Welfare State Essays (Examples)

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State of Social Welfare in Africa

Words: 2551 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81279177



Analysis and Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa

Analysis and Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa

the role of the welfare state

The perception of welfare state requires the government to promote and protect the social well-being of citizens and their economic situation. This is guided by the doctrine of public responsibility, capital sharing, and equal opportunity. The general term covers a wide variety of social and economic organization. Social welfare is an imprecise and encompassing term. In most cases, it is defined in terms of interventions and organized activities or some other elements that suggest programs and policies aimed at improving the well-being of individuals at risk and responding to recognized social problems. (Handa, Devereux, and Webb, 2011) have shown that the concept…… [Read More]


Atkinson, A.B. (1995). "Incomes and the Welfare State. Cambridge" Cambridge University Press

Bender, K., Kaltenborn, M. & Pfeiderer, C. (2013). "Social Protection in Developing Countries: Reforming Systems" Routledge

Berg, A & Ostry, J.D (2011). Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?" IMF Staff Discussion Note SDN/11/08, International Monetary Fund

Bradley, D., Huber, E., Moller, S., Nielson, F. & Stephens, J.D. (2003) "Determinants of relative poverty in advanced capitalist democracies" American Sociological Review 68:3:
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State-Led Economic Policies in South

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42635261

in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
common goal.
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…… [Read More]

formulated and guided a successful investment endeavor was in the case of
textiles. Israeli officials, in particular MOCI chief Pinhas Sapir,
envisioned in the Textile Industry Development Plan that by 1966, twelve
major textile manufacturing plants would be operational and ultimately
produce 26% of Israel's
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Mothers -- Transitioning From Welfare to Corporate

Words: 2273 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96265813

Mothers -- Transitioning from elfare to Corporate America

elfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. e first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burnett, R. (2010, May 28). Social Welfre: Does it Really Help or Does it Really Hurt? Retrieved from The Cypress Times: http://www.thecypresstimes.com/article/Columnists/The_Hard_Truth/SOCIAL_WELFARE_DOES_IT_REALLY_HELP_OR_DOES_IT_REALLY_HURT/30509

Galster, G. (Ed.). (1996). Reality and Research: Social Science and U.S. Urban Policy since 1960. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Gyamfi, P., Brooks-Gun, J., & Jackson, A. (2005). Moving Towards Work: The Effects of Employment Experiences on Welfare-Dependent Women and their Children. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 12(2-3), 39-62.

Hamilton, G. (2002, July). Moving People from Welfare to Work. Retrieved from MDRC Policy Analysis: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/52/summary.html
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Discriminations in Welfare Groups The

Words: 1961 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68015485

Nearly all of the existing models for financial redistribution available in American politics isolate potential applications on lines of income, while others divide along racial, ethnic, and religious lines to help insure the same standard of living for all of those in need -- adults and families included.

The current situation in America highlights the need to isolate welfare recipients further, by more than just income and instead to also take into account the idea of regional differences that foster not only varied opportunities of employment, but also a wide array of external sources of lifetime substance. Because America is still trying to balance the difference of tax revenues, budget allotments, and other sources of welfare subsidy, it is most important that both social scientists and legislators illuminate the regional discriminations that exist between the urban and rural poor.

Deavers, Kenneth L. "Social Science Contributions to Rural Development Policy in…… [Read More]

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Why the Rich as Well as the Poor Benefit From Social Welfare Programs

Words: 1556 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5920774

benefiting from U.S. social welfare funds? Is it just the poor, or are other groups also receiving financial benefits from the U.S. Treasury? This paper delves into those issues and provides credible resources to ferret out the real facts.

Not for people in poverty exclusively: After pointing out that the Reagan Administration's conservative agenda created an "historic shift" in welfare benefits, journalist Mimi Abramovitz reports that subsequent to the Reagan cuts social welfare programs in fact dole out more taxpayer money to "middle and upper classes" than to poor people (Abramovitz, 2001). The federal government (in 2000) spent $235.9 billion on assistance programs for those in the low income bracket, and yet some $793.9 billion of taxpayer money went to programs that "do not use poverty or need as a criteria…" (Abramovitz, 299). Moreover, the Social Security (and other social insurance programs) "grants" increase with inflation, allowing the purchasing power…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abramovitz, M. (2001). Everyone Is Still on Welfare: The Role of Redistribution in Social

Policy. Social Work, 46(4), 297-307.

Ahmad, F., and Iverson, S. (2013). The State of Women of Color in the United States. Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 2, 2014, from http://wwwamericanprogress.org.

Lawler, J. (2013). The Hidden Welfare State Is Regressive. The Mark-Up. Retrieved
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Sociology of Poverty and Welfare

Words: 3817 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79188435

Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…… [Read More]


Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology

Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.

Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
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Globalisation Weakens the State Discuss

Words: 1954 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81120941

The private sector thus becomes the most important factor in the decision making process. Unfortunately, as bad as it sounds the fact that states are losing their powers in front of the private sector, globalization has proved to work, at least in the more developed countries. The weakness of a state is the price to pay for a prosper society.

It is true that globalization weakens the state, but this must not necessarily be seen as a bad thing. More important than a powerful government is a powerful economy, which gives people better lives. States that have adopted the rules of international capital market have known economic growth, at various levels. The price that must be paid is that multinational corporations have the power to dictate policies that are in their own interest and not necessarily in the interest of citizens.

However, when speaking of a state in its cultural…… [Read More]


Armstrong, D., Globalization and the social state, available at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=33615;

Castles, F., the future of the welfare state, 2004, Oxford: Oxford University Press;

Friedman, L.T., the Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization, 2000;

Genschel, P., "Globalization and the welfare state: a retrospective," Journal of European Public Policy 11(4), 2004;
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Nazi State in the 1960s and 1970s

Words: 1875 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89194224

Nazi State

In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…… [Read More]


Aly, Gotz and Jefferson Chase. Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. Holt Paperbacks, 2005.

Caplan, Jane and Nikolaus Waschmann (eds). Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories. Routledge, 2010.

Collier, Martin and Philip Pedley (eds). Hitler and the Nazi State. Heinemann Educational Publishers, 2005.

Gassert, Philipp and Alan F. Steinweiss. Coping with the Nazi Past: West German Debates on Nazism and Generational Conflict, 1955-1975. Berghahn Books, 2006.
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United States Regulation of Business

Words: 523 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5979924

Government-Business Relations 1004 PPP -- Reading Report

Tutorial (e.g. Monday 10.00am-11.30am):

Reading full reference

Wilson, G. (2003). Business and politics: A comparative introduction. 3rd ed. New York: Chatham House Publishers. Chapter 2. "Business and Politics in the United States," pp. 27-57.

Main point(s) made by the author(s)

In contrast to modern European democracies, the United States has embraced a form of capitalism that is extremely hostile to proactive social welfare policies. Within U.S. culture there has tended to be a more uncomplicated celebration of such values as individualism and self-reliance. Even the Democratic Party, which is currently considered the more liberal of the two major governing parties, is less supportive of comprehensive social welfare policies such as universal healthcare vs. European nations. The U.S. has a very weak welfare state, one of the weakest in the modern industrialized world. The U.S. also has a federalist system, which accords considerable power…… [Read More]

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Should the United States Adopt National Health Care Insurance

Words: 2029 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27160841

United States and National Healthcare Insurance:

A Winning Proposition?

Physical health and well-being are among the most basic needs and desires of human beings. We all hope that neither ourselves nor our families will ever be the victims of sickness, incapacitation, or any other malady. We hope too that if we ever do require the services of professional Healthcare providers we will not be bankrupted by the expense. Yet, it is a fact of life, that good Healthcare does not come cheaply. Especially in the United States, physicians hospitals, and other forms of medical care are extremely expensive. Like their counterparts in so many other fields, American medical practitioners are among the most highly paid in the world. A serious illness, especially one requiring hospitalization, can spell financial ruin. It is of course for these reasons that so many Americans have Healthcare insurance. Nevertheless even this insurance is very costly.…… [Read More]


1. Allen, Mike. (14 September 2004). "Bush Assails Kerry on Health Care; Democrat's Plan Would Mean More Taxes, He Says." The Washington Post.

2. Clark, C., & Mceldowney, R. (2000). The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities. Policy Studies Review, 17(4), 133.

3. Kaus, M. (1995). The End of Equality (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.

4. (1996). Living as Equals (P. Barker, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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What Is the Market-State

Words: 3079 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24148627


oth Phillip obbit and Richard Robison offer accounts of what a market-state is. obbit contends that the core features of the market-state are a crisis of the nation-state, a transformation of core state functions, relations of national states to transnational markets, and cosmopolitan culture. Finance is at the center of the culture, the money economy. Governments are more centralized but weaker because power is allocated by the money men, the banks, the managers of finance and capital, and governments are merely their footstools. According to Robison, on the other hand, market-states are neo-liberal, techno-managerial and instrumental, and citizens are clients and consumers. oth describe the materialistic, consumerist society, yet each has its own theoretical approach and unique conceptualization. This paper will compare obbit's and Robison's accounts of market-states and use the writings of Smith, Keynes, Marx and others to help illustrate the nature of the two.

Differences of What…… [Read More]


Bobbit, P (2011) The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace, and the Course of History, NY:

Anchor Books

Keynes, JM (1920) The Economic Consequences of the Peace, NY: Harcourt Brace.

