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The power of Socrates' technique is that it forces him to investigate many of his centrally held beliefs simultaneously with the person he is communicating; any questions that arise from his audience, or possible objections to his line of reasoning, must be addressed. This capacity is necessarily lacking when it is placed upon paper because any questions or objections that might be evoked in the reader inevitably go unanswered. For example, when Socrates argues, "So one may say this about everything; all other human activities depend on the soul, and those of the soul itself depend on wisdom if they are to be good. According to this argument the beneficial would be wisdom, and we say that virtue is beneficial?" Meno merely replies, "Certainly." (Meno, 89a). The issue here is that readers, viewing this line of reasoning from a differing perspective, could easily raise a number of questions that Socrates,…… [Read More]
He points out that Filmer's essay had been written before Cromwell's victory over Charles I, and that the attitude towards government in general and the monarchy specifically had greatly changed. The way he describes the unique circumstance in England, too, especially in regards to the situation of religion, makes it clear that Locke's thoughts could really only have been possible in a given environment. This notion seems initially repugnant to me; if philosophy is logical, as it is purported or even required to be, then what is true in one situation ought to be just as true in another. What Russell seems to be suggesting in his description of how Locke's thoughts arose, however, is hat there is no such thing as eternal truth or even eternal or consistent logic -- that extrinsic realities will and do and even must affect internal reasoning.
I would have liked to see Russell…… [Read More]
Our key clue in this passage is the reference to Dionysia, the festival in honor of Dionysus, God of Wine and Pleasure. Instead of philosophical study, this festival is held in the Spring for 6 days of plays, tragedies, feats, and wine. Dionysus, as the inspirer of madness and ecstasy, is hardly a recommendation for a true philosopher/king' instead, the preoccupation focuses on the sensualist who, in their own type of wisdom, has but two positions -- on and charming, or off and degrading (Dalby, 2005).
Knowledge, on the other hand, is necessary for any action to become more than that action alone. Ignorance turns away from knowledge; opinion is express of knowledge based on cultural truths or undocumented hearsay. Opinion, though, attempts to conceal fact being mere stories or boast, rather than considered introspective thought. The dream state is falsehood, inspired by emotion and the idea of greed and…… [Read More]
An Analysis of Eastern Influence in Western Art
The American/English poet T.S. Eliot references the Upanishad in his most famous poem "The Wasteland," a work that essentially chronicles the break-up of Western civilization and looks to Eastern philosophy for a kind of crutch in the wake of the abandonment of Western philosophy. Since then, Westerners, whether in literature or in film, have continued to look to the East for inspiration and representation of virtuous or right living. Hollywood, for example, has for decades been borrowing themes and narratives from Hong Kong cinema, whether in the works of artin Scorsese, Quentin Tarantino, or the Wachowski Brothers. This paper will look at the ways Eastern philosophy has influenced the West in terms of culture -- primarily through the medium of literature and film and the avenue of spirituality.
The Spirit of the East: Karma
Karma may be defined as the cycle…… [Read More]
While there is plenty to criticize in the work of Descartes, Locke, and Hume, one cannot justifiably claim that Jose Vasconcelos criticisms of traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge apply to these theorists if only because Vasconcelos' criticisms do not really apply to anything, as his criticisms are largely based on straw men. This is not to say that traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge should be free from criticism, but rather that the problems with these traditional views are more fundamental than Vasconcelos realizes, to the point that Vasconcelos suffers from many of these same issues. Essentially, both Vasconcelos and the previously mentioned authors suffer from a simply ignorance regarding the functioning of the human brain, the nature of consciousness and memory, and the evolutionary processes by which organisms and ideas evolve, with this ignorance born out of an implicit or explicit maintenance of…… [Read More]
The Prevalence of Homosexuality in Ancient Greek Society and Mythology
In any study of Western Culture, there are certain elements which must be addressed to fully understand the development of said culture over time. Among the early cultures that have had a significant impact on this development is that of Ancient Greece. Western philosophy, science, and art are all infused with ideas and innovations which began in Greek culture. In the world of architecture, for example, the Greeks revolutionized the use of cement and arches, bringing about a new era in building design. Scientifically, the contributions of such great men as Archamedes and Pythagorus are used as the basis for much of our modern mathematics and technology. Great thinkers of the day such as Plato and Socrates are considered to be among the greatest philosophers of all time, and they are used as a reference point for many…… [Read More]
Unlike Plato, Machiavelli had a much less idealistic view of leadership in mind. or, rather, his view of leadership was not wrapped up in a personal view of ethics and virtue. Plato obviously believed, after all, that the best leader would be the wisest and the most moral. It was these qualities that should be encouraged and these qualities that would make said individual a superior leader. Machiavelli argued implicitly that this was an erroneous understanding of human nature and the characteristics that constitute excellent leaders. At the heart of Machiavelli's description of the perfect leader, his idealized prince, is the argument that personal virtue and ethics are completely unrelated to public success (Kemerling). Hence, from this we see that the good leader will not necessarily be the same as the virtuous individual. This assertion stands in stark contrast to Plato's argument about the nature of leadership and highlights the…… [Read More]
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]
Western Ethical Theories
The objective of this work is to examine Western Ethical theories including teleological, deontological, natural law, and interest view and virtue ethics.
