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Moreover, estward expansion also meant putting off the resolution of slavery. Slavery continued in the United States until the 1860s. In fact, estward expansion was one of the issues that gave rise to the deep rifts between north and south, between free and slave states. How to address slavery in newly acquired territories became one of the most poignant political and social issues in nineteenth century America. Yet another consequence of estward expansion was a population explosion due not just to rising birthrates among the population but also the increased room for immigrants. The first waves of Asian immigrants arrived to work on American railroads in the new estern territories and later waves of Eastern and Southern Europeans arrived to the land of opportunity. Like the Native American populations whose land had been stolen, the non-white residents of estern territories rarely had stakes in any wealth generated by the gold…
Billington, Ray Allen & Ridge, Martin. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. 6th edition. University of New Mexico Press, 2001.
"Learn About Westward Expansion." Digital History. Retrieved online: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/westward/index.cfm
Quay, Sara E. Westward Expansion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
While Taylor believed that the Union was not threatened by this decision, it became alarmingly apparent that the North and South ideas would differ greatly. The conflict had escalated regarding the slavery laws and the newly added territories that some of the Southern senators at the time -- Jefferson Davis, John C. Calhoun, and William H. Seward -- would fight for "equal position in the territories," to protect the citizens of the Southern states "against abolitionists" ("Compromise").
This dispute became further aggravated by Henry Clay's proposition of a bill to the Senate, which would certainly admit California as a free state, with no mention of whether the New Mexico and Utah territories would be allowed slaves. The bill also proposed a prohibition of the slave trade in the capital District of Columbia, as well as a stricter set of fugitive slave law. Once more, slave and territory disputes came hand…
"Compromise of 1850." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2010): 1. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 27 Feb. 2011.
Taylor, Gilbert. "Manifest Destinies: America's Westward Expansion and the Road to the Civil War." Booklist 107.4 (2010): 17. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 27 Feb. 2011.
Mercifully, this period oversaw the end of the horrible Catch-22 known as debtor's prison, were people were imprisoned for debt, and then kept in the prisons for life because they had no way of earning money to free themselves from their financial obligations. Also, Dorothea Dix "compiled a comprehensive report on the state of the mentally ill in Massachusetts. The report claimed that hundreds of insane women were chained like beasts in stalls and cages. Dix's findings convinced state legislators to establish one of the first asylums devoted entirely to caring for the mentally ill. By the outbreak of the Civil ar, nearly thirty states had built similar institutions ("The Pre-Civil ar Era 1820-1850," 2007, Sparknotes).The appeal of Dix's movement and the end of debtor's prisons showed that America increasingly wished to see itself as a compassionate society, and also a fair society that treated its most vulnerable citizens with…
The Pre-Civil War Era 1820-1850." Sparknotes. Retrieved 22 May 2007 at http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/precivilwar/section9.rhtml
Although they reacted with sorrow, they also attempted to preserve their culture. For example, some even ground the bones of their ancestors and sewed them into their clothing (Watson 1999).
A similar story of Native American's peaceful reactions that were exploited by force is the history of Chief Joseph. This early recruit to Christianity was the chief mediator of peace between whites and his tribe, the Nez Perce, but when the tribe's land was taken, and the Native Americans were transferred to a reservation, the chief destroyed his symbols of American life and plunged his warriors into a miraculous series of battles ("Chief Joseph" 2001). Thus, Westward expansion was an opportunity for the white Americans, but a cause for sorrow for the Native Americans, who reacted with peace and accommodation until human rights violations forced them to react with sorrow and violence.
American Westward Movement," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia…
American Westward Movement," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2008
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Chief Joseph" 2001. PBS. http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/chiefjoseph.htm (Accessed March 5, 2009).
Watson, C. 1999. The Choctaw Trail of Tears. Native Web. http://www.thebicyclingguitarist.net/studies/trailoftears.htm (Accessed March 5, 2009).
he United States Expansion in 19th century
After the Age of Discovery (16th to 18th centuries) in European society that led to the discovery of the large land mass that will be called the Americas, the "New World" began expanding. New inhabitants arrived to occupy different parts of the region, particularly those that had the potential to be cultivated as agricultural lands. hus, when 19th century arrived, American inhabitants began building their political and economic institutions right after America had achieved its independence from British rule. his period of inhabitation between the years 1800-1850 was known as the United States Expansion.
he expansion involved was categorized into five stages. he first stage was the expansion towards the northwest territory, which included the states Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Minnesota. he move towards north was a logical thing to do at the time, for most of the inhabitants in the…
The Trans-Mississippi west expansion was accomplished right after the Louisiana Purchase, wherein an expedition headed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was conducted to survey the territory bought by the new American government. In this stage of the U.S. expansion, the new government encountered numerous hindrances due to strong opposition from the Indians, specifically the Sioux tribe, who were the first inhabitants of the Americas. Thus, apart from the problem of black slavery, another social problem that the expansion had brought to society was the continued oppression and antagonism against the Indians.
The inclusion of Oregon and Texas in the American territory was also another step towards expansion that led to the emergence of greater division between the north and the south. North's opposition to black slavery prevalent in the south caused this social conflict. However, this stage in the U.S. expansion was a necessary move to ensure that America would not meet the same antagonism and territorial vulnerability it had during the British occupation.
The last stage of the expansion was culminated through the Mexican War (1846), wherein America forced the country and its citizenry to surrender its territory to the new American government. This occupation of Mexico became America's final step towards establishing United States as a politico-economic superpower through strong and strategic territorial lands.
OMEN IN THE LATE 19th AND 20th CENTURIES
LAURA INGALLS ILDER
Laura Ingalls ilder gives some accurate depictions of women's lives when settling the est in the 19th Century but falls short of other key respects.
Brief description of essay: Laura Ingalls ilder's work is popular at least in part due to its ability to portray a glimpse of women settling in the western United States during the 19th Century. However, she either ignores or merely glosses over other aspects of women's contributions and challenges in the western expansion during that century.
A&E Television Networks, LLC. (2016). Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved from www.history.com: http://www.history.com/topics/bleeding-kansas
A&E Television Networks, LLC. (2016). The fight for women's suffrage. Retrieved from www.history.com: http://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/the-fight-for-womens-suffrage
Bailey, F. S. (1891). Twenty years of gleaning: A historical sketch of the oman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society. Boston: oma's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society.
Boundless.com. (2016). omen in the est. Retrieved from www.boundless.com:…
A&E Television Networks, LLC. (2016). Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved from www.history.com: http://www.history.com/topics/bleeding-kansas
A&E Television Networks, LLC. (2016). The fight for women's suffrage. Retrieved from www.history.com: http://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/the-fight-for-womens-suffrage
Bailey, F. S. (1891). Twenty years of gleaning: A historical sketch of the Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society. Boston: Woma's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society.
Boundless.com. (2016). Women in the West. Retrieved from www.boundless.com: https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s-history-textbook/the-westward-movement-and-manifest-destiny-1812-1860-15/manifest-destiny-119/women-in-the-west-637-766/
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase
American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.
