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Quiet on the Western Front, by Erich Maria Remarque. Specifically, it will contain a historical analysis of the book, and look at the question: "how and why does World War I have an impact on this novel as it does? "All Quiet on the Western Front" is a war novel that brings the true horrors of war home to the reader in an effort to show the futility of war.
ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT
All Quiet on the Western Front" may be one of the most classic and enduring novels about war, as it relates the story of young, innocent men caught up in the violence and bloody battles of trench warfare at its worst. Many of the young men enlisted so they would not be thought of as cowards, which was a prevalent feeling at the time. The main character, aumer, is one of these men caught…
Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the Western Front. Boston: Little Brown, 1958.
It alls seems useless to them now. Education, wealth, or any other civilian factor has no significance at the front. They have no reference point to imagine a future outside the military or how to assimilate back into society.
The younger soldiers have different experiences from the older ones. The older men usually had prewar families and jobs. They thought of the war as an interruption in the normal cycle of life and that therefore thought that it eventually would end and they would return back to normal. In their past lives, they had real identities and roles to play within society. The younger men such as Paul and his mates were blank slates with no such real identities. They came into the war and the army when they were at the beginning of their adult lives. Still, they have none among their number have any definite answers to Muller's…
Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the Western Front. New York, NY: Fawcett Crest, 1961. Print.
There is no time for unnecessary or frivolous actions, no play time, or joke time, there is only survival time.
But it is not only physically that a soldier must be prepared and act solely for survival, but also mentally as well. A soldier cannot daydream, long for home, reflect on the past, or even lose his concentration for even a split second. hen a soldier loses his focus on survival, he dies. One who exists in the trenches cannot dream of a life after the war, or even their life before the war, while fighting in the trenches, the soldier must exist solely in the trenches, accept his life in the trenches, and deal with it as it is. The soldier has no past, no future, only the present exists, and it is a present where he is in a struggle to survive. Friends, family, home, wives and girlfriends…
Remarque, Erich Maria, and A.W. Wheen. All Quiet on the Western Front. New York:
Fawcett Columbine, 1996. Print.
Somewhere about half of the 70 million men and women serving in the war are killed, wounded, or taken prisoner.
The brutality and horrors of the war are only one of the major themes in the book. It also addresses the alienation of the soldiers. lthough remaining alive to the end of the war, many men return either physically or mentally maimed or both. Spiritually, they are empty shells who can no longer believe in a just world. Remarque comments in the epigraph that his novel is primarily for "a generation of men who, even though they may have escaped the shells, were destroyed by the war."
uthor Erich Maria Remarque was 18 years old when he start fighting in WWI, and like Bomer witnessed the horrors of the battles first hand. He wrote his book in 1928, and it became well-known throughout the world as the first novel that…
Author Erich Maria Remarque was 18 years old when he start fighting in WWI, and like Bomer witnessed the horrors of the battles first hand. He wrote his book in 1928, and it became well-known throughout the world as the first novel that realistically portrayed the actualities of present-day war. Anyone who may think there is something worthwhile about war will quickly change his/her mind. This war, with its new types of weapons of destruction, such as tanks, airplanes, guns, much more accurate artillery and, worst of all, poisonous gas, is living hell. He also criticizes the nationalistic spirit. Through Bomer and the other soldiers, who recognize that their real enemies are not across the trenches, but in high offices in their own country. It comes as no surprise that the men in the battles grow apathetic and non-emotional about the death and decay around them. It is bad enough to fight a war truly worth fighting for, but so much worse when fighting for a nationalistic hoax.
When the Nazis came into power in the 1930s' Remarque's book was banned and he left the country. He said his avowed purpose in writing the novel was "to report on a generation that was destroyed by the war -- even when it escaped the shells." This indeed he did. If he had written such a book, how long would it have taken someone else to fight the strength and emotion to write such a difficult piece of literature. Because of Remarque, millions of people all over the world living at that time and ever since have had the ability to read about what truly takes place during war.
The unfortunate thing, however, is that despite the fact that so many people read his book in the 1930s and called World War I "The War to End all Wars," it was not long before numerous countries across the globe were once more immersed in such a terrible event again. And, even though millions more people have read his book, and others like it, since World War II, too many wars have been fought in the following years. Surely, if Remarque were alive today, he would be very disappointed that his bitter yet true words did not keep the world from declaring war over and over again.
Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet On The Western Front
This novel takes place during World War I, and focuses on the changes inflicted by the war on one young German soldier. This character, Paul Baumer, transforms from something of an innocent youthful figure to more of a hardened and traumatized veteran. As the story progresses, Baumer becomes more isolated and loses ties with his parents, elders, school, and his religion. The things that drove his personality before the war were abandoned later on as Baumer becomes cold and hard. Many of the factors in society that was important before the enlistment no longer seemed as fundamental as they once were.
The environment that Paul experiences undoubtedly drives this transformation when his Company and his fellow soldiers become emerged in the trenches on the front lines. After experiencing the harsh realities of the war immersed in the trenches on the front…
This type of heroism also frequently meant severed limbs and other horrifying injuries that "normal" people shy away from. His function in the novel is one of recruitment, but also as demonstration of the concept dichotomy of the war. Kantorek believes in his vision of the war. However, it is only a vision in the minds of the rich and powerful, who have no idea what the reality of the war entails. Those who are at the battlefront, like Paul, experience a resultant separation from their former, innocent selves.
Paul and his friends were at the brink of their lives as adults, but both their childhood innocence and their adult potential were forcibly removed by the violence of the war. When Paul for example returns home on leave, there is nothing left for him; he has lost all his enthusiasm for books and for writing. Earlier in the novel, when…
Corporal Himmelstoss is also an interesting figure in describing the relationship between authority and subordinates, and the author goes to greater length to create this character rather than the case of the schoolmaster, who has a brief appearance in the beginning of the book. As a noncommissioned training officer, Himmelstoss is the best example of an individual who grows from a subordinate position before the war (he had been a postman) to one where he can actually exercise authority. The power he receives makes him exercise it in a mean manner with Paul and the rest of the young soldiers. The authority does not translate in coordinating the subordinates and in creating the appropriate framework for them to evolve in, but simply in making them as miserable as possible.
This is probably also because authority separates people. As soon as battle starts, the corporal becomes much more humane. The reason…
hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:
At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."
