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welfare state' today in contemporary Britain?
The British view of welfare has always been one of conducting government as a beneficent and paternalistic entity that was engaged in making sure citizens had what they needed for basic survival (Field, 2011). This view was first garnered by the liberals of the 1960's and it was furthered, as the years went along, until the present day. There were some hiccups in the process during the Thatcher years, but welfare continued to grow.
The term for this continued growth of the welfare rolls and the benefits received by the people enrolled in welfare is the "welfare state" (Will, 2011). The government in Britain spends more money on welfare than any other nation on Earth and the British public sector is the sixth largest jobs supplier globally (Will, 2011). The welfare state is basically a beast that consumes almost everything that people work for,…… [Read More]
Welfare State in Britain had its beginnings in 1598 when Elizabeth I's ninth parliament established by Elizabethan poor-law system (Bruce, 1966). According to Bruce, the "Acte for the eleife of the Poore" of 1598 consolidated and extended laws passed earlier in Elizabeth's reign. Essentially, these laws had originated in 1536, during the time of her father's reign, and were focused on raising local taxes as well as appointing overseers of the poor in every parish for the purpose of:
setting to work of the children of all such whose parents shall not be thought able to keep and maintain their children," together with "all such persons, married or unmarried, as, having no means to maintain them, use no ordinary and daily trade of life to get their living by";
providing a convenient stock of materials "to set the poor on work";
the necessary relief of the lame, impotent, old, blind…… [Read More]
Complicating matters in Spain was the duty to the State that the Franco regime saw as a natural extension of these Catholic (and admittedly pan-Western) traditional beliefs of gender roles and the proper actions and attitudes for women to hold. At times, this belief and the demands that it placed on Catholic women in both Italy and Spain were in conflict with other expectations placed on them by the family and the Church. In her book True Catholic Womanhood: Gender Ideology in Franco's Spain, Aurora G. Morcillo asserts that "the language and true nature of Catholic womanhood was not fixed," and that the women of Spain (and by extension Italy) had to navigate an increasingly complex world of often conflicting demands while largely attempting to retain their traditional Catholic identities.
This is not to suggest that women quietly accepted traditional limitations in the period of prosperity following the war. Rather,…… [Read More]
Habermas' idea of democratizing the welfare state unrealistic? If so, does this make it any less valuable for us to think about?
Do we need utopian thinking?
What kind of conception of democracy does Habermas have in mind here?
What does Habermas mean by a two-tiered public sphere?
What do you think Habermas meant when he entitled his book Between Facts and Norms
Habermas idea of democratizing the welfare state is the following: The public sphere must actively deal with problems, dramatize and vocalize them so that they are taken up by official sources and dealt with. The ability of the public sphere to tackle problems on their own is limited. The public sphere however (namely society) must ascertain that such and similar problems do not arise again and that they are dealt with as effectively and speedily as possible.
This idea is certainly not unrealistic and, actually is something…… [Read More]
Thus the dependence of so many people on government handouts is very soon to reach a point of crisis and possible social unrest.
elfare Statism is not only a manifestly politically unjust system. It is also a wholly unsustainable one from the perspective of political economy. It is based upon expanding budgets and a continually young and growing population. In a society like America where the average age and life expectancy is getting higher every year, welfare programs are a recipe for utter and complete financial collapse. In addition to not really helping the already existing poor, the elfare State can only add to their numbers. Libertarianism seeks to highlight that fact and return the country to its original political system and ideology: classical liberalism.
Edwards, James Ralph. "Economics, Politics, and the Coming Collapse of the Elderly elfare
State." Journal of Libertarian Studies 17:1 (2003): 1-16.
Gottfried, Paul…… [Read More]
The Canadian welfare state arose in the 1930s as a response to the poverty of the era, and was bolstered in the subsequent decades to include numerous elements of the social safety net. Prior to the development of the modern Canadian welfare state, the country relied on a classic liberal economic model, with few restrictions on enterprise and the commoditization of labour. Workers had few protections, the central government exerted limited taxation power and provided little in the way of social services. Anderson (1990) argues that Canada constitutes a modern liberal welfare state, one characterized by "means-tested assistance, modest universal transfers and modest social-insurance plans" (p.26). The role of government in such a state emphasizes the promotion of commerce, with social welfare elements often ranking as a lower priority. In the middle decades of the 20th century, Canada shifted more towards a welfare state, instituting elements such as…… [Read More]
POLITICAL ECONOMY ANALYSIS & IMPLICATIONS FO SOCIAL POTECTION POLICY & POGAMS IN AFICA
SOCIAL POTECTION POLICY AND POGAMMES IN AFICA
Analysis and Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa
Analysis and Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa
the role of the welfare state
The perception of welfare state requires the government to promote and protect the social well-being of citizens and their economic situation. This is guided by the doctrine of public responsibility, capital sharing, and equal opportunity. The general term covers a wide variety of social and economic organization. Social welfare is an imprecise and encompassing term. In most cases, it is defined in terms of interventions and organized activities or some other elements that suggest programs and policies aimed at improving the well-being of individuals at risk and responding to recognized social problems. (Handa, Devereux, and Webb, 2011) have shown that the concept…… [Read More]
in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…… [Read More]
Mothers -- Transitioning from elfare to Corporate America
elfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. e first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…… [Read More]
Nearly all of the existing models for financial redistribution available in American politics isolate potential applications on lines of income, while others divide along racial, ethnic, and religious lines to help insure the same standard of living for all of those in need -- adults and families included.