Pabst, A (2010) The Crisis of Capitalist Democracy, Telos 152: 44-67.
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Business US Has Faced Acute Economic Crisis

Words: 946 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69131532


US has faced acute economic crisis since 2008. Present economic crisis started from the downfall of housing sector which lead to the financial crisis such as bankruptcy of Lehman rothers (at that time fourth largest investment bank in the U.S.A.) and bankruptcy of largest insurance in world, the AIG (which were later saved by introducing bailout packages by U.S. government) which further collapsed production and unemployment plummeted. It is usually termed that it is the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. (Moseley, 2009)

Even though Fed Reserve claims, the crisis has averted to some extent but the problems of unemployment, recession and inflation still prevails in U.S. economy.

According to U.S. ureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate staggers to an amount of 8.3% in February 2012. Similarly, U.S. ureau of Labor Statistics also shows that consumer price index is on upward swing in 2012. Recent wave of…… [Read More]


Council on Foreign Relations . (2011, July 25). IMF Report on U.S. Fiscal Policy. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/financial-crises/imf-report-us-fiscal-policy-july-2011/p25537

Economic Crisis. (2012, March 27). Bernanke says U.S. job market weak despite gains. Retrieved April 2, 2012, from EconomicCrisis.U.S.: http://economiccrisis.us/2012/03/bernanke-job-market-weak-gains/

Moseley, F. (2009, April). The U.S. economic crisis: Causes and Solutions. Retrieved from ISR: http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml

News Sources. (2011, October 13). Roubini: Occupy Wall Street is a symptom of the economic malaise facing the world. Retrieved from War in Context:  http://warincontext.org/2011/10/13/roubini-occupy-wall-street-is-a-symptom-of-the-economic-malaise-facing-the-world/
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US Presidential Elections

Words: 2409 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35771704

Presidential Elections

Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…… [Read More]


Clarke, P. Keynes: The Rise, Fall and Return of the 20th Century's Most Influential Economist. Bloomsbury Press, 2009.

Fine, S. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-37. University of Michigan Press, 1960.

Heinrichs, W. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.

Skidelsky, R. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, 2010.
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Welfare System Welfare Programs Are

Words: 1523 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53734405

Furthermore, it is agreed that those who are working tend to earn low wages, about $7.00 per hour on average, thus making it difficult for them to support their families (Sawhill pp). Another concern is that the poverty rate has not fallen as much as the caseload (Sawhill pp). Fewer poor children are receiving assistance, and the incomes of the poorest one-fifth of single-parent families have continued to fall (Sawhill pp). Many families remain in deep poverty, and according to some reports, requests for emergency assistance have grown (Sawhill pp). Overall, some 700,000 families were significantly worse off in 1999 than their counterparts in 1995 (Sawhill pp).

Since welfare reform was implemented during an unprecedented economic expansion, questions remain about how much of the good news should be attributed to the 1996 law and how much to a strong economy or to the growth of other programs such as the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sawhill, Isabel. (2001, June 22). From Welfare to Work.

Brookings Review. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Sommerfeld, David. (2002, March 01). Race, welfare reform, and nonprofit organizations. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575466/Welfare.html
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Welfare Indian Children

Words: 1695 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63918195

Indian Welfare Act

There are few things in life as traumatic as losing a child. Unfortunately, this is a phenomenon that plagues humanity on a daily basis. Children are lost in many ways. Some die, some are kidnapped. Others are lost through adoption. For some mothers, adoption is an informed decision made on the basis of what the individual believes is right for her child. However, there is also a phenomenon of adoption that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, in which mothers were more or less coerced in giving up their children for adoption. In many cases, this coercion also occurred without informed consent, where mothers were asked to sign documents without receiving full disclosure regarding the nature of such documents. This occurred disproportionately among Indian children, many of whom were forcibly removed from their parents during the 1960s and 1970s. This resulted in the Indian Child Welfare Act,…… [Read More]


"Indian Child Welfare Act -- Termination Of Parental Rights -- Adoptive Couple V. Baby Girl." Harvard Law Review 127.1 (2013): 368-377. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.

Jacobs, Margaret D. "Remembering The "Forgottern Child": The American Indian Child Welfare crisis Of The 1960S and 1970S. "American Indian Quarterly 37.1/2 (2013): 136-159. Academic Search Premier. Web, 24 Apr. 2014.
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Welfare System Temporary Aid for

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22207850

For the year June 2000 there were 5,780,543 TANF families as against 14,111,992 TANF families during January 1993. (Total TANF ecipients by State)


The following graph shows the percentage of the U.S. population on Welfare since 1960. As it can be seen that there was a gradual rise from the year 1960 when the program was launched till 1972 after which there was a plateau phase till 1978. It remained range bound from 1979 till 1990 with minor rise and fall. The years 1993 and 1994 was the peak with more than 5.5% of the U.S. population covered under TANF. After 1994, coverage came down sharply from 1996 till 1999 when it was 2.5%. (Statistics: Percentage of U.S. Population on Welfare since 1960)

Percentage of the U.S. Population on Welfare Since 1960 http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/news/stats/uspops.gif


Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. etrieved at…… [Read More]


Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. Retrieved at  http://www.results.org/website/article.asp?id=965Accessed  on 12 May, 2005

Administration for Children and Families: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program. Retrieved at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/exsumcl.htm. Accessed on 12 May, 2005

Besharov, Douglas J. The Past and Future of Welfare Reform. Retrieved at  http://www.welfareacademy.org/pubs/welfare/pastandfuture.pdf . Accessed on 12 May, 2005

Gorman, Angie O. Playing the Rules and Still Losing Ground. Retrieved at http://www.americamagazine.org/gettext.cfm?articleTypeID=1&textID=2419&issueID=397Accessed on 12 May, 2005
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State Statue and Rules and Regulations

Words: 1595 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74141144

Statue and ules and egulations Concerning Dental Hygienists and Dentist in Hawaii and Florida

American Dental Hygienist's Association is the largest governing body for maintaining the dental hygiene and care. The members of ADHA body get pleasure from professional support, educational programs and other variety of opportunities for them to participate and strengthen their decision making process and professional expertise. Government affairs division of ADHA works in close association with state constituent to support issues that are important for the dental care of public and dental hygiene profession. This covers licensing, scope of practice, patient access to care, water fluoridation and other dental care services. The dental hygienists interest is promoted through the governmental affairs division through federal and state policy efforts. The legalization of the ADHA affairs sustain close collaboration with other institutions where public or private to institutionalize the oral health policy document and improve the quality of…… [Read More]


ADHA's corporate website, (2011) User Guide to ADHA's Government Affair Division,

Retrieved on 28th Sept 2011 through:


Chapter 448 hrs dentistry, Retrieved on 28th Sept 2011 through:
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Welfare Experience Deparle's American Dream

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43600171

The second issue is the economic disparity between men and women, and the differences in their earning capabilities. Not only are women more likely to be single parents, they are also less likely to be given jobs then men, and are also apt to earn less at these jobs. The fact that even full-time employment in many cases did not provide enough of a living to support a family is a key indicator that something is wrong with society. Welfare is an attempt to address this problem, and even it falls short. This also leads to a feeling of injustice which is definitely felt by many on welfare, and is used to justify continuing payments by certain individuals DeParle mentions. In general, however, the families he depicts are struggling against external practical constraints and the inner struggle and strained energy reserves that this causes, with very real inhibitive effects on…… [Read More]

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State of Human Rights in the Arab World

Words: 3599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85324547

Human ights in the Arab World

As stated by the "Universal Declaration of Human ights" in the United Nations, Human rights has almost become one of the most important factors that decided the development of a country. To be able to promote economic growth and prosperity it is essential that a country controls its power of creativity and enterprise of its citizens, which would aid it to move into the global market in terms of trade, communication and investment systems.

It has been noticed that the most talented members of the society are usually not granted their human rights and hence the political, social, and cultural developments of the society are being not in order due to human rights being violated. This gets us to realize that we need to follow human rights development not only to protect a single individual but the entire society on the whole.2 Wrong use…… [Read More]


Arzt, Donna E. "Religious Human Rights in Muslim States of the Middle East and North Africa" Retrieved from http://www.law.emory.edu/EILR/volumes/spring96/arzt.html Accessed on 03/04/3004

Bard, Mitchell G. "Myths & Facts Online: Human Rights in Arab Countries." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/myths/mf16.html Accessed on 03/04/3004

Gordon, Dick. "Human Rights in the Middle East." Retrieved from http://www.theconnection.org/shows/2002/04/20020424_a_main.asp Accessed on 03/04/3004

'Human Rights and Modern Arab States." Thinking Clearly. Retrieved from        http://www.habtoor.com/thinkingclearly/html/issue42.htm        Issue 42 / September 2001 Accessed on 03/04/3004
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Bikeways A New Jersey State Funded Program

Words: 848 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97616745

Bikeways: A New Jersey State Funded Program

State-run programs can run a gamut of interests and priorities, from those relating to the provision of welfare to those concerning the regulation of public utilities. ithin this extremely wide range of priorities, states have begun to take a direct part in improving both environmental and transportation issues. In the state of New Jersey, where these two issues generally intersect with a great deal of relevance, the Bikeways program is a state-funded and statewide endeavor designed to encourage and accommodate greater interest in biking as an alternative means to transportation and recreation.

Accordingly, the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)(2011), describes a program in which state funding is dedicated to "constructing 1,000 new miles of dedicated bike paths (facilities that are physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier either within the highway right of way or within an…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Andy, B. (2009). New Brunswick Bikeway Fatally Flawed. Walk Bike Jersey Blog.