For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…
estern and Muslim Educational Philosophies
The Foundations of Function: Educational Philosophy and Psychology
Meet the Social Realities of ESL Instruction
Education into English as a Second Language (ESL) has become very important in this country, as many people are coming in from non-English speaking countries because they feel that America has much more to offer them. These children are eager to learn, but they often struggle because they do not understand the English language well. Even those that can speak English reasonable well sometimes have difficulties because there are many subtleties in the English language that these ESL students do not understand or even realize. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ESL education that goes on in the estern world, as well as the ESL education that Muslims deal with.
The similarities and differences will be discussed, and Muslims who come to America will also be discussed.…
Bashir-Ali. K. (2003). Teaching Muslim girls in American schools. Social Education.
Cortes, C. (1986). The Education of Language Minority Students. In Beyond Language: Social & Cultural Factors in Schooling Language Minority Students. Los Angeles, California: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, CSU, Los Angeles.
Designing inset programmes for Muslim schools. (2003). INSET. Retrieved at http://www.iberr.org/inset.htm
O'Malley, M. & Valdez-Pierce, L. (1996). Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners. New York: Addison Wesley.
The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald umsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)
In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out'…
Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518
Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004. http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798
Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer
Silvio A. edini's book "The Pope's Elephant," Hanno, the elephant in question manifests the corrupt, cultural and oftentimes ridiculous papacy of the early 1500s under the reign of Pope Leo X (1513-1531). Through the travails of Hanno, edini provides a remarkable insight into the traditions and pageantry of the Vatican in the early 16th century. edini also manages to show the human face of God's appointed representative on earth as well as the cruelty that existed in that period. As Hanno becomes the vehicle to convey the massive accumulation and application of wealth, privilege and power thoroughly enjoyed by Pope Leo and his supporters to the reader, the pachyderm also began to symbolize this excess, becoming part of the concluding chapter of what they termed the Golden Age.
efore tackling this issue, a summary of "The Pope's Elephant" needs to be proffered. edini provides a captivating and insightful study into…
Bedini, Silvio A. (2000) The Pope's Elephant. Penguin USA, Manhattan.
Rowland, Ingrid D. (1999) "Book Reviews: Early Modern Europe" Catholic Historical Review, April 1999. http://www.britannica.com/magazine/print-content_id=237957
Going back to the attempted Northwest Airlines bombing in December 2009 by Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, he was traveling on a multi-year, multiple-entry tourist visa issued to him in June 2008 (Garcia & Wasen, 2010). Thus, he was able to attain his U.S. visa legally even though if one was to look at his background, there will be "red flags" already pertaining to his terrorist leanings. It seems though that the State Department, the embassies, consulates and missions charged with the issuance of various visas to foreigners do not have the resources and capabilities to conduct proper and thorough screening. In this regard then, it is critical to have better systems, processes, and procedures in place that can better vet and investigate foreigners seeking visas to enter the United States. "The Enhanced order Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 aimed to improve the visa issuance process abroad as well…
Crowley, P.J. (2008). "Homeland security and the upcoming transition: What the next administration should do to make us safe at home." Harvard Law & Policy Review, 2: 289-312. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.hlpronline.com/Crowley_HLPR.pdf
Garcia, M.J. & Wasen, R.E. (2010, January 12). "Immigration: Terrorist grounds for exclusion, and removal of aliens." Congressional Research Service (CRS) Report for Congress 7-5700. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL32564.pdf
National security strategy 2010. (2010, May). Retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/national_security_strategy.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2009, May 4). Brief documentary history of the Department of Homeland Security 2001 -- 2008. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/brief_documentary_history_of_dhs_2001_2008.pdf
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
Huns, nomadic people and barbarians (from the Roman point-of-view) coming from the East, may have given the final blow to an empire that was already crumbling. They conquered semi-nomadic nomadic peoples they found on their way moving westwards, settling in territories north and south of Danube, and incorporated them in a new empire.
Attila, the Hun leader, had the merit to unite his people who used to be scattered in different clans and tribes, giving them to opportunity to unite under the same flag and fight like a nation. He was born at the dawn of the fifth century AD, at a ripe time, suitable to question and greatly endanger the Roman supremacy in the Mediterranean world and beyond.
Like other barbarians, the Huns were parasitic people, living off the possessions of those they pillaged and of the tributes the latter agreed to pay in exchange for peace. What the…
Kelly, Christopher. The End of Empire. Attila the Hun & The Fall of Rome. 2009, 2008. W.W. Norton & Company New York London.
Bury, J.B. The Cambridge Medieval History,
452 -- a year after his defeat in Gaul, Attila's army penetrated the Italian Peninsula: "a great many of the inhabitants of the terribly devastated country sought refuge on the unassailable islands of the lagoons along the Adriatic coast. Yet the real foundation of Venice which tradition has connected with the Hunnic invasion can only be traced back to the invasion of the Lombards"(568)(the Cambridge Medieval History, J.B. Bury).
Diamond ars in estern Africa
Throughout estern Africa, the quest for diamonds has taken control of many of people and affected the stability of economic and governmental status throughout the nation. The diamond mines have caused civil wars, which have resulted in many casualties over the years.
Possibly the major cause of the diamond wars is human nature, as it is human nature that sparks the desire to own diamonds. Due to the amount of people who are seeking diamonds and the limited resources of the mineral, the diamond market has become a major source of conflict in estern Africa.
Throughout estern Africa, rebel groups have formed in an effort to gain control over diamond mines in Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The Diamond ars have destroyed these areas, which could potentially become well-developed nations if the conflicts did not exist. hile countries like Botswana and Namibia are using diamonds…
Campbell, Greg. Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World's Most Precious Stones. Westview Press, 2002.
Collier, Paul, "Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and Their Implications for Policy," World Bank. 15 June 2000.
Epstein, Edward Jay, "Have You Ever Tried to Sell a Diamond?" The Atlantic Monthly, February 1982. at: www.theatlantic.com/issues/82feb/8202diamond1.htm
Kerlin, Katherine "Diamonds Aren't Forever: Environmental Degradation and Civil War in the Gem Trade," The Environment Magazine. Sept. 2001.