The work of Bennett-Woods (2005) states that while the words 'ethics' and 'morality' are "often used interchangeably, morality is more precisely used to refer to the customs, principles of conduct and moral codes of an individual, group or society." Ethics, is also stated to be termed "moral philosophy of the science of morals" and is the branch of philosophy that examines "morality through the critical examination of right and wrong in human action." (Bennett-Woods, 2005)
The study of ethics is generally characterized into three specific domains of study include those of: (1) metaethics which is related to the nature of right and wrong insofar as the where and how of the original of ethical judgments and what these judgments mean regarding the human nature and…… [Read More]
In his discourse, The Republic, Plato describes the "ideal state" as composed of three social classes: the merchant class, military class, and philosopher-kings. The merchant class maintains and provides service to the society by safeguarding the people's economic activities, while the military class provides the society's security needs. However, in order to establish a stable society, the class of philosopher-kings must govern, having the knowledge, skills, and talent to govern and lead over the society politically. Moreover, the philosopher-king is appropriate for the role of a political leader because he (Plato assigns the role to men) possesses virtues of temperance, courage, wisdom, and justice. These three classes provide balance in the society in terms of the security, prosperity, and leadership, thereby establishing what Plato calls the "ideal state."
Aristotle's philosophy on happiness and the good life is illustrated in his discourse, the Nicomachean Ethics, wherein he posits that in…… [Read More]
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]
Philosophy and Psychology of the Mind and Body
Throughout human history, philosophers, doctors, and most recently, psychologists, have attempted to understand the relationship between the mind and body and how it results in human beings' awareness and perception of reality. At least since the golden age of Greek philosophy, thinkers have been aware of an ostensible distinction between the mind and body, a distinction that nonetheless allows for some intermingling such that physical issues affect the mental state just as mental issues may result in physical symptoms. Thus, if one desires to truly understand how contemporary estern psychologists and philosophers consider the nature of consciousness via the interaction between mind and body, one must trace the history of these concepts starting with the Greek philosophers, moving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and on to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when psychology first began to develop as a formal…… [Read More]
Jacques Derrida has been accused of writing in a deliberately obtuse and obfuscated manner, so the relationship between his work and that of Plato's might not be immediately discernible. Perhaps the clearest connection between the two can be derived from Derrida's of Grammatology, especially as it compares to Plato's aesthetics and view of reality. In this rather dense treatise, Derrida first outlines the phenomenon of what he calls logocentrism -- the attitude that speech (logos in Greek) is the most basic and essential form of language, while writing is secondary in development and its ability to reflect meaning. Derrida claims that logocentrism has long been a silent and foundational part of Western thought, even from the time of Plato.
Plato believed that truth and meaning existed in a pure state somewhere, with the shadows of meanings existing in our own world. Derrida sees this as a flawed worldview, though not…… [Read More]
Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.
Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…… [Read More]
His floating away at the end of the movie seems to suggest that he is indeed dead, and that the film has been the final moments of his brain creating illusory perceptions. The fact that this is not explicitly decided reveals the film's perspective that this doesn't really mater -- perception is the method we use to interact with "reality;" the realizations that Wiley comes to and the knowledge he receives is not mad any less valid or important by the fact that none of the encounters he experiences might actually have happened.
The fact that we have such strong intellectual and emotional responses to fictive films is an indicator that perception, to a large degree, creates reality. The nature of truth is also explored in the documentary Standard Operating Procedure. The main philosophical issue in this film is how the framing of an event can affect truth, or at…… [Read More]
Western Art and Christianity
During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.
The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…… [Read More]
Further Consideration of the Issues:
Actually, Singer's use of the term absolute affluence is not perfectly analogous (because the corresponding analog to the conditions of absolute poverty are those of extravagant wealth not working class wealth), but the idea itself is still valid just the same. The point is simply that once human society in part of the world reached the point where even most of those considered "poor" receive adequate nutrition, shelter, and the most basic emergency medical care (etc.), a moral duty arises whereby helping the less fortunate should be more important than self-centered concerns about increasing one's wealth relative to others in the manner that different levels of affluence are defined in wealthier nations.