The current situation in America highlights the need to isolate welfare recipients further, by more than just income and instead to also take into account the idea of regional differences that foster not only varied opportunities of employment, but also a wide array of external sources of lifetime substance. Because America is still trying to balance the difference of tax revenues, budget allotments, and other sources of welfare subsidy, it is most important that both social scientists and legislators illuminate the regional discriminations that exist between the urban and rural poor.
Deavers, Kenneth L. "Social Science Contributions to Rural Development Policy in…… [Read More]
benefiting from U.S. social welfare funds? Is it just the poor, or are other groups also receiving financial benefits from the U.S. Treasury? This paper delves into those issues and provides credible resources to ferret out the real facts.
Not for people in poverty exclusively: After pointing out that the Reagan Administration's conservative agenda created an "historic shift" in welfare benefits, journalist Mimi Abramovitz reports that subsequent to the Reagan cuts social welfare programs in fact dole out more taxpayer money to "middle and upper classes" than to poor people (Abramovitz, 2001). The federal government (in 2000) spent $235.9 billion on assistance programs for those in the low income bracket, and yet some $793.9 billion of taxpayer money went to programs that "do not use poverty or need as a criteria…" (Abramovitz, 299). Moreover, the Social Security (and other social insurance programs) "grants" increase with inflation, allowing the purchasing power…… [Read More]
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…… [Read More]
The private sector thus becomes the most important factor in the decision making process. Unfortunately, as bad as it sounds the fact that states are losing their powers in front of the private sector, globalization has proved to work, at least in the more developed countries. The weakness of a state is the price to pay for a prosper society.
It is true that globalization weakens the state, but this must not necessarily be seen as a bad thing. More important than a powerful government is a powerful economy, which gives people better lives. States that have adopted the rules of international capital market have known economic growth, at various levels. The price that must be paid is that multinational corporations have the power to dictate policies that are in their own interest and not necessarily in the interest of citizens.
However, when speaking of a state in its cultural…… [Read More]
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…… [Read More]
Government-Business Relations 1004 PPP -- Reading Report
Tutorial (e.g. Monday 10.00am-11.30am):
Reading full reference
Wilson, G. (2003). Business and politics: A comparative introduction. 3rd ed. New York: Chatham House Publishers. Chapter 2. "Business and Politics in the United States," pp. 27-57.
Main point(s) made by the author(s)
In contrast to modern European democracies, the United States has embraced a form of capitalism that is extremely hostile to proactive social welfare policies. Within U.S. culture there has tended to be a more uncomplicated celebration of such values as individualism and self-reliance. Even the Democratic Party, which is currently considered the more liberal of the two major governing parties, is less supportive of comprehensive social welfare policies such as universal healthcare vs. European nations. The U.S. has a very weak welfare state, one of the weakest in the modern industrialized world. The U.S. also has a federalist system, which accords considerable power…… [Read More]
United States and National Healthcare Insurance:
A Winning Proposition?
Physical health and well-being are among the most basic needs and desires of human beings. We all hope that neither ourselves nor our families will ever be the victims of sickness, incapacitation, or any other malady. We hope too that if we ever do require the services of professional Healthcare providers we will not be bankrupted by the expense. Yet, it is a fact of life, that good Healthcare does not come cheaply. Especially in the United States, physicians hospitals, and other forms of medical care are extremely expensive. Like their counterparts in so many other fields, American medical practitioners are among the most highly paid in the world. A serious illness, especially one requiring hospitalization, can spell financial ruin. It is of course for these reasons that so many Americans have Healthcare insurance. Nevertheless even this insurance is very costly.…… [Read More]
oth Phillip obbit and Richard Robison offer accounts of what a market-state is. obbit contends that the core features of the market-state are a crisis of the nation-state, a transformation of core state functions, relations of national states to transnational markets, and cosmopolitan culture. Finance is at the center of the culture, the money economy. Governments are more centralized but weaker because power is allocated by the money men, the banks, the managers of finance and capital, and governments are merely their footstools. According to Robison, on the other hand, market-states are neo-liberal, techno-managerial and instrumental, and citizens are clients and consumers. oth describe the materialistic, consumerist society, yet each has its own theoretical approach and unique conceptualization. This paper will compare obbit's and Robison's accounts of market-states and use the writings of Smith, Keynes, Marx and others to help illustrate the nature of the two.