Saddle a Horse using a Western Saddle
Western-style horseback riding is popular hobby in the United States, where it can be a means of pleasure, athletic competition, or work. In fact, today's cowboys run the gamut from people working on actual working cattle ranches and horse farms to relative novices enjoying the pleasure of a trail ride. What these people have in common is that they are using a Western saddle, which generally has a more padded seat and a saddle horn, for their horseback riding. What they should also have in common, though many equestrians lack this skill, is the ability to saddle their horse. Preparing a horse to be ridden in Western style is a three-part process. The first part of the process is to groom the horse and prepare it for saddling. The second part of the process is to saddle the horse. The third part of…
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…
Avi-Yonah, Michael. 2004. Ancient Scrolls: Introduction to Archaeology. Books&Bagels
Beyerstein, Barry L. 1992. The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology -- the Study of Handwriting Analysis. Prometheus Books
Japanisation in the United Kingdom:
Experiences From the Car Industry
This report aims to analyze and compare the systems of power and control in the Japanese and western automobile manufacturing industries. The method was to use a wide range of theory and to support the analysis. The world has become an extremely competitive global economic battle ground. Automobile manufactures from both the east and the west continue to search for opportunities that will allow them to strategically reduce overhead but not affect market share or profitability. Consider that In the 1990's the solution was to literally cut or reduce the labor force and therefore reduce inherent costs of labor. The buzz words of the time were 'they just laid off X amount ... ', or 'they are downsizing ... ' These terms were regulars on the media circuit or on the front page of the morning's business section. These phrases…
Corbett, Brian (2002). Southern hospitality. Ward's Auto World, August.
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).
Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…
Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De
Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.
Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
"All Quiet on the Western Front" has always been seen as an anti-war novel, but it is also a treatise on the callousness of the modern world.
In the end, Paul dies, and no one even notices. The tanks and guns go on shooting, the wars still go on being fought, and humankind seems lost and pathetic, somehow. The modern world is a world that changes so fast it is hard to keep up and motivations are not always honest or even good. Society has become even more corrupt and corrupted, and death does not matter in the big picture. While "Kidnapped" paints a more positive view of the future, "All Quiet on the Western Front" paints a depressing view of the world that is turning into a modernized fighting machine that no longer cares about humans or humanity.
On the other hand, author Paul Tillich maintains faith cannot be…
Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the Western Front. Trans a.W. Wheen. Boston: Little Brown, 1929.
Stevenson, Robert Lous, and Rhys, Ernest, ed. Kidnapped. New York E.P. Dutton, 1908.
Tillich, Paul. Dynamics of Faith. New York: Harper Perennial, 1958.
The terrifying fear of living with the constant threat of instant annihilation from artillery shells and the soul-shaking noise and thunderous impacts of nearby strikes sent many veterans of trench warfare home with what was then called "shell shock" and which was so severe that some veterans suffered severe lifelong symptoms of what we refer to today as post traumatic stress disorder. emarque also explores the theme of the tendency of trench war survivors to experience survivor's guilt and a general disillusionment with life after witnessing how quickly and easily the lives of so many of their comrades were snuffed out by explosive artillery, often without any trace of their existence besides a fine red mist. emarque also relates the difficulty that returning combat veterans had readapting to the normal peacetime psychological orientation of ordinary civilian life after their wartime experiences.
Meanwhile, Isaac Babel's short story My first Goose relates…
Esposito, V. (1964). A Concise History of World War I. New York: Praeger.
Faragher, J.M. (2006) Out of Many: A History of the American People since 1865.
Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson/Prentice.
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
Quiet on the Western Front
All Quiet on the Western Front is a book written by Erich Maria Remarkque that focuses on something other than the direct human consequences of war. It tells a lesser known story of the indirect costs that war can have on an entire generation of individuals. In the novel, the author describes a cohort of young soldiers begin there adventure with concept of war that includes it being glorious, noble, and exciting. However, as the war progresses, the group begins to see many of the consequences of war that begin to change their paradigm. The group of men experience personal tragedies that include injuries and deaths that occur to close associates. As the story concludes, the group is left with only one member.
The book is set in Germany where a group of young men are first marketed to about joining the military. They were…
This aspect of the war is paralyzing because we see the hopelessness of it all. Kantorek and his ilk will never know what the soldiers deal with on the field and this fact becomes cruel in its own way. They are not iron youth; they are fearful youth with everything in their futures to lose.
The brutality of war goes beyond what a soldier sees and experiences. Eventually, it begins to affect his mind and his heart. Soldiers too long on the battlefield grow hardened toward the war and death. This emerges in the trenches when Baumer says, "Chance makes us indifferent" (101). Life or death hangs in the balance every day for these soldiers and they can only face the unpredictable ways of war with apathy. The destruction of life is no longer shocking in the trenches. hile the still, small human voice in Baumer's head tells him he…
Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the Western Front. New York: Fawcett Crest Books. 1958.
Moral and Philosophical Implications
Well technology has existed with humans from the time they have started moving in the world. At first it was quite simple as the objective of humans was to hunt animals for their daily meals and this was done by both men and women. This is no surprise as God, or whoever put humans into the world probably did not distinguish between the sexes, except for their roles in procreation and continuation of the species. This is now being forgotten by the species and the number of children per pair is falling, and may be that would lead us to a situation where the species would have to be sustained through the test tube. Whether that would improve the quality of the specie one doubts, as is seen through the situation that has now developed in agriculture where the crops have to be sustained with the…
Poison gas was regarded by many as a weak way to fight and anyone who thought of utilizing it was quickly dismissed. "…any power that used poison gas would inevitably be branded as beyond the pale of civilization for all the time and Cochrane's idea was quietly buried." (Stokesbury 94) However the British did use poison gas during orld ar I with some success, albeit at the cost of their advancement in the battle. "In their assault, which coincided with that of the French to the south, the British employed poison gas themselves for the first time. It helped gain some initial successes, though in places it blew back and hampered their own advance." (Stokesbury 95) Other things were also of concern to the British and Germans as their need for new allies became a primary objective. Their desire to generate new alliances was for effort to open up new…
"Dardanelles Campaign." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 22 June 2014. .
Stokesbury, James L. A short history of World War I. New York: Morrow, 1981. Print.
"The Ottoman Empire Enters WWI on the side of the Central Powers." Ottoman Empire enters WWI: 1914. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 June 2014. .
Technology in the Modern Age
Technology's Attempts to Address the Human Need in the Modern and Post-Modern Ages
Literary rouping One: The crisis of World War I and the lie of a technology's ability to sustain the human body and soul
as!" With this one word, Wilfred Owen's poem "Dulce Et Decorum Est" encompasses the sense of failure that many soldiers felt, regarding the promise of technology, throughout the duration of the First World War and during its immediate aftermath. In the previous era of capitalist industrialization, technology was seen, as part of the progressive movement and mechanized progress, as life giving and life-sustaining. However, the lie, in Owen's poem, of the value of technology, runs just as deep as the lie that it is sweet to die for one's country. The innovations of technology simply yield new ways for humanity to destroy other humans, based on arbitrary national groupings.…
Grouping Three: In a technological World, who is the 'I' that is writing this paper?