The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…
1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
While unable to purchase land in their original locations, Europeans and Americans alike moved to the West as this region presented them with the ability to capitalize more on their money. Additionally, the decreased cost of transportation would have also contributed to the movement of the population. Last, it is also argued that the migration was generated by technological developments. All these in essence worked together to create a more appealing image of the West and it came to a situation in which the actual exodus led other people to also move to the West.
"Population growth and technological innovation worked in concert as the main driving factors of Western Expansion. Specifically, the decrease in transportation costs induced Western migration and the redistribution of the American population -- without it only 30% of the population would have been in the West in 1900, compared to an actual historical figure of…
2008, What caused westward expansion in the United States? Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080228150402.htm last accessed on December 12, 2011
California Gold Rush, Learn California, http://www.learncalifornia.org/doc.asp?id=118 last accessed on December 12, 2011
Westward expansion 1800-1860: business and economy, Bookrags.com, http://www.bookrags.com/history/westward-expansion-business-and-economy / last accessed on Westward expansion, Son of the South, http://www.sonofthesouth.net/texas/westward-expansion.htm last accessed on December 12, 2011
Civil War and Reconstruction Question 2: What does the Civil War show that failed in the United States in this period?
The Civil War and its aftermath showed that the United States failed to create a cohesive national character and ethical identity. The nation was truly divided, symbolized by the fact that Abraham Lincoln received not a single Southern electoral vote, and less than half of the popular vote, but still became President (Slide 5). The majority of Southerners allied themselves with the Southern Democrat platform, and failed to align their outdated beliefs about race and economic exploitation with the more progressive norms evident in the North.
Yet slavery was only one of the meaningful points of divergence between different geographic and cultural segments of the nation. The economies of North and South were completely different from one another, with the North cornering the market on manufactured goods and the…
imperialism is necessary for cultures to progress. The United States is not often thought of as an imperialistic nation, because we like to think that we would not subjugate or take over other countries. However, that is just what we did when our forefathers came to this country and shoved aside the Native Americans. We subjugated and eradicated a culture and way of life, and that is the textbook definition of imperialism. Imperialism is wrong and shameful, but it seems that as much it may be hard to say, it is necessary for securing our way of life, and it is crucial in developing new trade and commerce.
First, it is necessary to define imperialism. Imperialism is the name for larger, more powerful nations to take over smaller, weaker nations, usually because of the promise of wealth or resources they can exploit. There is a long history of imperialism throughout…
Alam, M.S. "U.S. Imperialism and the Third World." Northeastern University. 2006. 14 Dec. 2009.
Amin, Samir. "Imperialism and Globalization." Monthly Review June 2001: 6.
Bonner, Robert E. "Slavery, Confederate Diplomacy and the Racialist Mission of Henry Hotze." Civil War History 51.3 (2005): 288+.
He died in 1868, and he was buried in a cemetery near Taos (PS, 2001). After Carson's death, he was at first lionized as a great example of mountain man and leader in the Westward expansion of the United States. His accomplishments were told and retold and sometimes exaggerated. However, in modern times, the story of Kit Carson reveals both the good and the bad. While he played an important role in our country's expansion, he participated in important ways in subjugation and mistreatment of Native Americans. He was a product of his times, he was an army officer and he followed his orders, but today those actions are recognized as wrong. His story is remarkable because in his lifetime Carson played so many roles that aided in Westward expansion in addition to Indian fighter: mountain man, trapper, guide, and sheep rancher. His life is an example of those complex…
Carson, Kit. Editor, Quaife, Milo Milton. Kit Carson's Autobiography. Chicago: RR Donnelley, 1935.
Fish, Peter. 2001. "The riddle of Kit Carson." Sunset, January.
PBS. 2001. "Kit Carson," in New Perspectives on The West. Accessed via the Intenet 10/28/05. http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/carson.htm
Sabin, Edwin L. Kit Carson Days, 1809-1868: Adventures in the Path of Empire. Linconln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.
Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…
women in the American est during the estward movement. Specifically, it will discuss historic evidence to support the position that the westward movement did indeed transform the traditional roles of American women, just as it transformed the American est. omen traveling west during the estward movement created opportunities for themselves, became active in business and politics, and created new and exciting lives for themselves. These women transformed how America looked at women, and how women looked at themselves, which was probably the most important transformation of all.
The estward movement began in the early 1800s, after the explorers Lewis and Clark opened up the first trail from St. Louis Missouri to Oregon, and proved overland travel was possible, if not difficult. Migrants began heading for Oregon and other areas of the est as early as the 1830s - in fact, the first women to cross the Continental Divide were Eliza…
Armitage, Susan, and Elizabeth Jameson. The Women's West. Norman, OK: The University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
Butler, Anne M., and Ona Siporin. Uncommon Common Women: Ordinary Lives of the West. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1996.
Morris, Esther, and Carrie Chapman Catt. "Winning the Vote in the West." Women of the West. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. 75-86.
Myres, Sandra L. Westering Women and the Frontier Experience, 1800-1915. Eds. Ray Allen Billington, et al. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1982.
Did America justly fulfill its manifest destiny? Explain your opinion.
America did fulfill its destiny. This occurred with the country uniting as one nation embracing these ideas of personal freedom and equality. While at the same time, it went from a series of small backward colonies to becoming a world power. These objectives were realized over the course of American history. (Kennedy, 2012)
The biggest reasons for the westward expansion were based upon the desire to obtain land and have access to various natural resources (i.e. gold, silver, coal and oil). This was a part of America's expansion into becoming a new nation that embraced the ideas of personal freedom. A classic example of this peaceful expansion occurred with the purchase of Alaska from ussia in 1867. To this day, it is continuing to contribute economically and militarily. (Kennedy, 2012)
However, the westward expansion often involved the use…
National Vital Statistics System. (2012). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm
Brewer, P. (2004). Near Zero Deficit Accounting with Sigma Six. Journal of Corporate and Accounting Finance, 15 (2), 67 -- 72.
Kennedy, D. (2012). The Brief American Pageant. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
These impulses may result in compulsive behavior ultimately leading to financial ruin and family devastation; partly for this reason, most American states had prohibited games of chance and other forms of gambling under a paternalistic attempt to protect people from their own compulsions (Lears p. 193). Las Vegas benefited from a confluence of circumstances that brought in workers and tourists to partake of something other states outlawed, and in time, gambling became the most lucrative industry in the region, employing more local residents and generating more revenue from non-residents than any other industry. Later, the connection between legalized gambling and its revenue-generating potential attracted criminal influences that shaped much of Las Vegas politics for decades.
Partly because of the long-term association between gambling and criminal activity and partly because of age-old religious principles defining concepts like work, virtue, and sin, gambling was widely considered a blemish on society. The additional…
Captain Smith by Pocahontas
Antonio Capellano's sculpture The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) is still in the Capitol Rotunda along with other works of the same period such as illiam Penn's Treaty with the Indians and The Landing of the Pilgrims, although they no longer resonate with audiences in the same way as they did in the 19th Century. In the 20th and 21st Centuries, more sophisticated and educated viewers at least would realize that these are all the product of an era of estern expansion and a highly romanticized view of history that is heavily tinged with racism and white nationalism. hen these sculptures were first commissioned by the U.S. government, the early republic was engaged in westward expansion that would result in the destruction, displacement or removal of most Native Americans, a process that most white Americans of the era regarded as necessary and beneficial. All…
Fryd, Vivien Green. "Two Sculptures for the Capitol" in Mary Ann Calo (ed). Critical Issues in American Art: A Book of Readings. Perseus Books, 1998: 93-108.
