

Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.

Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.

Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.
View Full Essay

Bureaucracies Can Become Self-Justifying Systems and Replicate

Words: 1739 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90801753

Bureaucracies can become self-justifying systems, and replicate ineffective administrative behaviors long after they have ceased to work. The Winter Commission eport (1993) was an attempt to provide advice to states and the federal government on the subject of civil service reform. Both bureaucratic as well as political reforms were deemed necessary to 'clean up' the civil service system and render it more effective in addressing the needs of the public. For some states such as Georgia, this has meant eliminating the traditional examination-based hierarchies and systems in which employees had virtual guaranteed employment for life, and instead employing administrators 'at will' (Nigro & Kellough 2008: 550). Merit-based systems have fallen out of favor and there has been greater deference to the independent opinions of managers to decide which employees can provide superior service to the public.

However, the Winter Commission's view of the civil service system was far from dismissive…… [Read More]

References

Kenney, John. (2011). Who owns snow? The New Yorker. Retrieved:

http://www.newyorker.com/humor/2011/01/17/110117sh_shouts_kenney#ixzz1AdxbOeCH%3Cbr%20/%3E

Van Ryzin, G.G., Immerwahr, S., & Altman, S. (2008). Measuring street cleanliness:

A comparison of New York City's scorecard and results from a citizen survey. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 295-303. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1435702201).
View Full Essay

Urban Govt Over a Century

Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84839316

Patronage jobs allowed local and regional businesses to flourish, offered political viability for minority groups, and ensured welfare services that state or federal funding would not have provided.

However, urban machines also colluded with organized crime, created impenetrable legacies of city boss cabals, and fomented corruption. Voters cast ballots based on the spoils system, diminishing the relevance of democratic freedoms. The patronage system also boosted special interests and prevented businesses from thriving independently of the machine. Around the 1920s, muckrakers began exposing the inner workings of the urban machine. Progressive politicians championed legitimate social welfare reform at the local level, speaking out against government corruption and collusion with big business (Caswell 2001).

The Progressive movement helped to eliminate or at least to diminish the scope of urban machine governments, even though Chicago's would persist well into the 1970s. In other cities like New York and Boston, the strong mayor system…… [Read More]

References

Biles, R. "Machine Politics." (2004). The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at  http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/774.html 

Caswell, T. (2001). "Progressive Era Reform." Regents Prep: U.S. History. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at  http://regentsprep.org/Regents/ushisgov/themes/reform/progressive.htm 

Stave, B.M. (nd). "Urban Bosses and Machine Politics." Answers.com. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at  http://www.answers.com/topic/urban-bosses-and-machine-politics 

Urban Political Machines." (2007). Digital History. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/us28.cfm
View Full Essay

International Labor Economics Programme Title

Words: 2169 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40651466

This being the key player in the economy of the country, it is crucial to revive it as the priority towards reduction of unemployment in the economy. Structural reforms within the export sector involve the introduction of multinationals to supplement efforts of inward investment or revolution. The rate of impact differs in attempts to alleviate unemployment incidences (OECD 2011, pg 91-131). This is because multinationals proves to deliver an increase in the levels of output while inward organizations and entities still struggle to emerge from the effects of the economic recession. In order to reduce the levels of unemployment in the republic of Ireland, it is critical to adopt the three-pillar strategy to address the persistent problem in relation to the Irish labour market. Within the three pillars, the first motive should be welfare reforms. This should ensure that workers obtain better payment for their skills and services within the…… [Read More]

References

Perry, LJ 2008, 'A Comparison of Labour Market Reforms in Ireland, New Zealand and Australia', Journal of Economic and Social Policy, 12, 2, pp. 1-27, EconLit with Full Text,

EBSCOhost, viewed 2 July 2012.

'Structural reforms to reduce unemployment and restore competitiveness' 2011, OECD

Economic Surveys: Ireland, 2011, 15, pp. 91-131, Business Source Complete,
View Full Essay

UK Pensions Policy Social Policy Area

Words: 4828 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19595487

UK Pensions Policy" - Social Policy Area

The pension policy of the UK is one that is followed as a model by various other parts of the world for its efficient dealing with the problem of pensions for the aged of the UK. The government takes a ken interest in reforms in the area of pensions, and it was for this reason that it announced the latest set of reforms in the year 2000, in its 'pre-budget report' that was released in the month of November of the same year. The report contained a series of reforms and improvements for pensioners. Some of the measures were: increases in the pensions according to the above- inflation rates, above inflation increases in the rates of the 'minimum income guarantee', also known as the MIG, and the introduction of the newly formulated 'pension credit' that was basically a means tested benefit for the…… [Read More]

References

An Introduction to Social Policy. Social policy in the UK. Retrieved from  http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm  Accessed on 3 November 2004

Clark, Tom. Pensions Policy and pension Credit. The Institute for Fiscal Studies. Briefing Note: No: 17. Retrieved From http://www.ifs.org.uk/pensions/bn17.pdf

Accessed on 3 November 2004

Contractors Face Bleak Retirement. Contractor, UK. Retrieved From
View Full Essay

Cook Franklin Roosevelt's Fundamental Intention

Words: 1110 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83943819

Public Administration Review, 47, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1987): 17-25.

Question 3

All three of the works described by Bertelli and Lynn focus on the separation of responsibility among the branches of government. John Mabry Matthews asserted that "the work of government can be divided into the formulation and execution of public policy" (p. 35). He was a strong advocate of transparent government and believed that public administration should not be treated as an afterthought.

The key elements of illoughby's Principles of Public Administration, were based on the notion that the government should be run like a corporation, with the President acting as, essentially, the general manager. He complained of a "failure to apply scientific principals" (p. 40) such as those outlined by Taylor, as well as the abundant administrative responsibilities of legislative branch, which he believed should belong to the executive branch.