It is important that Singer acknowledges the difference between ideals that people should uphold and ideals that people must uphold, because it is likely impossible to establish a logical justification for compelled charity,…… [Read More]
As one of the dominant types of business organization that developed in the age of modernism, corporations allowed the public and individuals to actively participate, and in part own, shares on the profits of a particular business through the corporation. The emergence of corporations reflected the increasing complexity of business organizing in the age of modernism, wherein more merchandise is produced, hence necessitating more capital to produce these merchandise, which are then generated through investments given by the public or specific business-minded individuals. Along with the development of corporations, there has also been an increase in marketing strategies wherein surplus products are produced and marketed through different strategies, among which advertising is considered as the most effective and dominant. Initially, advertising and marketing was just formulated to distribute surplus products manufactured by companies, until surplus production became the norm in the manufacturing business, and marketing and advertising imperative strategies for…… [Read More]
The company reports that it expects more than 2 million Jiffy Lube customers to receive a direct mail postcard featuring a mail-in offer for two free movie tickets with the purchase of a Jiffy Lube Signature Service oil change using Pennzoil or Quaker State® SUV/minivan, high mileage vehicle or synthetic motor oil; the company also notes the direct mail postcard will also include a $5 off instant coupon and will be honored at participating Jiffy Lube service centers through mid-August 2005. According to the press release, the company's director of marketing stated: "Jiffy Lube is targeting customers that our internal research has identified as the most likely candidates for a specialty oil change. The movie offer is perfectly timed because the summer is synonymous with road trips and blockbuster movies" (Jiffy Lube Rolls Out Red Carpet for Summer Promotions 2).
Management Team Composition.
According to Sims (2002), the hierarchy of…… [Read More]
Imperialism also became a key source of power for European nations. Colonial landholdings by the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch strengthened those nations politically and economically. Power could be substantiated by nationalistic propaganda. After 1870, the balance of power in Europe changed to accommodate for the emergence of two newly unified nations: Germany and Italy. The strategic alliances forged between various nation-states in Europe and the corruption that ensued led to the First and Second World Wars. Those wars in turn altered the balance of power throughout the world, allowing the United States to emerge as a superpower. Thus, nation-states in power, which are headed by elite and powerful social groups, help determine the course of history. Power is influence over a specific geographic region and can possibly translate to power globally.
4. Known as the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismark helped unified Germany and effectively consolidated power in a…… [Read More]
The Church also viewed exploration and territorial expansion as a means to spread the doctrine and power of the Church.
3.) Describe the difference between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot.
The differences between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot are largely superficial. Both legitimate their power through hereditary lineage and both rule without political opposition or a balance of powers. both are autocrats. No constitution or set of laws are in place to keep the powers of either ruler in check. Both rely on some external sources of support, and it is primarily in those external sources that the absolute monarch and the enlightened despot differ. The enlightened despot is less closely connected to the Church. His political philosophy is heavily influenced by Enlightenment values. Thus, the enlightened monarch supports basic tenets like scientific exploration and a greater degree of social and religious tolerance than the absolute…… [Read More]
Moreover, the empire was politically as well as geographically fragmented. Macedonian rule was tolerated only as long as Alexander remained alive.
3. The reasons civilizations developed with particular robustness in the Near East can be narrowed down to geography and the migratory patterns of early humans. Known as the Fertile Crescent, the Eastern Mediterranean offered arable land complete with a plethora of indigenous flora and fauna for domestication and cultivation. Moreover, animal domestication flourished in the Near East. Agriculture and animal husbandry necessitated the rise of early cities, whereas in less fertile regions hunting and gathering remained more productive means to procure food. Early humans, traveling from the African subcontinent, naturally found the Fertile Crescent a suitable place for developing permanent settlements. As disparate groups settled throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, geography also permitted the ready trade of goods, people, and ideas. The sea and a location close to East Asia…… [Read More]
Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…… [Read More]
Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Consequently, for much of human history they have been viewed as being analogous avenues to gaining knowledge of the world, merely attacked from different directions; science must eventually prove with reason what is already accepted upon faith. However, a number of scientific observations and interpretations have come into direct conflict with established doctrines of the Western, Christian Church. These scientific theories have caused many to question the validity of their faith, and many others to question the validity of science. Usually, the conflicts originate from formalized interpretations of Christianity rather than upon the fundamental basis of faith. In other words, science can neither prove nor disprove the…… [Read More]
In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This theory of evolution enforced the idea of competition and the concept of survival, concepts that became more relevant to societies as they became immersed in the industrialized economy and the eventual dominance of the capitalist economy, which is motivated also by the spirit of competition and 'survival of the fittest.'