Scheckel, Susan. The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture. Princeton University Press, 1998.
Tilton, Robert S. Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.
The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…
Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html .
The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html .
Cozzens, Lisa. "Impact of Dred Scott." African-American History. Online at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/scott/impact.html .
Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2001. Online at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ka/KansasNe.html .
sentiment, enhanced by analysis and critical thinking from a variety of sources.
Frederick Jackson Turner's essay discusses the closing of the American western frontier, and what it means for the American people. The historical significance of the frontier movement cannot be denied, and Turner's question lingers, what will forge American history now that the dominance and dominion of the frontier has vanished? He eloquently writes, "American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier."
He notes many areas of the frontier movement have been studied, but economic and historic significance remains open to scrutiny. Thus, he sets up his thesis, that the frontier offers a "fertile field for investigation" and that there will certainly be problems and questions resulting from the ongoing investigation.
Turner gains the readers attention in the first few paragraphs, when he compares the American frontier to the European frontier and notes the differences…
Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online].
San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online]. San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.
America Moves West
econstruction is the name for the period in United States history that covers the post-Civil War era, roughly 1865-1877. Technically, it refers to the policies that focused on the aftermath of the war; abolishing slavery, defeating the Confederacy, and putting legislation in effect to restore the nation -- per the Constitution. Most contemporary historians view econstruction as a failure with ramifications that lasted at least 100 years later: issues surrounding the Civil ights were still being debated in the 1970s, corrupt northern businessmen "carpetbaggers" brought scandal and economic corruption, monetary and tariff policies were retributive and had legal results in the north as well. Despite the failure of this period as an equalizer or integrator of races in the Old South, there was an equally robust push westward that not only encouraged individuals of all ethnicities to move, but changed the political and economic texture of the…
Immigration and Labor. (2009). Encarta.MSN. Retrieved from: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552683_11/new_york.html.
Railroads Following the Panic. (2001). U.S. History.com. 2001. Retrieved from:
Teaching With Documents: The Homestead Act of 1862. (2007). National Archives.
From Patricia Limerick's approach, this paper can derive its own thesis as to how the frontier phenomenon truly influenced the development and values of the American society. In my opinion, the truth is that the United States is such a large country that a phenomenon such as the frontier and Westward expansion could not have influenced to the degree to which Turner believes it had the development of the American society. There are several reasons for this, all discussed below.
First, many of the values, especially the institutional and democratic values, have, in fact, been unchanged for the best 250 years. The Constitution itself has barely been modified, with the exception of a limited number of amendments. The main institutional powers, the executive, the legislative and the judicial powers are all based on the same principles and format from 1776 and the first years thereafter. The political system, with minor…
1. Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. Henry Holt and Company. 1935
2. West, Elliott, "American Pathways," Montana the Magazine of Western History 51 (Autumn 2001)
3. Limerick, Patricia. Trails: Toward a New Western History. University Press of Kansas. 1991
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. Henry Holt and Company. 1935
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).
The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Center of the American West. "About Patty Limerick." Retrieved online: http://centerwest.org/about/patty
Duke University Libraries (n.d). Biography of John Hope Franklin. Retrieved online: http://library.duke.edu/rubenstein/franklin/bio.html
Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. 2000. From slavery to freedom: a history of African-Americans. New York: A.A Knopf
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
The presidents that served between 1789 and 1840 helped shape the nation during its formative years. During this critical period in American history, statesmen laid the foundations for political culture, philosophy, and institutions. Although all the presidents during this fifty-year period had some influence on the early republic, several left a more outstanding mark and legacy. As a Founding Father and author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson undoubtedly deserves recognition as one of the most important presidents in the entire history of the country. As a slave owner who believed in a small central government, Jefferson also set a precedent for what would become a series of contentious compromises between Americans who supported racism and the slave trade and those who recognized the ways slavery contradicted the underlying principles of the democracy. Likewise, James Monroe carried on the American legacy of compromise, and is remembered most by the…
Natalie Merchant’s song “Gold Rush Brides” offers an impression of history, and also reflects on the one-sided nature of historiography. The song simultaneously evokes the myth and mystique of the wild west, of the days of frontier settlement when men and women ventured west seeking their fortunes and in the process encountered the native people who they would kill. Merchant draws interesting parallels between the frontier mentality and patriarchy, too, showing that the stories of women have vanished (“who were the homestead wives? Who were the gold rush brides?”) just as Native American stories and whole cultures were being obliterated, driven by nothing but a “lust for gold.” In fact, Merchant makes the connection between women and Native Americans even more direct in the line, “Dakota on the wall is a white-robed woman.” As Foner discusses the start of the gold rush in the Dakotas, Merchant mentions this lesser-known start…
Northerners saw this as a deliberate effort to bring more slave states into the Union, while Southerners felt it did not go far enough in stating what states would enter free and what would enter as slave states. The debate in the House and Senate was so emotional, that fights broke out on the floors. Eventually, the bill, with the repeal of the Missouri Compromise passed, and the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska came into the Union. It forced an even deeper wedge between Northern and Southern legislators, and many people were so disgusted with the agreement that they split off from both parties. They began to form a new political party, the epublican Party, which would come together to nominate Abraham Lincoln, who had spoken out against slavery during his campaign, but as McPherson notes, "He had condemned slavery as a moral evil but deprecated radical action against…
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
.." And with that that party "controls the spoils of office" by appointing people friendly to the president's election to positions of influence and by keeping the party's masses happy by giving them what they asked for.
In defining HO and HY, and UNDER HAT CONDITIONS the CHANGE CAME on the national political scene that vaulted Andrew Jackson (a roughneck frontier and war hero with little sophistication vis-a-vis national politics and diplomatic elitism) - i.e., Jacksonian Democracy - into the hite House, University of Chicago social science professor Marvin Meyers writes in American Quarterly (Meyers 1953) that there are three distinct phases to examine. Put in the context of published volumes that would cover these three phases, Meyers lays it out: one, "the revolt of the urban masses against a business aristocracy"; two, "simple farming folk rise against the chicanery of capitalist slickers"; and three, "...tense with the struggle of…
Aldrich, John H. Why Parties? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology and the Second Party System." Historian 62.1 (1999):
Eldersveld, Samuel J.; & Walton, Hanes. Political Parties in American Society. Boston: Bedford/
There were a lot of white people around, and many of them were angry that the blacks had been freed. Some of them were actually hostile toward the blacks and their newfound freedom, so the blacks learned quickly that they had to be careful. They needed to settle a little bit away from the hostile whites and do their best not to make waves or cause trouble, in the hopes that they might one day be accepted (Reconstruction, 2002).