Leonard hite's key points centered on the mechanical nature…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
View Full Essay

Economic Circumstances That Initiated the

Words: 3494 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8197620

We don't look at their psychological well-being. it's almost as though, psychologically, they're a blank. And we know very little about the differences among black women. Some cope better than others. We don't know who they are, why they cope better, what resources they have access to. If we can understand that, then we can understand the needs of those who cope less well. What I am finding so far is that almost all the mothers in my study, when asked whether they would prefer employment to public assistance, say they would rather have a job. However, having a job is very difficult for this group of mothers because it is difficult for them to find and keep jobs that support them and provide adequate benefits. And there's another consideration: When we say we're going to put these women to work, what is it going to mean in terms of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Impact of the Welfare State on the American Economy (1995) Joint Economic Committee Study. December 1994. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.house.gov/jec/welstate/vg-1/vg-1.htm

Paternal State, the Liberal State, and the Welfare State (nd) Online available at  http://www.friesian.com/freestat.htm 

Overview of the Nixon-Ford Administration at the Department of Labor 1969-1977 (1977) U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Managementy. 20 Oct 2007. Online available at  http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/webid-nixonford.htm 

Social Work Experts Predict: Disaster With a Ray of Hope (1996) Columbia University Record -- September 20, 1996 -- Vol. 22, No. 3. Online available at  http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol22/vol22_iss4/Welfare_Reform.html
View Full Essay

African-American Mothers and Poverty the

Words: 2159 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45606018

Whereas in 1963, 70% of all African-American families were headed by married couples, that rate had dipped to 46.1% by 1996. In 2001, the rate had increased to 47.9%, the first uptrend in 40 years (Kinnon, 2003). The rate of African-American crime and incarceration, which is closely linked to males from single-parent households, has also dipped since 1996.

Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs

While the statistics are compelling, there are a series of questions which have not been addressed by these welfare reforms. There are still about 50% of the former welfare population which has not been able to graduate from the welfare-poverty cycle, nor have they been able to find work. In states where the TANF provisions were enacted, including the 5-year limitation on welfare benefits, there has been a back-sliding on the part of state legislatures to extend welfare assistance for the "hard core" unemployed.

The…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bush, L. (2000). African-American Mothers/African-American Sons: A Critical Examination of the Social Science Literature. Western Journal of African-American Studies, 145-167.

Cherry, F. & . (1977). Physical and cognitive development in children of low-income mothers working in the child's early years. Child Development, 158-166.

Garfinkle, I. a. (1986). Single Mothers and their children: A new American dilemma. Washington: Urban Institute.

Haskins, R. (1989). Beyond metaphor: The efficacy of early childhood education. American Psychologist, 274-282.
View Full Essay

Changes in the TANF Policy

Words: 3508 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91550354

TANF?

The Congress was exasperated with the AFDC's (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) cost, nature and scope, and thus decided to put an end to it. In 1994, a record number of families (5 million, with over 1/8th of American children) were enrolled in the program. Over 50% of the kids enrolled were born out of wedlock, and around 75% had a physically-fit parent not living with them (lanche, 1995). Nearly 50% of the enrolled families received program benefits for over 5 years (including repeat spells). In the 1994 financial year, benefit costs reached their peak (22.8 billion dollars, with 12.5 billion dollars from Federal funds and 10.3 billion dollars from local/State funds). Some legislators pressed for curbing AFDC coffers for controlling expenses, while others believed that permanent help offered to the needy kids from single-parent households helped encourage family breakups, allowed births out of wedlock, and promoted long-run…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alfred, Mary V. (August 2007).Welfare Reform And Black Women's Economic Development, Adult Education Quarterly 57: 293-311

Benjamin E. Sasse and Kerry N. Weems, (February 2009). The Return of Welfare as we Knew it, The Wall Street Journal, 10

Blanche, Coll. (1995). Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 1929-1979. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, p. 104.

Blank, Rebecca. (2002). Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States. Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association 40(4): 1105-116.
View Full Essay

Human Service Programs in the Ongoing Attempt

Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1512806

Human Service Programs

In the ongoing attempt to recover human service programs, policymakers, funders, and service providers are progressively acknowledging the position of difficult program evaluations. They want to distinguish what the programs achieve, what they cost, and how they should be functioned to achieve supreme cost-effectiveness. They want to identify which programs work for which areas, and they want suppositions based on proof, rather than impassioned pleas and testimonials. With that said, it is important to understand what are the strengths and weaknesses in the Human Service Programs.

What is Human Services?

Human services are provide assistance aid to citizens that need help in getting or upholding basic human essentials, such as shelter, health and food," to name a few." Social programs also delivers human services, such as psychological requirements, help in distributing with trauma from abuse or sickness as well as complications of disasters, such as climate provoked…… [Read More]

Reference

Boessenkool, K. (1997). Back to work: Learning from the Alberta welfare experiment. Commentary - C.D.Howe Institute, (91), 1-1.

Hays, Sharon (2004). Flat broke with children. New York: Oxford University Press.

Holl, J., Kristen, S.S., & Amy, B.S. (2005). Welfare reform and health insurance: Consequences for parents. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 279-85.

Vozoris, N., & Tarasuk, V. (2004). The health of Canadians on welfare. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 115-20.
View Full Essay

Foster Children

Words: 8637 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87113745

Foster Children/Foster Care

Issues of a Foster Child

Child Abuse

Families and Children Served through Foster Care

The Policy Framework

This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.

Introduction

Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…… [Read More]

References

Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. PL. 105-89.

Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980. P.L. 96-272.

Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's teenager. New York: Author.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Planning for children whose parents are dying