The Victorian ethos was created and developed in the context of the emerging industrialization of economies in the 19th century. The Victorian ethos held that society is in progress, and that…… [Read More]
The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.
King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.
One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…… [Read More]
Christy Turlington explains to Elle magazine... "Advertising is so manipulative," she says. "There's not one picture in magazines today that's not airbrushed."… "It's funny," Turlington continues. "hen women see pictures of models in fashion magazines and say, 'I can never look like that,' what they don't realize is that no one can look that good without the help of a computer." (Hilary 13)
That's right, the beautiful Turlington, a woman that can be said as fitting the standard ideal of American beauty, admits that it is unachievable even for her. hy? Because even she admits that she has been touched up. In a similar exercise, we can only imagine the remarkable steadfastness this act must have taken, but it shows that there is a realization that this American image is unattainable (Domar 23).
The Trouble with Persisting Ideas
Even if the mechanism behind the spread and adoption of ideas is…… [Read More]
" Photography may not, as Susan Sontag has claimed, symbolically reduce its subjects to "corpses,"
It should also be pointed out this is to often not a specifically intentional attempt at disguise, but rather forms part of the cultural views and milieu of the time. This becomes evident if we take an cursory look at some of the photographers of the period.
Frances enjamin Johnston's Hampton Album was possibly one of the first photographic attempts to document and 'explain' in images the concept and reality of the American dream. Her work particularly relates to the above problems: the question of the other or minorities in the nation. Johnson created her images at Virginia's Hampton Institute in November and December 1899. This was an institution which was concerned with the education and training of lack people.
Many of the aspects relating to nations building and the American…… [Read More]
As the roles and functions of religions and their leaders changed according to the changing needs of the communities they served, they provided both stability in times of change as well as the leadership to effect changes as necessary.
Of the three theorists, Marx appears to include the most negative elements in his considerations of religion. It must also be noted however that Marx places more focus on elements other than religion, whereas the other two theorists study religion in itself as it connects with society and its needs. Marx instead viewed religion as one of the elements that could be detrimental in effecting social change when necessary. Durkheim in turn places greater emphasis on the spiritual and esoteric quality of religion than the others, but nevertheless also places it within the context of a society that creates their gods as reflections of themselves. Weber is the most practical of…… [Read More]
I am doing this now as I type this sentence. I find that when I type I am not thinking where the letters are on the keyboard or how even my brain is sending the messages from the thoughts to my fingers then the keys and to eventually wind up on the monitor. In fact, when I do stop to think about it I find myself fumbling for the keys and the process is unable to flow smoothly with the act. This thinking about it is committing the error of overdoing that was quoted earlier.
What Western culture calls "second nature" such as typing, walking, driving a car, etc., are all high level orders of activity. These also represent times when the doer of the action is at one with the act and flowing with it, effortlessly, not thinking about it but simply doing it or being one with it.…… [Read More]
In the introduction to the Greenwood series the Great Cultural Eras of the Western World, A.D. 500 to 1300, is described as the Middle Ages.
"Borders and peoples were never quiescent during these tumultuous times." Schulman (2002). Germanic tribes had invaded and settled in the former oman Empire, and the synthesis of three cultures -- the classical, Christian, and Germanic -- had begun. In the sixth century, Clovis had completed the Frankish conquest of Gaul; the Vandals controlled North Africa; the Visigoths, forced to retreat from southern Gaul by the Franks, continued to dominate Spain; and the Angles and Saxons had settled in Britain. At the same time, the emperors of the Eastern Empire, Constantinople, thrived. " ... The oman papacy began to play an independent role in European society." Schulman, (2002) says "Pepin needed papal support to become king. Schulman, (2002, p. viii) It is later commented…… [Read More]
Descartes Mechanical Philosophy and Leibniz reaction to it. It has 7 sources.
ubstance and form
There must be something out of which change takes place." Aristotle thinks that this "out of which" is what we call matter. For Aristotle everything is composed of form and matter. Consider the example of a statue of a doll made of lump of clay, the clay is what Aristotle calls the matter and the shape of doll that it has is called its form. The result is a compound object made of matter and form, the statue of a doll. till Form and matter are not sufficient to explain change; the statue was first made of clay, which was not first a statue. The contrast between the opposite is not between the statue and the clay [Aristotle, The Physics, 2003]. The contrast is between the non-statues, the lump of clay and the statue. In…… [Read More]
A philosopher makes "logoi," discusses, and cross examines about virtue, is short of wisdom, and is aware of it. However, in as much as one is a philosopher, one desires wisdom and searches for it. In historical Greek, this notion is virtually a tautology, prompting Socrates to hold that the wise no longer philosophize. Socrates believes that philosophy is gathering knowledge; however, going by valid evidence, philosophy is the process of acquiring knowledge (Reeve 899).