Differences of What…… [Read More]
US has faced acute economic crisis since 2008. Present economic crisis started from the downfall of housing sector which lead to the financial crisis such as bankruptcy of Lehman rothers (at that time fourth largest investment bank in the U.S.A.) and bankruptcy of largest insurance in world, the AIG (which were later saved by introducing bailout packages by U.S. government) which further collapsed production and unemployment plummeted. It is usually termed that it is the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. (Moseley, 2009)
Even though Fed Reserve claims, the crisis has averted to some extent but the problems of unemployment, recession and inflation still prevails in U.S. economy.
According to U.S. ureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate staggers to an amount of 8.3% in February 2012. Similarly, U.S. ureau of Labor Statistics also shows that consumer price index is on upward swing in 2012. Recent wave of…… [Read More]
Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…… [Read More]
Furthermore, it is agreed that those who are working tend to earn low wages, about $7.00 per hour on average, thus making it difficult for them to support their families (Sawhill pp). Another concern is that the poverty rate has not fallen as much as the caseload (Sawhill pp). Fewer poor children are receiving assistance, and the incomes of the poorest one-fifth of single-parent families have continued to fall (Sawhill pp). Many families remain in deep poverty, and according to some reports, requests for emergency assistance have grown (Sawhill pp). Overall, some 700,000 families were significantly worse off in 1999 than their counterparts in 1995 (Sawhill pp).
Since welfare reform was implemented during an unprecedented economic expansion, questions remain about how much of the good news should be attributed to the 1996 law and how much to a strong economy or to the growth of other programs such as the…… [Read More]
Indian Welfare Act
There are few things in life as traumatic as losing a child. Unfortunately, this is a phenomenon that plagues humanity on a daily basis. Children are lost in many ways. Some die, some are kidnapped. Others are lost through adoption. For some mothers, adoption is an informed decision made on the basis of what the individual believes is right for her child. However, there is also a phenomenon of adoption that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, in which mothers were more or less coerced in giving up their children for adoption. In many cases, this coercion also occurred without informed consent, where mothers were asked to sign documents without receiving full disclosure regarding the nature of such documents. This occurred disproportionately among Indian children, many of whom were forcibly removed from their parents during the 1960s and 1970s. This resulted in the Indian Child Welfare Act,…… [Read More]
For the year June 2000 there were 5,780,543 TANF families as against 14,111,992 TANF families during January 1993. (Total TANF ecipients by State)
The following graph shows the percentage of the U.S. population on Welfare since 1960. As it can be seen that there was a gradual rise from the year 1960 when the program was launched till 1972 after which there was a plateau phase till 1978. It remained range bound from 1979 till 1990 with minor rise and fall. The years 1993 and 1994 was the peak with more than 5.5% of the U.S. population covered under TANF. After 1994, coverage came down sharply from 1996 till 1999 when it was 2.5%. (Statistics: Percentage of U.S. Population on Welfare since 1960)
Percentage of the U.S. Population on Welfare Since 1960 http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/news/stats/uspops.gif
Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. etrieved at…… [Read More]
Statue and ules and egulations Concerning Dental Hygienists and Dentist in Hawaii and Florida
American Dental Hygienist's Association is the largest governing body for maintaining the dental hygiene and care. The members of ADHA body get pleasure from professional support, educational programs and other variety of opportunities for them to participate and strengthen their decision making process and professional expertise. Government affairs division of ADHA works in close association with state constituent to support issues that are important for the dental care of public and dental hygiene profession. This covers licensing, scope of practice, patient access to care, water fluoridation and other dental care services. The dental hygienists interest is promoted through the governmental affairs division through federal and state policy efforts. The legalization of the ADHA affairs sustain close collaboration with other institutions where public or private to institutionalize the oral health policy document and improve the quality of…… [Read More]
The second issue is the economic disparity between men and women, and the differences in their earning capabilities. Not only are women more likely to be single parents, they are also less likely to be given jobs then men, and are also apt to earn less at these jobs. The fact that even full-time employment in many cases did not provide enough of a living to support a family is a key indicator that something is wrong with society. Welfare is an attempt to address this problem, and even it falls short. This also leads to a feeling of injustice which is definitely felt by many on welfare, and is used to justify continuing payments by certain individuals DeParle mentions. In general, however, the families he depicts are struggling against external practical constraints and the inner struggle and strained energy reserves that this causes, with very real inhibitive effects on…… [Read More]
This is a free 14-page welfare system essay example with sources. This paper was completed by a professional writer to be usedas a template, guideline, or reference in helping you write your own essay. You can compare the paper you write to this example to make sure it follows the correct writing guidelines. If you need help writing an essay, check out our guide on how to write an essay. If you need a one-of-a-kind custom written essay example on your specific topic, you can place an order for one.