Samuel Lilley's 1914 text Past, Present and Future stressed the need that those who forget the past will have to repeat the past, until they learn its lessons. He wrote on the eve of war, in 1914, that history was the science of the future. To understand history, he suggested, is to understand humanity. However, this idea has since changed over the course of the 20th century, as science, has become the dominant modality of understanding the human condition and the perceived source of the reasons for the trajectory of humanity's evolution as a species.
The works of the soldiers of the first category of readings created a dichotomy of the 'natural' world of gas-free lungs and butterflies contrasted against the mechanized world of civilization, Latin, and the false glory of war. However, John R. Searle, whom addresses Consciousness as a Biological Problem from a late 20th century and early 21st century perspective implies that such impulses to violence are also natural and hardwired into the human, biological condition that creates the necessary conditions for warfare itself. To understand war, one must understand human biology rather than human history. The brain itself causes a sense of specificity and subjectivity, whether it is having a relationship with a machine, an element of the natural world, or another human being.
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
While each country struggled to repay its debt, England was quicker to do so; this was logical, for not only did it have more manpower, its livelihood faced less demolition than did the physical face of France. Yet, England struggled with its success in paying off its debt; it looked, with great disdain, upon its ever-hated neighbor, still in debt to the nited States. "England thought only of herself," Smith wrote, "and her prestige when she undertook to begin payment of her debt to us - a financial gesture without parallel in history."
While it was clear that Smith was grateful for England's eagerness to repay America, and the American taxpayers by turn, it was also evident that he understood this gesture to be what it was - a political declaration of strength and sovereignty by England, pointed directly at France. Smith perceived a less than subtle snubbing of France…
Until this last war we have never had an opportunity to requite the good turn France did us in our War of Independence. No Englishman can claim that England rendered us help at that time. And France helped us in a peculiarly generous manner which ahs never been fully realized by our people and which we have far not imitated." In that light, the American patriots felt a disarming lack of association with the British; this contrasted starkly with the popular sentiment for the French government, who had come to the aid of America in its time of need.
The letter to the editor that appeared on this day received special status for its intellectual adaptation of civil truths - indebtedness to France, historical barriers with England, and the aftermath of the war as it imprinted not only social and political changes but also new international dimensions. While all of this was important to the editor then, whose dominion placed it directly under the masthead for mass attention, its significance to history is found beneath the meaning and inside the words. Addressing the efforts of France that made American liberty possible, Smith wrote, "She did not so much lend us money as spend it in our behalf." These pronouns, simple as they seemed then, provide understanding now to future generations, shedding light on a time gone by when nations were not just people and states were not just land. They were one and the same, a motherland and fatherland, powerful enough to launch war and fight. In those days, we had a nation, and she was the reason for battle; the right to war was not so cut and dry on economic issues and political theology. The editor of the Times understood that Smith's Letter to the Editor was significant, yielding it not just front-page status on January 24th, but a lasting historical relevance.
Basis for Favoring France." Letter to the Editor. New York Times. December 24, 1924. Page 1. (From PROQUEST Historical Newspapers)
In 1917 ussia suffered two revolutions, which resulted in a drastic change of leadership. Tsarist ussia became Lenin's Soviet ussia and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed shortly thereafter in March 1918 with Germany. The treaty gave Germany much: over a million square millions and 60 million people -- a third of ussia's population -- were annexed. ussia lost railroads, factories, the majority of its coal and iron -- but Germany was in no position to immediately profit from the treaty. The Western Front was calling. ussia gained some peace from the treaty, and could now focus on its internal problems resulting from the recent overthrow and the war effort. Leading up to the treaty, Imperial ussia had suffered devastating casualties and food shortages. The Bolsheviks called for an end to the war on the Eastern Front, and Germany supported this call, allowing Lenin himself to return to…
Grebler, L. (1940). The Cost of the World War to Germany and Austria-Hungary. Yale Keynes, J.M. (1920). The Economic Consequences of the Peace. NY: Harcourt Brace.
Stone, O., Kuznick, P. (2012). The Untold History of the United States. NY: Gallery
The twentieth century had been tumultuous, particularly during the former half, the world witnessing two major world wars, many revolutions and nationalist struggles, each holding a significant bearing on the other. The major events being discussed are -- Chinese Revolution, Russian Revolution, India's independence, World War I and Treaty of Versailles and World War II. Though the events do not chronologically fall in order, each spanning over a few too many years, the developments and undercurrents of one has greatly influenced the other.
Revolution in China began in 1911 with the National Party of China -- Kuo Min Tang -- playing the major role initially. The prime motive of Revolution was to solve the political and economic problems that plagued the Chinese society during the turn of the century --feudalism and semi-feudal patterns of relations in agricultural production, introducing agrarian reforms with modern methods of production,…
Brian McArthur, Penguin Book of Twentieth Century Speeches (London: Penguin Viking, 1992), pp. 234-237.
Roberts, J.M. The Penguin History of the World, The Penguin. Third Edition Helicon Publishing, 1992
Kevin Reilly, Worlds of History: A Comparative Reader: Since 1400, Bedford/St. Martin's; (February 2000)
Mao Tse-Tung, Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung: Vol. I, From: Be Concerned with the Well-Being of the Masses, Pay Attention to Methods of Work --The Concluding speech made by Comrade Mao Tse-tung at the Second National Congress of Workers' and Peasants' Representatives held in Juichin, Kiangsi Province in January 1934. Available at http://www.maoism.org/msw/vol1/mswv1_idx.htm. Accessed on 18.7.2003
Portugal 16th Century to Present
Portugal: 16th Century to Present
Portugal: 16th Century to Present
Portugal is a country a part of the continent of Europe. It is on the western coast of Europe sharing a boundary with Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Portugal's independence and king (now there is a president and a prime minister) received formal recognition since the 12th century AD. The language is Portuguese and the people identify as Portuguese or of the Portuguese epublic (epublica Portuguesa). It is a mostly Catholic country and with mostly female citizens. There are nearly 11 million people living in Portugal according to the Central Intelligence Agency (2012). The capital city is Lisbon and most of the population lives in urban areas rather than rural areas. There are archipelagos, Azores, and Madeira, which are additionally a part of Portugal. The paper will provide insight into the country of Portugal,…
Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). Portugal. Available from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/po.html . 2012 August 01.
Facts About. (2012) Portugal History and Timeline & Facts. Available from: http://www.facts-about.org.uk/history-and-events-timeline-portugal.htm . 2012 August 07.