Copeland, D. (2011). NJDOT announces grants of nearly $3 million for bikeway development around New Jersey. NJ.com.

Local Transportation Planning Assistance (LTPA). (2011). Bikeways Grant Program Handbook. New Jersey Department of Transportation.

New Jersey Shore (NJS). (2012). Jersey Biking. Newjerseyshore.com
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Sustainable Development Debate the State

Words: 2494 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8875936

This is because resources available within the environment will provide all what is required for the state (Department of Environment, Food & ural affairs, 2013).

Social sustainability

Many countries are same when it comes to the endowments of natural, human and physical capital. However, there is a difference when it comes to the economic development level that can be achieved in a particular country. There are three types of capital that can determine the economic growth process but in a partial manner however, there is a missing link between the three types of capital which is the social capital. Social capital is based on social norms and bonds which have an important role to play when it comes to sustainable development. Social capital emphasizes on the participation on a civic level as well as a horizontal association among people such as social networks. This is also through associated norms that…… [Read More]


Accenture.(2011). Government's role in Sustainable Development. Retrieved April 26,2013

From http://www.accenture.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PDF/Accenture_Getting_Growth_Government_Role_Sustainable_Future.pdf

Bayelsa state portal.(2013). Bayelsa State Sustainable Development Strategy. Retrieved April 26,2013 from http://bayelsa.gov.ng/portal/ministries-departments-agencies/agencies/bayelsa-state-sustainable-development-strategy

Department of Environment, Food & Rural affairs.(2013). Making sustainable development a part of all government policy and operations. Retrieved April 26,2013 from https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/making-sustainable-development-a-part-of-all-government-policy-and-operations
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What Do State Do

Words: 779 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33619065

Max Weber defined state as "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory whether that legitimacy derives from charisma, tradition, or law" (Hokim 2012). Weber held that domination of people being ruled by a ruler is an unavoidable political fact. His vision for democracy in Germany was a political marketplace where charismatic rulers are elected by winning votes in free competition, whether in struggle or not. He saw localized, public associational life as the breeding ground of charismatic rulers.

Weber suggested that social pluralism should be the sociocultural ground for political education of lay citizens, which requires an organized civil society. He also suggested that the political education should contain ethics in conviction and responsibility. The political ethics also involved value-freedom and value-relativism.

Under Weber's definition, North Korea under Kim Jong-il, after American invasion or Cambogia under the Khmer…… [Read More]


"Charisma." New World Encyclopedia. Apr 2, 2008.  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Charisma  (accessed Jan 26, 2013).

Hokim, S. "Max Weber." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. July 31, 2012. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/weber / (accessed Jan 25, 2013).

Norman, J. The world's enduring dictatiors: Kim Jong-il, North Korea. June 4, 2011. http://www.cbsnews.about.com/od/profilesofasianleaders/p/BioKimJongil.htm (accessed Jan 25, 2013).

totalitarism. 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/600435/totalitarism (accessed Jan 25, 2013).
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United States Deficit Surplus and Debt Have

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41434402

United States Deficit, Surplus, and Debt Have an Effect on the United State's Financial Reputation on an International Level

The objective of this study is to examine how and why the United States deficit, surplus and debt have an effect on the United States' financial reputation on an international level.

The United States has been historically viewed as a country that is financially sound. In 2011, as the United States government appeared it was going to default on its debt it is reported that there was a great deal of "bitterness, division and dysfunction that resounded around the world." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) It is reported that the United States is experiencing a diminishing of its "aura as the world's economic haven and the sole country with the power to lead the rest of the world out of financial crisis and recession." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) Additionally, the United States debt levels…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Levit, MR et al. (2011) Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations. Congressional Research Service. 11 Feb 2011. Retrieved from:  http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/157101.pdf 

Sanger, DE (2011) In World's Eyes, Much Damage Is Already Done. 31 Jul 2011. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/01/us/politics/01capital.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
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Poverty Welfare and Sociology Poverty

Words: 2176 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47217994

" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:

Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)

Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:

The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.

Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…… [Read More]



Baron, J.N., & Hannan, M.T. (1994). The Impact of Economics on Contemporary Sociology. Journal of Economic Literature, 32(3), 1111-1146. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95261988

Hale, S.M. (1987). The Documentary Construction of Female Mismanagement. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 24(4), 489-513. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001982198

Levison, D., Ritter, J.A., Stock, R., & Anker, R. (2002). Distribution of Income and Job Opportunities: Normative Judgements from Four Continents. International Labour Review, 141(4), 385+. Retrieved January 20, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001346748
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British Social Welfare and Elizabethan

Words: 821 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13539461

Last year, 76 minors were homicide victims."

The child has lost her life and the government is now trying to take actions to revamp the system. Under the new system, Children's Trusts will be set up "at the local level to bring experts - psychologists, social workers, education officials - together, with a local director ultimately accountable."

There may appear to be few similarities between EPL and current social welfare policy but when we closely study their impact, we fail to accept the notion that a lot has changed. EPL was ineffective in controlling child-related problems. Children were subjected to cruel working conditions, they had hardly any proper means of nutrition and overseers probably did not care much about them. The same is true today. While there are protection agencies, social workers and others working for welfare of children, there is little if any improvement in their condition especially in…… [Read More]


1. Mark Rice-Oxley, Child-abuse tragedy spurs British overhaul of social services; the government unveiled a plan last week to keep better records on children and streamline the bureaucracy.(WORLD) the Christian Science Monitor; 9/16/2003

2. Bliss (1908), "Elizabethan Poor Laws" pp. 918-920.
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Libertarian Views on Welfare the

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82275573

He believes that social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are both to the greatest benefit to the least advantaged and that offices and positions of authority be open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity (Piccard).

Rawls contends that in order for distributive justice to work social and economic process must exist under suitable political and economic institutions. He calls for the establishment of four background institutions or branches, in the government to ensure equity of justice. The allocation branch ensures that the pricing system is competitive and that no individual or corporation forms unreasonable market power. The stabilization branch endeavors to bring about reasonably full employment opportunities for those that want to work. The transfer branch guarantees a certain level of well-being. Finally, the distribution branch strives to preserve an approximate justice in distributive shares by means of taxation and the necessary adjustments…… [Read More]

Works Cited

James, Louis. "Libertarian Party on Welfare & Poverty." On the Issues. Source LP News. 1 April 1999. 13 Fedruary 2011.

Loo, Dennis. "Libertarianism and Poverty." The Ethical Spectacle. April 2003. 13 Fedruary 2011.

Piccard, Dick. "A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls." Ohio.edu. 4 April 2005. 13 Fedruary 2011.

Rawls, John. "An Egalitarian Theory of Justice." A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.
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Interest Rates Welfare Economics Public

Words: 1412 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24077489

Public choice theorists focus on the question of what government policies are likely to be implemented in a given political setting, rather than what policies would produce a desirable outcome if they were implemented. The conclusions of the public choice theory tend to increase skepticism towards the prospect that giving government power over various areas of human affairs will actually have beneficial results, regardless of the democratic control exercised by the citizens.

One of the basic insights that underlie the public choice theory is that good government policies in a democracy are an underprovided public good, because of the rational ignorance of the voters. Each voter is faced with an infinitesimally small probability that his vote will change the result of the elections, while gathering the relevant information necessary for a well-informed voting decision requires substantial time and effort. Therefore, the rational decision for each voter is to be generally…… [Read More]

Because the government uses the tax code as an instrument of social policy, the code as a whole appears to lack a coherent organizing principle. This lack of a coherent organizing principle has become magnified over time, due to the interplay between successive legislative amendments and regulatory changes to the law and the private sector responses to those amendments and changes. For instance, suppose that Congress enacts a tax credit to encourage a particular type of activity. In response, a group of taxpayers who are not the intended beneficiaries of the credit re-order their affairs, or the superficial aspects of their affairs, to qualify for the credit. Congress responds by amending the code to add restrictions and target the credit more effectively. Certain taxpayers manage to use this change to claim additional benefits, so Congress acts again, and so on. The result is a feedback loop of enactment and response, which, over an extended period of time, produces significant complexity.

The U.S. government rewards certain behavior with tax deductions or tax credits. The most famous reduction in taxes is that income used to pay mortgage interest on a personal home is exempted from taxes, if the taxpayer elects to itemize. Taxpayers who do not participate in an employer-sponsored pension plan may contribute up to $3,000 ($3,500 if age 50 or above) into an individual retirement account, and deduct that contribution from their gross income. The Earned Income Tax Credit benefits low- to moderate-income working families.

In general, the U.S. income tax is highly progressive, at least with respect to individuals that earn wage income. As of 2001, the top one percent of individual taxpayers paid approximately 23% of all federal taxes. The top five percent paid approximately 39%, and the top 10% paid 50% of all federal taxes. The bottom 20% of taxpayers paid a little over one percent of all federal taxes. Moreover, the progressivity of the U.S. tax system has gradually increased over recent decades. The top 20% of taxpayers paid approximately 56% of all taxes in 1980, and this figure gradually has risen to 65%, as of 2001. In recent years, however, a reduction in the tax rates applicable to capital gains has significantly reduced the income tax burden on non-wage income. In this regard, the general structure of the U.S. tax system has begun to resemble a partial consumption-tax regime.
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Have Work Incentive Programs in US Been Effective in Promoting Employment Among Low Income Families

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51846491

Incentive Programs Among Low Income

The effects of work incentive programs in encouraging low income individuals to participate in employment depend on the income thresholds of reforms in whether the individual gains benefits that are equal to or greater than what they would receive by not working. The factors in the determination include after tax income plus benefits, such as Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and fixed work costs, compared to the total change in revenue received. If the loss of welfare is greater than the total change in revenue, work incentives have no value and discourage employment participation. On the other hand, if the total amount of changed revenue is greater than the welfare loss and compensates for fixed work costs, incentives encourage employment among the low income.

The Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) expanded EITC benefits by increases in the standard deduction, personal deductions, and favorable tax…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elissa, Nada. Taxation and Labor Supply of Married Women: The Tax Reform Act of '1986 as a Natural Experiment. Feb 1995. working paper. 20 July 2013.

Elissa, Nada, Kleven, Henrick Jacobsen, & Kriener, Claus Thustrup. Welfare Effects of Tax Reform and Labor Supply at the Intensive and Extensive Margins. May 2004. working paper. 20 July 2013.

Riccio, Jim. Promoting Employment Stability and Advancement Among Low-Income Adults. Mar 2013. article. 20 July 2013.

Rothstein, Jesse. The Unintended Consequences of Encouraging Work: Tax Incidence on the EITC. May 2008. pdf. 20 July 2013.
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Corporate Welfare vs Social Welfare

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18620694

Secondly, social welfare programs try to benefit most people. The recipients are not just poor households, the elderly, veterans, or students, but also farmers, petroleum companies, and affluent homeowners who receive support through tax deductions. And thirdly, social welfare does not substantially reduce income inequality. That is because the affluent receive far greater support from government-supported welfare than the poor. For example, deductions the affluent homeowners receive is worth $337 billion annually, which, as Macionis notes, "worth ten times as much as what the government spends to provide food assistance to low-income people" (43).

As Lauer and Lauer note, deriving from the study of consumer advocate Ralph Nader, there are four areas in the welfare system that are advantageous to the rich. Bailouts are given to large corporations to safeguard them from bankruptcy. Resource depletion, which allows large corporations to have the rights to minerals and timber leased at "bargain-basement…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lauer, Robert, and Lauer, Jeanette. Social Problems and the Quality of Life, 12th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2011. Print.

Macionis, John. Social Problems, 3d edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall: 2008. Print.

Wildman, David, "Corporate Welfare vs. Social Welfare," Web. 22 March 2011
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Lives of Welfare Recipients Investigating

Words: 2136 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22151891


By conducting a peer led focus group the interaction between the participants allows for sharing of stories and experiences and opens up the lines for a deeper, more meaningful discussion. Instead of the participants directing their responses to questions and statements asked of the researcher to the researcher, participants will be able to converse with one another. The researcher will still be a part of the focus group, but his role will not be as prominent as it would be in a traditional style focus group. Instead, the researcher will observe, take notes and steer the group in the right direction if they start to discuss other topics which are not a part of the study.


Because this research deals with the dynamics of welfare recipients as opposed to how many people are on welfare, a qualitative approach is best. The only information that could be dealt with…… [Read More]


Berg, B.L. (2009). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (7th edition ed.). Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.

Childstats.gov - America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2010 - Economic Circumstances. (n.d.). Childstats.gov - Home. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from  http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/eco.asp 

Lofland, J., Snow, D.A., Anderson, L., & Lofland, L.H. (2005). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis (4th ed. ed.). Gwenn Wilson: Wadsworth Publishing.

Murray, C. (2006). Peer led focus groups and young people. Children and Society, 20(4), 273-286.
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TANF Program Social Welfare TANF

Words: 1704 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66256058

However, there have been both positive and negative outcomes from these changes. Some of the positive changes are: reduced welfare caseloads, they have increase unemployment / income levels for the recipients' and it improves family security. While some of the negative outcomes would include:: low wages, dead end jobs, difficulty obtaining health / child care and inconsistent performance from social workers. This is significant, because it shows how the law has made an impact upon reducing the overall amounts of waste. Like any change there will be obvious positive and negatives outcomes. In the case of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, these changes would impact the way various social services are provided, to low income individuals and families.


Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm

Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html

Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49…… [Read More]


Types of Poverty. (n.d.). Haki Kazi.org. Retrieved from  http://www.hakikazi.org/zwp/types_of_poverty.htm 

Types of Poverty. (2007). Society Forward. Retrieved from  http://societyforward.blogspot.com/2007/08/7-types-of-poverty.html 

Anderson, S. (2004). Difficulties After Leaving TANF. Social Work. 49 (2), pg. 185.

Grogger, J. (n.d). Conflicting Benefits. Rand. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/rr.12.02/benefits.html
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Sociology - Welfare the Conceptual

Words: 1342 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44035160

Instead, the welfare system encouraged perpetual social dependency and provided a reason for poor people not to work at all when the most reliable method of achieving financial independence (besides continuing education) is precisely, to begin working at minimum wage jobs while gradually learning skills and establishing contacts and a record of regular employment that are essential in the long- term goal of qualifying for better work in time (Healey, 2003 p56).

The Need for Welfare Reform:

While elements of government assistance programs are still subject to epidemic abuse (Schmalleger, 2007 p104), the reconfiguration mandated by Congress in 1996 are designed to rectify some of the most glaring problems plaguing the federally administrated programs previously. First and foremost, the new state-run welfare programs must, by federal law, establish caps limiting welfare eligibility to discourage perpetual (even permanent) reliance on public funds as a substitute for making the necessary effort and…… [Read More]


Healey, Joseph F. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. London: Pine Forge (2003).

Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon (2002).

Macionis, John J. Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall (2003).

Schaefer, Richard T. Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper-Collins (2001).
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Government Welfare Discussed Should the Government Provide

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49840928

government welfare. Discussed: should the government provide fewer or more benefits for single parents on welfare. Thesis, three reasons to support, at least 4 quotes and paraphrases on each page from experts.

Should the Government Provide More or Fewer Benefits for Single Parents on elfare?

elfare reforms have been a continuous debate for years. The latest reform regarding single parents and government benefits has stirred controversy and initiated studies to determine the effects of new policies. hile many critics believe the new reforms are too harsh and simply increase the number of poverty level families, the new policies with reduced benefits are making a positive significant impact in reducing the number of single parent recipients and placing them in the employment arena. Therefore, the government should provide less benefits to single parents on welfare.

Many critics argue that the economy is responsible for caseload declines (New B7). However, according to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adkisson, Richard V. "Welfare reform: What are the numbers, and does anyone care?" Journal of Economic Issues. March 01, 2001; pp 184.

New, Michael. "Helping the Poor: Strong Work Requirements are the way out of Welfare." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. October 01, 2002; pp B7.

Welfare Reform - More Research Needed on TANF Family Caps and other Policies for Reducing Out-of-Wedlock Births." Government Accounting Office Report. September 11, 2001. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Government_Accounting_Office_Report&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.emediamillworks.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=&title=WELFARE+REFORM+%2D+MORE+RESEARCH+NEEDED+ON+TANF+FAMILY+CAPS+AND+OTHER+POLICIES+FOR+REDUCING+OUT%2DOF%2DWEDLOCK+BIRTHS++&date=09%2D11%2D2001&query=welfare+and+single+parents&maxdoc=24&idx=5.(accessed 12-01-2002).
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Society Mental Health and Welfare

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67240615

Mental Health, and Welfare

Society, mental health and welfare:

A problem related to counseling (under-insurance) and a social problem (the lack of adequate healthcare coverage)

The course text Social action: A mandate for counselors discusses the ethical implications of such issues as race and social injustice in the counseling profession. However, perhaps even more important than these factors is the issue of class, specifically the affordability of counseling on an individual basis. Wealthier individuals with better insurance or who can afford to pay 'pout of pocket' often have the luxury of 'talk' therapy that poorer people, or people without adequate health insurance, lack. This creates a 'haves' versus 'have not' situation in terms of the availability and the quality of counseling. Poorer individuals with minimal insurance coverage for mental health care are often offered fewer counseling sessions, or have their psychological complaints treated as medical disorders, rather than fully addressed…… [Read More]


Considering some practical matters. (2011). AMHA (American Mental Health Alliance).

Retrieved June 8, 2011 at  http://www.americanmentalhealth.com/index.tpl?page=10737827503031878 

Harris, G. (2011, March 6). Talk doesn't pay. The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/06/health/policy/06doctors.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=psychiatrist%20talk%20therapy&st=cse
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U S Welfare and Financial Situation

Words: 4624 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13150102

In this case there are differences due to the income level of the person who is replying.

The Americans who are making more than $34,000 a year generally say that the persons getting aid from welfare could manage their own lives without help from the government if they really tried, while the replies from the lower income groups feel that they could not manage. This continues on in the opinion of the comparatively richer group to say that the people getting poverty assistance could manage without assistance as they get the assistance without having to do anything for it. This continues on with persons having little knowledge of the changes in law that has come up. Only half the respondents were aware of the changes in the law. However of the persons who are aware of the changes in the law 61% think that the new law is working well,…… [Read More]


America's most costly welfare recipients are Fortune 500 companies. Cato Institute News Releases. June 30, 1999. Retrieved at http://www.cato.org/new/catonew-06-99.html. Accessed on 30 June, 2005

Bumpass, Larry. Ryder, N.B. The Changing Contexts of Parenting in the United States. Retrieved at  http://parenthood.library.wisc.edu/Bumpass/Bumpass.html . Accessed on 29 June, 2005

Cauchon, Dennis. State, local spending up despite downturn. USA Today. 14 January, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-01-14-state-budgets-usat_x.htm. Accessed on 30 June, 2005

Danziger, Sheldon; Loury, Glenn; Murray, Charles; Wilkins, Roger. Does Welfare Cause Illegitimacy? 9 April, 1994. Retrieved at http://www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/murray-loury-welfareAccessed on 29 June, 2005
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UK Welfare the Following Review of Current

Words: 5011 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7004083

UK elfare

The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.