Socrates is viewed as inventing another mission for philosophy because of the manner in which he practiced it. He thinks that he is acting in line with divine wishes. His reiteration that he is acting under divine orders qualifies him as a prophet. Divine orders are not philosophical knowledge to be debated and modified. It calls for unquestionable loyalty and demand direct honor to command. At this point, if Socrates is not a prophet then…… [Read More]
Philosophy is an extensive branch of knowledge that deals with the notions of reality and existence with a solid correlation to wisdom. Therefore, education philosophy is an applied field of specification dealing with conventional development of educative standards, for example, from ethics. For years, the development of education has undergone several transitions from fields of concern and especially through theoretical pedagogic philosophies. These theories and philosophies have had a significant implication towards shaping normative education philosophies and personal beliefs towards education nowadays. This context draws attention to two philosophers whose substantial efforts in improving education depended greatly on their contributions; Socrates and Plato.
Socrates was an ancient educator, termed as the father of Western philosophy. Although he was a controversial philosopher, his tactics and wise sayings concerning life were always acknowledged. He developed several philosophies concerning education. Under them, he asserted the importance of self-education based…… [Read More]
Nietzsche's ideas center on the will-to-power to escape the triviality of the society. Nietzsche argued against the "slave mentality" that permeates society causing the people to live lives devoid of joy and grandeur (ibid).
Phenomenology, on the other hand, focuses on the "essential structures found within the stream of conscious experience -- the stream of phenomena -- as these structures manifest themselves independently of the assumptions and presuppositions of science" (faxed material, date, p. 174).
Edmund Husserl, who is considered as the first great phenomenologist, developed transcendental phenomenology which very purpose is to investigate the phenomena of the world without making assumptions. This requires the exclusion of one's presupposition about the existence of the external, physical, and objective world. Phenomenology's end is to be able to describe the conscious experiences of human's "lifeworld" (ibid).
Heidegger, having heard Husserl's call for a need to develop a philosophical system which understands…… [Read More]
" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)
One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…… [Read More]
Instead, he challenges the reliability of the person who claims knowledge, by asking him for a definition that would hold for all circumstances. The point is not to ascertain whether he is right in this case, but to see whether his claim could hold for every case. This is close to the skeptical issue, but deceptively so."(Benson, 87) in the Socratic view therefore, knowledge is perceived as the greatest possible virtue of the soul. Thus, it is through knowledge that a person may distinguish between right and wrong and thus act virtuously. The process of attaining knowledge is nevertheless an arduous one, not being easily available to its seekers. The role of philosophy is thus central to the proper functioning of the human society since it is comparable to the practice midwifery in that it helps to deliver man from perplexity and allow truth to be born in the mind.…… [Read More]
Skepticism in Philosophy: Descartes, Chisholm, and Moore's Proof of an External orld
Skepticism is a basic part of the estern philosophical tradition. It posits, at its simplest level, that human beings can never arrive at any certain knowledge about the world nor can objective truth ever be ascertained (Hooker, par. 1). hile skepticism has a long history in estern civilization, its development took a crucial turn when Rene Descartes turned himself to the question of how we can know anything. Modern skepticism is a derivation of Descartes' examination of the nature of knowledge and man's relationship to it. However, Descartes has not been accepted without question. There are many philosophers who refuse to accept the basic tenets of skepticism, including the inability for anyone to possess objective knowledge of the external world. The skeptics claim that we know significantly less about the world than we presume to know (Steup par.…… [Read More]
Progress of History: Hegel, Nietzsche and Heidegger
For Hegel, the idea of the progress of history was tied to his immersion in the world of Enlightenment and Romantic writers and thinkers. He lived at a time when the French Revolution occurred and reshaped the direction of history. The Revolution expressed and institutionalized new ideas about Reason (literally deified by the Revolution) as well as socio-political philosophy regarding fraternity, equality and liberty. Hegel came to maturity during this era and for him, philosophy consisted of a clash of forces -- and the old world concept of philosophy (the love of knowledge/wisdom) was what Hegel sought to transform in The Phenomenology of Spirit, as he clearly states in the book's Preface: "To help to bring philosophy nearer to the form of science -- that goal where it can lay aside the name of love of knowledge and be actual knowledge -- that…… [Read More]
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd: His Work and Philosophy
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd (1126-1198 C.E), also known as Averroes, is regarded by many as one of the foremost Islamic philosophers and a pivotal figure in the history of Andalusian philosophy. He is also deemed an important figure in the history of Western philosophy. An important contribution to Islamic culture and philosophy was his defense of Greek philosophy in the Islamic world as well as his emphasis on the philosophy of Aristotle. Ibn Rushd is credited with the introduction of "rationalism" into Islamic philosophy.