REPORTS should be as long as necessary, but no longer. Grading will be based on content, grammar, and style (i.e., professional appearance/neatness counts). Typically, the report should contain at least 12 double-spaced pages of real substance real substance does not include regurgitation of case background or tables, graphs, or appendices. However, your report should include all necessary,…… [Read More]
Human ights in the Arab World
As stated by the "Universal Declaration of Human ights" in the United Nations, Human rights has almost become one of the most important factors that decided the development of a country. To be able to promote economic growth and prosperity it is essential that a country controls its power of creativity and enterprise of its citizens, which would aid it to move into the global market in terms of trade, communication and investment systems.
It has been noticed that the most talented members of the society are usually not granted their human rights and hence the political, social, and cultural developments of the society are being not in order due to human rights being violated. This gets us to realize that we need to follow human rights development not only to protect a single individual but the entire society on the whole.2 Wrong use…… [Read More]
Bikeways: A New Jersey State Funded Program
State-run programs can run a gamut of interests and priorities, from those relating to the provision of welfare to those concerning the regulation of public utilities. ithin this extremely wide range of priorities, states have begun to take a direct part in improving both environmental and transportation issues. In the state of New Jersey, where these two issues generally intersect with a great deal of relevance, the Bikeways program is a state-funded and statewide endeavor designed to encourage and accommodate greater interest in biking as an alternative means to transportation and recreation.
Accordingly, the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)(2011), describes a program in which state funding is dedicated to "constructing 1,000 new miles of dedicated bike paths (facilities that are physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier either within the highway right of way or within an…… [Read More]
This is because resources available within the environment will provide all what is required for the state (Department of Environment, Food & ural affairs, 2013).
Many countries are same when it comes to the endowments of natural, human and physical capital. However, there is a difference when it comes to the economic development level that can be achieved in a particular country. There are three types of capital that can determine the economic growth process but in a partial manner however, there is a missing link between the three types of capital which is the social capital. Social capital is based on social norms and bonds which have an important role to play when it comes to sustainable development. Social capital emphasizes on the participation on a civic level as well as a horizontal association among people such as social networks. This is also through associated norms that…… [Read More]
Max Weber defined state as "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory whether that legitimacy derives from charisma, tradition, or law" (Hokim 2012). Weber held that domination of people being ruled by a ruler is an unavoidable political fact. His vision for democracy in Germany was a political marketplace where charismatic rulers are elected by winning votes in free competition, whether in struggle or not. He saw localized, public associational life as the breeding ground of charismatic rulers.
Weber suggested that social pluralism should be the sociocultural ground for political education of lay citizens, which requires an organized civil society. He also suggested that the political education should contain ethics in conviction and responsibility. The political ethics also involved value-freedom and value-relativism.
Under Weber's definition, North Korea under Kim Jong-il, after American invasion or Cambogia under the Khmer…… [Read More]
United States Deficit, Surplus, and Debt Have an Effect on the United State's Financial Reputation on an International Level
The objective of this study is to examine how and why the United States deficit, surplus and debt have an effect on the United States' financial reputation on an international level.
The United States has been historically viewed as a country that is financially sound. In 2011, as the United States government appeared it was going to default on its debt it is reported that there was a great deal of "bitterness, division and dysfunction that resounded around the world." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) It is reported that the United States is experiencing a diminishing of its "aura as the world's economic haven and the sole country with the power to lead the rest of the world out of financial crisis and recession." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) Additionally, the United States debt levels…… [Read More]
" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:
Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)
Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:
The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.
Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…… [Read More]
Last year, 76 minors were homicide victims."
The child has lost her life and the government is now trying to take actions to revamp the system. Under the new system, Children's Trusts will be set up "at the local level to bring experts - psychologists, social workers, education officials - together, with a local director ultimately accountable."