HistoryWorld. (2012). History of Portugal. Available from: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab46 . 2012 August 04.
Migration Policy Institute. (2002). Portugal Seeks Balance of Emigration, Immigration. Available from: http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=77 . 2012 August 05.
The advent of the First World War brought with it the stark reality of the 'progress' which modern man had made. Mankind found out that despite the eloquence of the enlightenment, and the wonderful advancements made in medicine, education, literature, and the arts that man could still take up arms against his brother, and fight hand to hand if necessary in order to gain a foot of ground, or in retaliation for yesterday's loss of a comrade. The First World War plunged the entire western world into a deep pit, governed by the engines of war, empowered by the newly mechanized assembly line manufacturing of the industrial revolution. Fro all his advancement, and enlightenment, mankind was still closely related to the Romans who burned and conquered peopled under their iron fist, and the Huns where known to destroy everything in their path. Civilized, and enlightened, we still were…
DAYS LIKE THESE 19 MAY 1941. The Independent London, England. 5/19/2003
Brittain, Vera. Testament of Youth. New York: Penguin Books. 1994
Nietzsche's "madman" and the Madness of the First orld ar as viewed "In Flanders's Field" and All Quiet on the estern Front
The essence of the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche is a stated view of human existence where all individuals possessing attributes of excellence or superiority are at odds with their complacent, or intellectually slumbering society. Nietzsche's supposed madman of his famous "Parable" voiced a critique and a prophesy of the world, a world that had killed God, for better or for worse. Yet the world, said the madman, temporarily remained willfully ignorant of this fact and thus the madman's truth remained unheard and deliberately misunderstood by the masses as merely the voice of madness, so spoke Nietzsche in the "Parable of the Madman." (Nietzsche, 1882).
In his parable as well, Nietzsche suggested that such willed acts of individual knowledge and by extension, excellence, in the form of 'killing God,'…
Nietzsche, Friedrich. "The Parable of the Madman." 1882. Retrieved on March 28, 2004 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/nietzsche-madman.html
McCrae, John. "In Flanders Field." Retrieved on March 28, 2004 at http://www.yankeedoodles.net/inflandersfield.htm
These are the best that Germany and the Soviet Union have at the same time and, while this is a known fact in most other history books for Germany, the authors of "When Titans Clashed" show better the importance of great generals for the final victory of Soviet Union as well. A new generation of generals, replacing the ones that had died in the purges of the 1930s, show their talents in all the battles of the Eastern front and, subsequently, in the conquest of erlin. The general acceptance is that these generals could have had even greater success had they not been caught in a political game, where the Commander in Chief, Stalin, was always aware of potential successes that could impact his authority.
The general opinion that the authors seem to share and promote in the book seems to rely on the main idea that, while the Western…
1. Glantz, David; House, Jonathan. When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. University Press of Kansas. February 1998
20. China must consult Japan whenever foreign capital is needed in improving the infrastructure of Fukien Province.
21. China must give Japanese the right to preach in China.
On May Fourth, some 3,000 students from Peking University and other schools gathered together in front of Tiananmen, the Gate of Heavenly Peace that fronts the Forbidden City complex in the center of eijing, and held a demonstration. They were furious at the news that had just come from the Paris Peace Conference. They shouted out such slogans as "Struggle for the sovereignty externally, get rid of the national traitors at home," "Do away with the 'Twenty-One Demands'," "Don't sign the Versailles Treaty." They demanded punishment of such figures as Cao Rulin, Zhang Zongxiang, and Lu Zongyu, who held important posts as diplomats. Despite the fact that China had sent nearly 100,000 soldiers to the Western front to assist the Allies, the…
Answer.com. "Twenty-one Demands." 14 May 2005. .
Buoye, Thomas and Bruce Denton. China: Adapting the Past Confronting the Future. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, 2002.
Chou, Tse-tsung. The May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revolution in Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960.
Elleman, Bruce. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. New York: Routledge, 2001.
Duong Huong's novel entitled Novel without a Name tells the story of one young man's experience during the Vietnam ar. In the United States, most people only know and understand the war from the perspective of the Americans. Similarly, citizens of the United States know and understand the First orld ar only through the perspective of narratives told from this country. Both Novel without a Name and Erich Maria Remarque's novel All Quiet on the estern Front discuss how young men are forced to engage in battle because of the demands of their government. The governments make appeals to the citizens of their country in order to get them to fight and die for the goals of that government. One of the most potent ways that the government gets their young soldiers to perform is by appealing to the nationalism of its citizenry. Each of the mentioned novels uses the…
Hun-ng, and Phan Huy. Duong. Novel without a Name. New York [etc.: Penguin, 1995. Print.
Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the Western Front. New York: Ballantine, 1982. Print.
However, the trenches were often muddy and filled with water, and they were no match for the newly designed tanks that became a standard part of warfare.
This was a very different war than the world had been used to. There were many more inventions, such as airplanes, tanks, and new types of explosives and weapons helped turn both sides into very efficient killing machines, and hundreds of thousands of lives were lost before the war was over. Industrialization also meant that the men fighting could be transported quickly and efficiently from area to area, and they could receive continual supplies, as well. Another historian writes, "A century of industrialization meant that the Germans, French and British could each keep millions of men under arms on the Western Front - clothed, fed and free from lethal epidemic diseases, day and night, all the year round without respite" (Badsey). Thus, World…
Badsey, Stephen. "The Western Front and the Birth of Total War." BBC.uk. 3 March 2003. 12 Jan. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/total_war_01.shtml
Bourne, J.M. Who's Who in World War One. London: Routledge, 2001.
Sheffield, Gary. "The Origins of World War One." BBC.uk. 3 March 2003. 12 Jan. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/origins_01.shtml
Dim through the misty panes and thick green light,/as under a green sea, I saw him drowning./in all my dreams before my helpless sight / He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning./if in some smothering dreams, you too could pace/Behind the wagon that we flung him in,/and watch the white eyes writhing in his face,/His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin,/if you could hear, at every jolt, the blood/Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs/Bitter as the cud / of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, -- / My friend, you would not tell with such high zest/to children ardent for some desperate glory,/the old Lie: Dulce et decorum est / Pro patria mori. (Owen)
This is not how Owen "might" respond to patriotism this is a direct assault upon it. The words of Dali ring true as the toll of war is counted up among the youthful wasted…
Owen, W, Anthem for Doomed Youth, at http://www.englishverse.com/poems/anthem_for_doomed_youth
On Seeing a Piece of Our Artillery Brought into Action, at http://www.poetryconnection.net/poets/Wilfred_Owen/1215
Dulce et Decorum est at http://www.potw.org/archive/potw3.html
Remarque, E.M. (1958). All Quiet on the Western Front. Boston: Little Brown.