During the first few years after the Emancipation Proclamation and the subsequent freedom of all blacks in the United States, many blacks began working very hard to educate themselves. In there minds, education meant the ability to negotiate with whites over land, earn a fair wage to pay for it, and take care of their families. lack families were often large, so many of the members could work to help support…
Black Farming and History. 2002. Homecoming. http://www.itvs.org/homecoming/history1.html .
Carroll J. 1998. Organizational learning activities in high-hazard industries. Journal of Management Studies, 35: 699-717
Reconstruction and its aftermath. 2002. African-American Odyssey. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html .
VandeCreek, Drew E., Ph.D. 2000. Frontier Settlement. Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project. http://Lincoln.lib.niu.edu/frontier.html .
DUAL FEDEALISM PHASE
The Dual Federalism is the reflection of the ideology that stressed over the balance of powers between the national and state governments, and considers both the governments as 'equal partners with separate and distinct spheres of authority' (Sergio, 2005). Previously, the 'federal or national government was limited in its authority to those powers enumerated in the Constitution', and it was evident that there was partial understanding and correspondence between the national and stat. There existed little collaboration between the national and state governments, which resulted in the 'occasional tensions over the nature of the union and the doctrine of nullification and state sovereignty'.
In 1789, the Constitution was approved by the States; ratification of the conventions convened took place. The period from 1789 to 1801 has been regarded as the Federalist Perios, 'the period takes its name from the dominant political party of the time, which believed…
Michael Mcguire. American Federalism and the Search for Models of Management. Public Administration Review. Volume: 61. Issue: 6. 2001. American Society for Public Administration.
Stever, James a. The Growth and Decline of Executive-Centered Intergovernmental Management. Publius: The Journal of Federalism Vol. 23. 1993. pp. 71-84.
Stoker, Gerry, and Karen Mossberger. Urban Regime Theory in Comparative Perspective. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy Vol. 12. 1992. pp. 195-212.
Stone, Clarence. Regime Politics. University Press of Kansas. 1989. pp. 218.
Native Americans also experienced significant changes to their way of life during this era. The railroads brought more settlers to their land, and cities began to arise in the West. The result was increasing conflict -- and many massacres orchestrated by government forces, as Western Native Americans, who had limited contact with settlers to this point, saw their lands inundated and their way of life threatened, so say nothing of the disease. The conflict, disease and loss of this way of life permanently gutted Native American societies -- they might have been the biggest losers of the industrialization age their way of life all but wiped out.
Working Americans were more likely to work in a factory under dangerous conditions. They lost the dignity in their work -- they were not longer artisans but merely cogs in somebody else's machine. They were more likely to live in tenements…
Schultz. (no date). Chapters 16-18.
War of 1812, the nation settled into a sense of smugness that would be known as the Era of Good Feelings. The Era of Good Feelings was a term coined by a Boston-area newspaper in 1817, during newly elected President James Monroe's fifteen-state tour (Miller Center, n.d.). In its post-war intoxication, America would overlook some of its most pressing problems during the Era of Good Feelings. Monroe capitalized on the public's perception that all was well in the United States. Even more important for the strength of the Monroe presidency was the fact that the President's party became the only viable one after the demise of the Federalists. This meant that Monroe felt well empowered as president during the Era of Good feelings, which lasted until about 1825. Whether the period between the end of the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine elicited "good feelings" depended largely on one's…
Kennedy, Cohen, Piehl (n.d.) The Brief American Pageant.
Miller Center (n.d.). American President: Life in Brief. Retrieved online: http://millercenter.org/president/monroe/essays/biography/1
"The Era of Good Feelings and the Two-Party System," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ushistory.org/us/23a.asp
Senator Douglas created the Kansas and Nebraska territories as a way to appease both sides of the slavery issue, but this action resulted in increased tensions and hostility. Do you think the problems that resulted from creating these territories could have been prevented? If so, how? If not, why not?
The problems that resulted from the creation of the Kansas and Nebraska territories could not have been prevented because by 1854, the nation was already divided by the slavery question and tensions were high. There was more at stake than merely the question of whether or not blacks should be free and in fact for most people, on either side of the debate, personal and business interests were what really mattered, not the morality of making slaves out of fellow human beings.
As the United States expanded westward, controversy swirled as citizens debated whether new territories should be…
Kennedy, D.M., Cohen, L., & Bailey, T.A. (2010). The American Pageant. AP Edition.
Schultz, K. (2011). HIST: Volume 2. Independence, KY: Cengage
This reveals the more liberated ideals of the west and of the pioneer culture. First, Alexandra envisions herself "being lifted and carried lightly by some one very strong. He was with her a long while this time, and carried her very far, and in his arms she felt free from pain." The masculine figure takes the place of the gossamer female angel. She is about to be subsumed by the ethereal lover. "hen he laid her down on her bed again, she opened her eyes, and, for the first time in her life, she saw him, saw him clearly, though the room was dark, and his face was covered." Here, gender roles are again reversed as they are in the previous passage when the man is the angel. The man is now being veiled, his "face was covered." Veil is usually used to conceal the woman's but not the man's…
Brown, Dee Alexander. The Gentle Tamers: Women of the Old Wild West. University of Nebraska Press, 1958.
Cather, Willa. O Pioneers! Searchable online version: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24/24-h/24-h.htm
The Chronicle, San Francisco. "The Foremothers Tell of Olden Times." 9 Sept, 1900. Retrieved online: http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist5/foremoms.html
Jameson, Elizabeth. "Women as Workers, Women as Civilizers: True Womanhood in the American West." Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. Vol. 7, No. 3, Women on the Western Frontier (1984), pp. 1-8
OMEN IN THE LATE 19th AND 20th CENTURIES
LAURA INGALLS ILDER
Laura Ingalls ilder is famous for writing extensively about the lives of a family that moved westward in the late 19th century. In some respects, her work is quite accurate and enhances an accurate picture of the Great Prairie during those times. However, in other respects her work is inaccurate, particularly in the way it glosses over the presence and lives of Native Americans, as well as the hostility and brutality of pioneers toward Native Americans, very nearly resulting in the extinction of Native Americans.
In some respects, ilder's work exemplifies life on the Great Prairie during the late 19th Century; however, it also falls far short of explaining that life in other respects. The ilder family lived in isconsin, Kansas and Minnesota during Laura Ingalls ilder's early life but moved to De Smet, South Dakota, when Laura was…
Brammer, R., & Greetham, P. (2008). De Smet, South Dakota. Retrieved from www.liwfrontiergirl.com: http://www.liwfrontiergirl.com/
DuBois, E. C., & Dumenil, L. (2016). Through Women's Eyes: An American History with Documents, 4th Ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Wilder, L. I. (1953). Little House on the Prairie (Little House, No. 3). New York: HarperCollins Children's Books.