A as Etienne Gilson has written in his Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, Rationalism was born in Spain in the mind of an Arabian philosopher, as a conscious reaction against the theologism of the Arabian divines, by whom he means the Ash'arite Mutakallimun. (Fakhry)
In global terms it has been asserted that not only…… [Read More]
Arthur Schopenhauer and Free Will - Philosophy
Arthur Schopenhauer's concept of free will is built on Georg Hegel's concept of the "thing in itself." For Schopenhauer, the will is noumena, the part of the world that exists regardless of whether or not it is perceived by humans. In fact, Schopenhauer believes that the will is not "at all affected by life and death." An individual person's life is phenomenal, perceived by the senses. All life exists as the mirror of the will, the way a shadow exists for a body.
Everything an individual does or thinks, all a person's experiences, are but a corporeal manifestation of this Will. Schopenhauer posits that the will is the human form assumed by an inner nature universal to all beings in space and time. More than an individual representation, Schopenhauer thus believes that the Will is an inner reality common to all individuals. The…… [Read More]
estern Civilization latest edition / internet Emmanuel Kant,"The idea a Universal History Cosmopolitan Intent" 1. Describe Kant's conception history? According " motor" history 2. According Kant, end ( goal highest point) history? 3.
Immanuel Kant believed that nature plays an important role in history and that it is largely responsible for providing people with the abilities required for them to make and record history. Nature apparently has a secret plan to create a social order that functions perfectly and it is only in this society that people can make full use of their capabilities, as they have struggled across time to accumulate the information they need in order to improve their condition. Kant emphasized that nature holds great power over people and that even though it is difficult for society to understand this, people are actually working in agreement with a greater plan -- one that they are not directly…… [Read More]
philosophy of life can be thought of as an attitude or theory that helps to define our actions. A number of factors influence individual philosophies, with gender being one of the most important. In particular, common stereotypes of gender result in many men begin unfamiliar and uncomfortable with the personal insights needed to develop a philosophy of life, while most women are encouraged to develop such insights. Personally, the need to seek and find joy in life is an important component of a philosophy of life. Taken together with an understanding to "first, do no harm," such a philosophy can be a great aid to a fulfilling life.
A number of factors can influence an individual's philosophy of life, including our gender, nationality, race, ethnic background, religion, politics, profession, and education. In my life, some of these factors have played an especially important role in molding personal philosophy.
Based on…… [Read More]
The word means "snuffed out" in the way a fire is snuffed out or extinguished. At this point, the self no longer exists. It is not folded into a higher reality nor it is transported to a land of bliss, it simply ceases to exist. This is the state that the Buddha passed into at his death.
Buddhism centrally concerns the problem of the eternal birth and rebirth of the human soul (reincarnation). Buddhism in its original form does not posit some transcendent alternative as a goal. In fact, Buddhism in its original form held that the soul actually died when the body died.
A large part of the program prescribed by Buddha involved selflessness in the world. Buddhism represents one of the most humane and advanced moral systems in the ancient world. The first steps on the road to Nirvana were to focus one's actions on doing good to…… [Read More]
He who would attack that state from the outside must have the utmost caution; as long as the prince resides there it can only be wrested from him with the greatest difficulty. (Chapter III)
So, then one must be present and able to seek ambitious gains and if he is not both these things difficulty and likely failure will arise and greater losses that what is gained can be realized. In this goal the Prince appropriately governs the people and thus a civil society is created.
Within Thomas Hobbes, there is a sense of knowing that defines the nature of man, as one that is comprised of five senses and all beyond that must be learned and improved upon by appropriate seeking of knowledge. (Leviathan, Chapters I-XVI) His discussion of state is the determination of a civil society, designed and created to determine the end of warfare and therefore instability…… [Read More]
Also, these concepts emphasize the limits associated with the American peoples, as by being as realistic as they possibly could be they made it possible for viewers to accept that a estern did not necessarily have to involve a heroic cowboy running off into the sunset consequent to killing the bad guys and saving the damsels in distress.