There may appear to be few similarities between EPL and current social welfare policy but when we closely study their impact, we fail to accept the notion that a lot has changed. EPL was ineffective in controlling child-related problems. Children were subjected to cruel working conditions, they had hardly any proper means of nutrition and overseers probably did not care much about them. The same is true today. While there are protection agencies, social workers and others working for welfare of children, there is little if any improvement in their condition especially in…… [Read More]
TOUGH LOVE, a Documentary about the Child Welfare System
Directed by Emmy-nominated director, Stephanie Wang, Tough Love depicts the life and struggle of a couple, Patrick (hailing from Seattle) and Hannah (hailing from the city of New York), as they traverse the US child welfare structure’s red tape to reclaim custody over their kids. The two have undergone the trauma of having their children taken away by governmental authorities. The film features vérité-type footage, besides exclusive views of child welfare courts, portraying a personal and intimate record of the couple’s challenges and victory while they tackle prior mistakes and try to assert their eligibility to enjoy another chance at raising their children. All through the course of the movie, the kids’ foster parents are shown, in addition to judges in charge of the case and child welfare specialists who can clearly grasp the working of this complicated system (Stephanie, 2015).…… [Read More]
He believes that social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are both to the greatest benefit to the least advantaged and that offices and positions of authority be open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity (Piccard).
Rawls contends that in order for distributive justice to work social and economic process must exist under suitable political and economic institutions. He calls for the establishment of four background institutions or branches, in the government to ensure equity of justice. The allocation branch ensures that the pricing system is competitive and that no individual or corporation forms unreasonable market power. The stabilization branch endeavors to bring about reasonably full employment opportunities for those that want to work. The transfer branch guarantees a certain level of well-being. Finally, the distribution branch strives to preserve an approximate justice in distributive shares by means of taxation and the necessary adjustments…… [Read More]
Incentive Programs Among Low Income
The effects of work incentive programs in encouraging low income individuals to participate in employment depend on the income thresholds of reforms in whether the individual gains benefits that are equal to or greater than what they would receive by not working. The factors in the determination include after tax income plus benefits, such as Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and fixed work costs, compared to the total change in revenue received. If the loss of welfare is greater than the total change in revenue, work incentives have no value and discourage employment participation. On the other hand, if the total amount of changed revenue is greater than the welfare loss and compensates for fixed work costs, incentives encourage employment among the low income.
The Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) expanded EITC benefits by increases in the standard deduction, personal deductions, and favorable tax…… [Read More]
Secondly, social welfare programs try to benefit most people. The recipients are not just poor households, the elderly, veterans, or students, but also farmers, petroleum companies, and affluent homeowners who receive support through tax deductions. And thirdly, social welfare does not substantially reduce income inequality. That is because the affluent receive far greater support from government-supported welfare than the poor. For example, deductions the affluent homeowners receive is worth $337 billion annually, which, as Macionis notes, "worth ten times as much as what the government spends to provide food assistance to low-income people" (43).
As Lauer and Lauer note, deriving from the study of consumer advocate Ralph Nader, there are four areas in the welfare system that are advantageous to the rich. Bailouts are given to large corporations to safeguard them from bankruptcy. Resource depletion, which allows large corporations to have the rights to minerals and timber leased at "bargain-basement…… [Read More]
By conducting a peer led focus group the interaction between the participants allows for sharing of stories and experiences and opens up the lines for a deeper, more meaningful discussion. Instead of the participants directing their responses to questions and statements asked of the researcher to the researcher, participants will be able to converse with one another. The researcher will still be a part of the focus group, but his role will not be as prominent as it would be in a traditional style focus group. Instead, the researcher will observe, take notes and steer the group in the right direction if they start to discuss other topics which are not a part of the study.
Because this research deals with the dynamics of welfare recipients as opposed to how many people are on welfare, a qualitative approach is best. The only information that could be dealt with…… [Read More]
Family preservation services have been defined as short-term, family-focused services designed to assist families in crisis by improving parenting and family functioning while keeping children safe (Services, N.d.). While it has typically been the case that many social service departments would rely on the foster care system for child safety issues, family preservation services became a popular alternative when it was recognition to be more beneficial for the children who need a safe and stable family environment. It has been realized that separating children from their families, such as is the case when they would enter foster care, can be traumatic for them and leave them with negative consequences that can last indefinitely. Therefore, instead of looking at the child as a sole individual, the family preservation perspective broadens the scope of the welfare to include the entire family unit.
The model for the services is founded on the belief…… [Read More]
However, there have been both positive and negative outcomes from these changes. Some of the positive changes are: reduced welfare caseloads, they have increase unemployment / income levels for the recipients' and it improves family security. While some of the negative outcomes would include:: low wages, dead end jobs, difficulty obtaining health / child care and inconsistent performance from social workers. This is significant, because it shows how the law has made an impact upon reducing the overall amounts of waste. Like any change there will be obvious positive and negatives outcomes. In the case of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, these changes would impact the way various social services are provided, to low income individuals and families.
Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm
Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html
Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49…… [Read More]
Instead, the welfare system encouraged perpetual social dependency and provided a reason for poor people not to work at all when the most reliable method of achieving financial independence (besides continuing education) is precisely, to begin working at minimum wage jobs while gradually learning skills and establishing contacts and a record of regular employment that are essential in the long- term goal of qualifying for better work in time (Healey, 2003 p56).