The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arai, L.; (2003) British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 89 -- 102

Bingley, P.J., Douek, I.F., Rogers, C.A. And Gale, E.A.M. (2000) Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of Type 1 Diabetes in childhood: Prospective population-based family study, British Medical Journal, Vol. 321, pp 420 -- 424.

Brewer, M.; Ratcliffe, A.; dSmith, S.; (2011) Does welfare reform affect fertility: Evidence from the UK, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 245 -- 266

Doling, J. & Ford, J.; (2007) A union of homeowners? European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, pp. 113 -- 127.
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Social Welfare in the Context of Marital Issues

Words: 1051 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61676037

Ethics and Best Practices

Social assistance as a tool to combat marital issues

Michelle's former husband would probably be inclined to resort to unorthodox methods of accessing her files. As a consequence, I would get actively involved in providing him with the opportunity to see things from a general perspective. By emphasizing the fact that he risks facing legal problems if he continues to harass his wife, I would attempt to enable him to move on with his life and accept that Michelle does not want to see him anymore. My role is to respect Michelle's position in this situation and this would require that I employ a hostile attitude with regard to showing her husband information concerning the woman.

Michelle is likely to cooperate with me in the process of informing her husband with regard to the condition their relationship is in. The fact that she has a history…… [Read More]

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Social Work and Welfare the

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7572883

Addams included a large amount of environmental reforms in her program for Hull House. One of the most prominent incorporated her labors to address the unhealthful heaps of garbage in immigrant areas because of a lack of public interest. The mayor of Chicago ultimately appointed Addams garbage inspector for her region a job that she took very seriously. Addams managed garbage collectors and took violators of garbage policies to court. Even though Addams and her associates frequently started reforms, the immigrants had a dynamic role as well, helping in knowledge gathering and its communication to their neighbors (Settlement House Movement, 2011).

ichmond's devotion and professionalism, along with her scientific charity has been documented and developed over the years. Her casework practice, managerial talents, research, and stress on social work education fashioned a professional environment in what was beforehand thought to be just charity work. This professionalized social work permitted philanthropic…… [Read More]


Settlement House Movement. (2011). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:


Smith, Mark K. (2002). Casework and the Charity Organization Society. Retrieved March 23,

2011, from Web site:  http://www.infed.org/socialwork/charity_organization_society.htm
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Limiting Public Benefits the United States Economy

Words: 1820 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3968423

Limiting Public Benefits

The United States economy is in serious trouble and the individual state economies are not faring much better. In times such as these, those elected into public office are called upon to find ways to save money and to help the struggling nation become strong again. For individual people living in America, the economy has directly impacted their everyday lives. Many people are out of work and more and more families are becoming dependant on financial assistance from either the state or federal government in order to keep going. hen there is no money to spend on food or clothing or shelter, the families suffer terribly. The government instituted public assistance and unemployment to help families who are in desperate need. One of the ways that politicians, particularly Republicans, have suggested for alleviating the government's financial responsibilities is to demand that all people who apply for governmental…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bloom, R. (2011). Mandatory drug testing for unemployment benefits and TANF is costly and ineffective. ACLU.

Growing support for drug testing of welfare recipients. (2012). The New York Times. Associated Press.

Gupta, V. (2011). Mandatory drug testing demonizes and demoralizes. Debate Club.

MacPherson, J. (2013). ND bill pushes drug tests for welfare recipients. San Francisco
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U S Constitution the United States

Words: 4248 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26964593

The truth is that the forefathers were actually quite surprised at the effect that the signing of the Constitution had created in America; at the democratic society and government that resulted after the ratification of the Constitution.

The ratification in itself was a long one, and it involved in essence the perusal of the written Constitution by each state for ratification purposes, for which each state was required to create an independent ratifying committee headed by special delegates. The discussions of the advantages and the disadvantages of the newly written constitution of America began almost immediately after it was signed, and the two opposing factions of the Federalists to whom the majority of the forefathers belonged, and the Anti-Federalists who formed the opposing group brought these forth. The situation in America at the time of the writing of the Constitution was that of pro-democracy. The political as well as the…… [Read More]


Encyclopedia: American constitution. Retrieved at  http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/American-constitutionAccessed  on 4 October, 2004

Encyclopedia: American Revolutionary War. Retrieved at  http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/American-Revolutionary-War . Accessed on 4 October, 2004

Encyclopedia: Articles of Association. Retrieved at  http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/Articles-of-AssociationAccessed  on 4 October, 2004

Encyclopedia: Articles of Confederation. Retrieved at  http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/Articles-of-Confederation . Accessed on 4 October, 2004
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Child Protection States of Japan

Words: 3482 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69519954

Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.

Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]


BBC. Merkel in child protection plea. 2007. 7 April 2008. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7166094.stm

Clemons, Steven. "Koizumi Needs Fiscal Shot to Ring Round the World, New America Foundation. Daily Yomiuri." New American Foundation. 2002. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2002/koizumi_needs_fiscal_shot_to_ring_round_the_world

Deutche Welle. German Standard of Living in Decline. 2004. 7 April 2008. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1305105,00.html

Goodman, Roger. Children of the Japanese State: The Changing Role of Child Protection Institutions in Contemporary Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
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New Hampshire State Budget New

Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38963312

The Category Totals for the 2006-2007 Biennial State Operating Budget, found in Chapter 176, Laws of 2005, are as follows:

Chapter 176 - Laws of 2005 - NH Operating Budget

Fiscal Year 2006

Fiscal Year 2007

Total Appropriation for Category 01


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01-403,003,676 416,233,183



FEDEAL FUNDS 17,924,517 17,918,180

OTHE FUNDS 106,867,295 105,489,779

GENEAL FUND 278,211,864 292,825,224

TOTAL 403,003,676 416,233,183

Total Appropriation for Category 02


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02-420,003,205 424,638,566


FEDEAL FUNDS 52,837,182 50,445,675

OTHE FUNDS 152,998,319 155,855,692

GENEAL FUND 213,213,595 217,790,891


TOTAL 420,003,205 424,638,566

Total Appropriation for Category 03


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.03-222,979,010 217,030,487

ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for…… [Read More]


Hall, D.E.. (Sep 2002). Six Programs Fueled State Spending Increases, 1993-2003. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at  http://www.nhpolicy.org/nhbudget/19932003v1.pdf 

Norton, S.A. (Dec 2006). Fiscal Feast and Famine. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at  http://www.nhpolicy.org/budget_trends2007.pdf .

Operating Budget for the State of New Hampshire (2004-2005). (2005). About the LBA-Budget Division. State of New Hampshire Office of Legislative Budget Assistant. Concord, NH. Retrieved February 7, 2007 at http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/LBA/Indexbudget.html.

President George W. Bush (07 Feb 2005). President Bush's Budget and New Hampshire: FY Budget. The White House. Retrieved February 8, 2007, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/budget/2006/states/nh.html#.
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Hispanics Groups in the United States While

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42985499

Hispanics Groups in the United States

While many people speak of the Hispanic population, there really is not a single Hispanic population in the United States. The term Hispanic generically refers to Spanish-speakers. Therefore, there is a wide variety in the Hispanic people one may find in the United States. Therefore, this paper will examine four different Hispanic groups, Mexican-Americans, Puerto icans, Cuban Americans, and South Americans. It will do so by looking at the linguistic, political, social, economic, religious, and familial conventions of these different cultures.

When many people think of Hispanics in the United States, they think of Mexican-Americans. This is because Mexican-Americans are the largest U.S. Hispanic group; in fact, the U.S. has the second-largest population of Mexicans, second only to Mexico. Mexican-Americans tend to be Spanish speakers, though they may actually speak a variety of Native American languages, depending on where in Mexico the person originated.…… [Read More]


Buffington, S. (2011). Cuban Americans. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from Countries and their Cultures website: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr./Cuban-Americans.html

Camarota, S. (2007). Senate amnesty could strain welfare system. Retrieved September 30,

2011 from Center for Immigration Studies website: http://www.cis.org/articles/2007/welfarerelease.html

Pinon, F. (Unk.). Mexican-American politics. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from Cengage
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United States Men and Women

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34521286

For any person diagnosed with ADS, having to wait for drugs could effectively be a death sentence, which gives this study all of the greatest purpose so that there is a better understanding to the problem and hopefully, there will be possible solutions (HV and African-Americans)

According to (Gray, 2004, p. 59), everyone is labeled by sex, race, and religion, an outline of a theory of values-based labeling as a social movement argues that it is motivated by the need tore-embed the agro-food economy in the larger social economy. A review of some basic premises of embeddedness theories derived from the work of Karl Polanyi reveals their connection to particular values-based labeling efforts. From this perspective, values-based labeling presents itself as primarily an ethical and moral effort to counter unsustainable trends within presently existing capitalism. These labels distinguish themselves from ordinary commercial labels by a focus on process and on…… [Read More]

It argues that when teens get to a certain age, they realize the consequences of their decisions, which includes if they have AIDS.