This was known as pyrrexhia or trench fever. The first symptoms were shooting pains in the shins and was followed by a very high fever" (Simkin). It was not a deadly disease, but stricken men could not fight. Trench fever affected thousands of soldiers, and so did trench foot.
Trench foot is one of the most common ailments of soldiers in the trenches. Their boots and socks were always wet and muddy, and this led to the condition called trench foot. The feet would become numb and turn red or blue, and in extreme cases, it could lead to gangrene and amputation of the foot. The feet would also swell, fester, and develop sores. Soldiers had to change their socks at least three times a day to control the disease, and after the armies understood how severe is was, soldiers in the trenches received extra socks as part of their…
Bell, Fraser. "The Spirit of Our Time." Queen's Quarterly Spring 2004: 11+.
Cox, Gary. "3 France." Researching World War I: A Handbook. Ed. Robin Higham and Dennis E. Showalter. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003. 51-78.
Duffy, Michael. "Weapons of War: Poison Gas." First World War.com. 2008. 22 Nov. 2008. http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/gas.htm
Grotelueschen, Mark E. Doctrine under Trial: American Artillery Employment in World War I. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…
Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.
Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism
The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…
Balfour Declaration. (1917). Knesset. Retrieved from https://www.knesset.gov.il/lexicon/eng/BalfourDeclaration_eng.htm
Bradberry, B. (2012). The Myth of German Villainy. IN: Authorhouse.
Gilbert, M. (1994). The First World War. NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Lloyd-George, D. (1939). Memoirs of the Peace Conference. CT: Yale University
The Allied leaders all believed that all that the enemy could do at the time had been to wait for them to come. Montgomery and Eisenhower had been positive that the Nazis lacked both the petrol and the men to lead an offensive campaign.
Anyone else could agree with them at the time as it had been known that Hitler had lost most of his resources along with the loss of his allies. Furthermore, the world had been aware that Hitler had lost influence in Germany and that the bombing attempt had also crushed his confidence in his own men.
Nevertheless, Hitler managed to get together an impressive number of soldiers and resources. During the last months of 1944, his army seemed to have recovered and it appeared to be ready to lead an offensive. The Fuhrer knew that this had been his last chance of winning the war because…
Alan Bullok, "Hitler, a Study in Tyranny," Harper & Row, 1962.
Axel Axelrod, "The Complete Idiot's Guide to American History," Alpha books, 2003.
Bruce P. Schoch, "Battle of the Bulge," Merriam Press, 1999.
Patrick Delaforce, "The Battle of the Bulge: Hitler's final gamble," Pearson Education, 2004.
During that time the Allies were exiting Normandy through Saint Lo. In august, when the Allies were in Paris, Hitler was setting his trap, and setting in position his scarce resources to ensure proper backup. The Germans did not count for the success of this operation, with provisions of resources captured from the Allies.
During this culminant attack Hitler guarantied his commanding officers that they would receive a strong support from battle planes. The attack to the airplanes, that was daily terrorizing German cities, would motivate the most reluctant officers of Luftwaffe to support the operation.
The German officers were prepared for a prolonged operation of air defense der Grosse Schlag (the big blow) the air officers planned a force composed by 3.700 air planes, prepared, trained and planned exclusively for defense.
Hitler did not realize that the air force prepared only for air-to-air combat would not be very effective…
Stephen E. 1995. D Day: June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Omar N. 1983. A General's life: An Autobiography by General of the Army. New York: Simon and Schuster Publishing.
Neither side could get an advantage, and both sides lost tremendous amounts of soldiers. In all, the Germans only gained about three miles of territory, and it came at a huge and lengthy cost. It seems that the Battle of Verdun took a long time while accomplishing very little. It also indicates that military leadership can become convinced of a certain line of attack no matter what, and it can lead to ultimate defeat. The Germans hung on too long at Verdun, and could have used their forces more effectively elsewhere. As the author notes, this prolonged and ineffectual offensive showed the Germans they would eventually lose the war (Chickering 71), and at a huge cost in men and machinery. This battle of Verdun on the western front showed the futility of fighting on the west, and allowed other forces to enter and attack from the east. Verdun might have…
Chickering, Roger. Imperial Germany and the Great War: 1914-1918. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
The National Guard, as anticipated by the Constitution's framers, was now a military reserve ready to serve the national interest. The National Guard, while getting large amounts of federal funds and growing in size, continued to struggle to find its true role in military operations and readiness. The natural disasters and civil disorder incidents in which Guardsmen were called to help supported their cause. These included such events as the San Francisco earthquake in 1906; over 21 times" (Smith 1990 P. 11-12).
In Florida, National Guard served the role of preventing the lynching of black, and they maintained order during worker strike in several states. Despite the Dick Act, the National Guard became less favorable before many Americans. Typically, when citizens went into labor strikes across the country and action taken by the undisciplined National Guard against the strikers was very questionable. Typically, National Guard underwent massive massacre of citizens…
Bowman, S. Kapp, L. & Belasco, a. Hurricane Katrina: DOD Disaster Response. CRS Report for Congress.2005.
Doubler, M.D. Listman, J.W., & Goldstein, D.M. "An Illustrated History of America's Citizen-Soldiers the National Guard".. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. 2007.
Doubler. M.D. The Guard Century Series: 1900-1920 Century of Change, Century of Contribution: A Militia Nation Comes of Age. National Guard Association of the United States. 2011.
Coasts, J.A. Base Closure and Realignment: Federal Control over the National Guard. University of Cincinnati Law Review. Vol 75. P 343-370. 2006.
The First World War was neither won nor lost by the air warfare. What this war did for military aircraft design and development was to open up new possibilities of warfare.
It was the promise rather than the actuality of air power which most struck contemporaries. The war had not been decided in the air. Nevertheless, the race for supremacy had produced astonishing developments in a short space of time. The general purpose plane had given way to a sophisticated set of types -- the French Nieuport and Spad, the ritish Camel and the German Fokker, to name but a few fighters. It was grandiose to speak of aircraft factories in 1914, but not by the end of the war. Speed, range, and rate of climb increased, giving advantages first to one side and then the other. (Robbins 101)
The Second World War was to see further and more extensive…
Belloc, Hilaire. The Elements of the Great War. New York: Hearst's International Library Co., 1916.