The Need for Welfare Reform:
While elements of government assistance programs are still subject to epidemic abuse (Schmalleger, 2007 p104), the reconfiguration mandated by Congress in 1996 are designed to rectify some of the most glaring problems plaguing the federally administrated programs previously. First and foremost, the new state-run welfare programs must, by federal law, establish caps limiting welfare eligibility to discourage perpetual (even permanent) reliance on public funds as a substitute for making the necessary effort and…… [Read More]
government welfare. Discussed: should the government provide fewer or more benefits for single parents on welfare. Thesis, three reasons to support, at least 4 quotes and paraphrases on each page from experts.
Should the Government Provide More or Fewer Benefits for Single Parents on elfare?
elfare reforms have been a continuous debate for years. The latest reform regarding single parents and government benefits has stirred controversy and initiated studies to determine the effects of new policies. hile many critics believe the new reforms are too harsh and simply increase the number of poverty level families, the new policies with reduced benefits are making a positive significant impact in reducing the number of single parent recipients and placing them in the employment arena. Therefore, the government should provide less benefits to single parents on welfare.
Many critics argue that the economy is responsible for caseload declines (New B7). However, according to…… [Read More]
Mental Health, and Welfare
Society, mental health and welfare:
A problem related to counseling (under-insurance) and a social problem (the lack of adequate healthcare coverage)
The course text Social action: A mandate for counselors discusses the ethical implications of such issues as race and social injustice in the counseling profession. However, perhaps even more important than these factors is the issue of class, specifically the affordability of counseling on an individual basis. Wealthier individuals with better insurance or who can afford to pay 'pout of pocket' often have the luxury of 'talk' therapy that poorer people, or people without adequate health insurance, lack. This creates a 'haves' versus 'have not' situation in terms of the availability and the quality of counseling. Poorer individuals with minimal insurance coverage for mental health care are often offered fewer counseling sessions, or have their psychological complaints treated as medical disorders, rather than fully addressed…… [Read More]
In this case there are differences due to the income level of the person who is replying.
The Americans who are making more than $34,000 a year generally say that the persons getting aid from welfare could manage their own lives without help from the government if they really tried, while the replies from the lower income groups feel that they could not manage. This continues on in the opinion of the comparatively richer group to say that the people getting poverty assistance could manage without assistance as they get the assistance without having to do anything for it. This continues on with persons having little knowledge of the changes in law that has come up. Only half the respondents were aware of the changes in the law. However of the persons who are aware of the changes in the law 61% think that the new law is working well,…… [Read More]
The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.
The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…… [Read More]
United States is a country of settlers, anti-immigrant sentiment has permeated public discourse and is damaging the social fabric of the nation. Early anti-immigrant sentiment is symbolized most powerfully by the Nativist movement, which closely resembled white supremacy (Committee on US-Latin American Relations, 2014). What fueled anti-immigrant sentiment included fears of losing jobs and other conflict theory perspectives showing how immigrants are perceived of as threats to the existing social order (Social Work Speaks). The NASW Policy Statement supports the rights of immigrants and refugees to live without discrimination.
Committee on US-Latin American Nations (2014). Similar Anti-immigrant rhetoric used throughout US history. Retrieved online: https://cuslar.org/2014/10/23/similar-anti-immigrant-rhetoric-used-throughout-u-s-history/
NASW Policy Statement
Social Work Speaks
The pre-Civil War/antebellum era was tumultuous, with a series of failed political compromises leading to a breakdown of morals and ethics. At the same time, there were reform movements most notably the abolitionist movement, that took root as a…… [Read More]
Ethics and Best Practices
Social assistance as a tool to combat marital issues
Michelle's former husband would probably be inclined to resort to unorthodox methods of accessing her files. As a consequence, I would get actively involved in providing him with the opportunity to see things from a general perspective. By emphasizing the fact that he risks facing legal problems if he continues to harass his wife, I would attempt to enable him to move on with his life and accept that Michelle does not want to see him anymore. My role is to respect Michelle's position in this situation and this would require that I employ a hostile attitude with regard to showing her husband information concerning the woman.