Religious and racial traditions call their members to care for the poor and marginalized, yet no study has examined whether physicians' religious characteristics are associated with practice among the underserved. This study examines whether physicians' self-reported religious characteristics and sense of calling in their work are associated with practice among the underserved (Farr a. Curlin, MD1,2, Lydia S. Dugdale, MD3, John D. Lantos, MD2,4 and Marshall H. Chin).

In the article, by Friedma,(2007), it is clear that people are debating that decisions made on religious grounds are not considered to be rational; however, serious medical decisions (including the refusal of treatment) can only be made based and accepted on rational grounds. For example, if the risk of bad side effects is really high, the medical treatment could be refused. From there, this article argues the pros and
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United States and China the

Words: 1684 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46088238

hen the old Manchu dynasty failed to come up with ways to thwart the invading foreigners, a new nationalism was born in China. The old pastimes and rituals (p. 214) had allowed China to become soft. This awakening nationalism - partly a rejection of "foot binding, servant-girl bondage, prostitution, gambling," and opium smoking - was stoked not just by the colonial aggression, but by a spreading literacy (educational institutions were being built, the telegraph, newspapers, magazines and railway travel) and emerging awareness of their endangered culture. The last Manchu Emperor was put out of office on February 12, 1912, and hence a political system that had endured for 2,133 years, was out of commission.

Fairbank takes great pains to cover myriad events in China that led the country from ancient dynasties to new ideas and new leadership. The new order - the Kuomintang political party - came into power in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fairbank, John King. The United States and China. Cambridge, MASS: Harvard University Press, 1983.
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Economic Crisis Policies US Current Economic Crisis

Words: 2366 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30617442

Economic Crisis Policies

US current economic crisis is considered to be started from real estate sector. The real sector started to decline in 2006 and it accelerated in 2007 and 2008. Housing prices have fallen from the peak from about 25% so far. The decline in prices left homeowners with no option and they were unable to refinance their mortgages and causes default of mortgages. This default of mortgages and loans swallowed the banks and financial markets such as falling of Lehman's brothers and other anks and blow to rest of economy happened as the whole economy was relying on banks and ultimately it slows down investment in the country and capital flows to other parts of the world like China and India. ank losses cause reduction of bank capital which in turn requires capital reduction thus saving bank from lending. It is estimated that every $100 loss and reduction…… [Read More]


ISR international socialist review. (2009, april). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis:causes and solutions: http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml

Journal of accountancy. (2009, october). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis: root causes and road to recovery: www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2009/Oct/20091781

Eyes on wall street. (2011, april). Retrieved from Levin coburn investigates casues of financial crisis: http://www.eyesonwallstreet.com/2011/04/articles/financial-crisis/levincoburn-report-investigates-causes-of-the-financial-crisis/

Rude, C. (2009). World Economic Crisis and Fed Reserve Response to it. Studies in Political Economy.
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United States District Court for the Northern

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4896117

United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama ruled correctly in awarding partial summary judgment in this case. The summary judgment was granted in accordance with Rule 56(c) (3), Ala. R. Civ. P. Under Rule 56(c)(3), "summary judgment is proper when there is no genuine issue of material fact and the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law."

"If the moving party makes a prima facie showing that no genuine issue of material fact exists, then the burden shifts to the nonmovant." Bass v. Southtrust Bank, 538 So. 2d 794,798 (Ala. 1989). This burden requires the nonmovant to show "substantial evidence" in support of his position. id at 798.

Porter fails to show substantial proof of exposure to HIV on which his claim of emotional distress is based. Lacking proof of actual HIV exposure the plaintiff cannot move ahead with a claim based…… [Read More]

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Idaho State and Statute on

Words: 1840 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65868136

The precedence set by this attorney, though it was not answered by a maelstrom of other counties resurrecting rarely if ever used common laws, does prove interesting, on the issue of rape as well as many other laws that are hardly if ever used but not stricken from the books, as of yet.

Though Idaho is no longer considered a "common-law" state with regard to domestic situations, i.e. regarding the determination of marital status and on other issues it is legitimately still very demonstrative of common law history, a fact that can be attested to by the ability of a single do-gooder to choose to enforce a law that was previously ignored. Other issues, such as common property, among domestic partners, are a later adoption of a common law practice, in Idaho. For the most part it makes sense that legal situations in low population areas could and possibly still…… [Read More]


Aho, J.A. (1990). The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

American Prosecutors Research Institute State Rape Statutes p. 8 Retrieved November 20, 2007 at  http://www.arte-sana.com/articles/rape_statutes.pdf 

Bonner, J.R. (2002). Reconceptualizing VAWA's "Animus" for Rape in States' Emerging Post-VAWA Civil Rights Legislation. Yale Law Journal, 111(6), 1417.

Bryden, D.P., & Lengnick, S. (1997). Rape in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(4), 1194-1384.
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United States in the Aftermath

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24522469

Globalization has stripped the U.S. Of its stranglehold over manufacturing and forced it to readjust itself into a service oriented industry. As a result, education, training and specialization are more crucial than ever for the attainment of high paying jobs. This leaves the majority of Americans who do not have high educational or vocational training to have fewer opportunities for employment. Competitions from third world nations have stripped away many industries and jobs that are traditionally strong employers such as the automotive and steel industries. The result is that employees have had to take lower-paying jobs because they cannot readjust themselves for more complex positions required within the changing dynamics of globalization. rom an economic perspective this is an inevitable process, and therefore the wealth gap grows because those with very strong education and specialization are able to take advantage of economic trends towards service oriented industries, while those who…… [Read More]

From a political perspective, economic change and the conservatism of the past two decades have changed the spirit of government assistance for the poor. Welfare no longer exists as it did in the 1970s, and more funding is being diverted away from providing for the poor. As a result of government policies to provide greater independence and breaks for the average citizen, more and more funds are being steered away from helping the poor. The combination of a dearth of government spending to aid the poor as well as an unfriendly job market for unskilled labor has contributed to the poor becoming poorer.

From a social perspective, the "hippy" culture of the earlier decades has been replaced with a growing demand for social gratification through money and influence. In a survey conducted of college students in 1990, 80% reported that making money was their first priority following graduation. As society becomes more influenced by materialistic culture, the perspective of helping the poor and solving social problems are de-emphasized. All three factors have contributed to the growing wealth inequality within the United States.

Nickel and Dimed" revealed to us the world of American poverty. The poorest sector of the United States live a life that few can imagine and many thought eradicated. The factors that have brought us to the circumstances that Ehrenreich depicts within her book are multifaceted. They involve inevitable economic changes, government policy as well as social perspectives. To rectify this problem will be extremely difficult. Changes will have to be made on many different levels that will involve a changing perspective on views of poverty and success. However, if this trend continues, the wealth gap will inevitably polarize the American public and lead to a major national crisis. Thus to preserve the democracy and health of the United States, steps must be taken to change the culture towards wealth disparity.
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Ethics Question 1 Pareto-Optimal State

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37456143

However, without taxation, the protective mechanisms that make up the state, such as a standing army to protect the economic apparatus of the nation would not exist. And if taxation must occur to preserve the state, should it not be redistributive, so as not to incapacitate the weakest members of society, and thus would it not cost taxpayers to not have redistributive taxes even more money in the long run, debilitating the coffers of the state still further? While the passage bifurcates the individual's right to private property and the state's duty to protect public welfare, it is not so easy to make such a distinction, for threatening the public good without redistribution ultimately harms private industry's ability to make money and to have a healthy and educated workforce. An uneducated and unhealthy employee without schooling or Medicare helps no company, CEO, or shareholder


Only the most dedicated advocate…… [Read More]

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Aid the United States Has Been One

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66752717


The United States has been one of the most affluent countries of the world. Because of this fact, the country has established a history of providing aid and comfort to other groups around the world who are suffering because of economic, agricultural, or other turmoil for whatever reason, whether it be failure of government, war, or natural disaster. Some advocate that this is the rightful position of more wealthy countries and populations, to provide assistance to those who are less fortunate. This is certainly true to some extent. However, when a nation is in times of difficulty itself, like the United States is currently embroiled in, it is more important that the government provide aid to its own citizens than looking at what it can do outside the nation's borders. On an individual level, it would certainly be nice for wealthy persons to assist their fellow men and women…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Narveson, Jan. "We Don't Owe Them a Thing." The Monist. 86:3. 419-433. Print.

Singer, Peter. "Famine, Affluence, and Morality." Philosophy and Public Affairs. 1:1. 1972. 229-

243. Print.
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British Judge Lord Bringham Warned States Powers

Words: 2535 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17476275

British Judge Lord Bringham warned states powers intrude liberty privacy individuals justification fight a "war terror." Using specific cases examples countries studying (United States, Canada Great Britain) discuss extent intrusion rights privacy freedom occurred justified a democracy? This essay 2000 words (7-9 pages) Also sources needed paper.

The issue of national security has been a subject that has kept the headlines of the newspapers especially since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The events in the United States demonstrated that the world, as it was in 2001, was not prepared for a security breach that was unconventional in nature and modus operandi. Since then, the national security strategies have changed dramatically throughout the world. One of the most significant change if not the most significant, took place in the United States that considered itself a true victim of the terrorist phenomenon and decided to prevent further events to ever take place on…… [Read More]


Cockfield, A. (2011) "Surveillance as law" Grifith Law Review, Vol 20, no 4, 795- 816.

Evolving Threats To National Security" Stanford Law and Policy Review, Vol 22:1, 11-39.

Sheldon, B. (2011). "Camera surveillance within the UK: Enhancing public safety or a social threat?" International Review of Law, Computers & Technology Vol. 25, No. 3, November 2011, 193 -- 203.