Slavery was one, but not the only, cause of the Civil War. In fact, the institution of slavery represents a combination of social, political, and economic forces at play throughout the United States. For one, Westward expansion and the principle of Manifest Destiny gave rise to the important issue of whether to allow slavery in new territories or to leave the question of slavery up to the residents in the new territory or state. he Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision, the formation of the new Republican party and the election of Lincoln, the Nat urner rebellion, the introduction of Uncle om's Cabin into popular culture, and especially Westward expansion were among the most important events that led up to the outbreak of the Civil War.
he Compromise of 1850 was disastrous in that it accomplished nothing to promote human rights…
The Compromise of 1850 was disastrous in that it accomplished nothing to promote human rights and civil liberties. California was admitted to the union as a free state. In exchange, other new lands gained in the Mexican War had no restrictions on whether slavery was or was not permitted. The slave trade was being phased out, but the practice slavery itself was preserved in the District of Columbia. The fugitive slave laws were enhanced too. So disastrous was the Compromise of 1850 that northerners did not take the Fugitive Slave Law seriously and did not enforce it. Another disastrous piece of legislation that preceded the Civil War, and helped spark it, was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The Act overturned the Missouri Compromise and divided Kansas and Missouri into two states: one slave and one free. As Brinkley states, "No other piece of legislation in American history produced so many immediate, sweeping, and ominous political consequences," (327). Significant regarding the build-up to the Civil war, the Kansas-Nebraska Act caused the creation of the new Republican Party. Also, the Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the "bleeding Kansas" episode during which abolitionist and pro-enslavement advocates battled in pre-Civil War skirmishes.
Both the Nat Turner Rebellion and the popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin represented the darker sides of slavery and promoted the politics of liberation. However, no other event in American history illustrates so well the way racism has permeated American politics as the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision. The Supreme Court took a strong racist stance that bolstered the pro-slavery cause immediately prior to the Civil War. Clearly, the nation was divided. On the one hand, decisions like Dred Scott showed that racist Americans served in positions of power at the federal level and could forever impact the quality of the country. On the other hand, abolitionists saw the necessity for a swift end to slavery in order to preserve the Constitutional rights and ideals upon which the nation was founded. The southerners could not foresee a means to have a viable economy without free and forced labor; the northerners did.
Even Democrats were divided, leading to the eventual election of the Republican candidate for President in 1860. Lincoln, who was "not an abolitionist" but who also believed that "slavery was morally wrong" steered the United States in a direction different from what most Southern whites wanted (Brinkley 332). After Lincoln was elected, the Southern states viewed the federal government as being illegitimate and decided one by one to cede from the union. The differences between slave-owning and free states were too great to overcome at the time. The economy and lifestyle of the south depended on slavery, whereas the Northern point-of-view favored sanity and genuine freedom.
This test, embodied in Article 10 of the treaty, said that land grants would be considered valid to the extent that they were valid under Mexican law" (Ebright 29). According to Montoya (2002), although the treaty was ratified, the subsequent years were clouded by legal battles over quiet title to the lands involved because of the absence of Article X: "The process of defining property rights and ushering in market capitalism that had begun by issuing such a large land grant would continue under the U.S. legal and economic system. But for the next fifty years, charges of patronage, absentee landlordism, and unjust claims would cloud title to the land" (36).
The research showed that the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo concluded the U.S.-Mexican ar and gained the United States Upper California, Texas and New Mexico in exchange for a paltry $15,000,000 and some nebulous assurances that the U.S. would…
Black's Law Dictionary (6th Ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Ebright, Malcolm. Land Grants and Lawsuits in Northern New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994.
Montoya, Maria E. Translating Property: The Maxwell Land Grant and the Conflict over Land in the American West, 1840-1900. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. (2007). Azteca Web Page. [Online]. Available: http://www.azteca.net/aztec/guadhida.html .
Describe the economic opportunities beckoning newcomers in all regions of the country as a result of industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.
The expansion of the nation's railroads by 1870, helped to fuel a tremendous amount of economic growth westward. as, the nation was rapidly developing regions that were considered to be difficult due to: adverse weather conditions, vast distances and the possibility of violence from Indian attacks. Once the railroad was established in the West, a shift occurred in how the nation was able to deal with these challenges. Where, many of these problems became non-existent and an increasing number of people began to move to these regions of the country. (illington, 2001, pp. 357 -- 375)
At the same time, the nation had developed a vast network of railroads throughout the entire Eastern half of the nation. This meant that many different natural resources in the West could…
Billington, R. (2001). Westward Expansion. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
The differences between the Northern and Southern states regarding states' rights issues and industrialization also affected federal policies toward new territories acquired during Westward Expansion. Before the Civil War, the federal government had issued a series of "compromises" designed to appease both northern and southern interests. The Fugitive Slave Law and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill were both issued in response to Southern interests but they reflected weakness in the federal government. The Compromise of 1850, for instance, sparked controversy over admitting California to the nation as a free state. Southerners had hoped that new states would at least be able to choose their own policies regarding slavery: to have "the power to choose whether it entered the United States as a slave or free state," ("Causes of the Civil War").
Finally, the issue of slavery itself became a major cause of the Civil War. Southern states prospered as a result of…
American Civil War." (nd). Spartacus. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivilwar.htm
The Causes." (nd). The American Civil War: The Struggle to Preserve the Union. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://www.swcivilwar.com/cw_causes.html
Causes of the War Between the States - a Southern Perspective." The Blue and Gray Trail. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://blueandgraytrail.com/features/southerncauses.html
Golden, R. (nd). Causes of the Civil War. About North Georgia. Retreived Sept 17, 2006 at http://ngeorgia.com/history/why.html
Domestic Uniformity in the U.S. Between 1815-1830
In the glorious aftermath of a triumphant revolution newly independent Americans were intent on freeing themselves fully from the control of European interests. To attain this liberation, the first Americans were charged with a task of enormous difficulty: harnessing the tremendous natural resources of their new land and using them to construct a great nation. Immense forests filled with raw timber stood waiting to be transformed into homes and vast tracts of open land lay ready for the farmer's plow. For decades after independence was wrested from British hands the first Americans worked to transform potential into reality, and soon a rising player on the international stage had emerged. hereas centuries of autocratic oppression had dulled the creative sensibilities of European designers and manufacturers, their American counterparts were now free to explore their creative whims and soon they began producing works of skilled…
Guay, L. "Peace and Conflict: The War of 1812." Historica. (2006): n. page. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. .
Maier, P, M.R Smith, A Keyssar, and D.J. Kevles. Ed. Inventing America. 2nd. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company, 2005. 295-306. Print.
Monroe, J. "President James Monroe's Seventh Annual Message to Congress." United States Congress, Washington D.C.. December 12th, 1823. In Person. .
What he found, in contrast to Europe, was that the American social ethic was not based on aristocracy, and in fact Americans seemed to have a deep-seated fear and loathing of European titles (at least the middle and common classes). Instead, Americanism was based on a system in which hard work and money-making (e.g. aggressive capitalism) was the dominant ethic of the time. In this period of radical change and development, he perceived that the common (free) person never deferred to elites and where one was rewarded for being a greedy individualist. He writes: "Among a democratic people, where there is no hereditary wealth, every man works to earn a living… Labor is held in honor; the prejudice is not against but in its favor" (Ibid., 398).