These films were all about presenting American values as realistically as possible with the purpose of influencing viewers to accept that there is actually much more to the American culture than one might be inclined to believe.
Campbell, Jeff, "USA 5th Edition," (Lonely Planet, 01.03.2008)
"3:10 to Yuma," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the Reel Gouda ebsite: http://thereelgouda.blogspot.ie/2007/09/310-to-yuma.html
"Yippie ki-yay! The western's not ridden off into the sunset yet," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the Guardian ebsite: http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2007/oct/29/willlawrencemonampic
Karnick, S.T. "3:10 to Yuma: Review," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the…… [Read More]
estern films, "Shane," made in 1953 and directed by George Stevens, and "Unforgiven," made in 1992 and directed by Clint Eastwood. Specifically, it will analyze the two films, and discuss their importance in the genre of estern films. Today, the classic estern is a film gone out of style, but these two films live on as classics, generally because they deviate from the classic estern model, by showing the characters three dimensionally, and the violence as real and devastating.
TO ESTERN FILMS
"Shane" does not rely on elaborate sets and costuming to get its message across to viewers. One reviewer called the sets "spartan" and the language of the film "laconic." The characters of this estern make the film the classic that it has become. Shane is a man of few words, but much action, and he firmly stands behind his beliefs. From the opening scene, when he rides down…… [Read More]
What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…… [Read More]
However, other times, a business vision that may seem to be a good idea initially will prove to be unwise once one conducts a more formal analysis of all of the relevant variables and considerations involved.
I learned how important it is to maintain effective communications across a broad spectrum of communications media. Today, a business person must be able to multi-task and to conduct and effectively integrate numerous different types of communications effectively and efficiently. In that respect, I also learned that there are specific issues, considerations, and potential complications associated with every different type of communications medium. Sometimes the technical element of the medium present issues that can undermine the efficiency of operations; other times, it is the interpersonal elements of specific types of communications media that introduce potential problems and complications. An example of the former would be technical issues that interfere with plans to conduct meetings…… [Read More]
estern and Muslim Educational Philosophies
The Foundations of Function: Educational Philosophy and Psychology
Meet the Social Realities of ESL Instruction
Education into English as a Second Language (ESL) has become very important in this country, as many people are coming in from non-English speaking countries because they feel that America has much more to offer them. These children are eager to learn, but they often struggle because they do not understand the English language well. Even those that can speak English reasonable well sometimes have difficulties because there are many subtleties in the English language that these ESL students do not understand or even realize. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ESL education that goes on in the estern world, as well as the ESL education that Muslims deal with.
The similarities and differences will be discussed, and Muslims who come to America will also be discussed.…… [Read More]
estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.
Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.
The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…… [Read More]
The general problem of the social assistance concept is the eligibility issue. Conditions are very restrictive, and so they should. Too much benefits would lead people into thinking that the Government will provide for them, at the expense of others, which is not what politicians desire (maybe communist rulers do, but this is not the object of this paper). On the other hand, few benefits or no benefits at all would mean that the purpose of the program - i.e. social protection - is not achievable.
One other aspect of the way U.S. citizens (and people from other countries, for that matter) look at the social assistance programs is the stigmatization such a program brings to an individual. No one likes to admit that he/she is in desperate need of help, so people are reluctant to apply. Perhaps some media campaigns against that perception would make a difference.
Another method…… [Read More]
The role of evil is generally misunderstood in the human approach to life. The fear of committing evil lies paramount within all facets of society. The purpose of this essay is to argue that to solve the problem of evil, humanity must begin to embrace the benefits and solutions to problems that evil provides. This essay will first define the concept of evil and discuss the problem in a philosophic manner that can help transmute evil ideas into more productive energies that can be used for growth and evolution
The power of words carry emotional value that create energetic fields that permeate in the environment. Some words carry great power and instantly polarize the conditioned mind into an immediate and often irrational emotional reaction. "Evil" carries with it spiritual, moral and ethical values and energy that suggest the word's meaning has super power on and over…… [Read More]
Nietzsche often identified life itself with "will to power," that is, with an instinct for growth and durability. This concept provides yet another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal, since it is Nietzsche's contention "that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will -- that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names" (Kaufmann 1959). Thus, traditional philosophy, religion, and morality have been so many masks a deficient will to power wears. The sustaining values of estern civilization have been sublimated products of decadence in that the ascetic ideal endorses existence as pain and suffering. Some commentators have attempted to extend Nietzsche's concept of the will to power from human life to the organic and inorganic realms, ascribing a metaphysics of will to power to him (Kaufmann 1959).