Bombing During World War. February 20, 2005. I http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Air_Power/WWI_Bombing/AP3.htm
Buchan, John. A History of the Great War. Vol. 2. Boston, MA: Houghton and Mifflin Company, 1922.
Buchan, John. A History of the Great War. Boston, MA: Houghton and Mifflin Company, 1922.
General George S. Patton:
General George Smith Patton who was born in November 11, 1885 is arguably one of the most sophisticated military men in history. General Patton is renowned for possessing pistols with handles made of ivory and for his immoderate manner. His success and popularity is attributed to his tendency to constantly strive in ensuring that his troops obtain training to the highest possible standard of excellence. As a result, his life is an example to many military men in the United States and across the globe because of his dedication and commitment to excellence. Patton's work and success in the military field can be traced back to his childhood when he decided that his main goal in life is to become a hero. Generally, Patton is one of the most brilliant soldiers in the United States who was inspiring, audacious, and unconventional. He is credited for leading…
Bio: True Story. "George Patton Biography." A+E Television Networks, LLC, September 21,
On This Day. "Patton's Career A Brilliant One." The New York Times Company, September 21,
hile the February Revolution ended the reign of the Tsar, the October Revolution solidified the hold and influence of the Bolsheviks. Lenin appealed to popular notions in order to garner support, though what followed the Bolshevik seizure of power was only more civil war between the Reds and the hites. The October Revolution nonetheless ended Tsarist Russia, as it had been known, by setting the course definitively towards a socialist state, in which violence and totalitarianism were key dictates, and the old technique of divide and conquer was used to quell the opposition that was itself full of disunity. Autocratic Russia could not have continued in tsarist form as there were too many forces at work in Russia at the end of the 19th century and early 20th century. The Bolsheviks were too well funded to fail and the will of the tsar was out of favor with the…
Rabinowitch, Alexander. "The October Revolution." Critical Companion to Russian
Wildman, Allan. "The Breakdown of the Imperial Army in 1917." Critical Companion
to Russian History.
). Indeed, when Dix exhibited Der Krieg in Berlin in 1924, he was criticized by the right wing press and eventually when Hitler came into power in 1933, Dix was fired based upon pressure from Hitler's government that contended that his paintings were antimilitary. According to Dix's dismissal letter from the Dresden Academy, his artwork "threatened to sap the will of the German people to defend themselves." To add insult to injury, Hitler's assault upon Dix did not end there. The Nazis also destroyed several of his paintings not long after he was dismissed from the Academy (Id.). Dix, however, did not let this injustice destroy his creative spirit. In 1933, he used oil and tempura on wood to paint The Seven Deadly Sins, an allegorical painting that represented Germany's political situation under Hitler. In this painting, Dix utilized the figure of the lazy Sloth because Dix blamed the German…
Apel, Dora. "Heroes and Whores: the Politics of Gender in Weimar Antiwar
Imagery." The Art Bulletin 79.3 (1997): 366+. Questia. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
Avgikos, Jan. "Max Beckmann and Otto Dix: Neue Galerie." Artforum International Oct.
2005: 275. Questia. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
This knowledge has led this author to ponder the nature of the design trend and the social aspects of architecture, design, and interior decoration.
Terris also used art to comment on social elements with his sculpture, ridge. He built a 40-foot bridge that spanned his backyard and connected his house to his neighbor's house. A bridge is by its very nature a social structure. It joins two separate entities, it brings two opposing sides together, it "eases communication and encourages co-operation...it allows movement in either direction." (the Social ridge, 2006) in building this personal bridge, Terris made a statement that we all need ties to each other to survive.
Terris made yet another social statement in his urinal sculpture, American Standard. He displayed a stack of urinals that overflowed into one another, reminiscent of a tower of champagne glasses at a society wedding. (Webb, 2007) the title American Standard is…
Canadian Architect. Vancouver Architect Builds a Six-Storey Sculpture Through the Centre of the Vancouver Art Gallery. Canadian Architect (April 27, 2009) Retrieved from http://www.canadianarchitect.com/issues/story.aspx ? aid=1000094222.
Canadian Art. Reece Terris: Murphy's Law and Crown Mouldings. Canadian Art. (2009) Canadian Art Online Reviews. Retrieved from http://www.canadian art.ca/online/see-it/2009/03/12/reece-terris
Harris, Michael. One Man's Trash. Vancouver Magazine. (May 2009) Reece Terris.com. Retrieved from
However, human error and responses based on mistakes of interpretation greatly escalated the respective bombing campaigns of Britain and Germany. Specifically, both nations had purposely avoided bombing one another's civilian populations when, on August 24, 1940, several German bombers accidentally bombed residential areas of London (Commager & Miller, 2002). In response, Britain bombed factories and airfields near Berlin; the relative inaccuracy of bombing operations of the era lead Hitler to conclude that those raids were intended as attacks on civilians. He immediately began ordering indiscriminate bombing attacks on London, eventually exposing German civilians to even more intense bombing campaigns by the Allies later in the war (Commager & Miller, 2002). To a certain extent, the exchange of attacks on civilian population centers on both sides was the result of inadvertent misunderstanding of intentions that escalated the horrors of Word War II even further.
The Prospect of Inadvertent Nuclear War:
Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons. New York: Columbia University Press.
Commager, H., Miller, D. (2002). The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager. New York: Bantam
Hayes, C., and Faissler, M. (1999). Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present.
It takes place during the war in 1916, (before America became involved), and it shows the attack by French soldiers of a German position known as the "Ant Hill." The position is on the Western Front, near Verdun in France, and it is a gripping look at the trench warfare tactics of the war. The French soldiers are clearly unready for an attack, but the crazy General makes them attack in spite of their worthiness, because of his own selfish needs and wants. Ultimately, it is no surprise that the attack fails, the men simply were not ready, and some of them will not even leave the trenches because they know it is hopeless. The General is enraged because of this, and he convinces his commander that he must discipline the men because of their "mutiny." He chooses three men to court-martial as an example to the other soldiers.
The Germans defied the principles of war, harming not only their enemy, but themselves and as a result they were finally defeated because of their expenditure of manpower and equipment during this offensive. (Parker, 92)
This battle was different from others fought by the Germans during WWII, in that the weather, the delay and the long battle used so much of the resources of the German Army that, even though they won the battle, they lost the war. Afterward they were never able to recoup their damages or fight the way they had earlier. They lost too much in resources, human and material. This helped bring an early end to the war with Hitler.