Michelle is likely to cooperate with me in the process of informing her husband with regard to the condition their relationship is in. The fact that she has a history…… [Read More]
Addams included a large amount of environmental reforms in her program for Hull House. One of the most prominent incorporated her labors to address the unhealthful heaps of garbage in immigrant areas because of a lack of public interest. The mayor of Chicago ultimately appointed Addams garbage inspector for her region a job that she took very seriously. Addams managed garbage collectors and took violators of garbage policies to court. Even though Addams and her associates frequently started reforms, the immigrants had a dynamic role as well, helping in knowledge gathering and its communication to their neighbors (Settlement House Movement, 2011).
ichmond's devotion and professionalism, along with her scientific charity has been documented and developed over the years. Her casework practice, managerial talents, research, and stress on social work education fashioned a professional environment in what was beforehand thought to be just charity work. This professionalized social work permitted philanthropic…… [Read More]
Limiting Public Benefits
The United States economy is in serious trouble and the individual state economies are not faring much better. In times such as these, those elected into public office are called upon to find ways to save money and to help the struggling nation become strong again. For individual people living in America, the economy has directly impacted their everyday lives. Many people are out of work and more and more families are becoming dependant on financial assistance from either the state or federal government in order to keep going. hen there is no money to spend on food or clothing or shelter, the families suffer terribly. The government instituted public assistance and unemployment to help families who are in desperate need. One of the ways that politicians, particularly Republicans, have suggested for alleviating the government's financial responsibilities is to demand that all people who apply for governmental…… [Read More]
Evidence-based nursing interventions that will provide quality care to vulnerable populations
There is evidence in innovative health programs whose outcomes are Hospice care with increased patient and caregiver satisfaction costs lower than the conventional care; programs with community-based care reduces the severity of symptoms and results in a rapid functioning; for the frail elderly, it results in improved satisfaction; Patient empowerment, especially with the frail elderly and disabled adults, brings satisfaction and knowledge about their care; for the mentally ill, it lowers the rate of homelessness and for patients with diabetes or congestive heart failure, it decreases the morbidity. Usually, the beneficial effects were limited to the duration of the intervention (Aday, 2001).
There is evidence for enhanced patient satisfaction in the health care that emphasize continual care, multidisciplinary approaches, patient empowerment, and innovative approaches. Health care providers should also practice evidence-based care as it demonstrates the effectiveness. Patients with…… [Read More]
The truth is that the forefathers were actually quite surprised at the effect that the signing of the Constitution had created in America; at the democratic society and government that resulted after the ratification of the Constitution.
The ratification in itself was a long one, and it involved in essence the perusal of the written Constitution by each state for ratification purposes, for which each state was required to create an independent ratifying committee headed by special delegates. The discussions of the advantages and the disadvantages of the newly written constitution of America began almost immediately after it was signed, and the two opposing factions of the Federalists to whom the majority of the forefathers belonged, and the Anti-Federalists who formed the opposing group brought these forth. The situation in America at the time of the writing of the Constitution was that of pro-democracy. The political as well as the…… [Read More]
Hispanics Groups in the United States
While many people speak of the Hispanic population, there really is not a single Hispanic population in the United States. The term Hispanic generically refers to Spanish-speakers. Therefore, there is a wide variety in the Hispanic people one may find in the United States. Therefore, this paper will examine four different Hispanic groups, Mexican-Americans, Puerto icans, Cuban Americans, and South Americans. It will do so by looking at the linguistic, political, social, economic, religious, and familial conventions of these different cultures.
When many people think of Hispanics in the United States, they think of Mexican-Americans. This is because Mexican-Americans are the largest U.S. Hispanic group; in fact, the U.S. has the second-largest population of Mexicans, second only to Mexico. Mexican-Americans tend to be Spanish speakers, though they may actually speak a variety of Native American languages, depending on where in Mexico the person originated.…… [Read More]
Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.
Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]
The Category Totals for the 2006-2007 Biennial State Operating Budget, found in Chapter 176, Laws of 2005, are as follows:
Chapter 176 - Laws of 2005 - NH Operating Budget
Fiscal Year 2006
Fiscal Year 2007
Total Appropriation for Category 01
AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01-403,003,676 416,233,183
ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for CATEGOY 01, GENEAL GOVENMENT
AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01
FEDEAL FUNDS 17,924,517 17,918,180
OTHE FUNDS 106,867,295 105,489,779
GENEAL FUND 278,211,864 292,825,224
TOTAL 403,003,676 416,233,183
Total Appropriation for Category 02
ADMIN of JUSTICE & PUBLIC PTN
AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02-420,003,205 424,638,566
ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for CATEGOY 02, ADMIN of JUSTICE & PUBLIC PTN, as INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02
FEDEAL FUNDS 52,837,182 50,445,675
OTHE FUNDS 152,998,319 155,855,692
GENEAL FUND 213,213,595 217,790,891
TOTAL 420,003,205 424,638,566
Total Appropriation for Category 03
ESOUCE POTECTION & DEVELOPMENT
AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.03-222,979,010 217,030,487
ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for…… [Read More]
For any person diagnosed with ADS, having to wait for drugs could effectively be a death sentence, which gives this study all of the greatest purpose so that there is a better understanding to the problem and hopefully, there will be possible solutions (HV and African-Americans)
According to (Gray, 2004, p. 59), everyone is labeled by sex, race, and religion, an outline of a theory of values-based labeling as a social movement argues that it is motivated by the need tore-embed the agro-food economy in the larger social economy. A review of some basic premises of embeddedness theories derived from the work of Karl Polanyi reveals their connection to particular values-based labeling efforts. From this perspective, values-based labeling presents itself as primarily an ethical and moral effort to counter unsustainable trends within presently existing capitalism. These labels distinguish themselves from ordinary commercial labels by a focus on process and on…… [Read More]
hen the old Manchu dynasty failed to come up with ways to thwart the invading foreigners, a new nationalism was born in China. The old pastimes and rituals (p. 214) had allowed China to become soft. This awakening nationalism - partly a rejection of "foot binding, servant-girl bondage, prostitution, gambling," and opium smoking - was stoked not just by the colonial aggression, but by a spreading literacy (educational institutions were being built, the telegraph, newspapers, magazines and railway travel) and emerging awareness of their endangered culture. The last Manchu Emperor was put out of office on February 12, 1912, and hence a political system that had endured for 2,133 years, was out of commission.