The insidious process by which we ascribe attributes to our fictitious consciousness has…… [Read More]
Man has attempted to explain what the universe is like, and has endeavored explaining change for centuries. In this process there have been several theories formulated. Many of these theories have served as valuable bases for further as time progressed. This is because what is researched and appealed to people has been further developed with the passage of time. Also, several theories may influence the thinking of others, and hence various directions in philosophical thought may be achieved.
The developments that have been witnessed through history exemplify two major arguments. The two sides referred to are: Western thought and Eastern thought. These are quite different from each other in several ways. Western thought is generally focused on understanding the origins of the universe, and holds that while change occurs with the passage of time in this material world permanence is an element of eternal life. This thought follows…… [Read More]
Prejudice Against Philosophy
Plato (427-347 BCE) is often termed as the greatest Western philosopher. Historians like A.N. Whitehead like to quote: "The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." [Bloom, 1991]. In defense of philosophers one can refer to Plato's definition of what a philosopher is and how useful he is to society.
Plato's magnum opus "Republic" is considered as one of the masterpieces of western civilization. The central questions of the Republic are "What is Justice" and whether it is better to live justly or unjustly. To answer these questions, Plato first constructs a perfectly Just City tate. A Just City, according to the 'Republic', is one in which there is the perfect arrangement. Plato in his treatise describes a three-part division of the human soul, which he co-relates with three major classes in the Just City…… [Read More]
"In modern terms, we would argue about whether universals are objectively real or only social constructs."
The idea that experiential faith is more valid than a rational, deductive proof of God's existence has come to more prominence in modern thought, given that science has largely subsumed the disciplines of mathematics and the use of mathematical 'proofs' about the divine favored by theologians in the middle ages like Aquinas. But within the social sciences, the debate about what is objectively knowable rages on. Postmodernists, for examples, suggest that there are no universal categories of knowledge or gender, what constitutes 'great literature' is subjective, and the idea that estern literature has 'classics' is usually defended in a tautological manner: Shakespeare is great, we should read great literature, therefore we should read Shakespeare. Postmodernists also point to the subjective nature of the category of gender in a cross-cultural fashion.
In politics as well,…… [Read More]
Science, Krieglestein says, attempts to explain chaos, and to the extent it cannot, it then ignores it (30). However, science is using the language it has in this moment, to explain chaos. Like the philosophers, Descarte and Kant, science relies upon its investigation in much the same was the philosophers rely upon nature and rationalism to convert chaos to order. That it is the nature, if not the universe, of mankind to gravitate towards order. This is man's obsession with chaos, to turn it into order.
One of the most recognized names in the history of philosophy is Plato. Dante Germino, Eric Voegelin (2000) shed some light on Plato's obsession with chaos and order, or philosophy, writing, "The motives that induced the young man of a well-connected family not to pursue his natural career in the politics of Athens but insteadto become a philosopher, the founder of a school, anda…… [Read More]
Scandal in Philosophy
In Soccio's account of Immanuel Kant's philosophy, Immanuel Kant saw as a "Scandal in Philosophy" the basic disjunction between western philosophical schools, such that indicated both sides were in part mistaken about their premises. There are several important mediating figures here, whom we must understand first if we wish to understand Kant's own identification of this problem, his "Scandal in Philosophy," and Kant's means of correcting it. For this reason, an account of Kant requires a long foregrounding, because to a certain degree the "Scandal" Kant identified had been brewing for well over a century, and it involved four major predecessors: Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. We must summarize them before approaching Kant's critique of them.
We need to cast back first to Descartes in the seventeenth century, and recollect the phenomenon of Cartesian Dualism, which posits that mind is a mysterious substance that is not to…… [Read More]
Though it is acknowledged that the words and ideas of Socrates have been filtered though the thoughts of those that followed him, namely Plato, as Socrates wrote nothing himself, it is also clear that the interpretation garnered by the ancients has been profoundly felt throughout western culture. It is also clear that the body of work that survives in fragmentation recorded as prior to the Socratic philosophical revolution is a strong basis for that which followed, it can also be described as simpler or at least less complex. The main difference according to the writings of the post Socratic philosophers between Socratic ethics and pre-Socratic ethics are twofold. On the one hand the idea that philosophical questions are not and cannot be seen as finite and on the other the establishment of Socrates as the supreme model of the philosophical life and all its trappings. The impact that…… [Read More]