What is also interesting is that, at times, no matter how unbiased a historical or sociological account portends, what is excluded is often…
Letters on American Slavery. (2006, June 5). Retrieved September 2010, from Anti-Slavery Literature: http://antislavery.eserver.org/tracts/lettersonamericanslavery/lettersonamericanslavery.html
Damrosch, L. (2010). Tocqueville's Discovery of America. New York: Farrar, Sraus, and Giroux.
de Tocqueville, A. (2007). Democracy in America. Stilwell, KS: Digireads Books.
At first, Young was ambivalent towards the Methodist -- or any other -- Church. He "held back from joining the Methodists" like his brothers had because of an "independent, deliberate personality" that rejected belief under pressure (8). Methodist revival meetings also turned Young off because of their "loud, crowded, and hyperactive" qualities," (8). Yet while living in the Auburn-Port Byron area, during an economic depression, he was "swept up by religious enthusiasm" and joined the Methodist Church in 1824 (13). The conversion turned out to be integral to Young's "program of self-improvement," (14). The Church prompted Young to give up swearing, one of his self-admitted habits. He experimented with vegetarianism, too, in an attempt to live an overall cleaner and healthier lifestyle. The religion also helped him to overcome his shyness and fear of public speaking (14). In addition to helping him on his personal path, the Methodist…
5. The Gold Rush altered the course of westward expansion, driving increasing numbers of non-Mormons to western lands and especially to California. The Gold Rush was therefore instrumental in preventing Young from entertaining the idea of moving the Mormon camp to California. Young feared a "renewed Mormon/non-Mormon conflict," (94). Mormon Samuel Brannan struck gold and was later excommunicated because he refused to tithe on his huge fortune (94-95). A large number of fortune-seeking trailblazers had made the path to the Great Salt Lake basin easier, which solidified the decision to settle in what is now Salt Lake City (95). Therefore, the Gold Rush had a huge impact on the geography of Mormon settlement. The Gold Rush also directly benefitted the Mormons economically, as gold seekers would stop in Salt Lake City en route to California.
6. By the 1850s, Salt Lake City's Mormon businesses were prospering due to trade with gold seekers. Young encouraged economic self-sufficiency and diversification from what could have easily been an agriculture-dependent economy. Young and the Mormons had brought "to the Great Basin 75 to 100 black slaves," a fact that Young "tried to conceal from federal officials" due to the brewing controversy over slavery in the new territories (104). In spite of this, Young was ambivalent about the Civil War because it represented for him the spiritual end times. When it became apparent that the North was headed for victory, Young took an opportunistic stance of supporting the Union but for strategic reasons only. Young remained staunchly pro-slavery. In 1850 also, Young encouraged the development of an "Iron Mission" that would take advantage of the wealth of raw materials like iron in the region (108). By the end of the 1850s, Young was involved in three "broad categories" of business: first, deals involving partnership with the Mormon Church; second, those involving partnerships with other businessmen; and third, those in which Young was the sole investor (149).
7. Although the Transcontinental Railroad did not pass directly through Salt Lake City, it benefitted the Mormon economy. At the same time, Young feared the large numbers of non-Mormons it would bring to the territory (179). Young agreed with the prevailing patriarchal view that men have dominion over women; that women were inherently inferior to men; and were also less intelligent (192). Moreover, women represented sin, temptation, and spiritual corruption. The United Order was "a system of economic cooperation that called upon selected Mormon communities to pool their equipment, their property, and their energy and work together," (199). It was therefore a system of socialist cooperatives. Variations depended on different levels of economic commitment to the cooperative.
This view, however, fails in Limerick's mind, to adequately show how we can directly trace our current social, economic, and political order to Jamestown, Salem, and the Louisiana Purchase. "White Americans saw the acquisition of property as a cultural imperative" (Limerick, 55). How has that changed either before or after? Isn't that the justification used by the Virginia Company when establishing Jamestown? Isn't that the same as Sam Houston's justification for the subjugation and annexation of Texas? Isn't that the same as our ongoing destruction of the environment to create homes, shopping malls, and warehouses? Manifest Destiny existed in the European mindset even before the phrase was coined. Thus, Limerick observes that we have to see our history as part of that same kind of continuity of intent.
Indeed, Limerick promotes a moral significance on the history of the American West rather than a focus on specific dates and specific…
Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1987.
He carefully dismantled the story through diligent research into declassified court proceedings as well as many first person narratives. This level of research successfully captures the tension and emotions of the POWs' experience, which is the primary narrative storyline that drives the overall progression. Although Bradley professes a completely unbiased perspective in looking at this narrative, this was not completely the case within the structure of the narrative. Bradley appears to be heavily sympathetic to the Japanese, who he portrays in many cases as the victims of the second World War. The actions committed by the Japanese are attributed to their allegiance to tradition and reactionary measures taken in the wake of U.S. committed atrocities such as the Doolittle bombings. Overall however this book is an extremely worthwhile read. The actual book is a very "tough read," because Bradley chooses not to hold back on the details of the POWs…
Legendary figure, he is one of the charismatic characters of the account. So, in this sense, the author attempts to draw brief characterization of the main characters he is referring to.
One of the tragedies that have happened on the Oregon Trail is the notorious Donner Party incident, when 89 travelers passing through Sierra Nevada in late October were forced to resort to cannibalism until they were saved by rescuers from Sacramento. Tragically, only half of them had survived. The way David Dary describes this in his book seems to bring about, besides a certain eeriness, an appalling perspective that something like this can actually happen between people. Extrapolating this, the author manifests a dislike towards the fact that the Oregon Trail adventure could come along with something quite different and tragic than the profits that the gold and fur brought about.
However, the author manifests his strong admiration for…
1. Dary, David. The Oregon Trail: An American Saga. On the Internet
2. Croke, Bill. The Oregon Trail. The Washington Times. 2004. On the Internet at http://washtimes.com/books/20-3157r.htm
It is evident that the things that are historically accurate about the film Bad Girls are few and far between. Also, given the plot line and theme of the film, Bad Girls is clearly directed at women who sought to be entertained by tales of female empowerment. In the film, four prostitutes -- Cody Zamora, Anita Crown, Eileen Spenser, and Lily Laronette -- leave their former lives behind after Zamora commits a justifiable homicide and escapes from police custody. After Zamora and her cohorts escape, a duo of Pinkerton detectives is hired to apprehend Zamora and bring her back to Colorado, where the homicide took place. hile on the lam, Zamora and company are faced with bank robberies, kidnapping, and a seemingly unattainable dream of owning a sawmill, which they hope will provide them peace and stability.
Bad Girls focuses on four women and the social conventions and…
Bad Girls. Dir. Jonathan Kaplan. USA: 20th Century Fox, 1994. DVD.
"Comparative Value of the U.S. Dollar (Approximate)." Web. 23 June 2012.
IMDB. Release dates of Unforgiven, Tombstone, Bad Girls, and Wyatt Earp. Web. 23 June
President Thomas Jefferson offered Napoleon the emperor of France $2 million dollars for the region around the mouth of the Mississippi River, which included the port of and city of New Orleans. Ohio Valley farmers relied heavily on admittance to New Orleans, and President Thomas Jefferson wanted to guard these farmers, because they sent their crops down the Mississippi River to New Orleans, from which ships took the products to cities along the Atlantic coast of the United States (Landy & Milikas, 159). However, this brought about horror in the Americans that the French might obstruct with their trade by imposing elevated taxes on products and ships moving through New Orleans. Even worse, "the Americans feared the French might shut down the ports to the Americans" ( Morris). If the port where shut down, this would bring to an end all shipping in and out of the United States.