Special Project National Security (2005). Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 58:5:1623- 1627
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U S Constitution the United States

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44955678

Article III describes the judicial branch of government, including the Supreme Court. It establishes that there is one court, the Supreme Court, however Congress may create lower courts, although judgements and orders may be reviewed by the Supreme Court. The trials of all crimes, except those involving impeachment, shall be by jury and held in the state where the crimes were committed, but if not committed within a state, the Congress will decide where the trial will take place. The judicial power extends to all cases arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which may be made, under their authority. No one can be convicted of treason without the testimony of two witnesses to the same act, or on confession in open court. The Congress has the power to decide the punishment of treason.

Article IV establishes the relationship among the states, and…… [Read More]


United States Constitution." Cornell Law School. Retrieved May 22, 2006 at http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.table.html#articlei
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U S Economy Evaluating the Current State of

Words: 1712 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64743812

U.S. Economy

Evaluating the current state of the United States economy

Although many are of the opinion that the recession that the globe was forced into in 2008 is finally uplifting and signs of economic revival can be witnessed. The resulting high levels of debt and unemployment from the recession had dragged many countries, especially the United States in to a state of economic turmoil. In order to reverse the effect of such factors, the United States government has implemented strategic monetary and fiscal policies. These policies attempt to rejuvenate the economic position of the country by not only controlling the supply and demand via tax cuts but also through re-setting the interest rate level in accordance to the low level of disposable income available to the unemployed / lowly employed citizens of the United States can acquire loans to allow easy spending and repayment of the loan as well.…… [Read More]


CBO. (2012). Report: Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output from October 2011 Through December 2011. Washington D.C.: Congressional Budget Office.

FED. (2013, June). FED Federal Funds Rate, American central bank's interest rate. Retrieved from Global-rates.com:  http://www.global-rates.com/interest-rates/central-banks/central-bank-america/fed-interest-rate.aspx 

Labor, U.D. (2013, June). Databases, Tables & Calculators by Subject. Retrieved from Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet

Samuel, H. (2013, April 2). France says 75 per cent tax will apply to footballers. Retrieved from The Telegraph:  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/9966692/France-says-75-per-cent-tax-will-apply-to-footballers.html
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Is the European Union a State or What Else Distinguishes it From Other International Organizations

Words: 9068 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99365197

European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations

The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…… [Read More]


Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.

Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.

Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.

Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
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Job-Retention Outcomes of Federal Welfare-To-Work

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78182429

The model used is that of the logistic egession in which the elation between the length of employment and job etention has been established. The model depicts vaiance in the levels of the dependent and independent vaiables between the two paametes of the study. This is the eseach design in the aticle. Desciptive statistics entails some demogaphic findings that guided the study and data exploation. The deteminants ae caied upon the hied wokes in vaies companies. Males and females ae used in vaious ways. They depict thei elative infomation as egads infomation in welfae befoe and afte hie. Fom the eseach, males ae shown to be eaning moe than compaably educated and expeienced females hied in the fedeal sevice. Females ae oveepesented along the lowe-level fedeal employees. The high level of female employees in the fedeal system shaes the same epesentation among women in the national setting. The study involves…… [Read More]

references keep changing from one cohort of employees to another. As such, the employment rates in the United States of America, most of which are mired by high rates of unemployment, are predictable from the various methods used to carry out the study. The research concludes that the welfare-to-work employees do not have lower rates of job retention as when compared to non-welfare-to-work employees. This is contrary to what the study had hypothesized earlier.


Gooden, S. T & Bailey, M. (2001). Welfare and Work: Job-Retention Outcomes of Federal

Welfare-to-Work Employees. Public Administration Review Vol. 61, No. 1: pp. 83-91
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Social Policy Family Support and Welfare Strategies

Words: 3141 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1728467

history there has been a major hypocrisy when it comes to children and the way they have been treated. On the one hand children are the most precious commodity on earth. They are the future politicians, doctors, and evangelists that will grow up to lead the world. They are the people who will eventually cure disease, invent marvelous contraptions and change the world. By all intents and purposes children are the world's most precious commodity and those in the United Kingdom are included in the lot. However throughout the history of the United Kingdom children for the most part have not had a lot of rights or protections afforded them. In more recent history this pattern began to change and as those changes took place the true nature of the wrongs of the past came to light. As the United Kingdom continued to work toward change the issue of children's…… [Read More]


Graham Hiscott,(2002). UK law on hitting children outdated., Birmingham Post, pp 6.

Author not available (1999). UK GOVERNMENT: UK moves to safeguard children's rights., M2 PressWIRE.

Children's rights in the UK (Accessed 5-5-2003)

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Immigration Welfare Policy

Words: 1153 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58565067

Immigrant Welfare Policy Summary & Critique

Immigration into the United States has historically come in waves, with the current upward trend beginning in 1965 and gaining steam through the 1980s, to the point where nearly one million immigrants a year, on average, have been admitted to the United States throughout the 1990s and the current decade. any of these newer immigrant gained legal status as U.S. citizens through back or side doors, such as entering the country with a temporary visa and then applying for citizenship, or even seeking citizenship after living as an illegal immigrant for some years. Such side-door entry has had a significant impact not only on the number of immigrants made citizens each year, but also on the ability of these immigrants to adequately provide for themselves and their families without depending on federal assistance.

This has inextricably tied the issue of immigration to that of…… [Read More]

Martin and Midgley (2006) do not really present an argument in their paper, but rather an overview of the current immigration situation. The same is largely true of Currie's article concerning Medicaid (1997). Both of these articles detail the complexities ofteh problems this country is facing, but fail to provide any sense of appropriate direction. Martin and Midgley especially merely detail the trends that have been observed in immigration, without offering any real solutions on how to deal with the ongoing immigration explosion. In suggesting that we could be experiencing a historical immigration peak before dipping into the trough the follows, the authors reaffirm their own conclusions without providing any immediately useful value judgments. The converse, however -- that is, behaving as though this were not a peak but simply a new trend in immigration -- renders the rest of their historical argument moot.

Currie provides somewhat more useful exploration and analysis of the conclusions he draws from his hard data. Yet while clearly suggesting that Medicaid reform is necessary in regards to immigrants, if only to make the program more equitable across regional, familial, and ethnic lines, he fails to note the added costs of medical care for children and other immigrants who are either not eligible for or are not receiving Medicaid benefits. There is a brief mention in the editor's note of emergency costs outstripping preventative care, but more in depth explanations and analyses are needed to make this argument logically viable (which it certainly is).

The shorter articles that comprise this reading deal with specific areas of the immigration aid issue in similarly quantitative ways, while rarely mentioning the qualitative aspects or making recommendations. The logic used is impeccable, but the scant number of real conclusions drawn in these articles does not make this especially impressive. For instance, while Ku (2001) and Capps et al. (2005) respectively note the lower rates of heath insurance amongst immigrants and the lower success rates of immigrant children in the No Child Left Behind Act, neither provides information regarding a response to these issues other than suggesting that reform is necessary. The same is true of Ruby's (2004) article concerning the need to ensure success for children in the early years of formal schooling. Few would argue that things like health insurance and adequate education are less beneficial or necessary to immigrants than they are to U.S. citizens; the questions is who ought to -- and who is wiling to -- pay for these things. This country has always had an interesting relationship with the concept of taxation, and this issue lies at the heart of the matter.
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Employee Safety Health and Welfare

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47190661

" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, nd) Key provisions of the standards include protection in the areas of: (1) access to medical records; (2) notice of privacy practices; (3) limits on uses of personal medical information; (4) prohibition on marketing; (5) strong state laws; (6) confidential communications; and (7) complaints. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, nd)


The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) is a federal law that places standards that are minimum to be met for "most voluntarily established pensions and health plans in private industry to provide protection for individuals in these plans." (U.S. Department of Labor, 2008) the requirements of ERISA include the provision of plan information and fiduciary responsibilities to participants and makes a requirement of establishment of "a grievance and appeals process for participants to get benefits from their plans; and gives participants the…… [Read More]


Employee Retirement Income Security Act - ERISA (2008) U.S. Department of Labor - Health Plans and Benefits. 19 Jan 2008. Online available at http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/health-plans/erisa.htm

Office for Civil Rights - HIPAA (nd) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Online available at http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/bkgrnd.html

Protecting the Privacy of Patient's Health Information (2003) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 14 Apr 2003. Online available at http://www.hhs.gov/news/facts/privacy.html

Public Law 104-191 (1996) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. 104th Congress. Online available at http://aspe.hhs.gov/admnsimp/pl104191.htm
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Social Welfare Policy

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92080395

absolute measure" of poverty is not an accurate measure of policy in the United States. The "absolute measure" is based on the threshold below which any family is unable to meet basic needs for living, or those having not enough income for food, shelter and clothing. The thresholds are generally based on the economy food plan, since it was determined that families spend one third of their after tax income on food, or are adjusted based on changes to the Consumer Price Index. However, this method is not realistic in terms of modern society. The "absolute method" does not account for income such as food stamps, school lunches, or public housing, nor does it account for income expenses such as taxes, child support payments, medical costs, health insurance premiums, or child care. The model for poverty in the United States should be adapted to account for disposable income, and use…… [Read More]

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How Positive and Normative Economics Relates to the US Government