Fairbank takes great pains to cover myriad events in China that led the country from ancient dynasties to new ideas and new leadership. The new order - the Kuomintang political party - came into power in…… [Read More]
Economic Crisis Policies
US current economic crisis is considered to be started from real estate sector. The real sector started to decline in 2006 and it accelerated in 2007 and 2008. Housing prices have fallen from the peak from about 25% so far. The decline in prices left homeowners with no option and they were unable to refinance their mortgages and causes default of mortgages. This default of mortgages and loans swallowed the banks and financial markets such as falling of Lehman's brothers and other anks and blow to rest of economy happened as the whole economy was relying on banks and ultimately it slows down investment in the country and capital flows to other parts of the world like China and India. ank losses cause reduction of bank capital which in turn requires capital reduction thus saving bank from lending. It is estimated that every $100 loss and reduction…… [Read More]
United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama ruled correctly in awarding partial summary judgment in this case. The summary judgment was granted in accordance with Rule 56(c) (3), Ala. R. Civ. P. Under Rule 56(c)(3), "summary judgment is proper when there is no genuine issue of material fact and the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law."
"If the moving party makes a prima facie showing that no genuine issue of material fact exists, then the burden shifts to the nonmovant." Bass v. Southtrust Bank, 538 So. 2d 794,798 (Ala. 1989). This burden requires the nonmovant to show "substantial evidence" in support of his position. id at 798.
Porter fails to show substantial proof of exposure to HIV on which his claim of emotional distress is based. Lacking proof of actual HIV exposure the plaintiff cannot move ahead with a claim based…… [Read More]
The United States has been one of the most affluent countries of the world. Because of this fact, the country has established a history of providing aid and comfort to other groups around the world who are suffering because of economic, agricultural, or other turmoil for whatever reason, whether it be failure of government, war, or natural disaster. Some advocate that this is the rightful position of more wealthy countries and populations, to provide assistance to those who are less fortunate. This is certainly true to some extent. However, when a nation is in times of difficulty itself, like the United States is currently embroiled in, it is more important that the government provide aid to its own citizens than looking at what it can do outside the nation's borders. On an individual level, it would certainly be nice for wealthy persons to assist their fellow men and women…… [Read More]
The precedence set by this attorney, though it was not answered by a maelstrom of other counties resurrecting rarely if ever used common laws, does prove interesting, on the issue of rape as well as many other laws that are hardly if ever used but not stricken from the books, as of yet.
Though Idaho is no longer considered a "common-law" state with regard to domestic situations, i.e. regarding the determination of marital status and on other issues it is legitimately still very demonstrative of common law history, a fact that can be attested to by the ability of a single do-gooder to choose to enforce a law that was previously ignored. Other issues, such as common property, among domestic partners, are a later adoption of a common law practice, in Idaho. For the most part it makes sense that legal situations in low population areas could and possibly still…… [Read More]
Globalization has stripped the U.S. Of its stranglehold over manufacturing and forced it to readjust itself into a service oriented industry. As a result, education, training and specialization are more crucial than ever for the attainment of high paying jobs. This leaves the majority of Americans who do not have high educational or vocational training to have fewer opportunities for employment. Competitions from third world nations have stripped away many industries and jobs that are traditionally strong employers such as the automotive and steel industries. The result is that employees have had to take lower-paying jobs because they cannot readjust themselves for more complex positions required within the changing dynamics of globalization. rom an economic perspective this is an inevitable process, and therefore the wealth gap grows because those with very strong education and specialization are able to take advantage of economic trends towards service oriented industries, while those who…… [Read More]