Elazar, D. American federalism: A view from the states, (3rd) . New York: Harper Collins, 1984.
Landy, M . & Milikas, S. American government: Balancing democracy and rights. New York: NY: McGraw, 2004, 150-188.
McDonald, F. States' rights and the union: Imperium in Imperio, 1771-1876. Lawrence Univesity Press of Kansas, 2000.
Morris, Richard Brandon. Great presidential decisions: State papers that changed the course of history . New York: Harper & Row, 1973.
"the Most Lucrative Patent": Robert Fulton's Idea
In an 1807 letter, Robert Fulton wrote about his new invention and stated "the patent in contemplation will be the most lucrative that was ever obtained" (Sylla 44). He was referring to his steam engine, which not only revolutionized transportation but forever changed commerce in the United States and all over the world. Fulton wrote the letter to Robert R. Livingston, a wealthy New Yorker who was interested in Fulton's work and who became his partner and financier.
Born and raised in Pennsylvania, Fulton originally intended to become a painter. He went to London as a young man and actually had a showing of his work at the Royal Academy. He found it difficult to support himself on an artist's salary and so became a canal engineer. He went to Paris in 1797 and built a submarine called the Nautilis, he…
Gordon, John Steele. "The Steamboat Monopoly." American Heritage 44.7 (1993): 20-21.
Online. 2 May 2011.
"Newcomen Steam Engine." Wikipedia. 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 3 May 2011.
"Robert Fulton's Paddlesteamer: August 17th, 1807." History Today 57.8 (2007): 58-59. Online.
The For Pitt Museum, along with the Bushy Run Battlefield site, provide a visual way to understand Pennsylvania's participation in the French and Indian War, other history of the area, and how the city of Pittsburgh was founded. The visual displays really bring the era to light. The model of Fort Pitt, which is over 15 feet wide, is remarkable and gives the visitor a real understanding of what the fort looked like. The displays and information gave lots of information not only about the American soldiers who manned the fort, but the other groups of people involved in its history including the French who joined with the Native Americans for the French and Indian War, and the use of the fort after the revolutionary war ended.
The museum also demonstrates the strategic importance of the location of Pittsburgh. Three rivers come together in Pittsburgh, and during colonial…
American Enduring Vision
American History 1820-1840 Enduring Vision
How did the changes experienced by Americans after 1820 incorporate elements of the 'Enduring Vision' to preserve a common national identity?
During this early period of American identity formation between 1820-1830, one of the most profound developments was the removal of Indian peoples from their native territories. Increasingly, the common American, the common American White man sought political enfranchisement and territory to farm on his own. These two desires, of political power and land, conjoined to make Indian removal politically popular and expedient for those in authority.
During this time, the ideal of the genteel American farmer in government began to recede. The Jeffersonian ideal was replaced by what became the Jacksonian ideal of the common man voicing his will in politics. Andrew Jackson was elected President in 1828 on a promise of full enfranchisement for all men, without former…
1893, when Frederick Jackson urner gave his landmark speech "he Significance of the Frontier in American History," it laid the foundation for future discussion relative to the American frontier. After more than one hundred years later, it is still a piece of comparison for new theories. urner's work was followed by different other famous frontier theories throughout the first three-quarters of the twentieth century. Although few historians would call this thesis pertinent, it still remains the most widely discussed interpretation of the American past. Invoking fascination, criticism and heaps of speculation from viewers, the thesis sheds light on a topic that has, notably in the last decade, stirred flaming controversy. he thesis is a comparison amongst those who view the West's development as a natural outgrowth of the pioneering spirit, and the New Western historians, who see a sad legacy of racism, greed and violence in the horizons of extended…
The criticism is of several varieties. Richard Etulain emphasizes the weaknesses of the frontier school in confirming the large contributions of racial and ethnic minorities to the history of the frontier and the West. He asserts that Turner's thesis disappoint to deal with the significant discussion of gender and class. He also criticizes the Turner thesis for ignoring the post-1900 West and vital urban and detailed subjects. For Etulain, the thesis implies a viewpoint as shaky as it could be the basis for a tenable interpretation of American culture. Then the thesis fails to illustrate just how the perceived demise of the frontier brought about a longing for wilderness and the pioneer spirit. He emphasizes how it inspired debate on public land and immigration policy, expansionism and the merits of individualistic and cooperative political systems. In addition, he relates how it influenced and was affected by several social and political issues as racism, industrialization, irrigation, tenant farming, class struggle, government intervention, and the naturalist movement.
He argues that Frederick Jackson Turner clearly overlooked women from his story of the frontier. In overlooking women's important roles in pioneer history, Turner was ironically exceptionalist, progressing a frontier story devoted entirely to men's actions. Rather than follow the process idea central to the frontier thesis, Etulain argues that Turner's thesis fail to depict the American West as a separate, evolving place. Since Turner placed so much importance on the shaping power of the frontier experience, people might discuss the implications of his claim that the frontier line had disappeared in the 1890's census.
Summary: Despite all its criticism, this thesis is an in indispensable analysis of an essential part of the national psyche. As a committed social and cultural evolutionist, the Fredrick Jackson Turner studied the expansion of western experiences that had, over time, been laminated into a consolidated American reputation. Turner pointed to several important factors that he saw arising from unique frontier experience. One such was the composite nationality, which others later called the growth of democracy, an independent individualism, and economic and physical mobility. One of the most important books of recent years in the history of American ideas. All American historians should read this provocative and well-written study. he discusses just enough writers, historians and artists to qualify the book as an overview without bringing on reader meltdown.
Industrialization After the Civil War
The United States economy grew to unprecedented levels and very quickly, after the American Civil War. This economic and industrial growth comprised of a number of causative factors such as technological innovation, westward expansion, and immigration to the United States that have witnessed tremendous development over the years. American economic and industrial growth was a kind of mixed blessing; but at the same time, it raised the living standard of some Americans, made certain goods easily accessible, and equally helped the United States become world military and economic power. These same forces, on the other hand and at the same time, increased the gap between the rich and the poor, enhanced and reduced political corruption at different levels of government, and also created some lasting legacy for environmental destruction (Shultz, 2014).
This paper contends to most effect, that industrialization was nothing more than a mere…
Campbell, B.C. (1999). Understanding Economic Changes in the Gilded Age. OAH Magazine of History.
Hofstadter, R. (1989). The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage.
Karson, M. (1958). American Labor Unions and Politics, 1900-1918. Carbondale: Southern
Oshinsky, D. (1997). Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow
19th century, the federalist/anti-federalist schism dominated political discourse in the United States. The so-called "first party system" became less relevant as increasing numbers of citizens became politically active, leading to a greater plurality of voices and opinions. Even then, political parties had not yet become fully formed. Most elections had candidates running independently. However, the anti-federalists had become the Democratic-Republicans and they emerged as a dominant presence in the controversial 1824 presidential election. When he was defeated in that election by John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson and his supporters started the Democratic Party as an opposition group. In response, John Quincy Adams and his Secretary of State Henry Clay rebranded the Democratic-Republican Party the National Republicans.