This battle was also different from the other battles with the Germans in that most of the casualties occurred during the first three days and was the most bloody battle that American forces experienced in World…
Eggenberger, David. An Encyclopedia of Battles: Accounts of over 1560 Battles from 1479 B.C. To the Present. New York: Dover Publications, 1985.
Parker, Danny S. Battle of the Bulge. New York: Combined Books, 1991.
The latter was skeptical, referring to the device as "a pretty mechanical toy" (Harris 31) but everybody else was favorably impressed and the ar Office continued enthusiastically to support tank development. "Mother" became the basis for the Mark I tank, the first mass-produced tracked armored fighting vehicle in history. The Mark I, powered by two diesel engines, was built in two versions, "male" which mounted four machine guns and two 6-pounder naval guns in protruding barbettes, and "female" which carried machine guns only. The male version was intended as an assault weapon; the female tanks were designed to protect their male counterparts and each other by using machine guns to mow down attacking infantry who might otherwise swamp and overcome the tanks (Harris 31-2). This huge, heavy, lozenge-shaped monster became the pattern for the classic First orld ar tank, through to the Mark VIII of 1918.
The tanks were ready…
Bourne, J.M. Britain and the Great War 1914-1918. London: Edward Arnold, 1989.
Duffy, Michael. "Weapons of War - Tanks." First World War.com: A Multimedia History of World War One. 2002. 20 Nov. 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/tanks.htm .
Harris, J.P. Men, Ideas and Tanks. British Military Thought and Armoured Forces, 1903-1939. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
Reid, Brian Holden. "The Tank: Visions of Future War." History Today Dec. 1987: 36-41.
He considers his nationality an asset and doesn't feel ashamed when British officers try to belittle him. "The English may have seen war, but I have lived with Pa, so I have seen Hell." But it all turns against him when he is accused of murder, rape and crimes he never committed. He is accused without any proof and even the ones he considered his friends side with the accusers. The whole war scene gets even more bleak and darker as Stanhope finds himself among enemies on his own front.
The story turns from depiction of external horrors to delusions of inner world that Stanhope experiences as war progresses. These delusions have a strong bearing on him as begins seeing an imaginary graveyard. The delusions turn even stranger when he notices that he is capable of seeing ghosts of dead soldiers that roam around in the battlefield not knowing they…
Patricia Anthony Flanders, Ace Publishers, 1998
Taking Jeanine Basinger at her word would leave us with far fewer war films than we think we have. Basinger is a 'strict constructionist,' accepting as war films only those that have actual scenes of warfare (Curley and etta, 1992. p. 8; Kinney, 2001, p. 21). That means that the four films that will be considered here, and especially the two orld ar II films, are not war films. By Basinger's yardstick, neither Casablanca nor Notorious, neither Born on the Fourth of July nor Coming Home would qualify as war films.
On the other hand, films such as hite Christmas, a lightweight Bing Crosby-Danny Kaye-Rosemary Clooney-Vera Ellen comedy about the aftermath of war for an old soldier might well be a 'war' movie. The opening scene is one in which the old soldier, Dean Jagger, is reviewing his troops when, somewhere in Italy during the Christmas lull, bombs…
Canby, Vincent. Review/Film; How an All-American Boy Went to War and Lost His Faith. (1989, December 20). Online.
http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?title1=& ; title2=BORN%20ON%20THE%20FOURTH%20OF%20JULY%20%28MOVIE%29& reviewer=Vincent%20Canby& pdate=19891220& v_id=6747& oref=login
Coming Home (1978). Online. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077362/
Dirks, Tim. Casablanca, 2005. Online. www.filmsite.org and www.greatestfilms.org)
Trench Warfare in World War I (WWI)
Trench warfare was used in World War I and they were forced to live in muddy, isolated conditions for months exposed to horrific elements, and inviting diseases like gangrene. During World War I many things changed, as lives were destroyed, dreams shattered, and many soldiers died or suffering immeasurable psychological and physical conditions.
WWI was the first time in history that war involved the use of new technology such as airplanes, tanks and submarines. However, for many WWI soldiers, trench warfare presents the most lasting image of World War I. Trench warfare caused many horrific deaths. In addition, many soldiers who participated in trench warfare had serious psychological and health problems by the time they returned home.
About Trench Warfare
Trench warfare is a type of warfare in which opponents of war "attack, counterattack, and defend from relatively permanent systems of trenches dug…
Baggett, Blaine. (November, 1996). The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century Humanities, PBS.
Beyond Books. (2002). In the Trenches New Forum Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.beyondbooks.com/bbx/login/bb/eur12login.asp?asplreq=http://www.beyondbooks.com/eur12/6c.asp.
Ellis, John. (1989). Eye Deep in Hell: Trench Warfare in World War I. John Hopkins University Press.
Hansen, Ole. (2001). The War in the Trenches. Raintree Publishing Co.
The centralized church, "of circular or polygonal plan, with one large central space, usually with a dome overhead" became more popular in the Middle Ages. First came Romanesque and then Gothic churches, in the form of works such as Notre Dame and the Royal Abbey of Saint Denis ("Church," Encarta, 2009). The new church designs housed a congregation within their center halls and contained high, arching ceilings that seemed to reach upwards to God. They were "roofed with arching sheets of stone, the Romanesque with arches and vaults of semicircular form, the Gothic with pointed elements" ("Church," Encarta, 2009).
However, domes and Greek crosses continue to fascinate church architects: for example, Christopher ren, the designer of St. Paul's Cathedral created "a domed church of great openness designed in a restrained style that combines elements of Neoclassical, Gothic, and Baroque architecture," marrying older and daring conceptions from antiquity with Eastern-style domes…
"Church (building)." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. May 23, 2009.
Lendering, Jona. "Constantinople (Istanbul): Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus." 2008.
Livius.org. 2008. May 23, 2009.
The stench of heat and death was almost unbearable: "We lay there in the mud and retched from the stench of dead animals and watched the rats crawl over us" (Farwell 279). Farwell thus shows profound empathy for ordinary soldiers, forced to fight in a land far away from home under brutal conditions, amongst people they barely understood. Yet despite his willingness to acknowledge the role of Africans fighting the war, he does not seem to extend them the same emotional sympathy. Some of Farwell's more controversial assertions are his idea that in some areas, such as in German-controlled East Africa, colonial domination proved a boon to the natives. "German rule provided African people with new alternatives and a wider range of choices," he questionable asserts, because of the roads, mines, rail roads, new crops, and modern amenities bought to the nation (Farwell 117). He also shows British sympathies at…