Words: 2078 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17995914


The objective to the success of a specific science is the capability to identify and delineate opinions on 'what is' from 'what ought to happen'. This includes providing a demarcation between positive statements and normative statements. Positive statements deal with 'what is, was or what will be' but the normative statements deals with 'what ought to be' and are based on value judgments regarding what is good or what is bad. The positive conclusions could be considered as those which are extensively applicable throughout the whole world and they are testable whereas the normative instructions are not testable but constitute the basis for formulation of positive statements. Positive statements are for example, when we ask economists to inform us regarding how the price system operates, we are asking them to travel us along the road of positive economics. The following statement…… [Read More]


"Americans on Globalization: A Study of U.S. Public Attitudes." (28 March, 2000) Retrieved from http://www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/Globalization/introduction.html Accessed on 14 May, 2005

Deardorff, Alan V; Stern, Robert M. "An Overview of the Modeling of the Choices and Consequences of U.S. Trade Policy." The University of Michigan. Discussion Paper No: 400. Retrieved from http://www.fordschool.umich.edu/rsie/workingpapers/Papers376-400/r400.pdf Accessed on 14 May, 2005

Economics 104B - Lecture Notes Part III (November 9, 2004) "The Demand Side: Keynesian Economics" Retrieved from Accessed on 14 May, 2005

Higgs, Robert. "Book Review: The Future of U.S. Capitalism." New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://www. the.net/bookreviews/library/0554.shtml Accessed on 14 May, 2005
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Improve People's Welfare 250- 350

Words: 461 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34241642

But during the Bush Administration, great ideological and personal rifts occurred between members of the G8. The U.S. rejected the Kyoto Protocols on emissions, and refused to ratify the treaty. And "in September 2008, Russia's President Medvedev said Moscow did not fear being expelled from the G8 following criticism of its actions in Georgia," when "U.S. officials had said Russia's membership was at stake," in what ultimately emerged as an empty threat ("Profile: G8,' BBC, 2009). The Obama Administration, despite its great popularity, must work to mend these rifts and create consensus. But hostility to the U.S. has grown, as the current worldwide recession is largely seen as being caused by deregulation of the U.S. financial industry. Finally, the G8 meetings have been plagued by security issues as often violent opponents of globalization demonstrate outside of meetings decry the clout of an organization based upon the wealth of its members,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"G8 -- The group of 8." Global Knowledge Contents. April 15, 2009


"Profile: G8." BBC News. August 18, 2008. April 15, 2009.

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United States There Is No

Words: 2727 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28805466

, 2005). At no time is any state obligated to comply with the federal guidelines for federal highway fund eligibility or to give up any sovereign rights established by the Tenth Constitutional Amendment. Furthermore, there is no issue of "withholding" or "withdrawing" any federal funds from states that choose not to comply with federal guidelines pertaining to the drinking age eligibility. Those monies are supplemental to any other federal funds and would not be offered except as an incentive to follow federal recommendations about the minimum drinking age. States do not have to comply if they prefer to lower the drinking age.

Reason # 3 -- Adults Younger than 21 are not as Responsible as Adults over 21

At the age of 18 or 19, most young people lack the fundamental abilities to make good decisions, especially about things such as taking risks and considering all of the consequences of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control (2007) Teen Drivers: Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 22,

2011, from the CDC public website, at:


Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
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Fully Funding Pre K Programs in the State of Alabama

Words: 3535 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89405185

benefit analysis of whether the state of Alabama should fully fund an expanded preschool program. Various arguments for and against this idea are discussed. Arguments for increased funding of the state's prekindergarten program include: improved educational success and achievement; significant reduction of the need for grade retention; improved economic status; better health; less need for welfare; and reduced crime rates. Arguments against are mainly based on the huge initial cost of investment that such a program would require. In the end, various calculations find that the benefits outweigh the costs in the ratio of 2 to 1. Several other comprehensive studies on the topic also support the fact that benefits of fully funded State preschool program would significantly outweigh the costs. Studies, tables and calculations are used to support this claim. The challenges that would be faced in the implementation of such a program are then discussed. In the end…… [Read More]


Aguirre, E., Gleeson, T., Mccutchen, A., Mendiola, L., Schroder, R., Stephenson, M., & Varner, O. (2006). A Cost - Benefit Analysis of Universally Accessible Pre-K Education in Texas. The Bush School of Govt. and Public Service.

Alabam School Readiness Alliance. (2015). Recommendations for the Expansion of First Class Pre-K in Alabama. Alabam School Readiness Alliance.

Alabama Department of Early Childhood Education. (2016). Office of School Readiness Program Guidelines. Alabama Department of Early Childhood Education.

Alabama Early Education Department,. (2016). First Class: Alabama Voluntary Pre-K. Retrieved from http://children.alabama.gov/first-class/
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Governor Peter Shumlin 109 State

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69067828

The fourth allegation is that less than 12% of all Native American children in the state of South Dakota foster care system have experienced physical and/or sexual abuse. The Native American children continue to suffer from this modern-day version of forced assimilation (Ennis,2011).

Governor, I believe you have the power, influence and authority of spearheading the actualization of the proposal to amend the State ecognition Bill that also includes the adoption of the UN Declaration on ights of Indigenous Peoples to protect the Abanaki tribe and other Native tribes. I must once again commend you for signing legislative bills in April 22nd, 2011 that officially recognized two Abenaki Bands; the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk Abenaki Nation and the El Nu Abenaki Tribe. That was a wonderful step towards realizing equality and justice to the Native tribes.

The current living condition on the reservations

Governor, the Office of Minority Health…… [Read More]


Ennis, D (2011)Native children suffer under a modern-day version of forced assimilation  http://vcnaa.com/native/content/view/2154/2/ 

Indian Community Today Media Network (2011). NPR Investigation Reveals How the Foster Care System Steals Indian Children From Their Families and Culture


National relief Council (2006).Living conditions  http://www.nrcprograms.org/site/PageServer?pagename=naa_livingconditions
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United States Has the Highest Rate of

Words: 13726 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23718315

United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.

The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.

Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University


Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.
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Status of Immigration Between Europe and the US

Words: 3105 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81149164

Immigration in Europe

The issue of immigration in Europe has become one of the pressing subject matters especially for governments within the European Union. In contrast to the United States which has experienced immigration for centuries, for Europe this issue is of a recent demographic inclination since the past five decades or so. There are several migrants who make an attempt to move into Europe and settle there. This particular paper will seek to discuss three immigrant groups that form the majority of the immigrants who seek to enter the EU borders. These three immigrant groups include Syrians, Afghans and Eritreans.

Immigrant Groups and their Push and Pull Factors

There are numerous physical, social and economic reasons and factors that play a great role in the reason as to why people migrate to different nations or expanses and these factors can be normally categorized as 'push' and 'pull' factors. In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BBC News. "Why is EU struggling with migrants and asylum? September 2015. Retrieved online from: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-24583286

Collett, Elizabeth. "Immigrant integration in Europe in a time of austerity." Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute, 2011.

Eliott, Sarah. "The push and pull of the world's most dangerous migration route -- what's really behind the flock of thousands to Europe these days?" Politics Inspires, 2015.

Giovagnoli, Mary., Yale, Samantha. "New Study on Immigrant Integration Compares and Ranks the United States, Canada, and Europe" American Immigration Council, 2011.
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Leadership Institution's State Blog 1 Theories and

Words: 3711 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80130111


[Institution's State]

log 1: Theories and Models of Leadership and Management

An organization is a collection of multidimensional components and there are complex equations between all of these components. It encompasses various individuals, business practices, visions, missions, goals, performance standards, an organizational culture, ethical frameworks, hierarchies based on command and control, working methods, management styles along with relevant theories and models and a considerable number of other factors. Different organizations perform their operations under the influence of distinguished and diverse rules, conditions, circumstances, goals and factors (Cherry n.d.). Since the modus operandi and culture associated with every organization are tailored to its requirements, therefore, the models and theories allied with management style of an organization can also be also distinctive, unique and different from what accomplishes favorable outcomes for another organization.

Ibarra and Hansen (2011, p.p.71) reveals a research-based fact that has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better…… [Read More]


1. Kotter, JP (2007), Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail, Harvard Business Review.

2. Studzinski, J (2010), BVO - World class CEOs master the art of listening. Available from <  http://bvo.com/topics/communication-skills-for-leaders/programmes/john-studzinskiworld-class-ceos-master-the-art-of-listening . > [16 July 2012]

3. Ibarra, H, & Hansen, M (2011), 'Are You a Collaborative Leader?' Harvard Business Review [online], 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74.

4. Kent, S (2005, November), Better behavior, PM Network, 19(11), 4+.
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Factors That Prevent Perfectly Competitive Markets in the United States

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28597310

Prevent Competitive Markets in the United States

The United States follows a system of "free market economy" in which most businesses are privately owned and where individual producers and consumers determine the kinds of goods and services produced as well as the prices of such products. Competition is a key factor in market economies as it keeps the prices of products in check, forces the competitors to enhance the efficiency of their production process, and drives the inefficient producers out of the market. However, "perfectly competitive market" is largely a theoretical economic concept which does not exist in any country and most countries, including the U.S., follow a system of mixed economy. In such 'mixed economies,' there are several factors which prevent the existence of a perfectly competitive market and the U.S. is no exception to this rule. In this paper, we shall discuss some of the factors that work…… [Read More]

Bibliography www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77421267

Karier, Thomas. Beyond Competition: The Economics of Mergers and Monopoly Power. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1993.

United States (Economy)" Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Such markets are known as 'oligopolies.'

As long as it is not created specifically to monopolize commerce in interstate trade