Jackson's Democratic party grew in popularity during his presidency. An opposition party, the Whig party, emerged in response in the 1830s. For the next several decades, the Democrats and the Whigs were the primary…
..that the rebellion, if crushed out tomorrow, would be renewed within a year if Slavery were left in full vigor (Greeley 1862).
If the North eventually won the war, and slavery was not abolished as an institution, war would be again inevitable. However, Lincoln's primary duty, as he saw it, was not to save or destroy slavery, regardless of his personal views, but to preserve the idea of the Union. Lincoln believed that it was unlawful for any State to succeed, it simply could not be done -- the Union was the Union, and his role was to bring the errant South back into the fold. Lincoln personally found slavery abhorrent, but his duty was not to destroy it, but to unite the North and South as one nation once again. If letting slavery exist helped united the country, Lincoln would let it be so, or vice versa. "What I…
Greeley, H. "The Prayer of the Twenty Million." CivilWarHome.com. August 19, 1862. http://www.civilwarhome.com/lincolngreeley.htm (accessed August 2010).
Lincoln, A. "A Proclamation By the President of the United States." Civilwarhome.com. September 22, 1862. http://www.civilwarhome.com/emancipation.htm (accessed August 2010).
____. "Reply to Emancipation Memorial presented by Chicago Christians of All Denominations." Teachingamericanhistory.org. September 13, 1892. http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=1080 (accessed August 2010).
____. "The Dilemma of Slavery." In Reparations for Slavery - A Reader, by Salzberger., et.al., eds., 17-21. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
Even European immigrants experienced discrimination in the 19th century. As Vellos (1997) points out, "American society did not accept the Irish Catholics and Germans, and movements to limit immigration began to form." The Chinese Exclusion Act established anti-Asian sentiments and was not repealed until as late as 1943. For the first time in American history, immigration was "seen as a threat to the United States economy, and Congress began expanding the list of 'undesirable classes' hoping to upgrade the quality of immigrants and to limit overall entry," (Vellos 1997).
In spite of having to live in squalid inner city tenement buildings, new waves of immigrants relished the idea of the American Dream. The American Dream provides the ideological and psychological incentive for new immigrants to a pursue a path of upward social mobility. Upward social mobility was most likely unavailable in the home country, whereas the United States has been…
"A Historical Look at U.S. Immigration Policy." (1995). Retrieved online: http://web.missouri.edu/~brente/immigr.htm
Center for Immigration Studies (n.d.). Immigration history. Retrieved online: http://www.cis.org/ImmigrationHistory
Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform (2010). U.S. Population and Immigration Data, Projections and Graphs. Retrieved online: http://www.cairco.org/data/data_us.html
Diner, H. (2008). Immigration and U.S. History. America.gov. Retrieved online: http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307112004ebyessedo0.1716272.html
Source: Hockett 1940:264
This land surveying method proved to be highly accurate, a feature that was in sharp contrast to the methods that had been used in some American colonies such as Virginia that allowed the use of so-called "indiscriminate locations," a practice that caused an enormous amount of land boundary disputes (Hockett 1940). hile the land surveying method used pursuant to the Land Survey Ordinance of 1785 was partially based on techniques that had evolved in New England, the origins of some of the features included in the legislation remain unclear (Hockett 1940). Notwithstanding this lack of historical precision concerning the origins of the features contained in the Land Survey Ordinance of 1785, the land surveying methods it set forth were so efficient and effective that the same techniques were applied to the rest of the country as westward expansion continued, eventually dividing all of the public lands in…
Allen, John L. North American Exploration, Vol. 3. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press,
Ariel, Avraham and Nora Ariel Berger. Plotting the Globe: Stories of Meridians, Parallels, and the International Date Line. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1991.
For instance, Bruegmann notes that, "Despite a common belief that suburban sprawl is accelerating and that the most affluent people are moving constantly outward to areas of ever-lower density, in fact the suburbs of American cities are, if anything, becoming denser."
Indeed, the recent trend to build more and more "McMansions" in the suburbs is reflective of how American suburbs are becoming more densely packed while seeking to maximize actual available living space. For instance, Bruegmann adds that, "Suburban lot sizes, after peaking in the 1950s, have been declining, and the number of square feet of land used by the average house in new developments at the suburban edge has fallen sharply in the past 10 years even as the houses themselves have grown in size." In sum, this author maintains that, "Sprawl cannot be adequately explained as a simple result of specific government policies, economic systems, or technological advances.…
Baxandall, Rosalyn and Elizabeth Ewen. Picture Windows: How the Suburbs Happened. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Bruegmann, Robert. Sprawl: A Compact History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Hayden, Dolores. Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820-2000. New York: Pantheon, 2003.
Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Advocacy groups, whether private or government-sponsored, ease transition from home to America but being uprooted poses severe psychological and sociological problems that are not easy to fix.
The United States remains one of the only nations to openly welcome immigrants as a national policy; Canada is another. For centuries the United States has relied on immigrant labor to fuel industry and add nuance to the nation's cultural fabric. The United States is no longer viewed as a melting pot because of the increased pride among immigrants in their native cultures and languages. Balancing assimilation with preservation of culture is still the most difficult task for immigrants, many of whom hope for a more stable life in the new world while still retaining the values and lifestyles of their ancestors.
Refugees continue to hold a unique social, economic and political status in the United States. As Tumulty notes, the Hmong assimilated…
Branigin, William. "Immigrants Shunning Idea of Assimilation." The Myth of the Melting Pot. Washington Post. May 25, 1998. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/meltingpot/melt0525a.htm
Clemetson, Lynette. "Bosnians in America: A Two-Sided Saga." The New York Times. April 29, 2007. Retrieved Jun 15, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/29/us/29youth.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&adxnnlx=1213585920-/U4w96yxQS4h7/bEHNl%20Ug
Federation for American Immigration Reform. "How Mass Immigration Impedes Assimilation." Retrieved Jun 15, 2008 at http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=iic_immigrationissuecenters641a
The Great Immigration Panic." The New York Times. June 3, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/03/opinion/03tue1.html
The author mentions deadly accidents from new machinery that workers are unfamiliar with. Moreover, the author discusses issues related to ergonomics, exhaustion, and pollution. Writing as a doctor, Whitaker makes a strong case for forming labor unions.
Croffut describes John Gast's painting "American Progress." The painting conveys the essence of manifest destiny. Using visual imagery, Gast visualize the mythos that underlies American culture. Gaft juxtaposes imagery of the West and its wold frontier with the new and sometimes unsightly urban and industrial developments. Gast's painting provides visual commentary on the ways the United States was changing during the late nineteenth century.
Harper's Weekly editorial describes the event known as Custer's Last Stand with an obvious pro-Custer mentality. Referring to the Native Americans as "savages," the author underscores the popular sentiments of the nineteenth century that the European settlers had a right to Westward expansion. Indian revolts like the Battle of…