White Collar Crime Essays Examples

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White Collar Entrepreneurial Crime Allen Stanford Briefly

Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83471570

White Collar

Entrepreneurial Crime

Allen Stanford

Briefly describe the entrepreneurial crime you researched.

In 2009, the Antigua/Texas-based global financial group (which was made up several subsidiaries that were owned by the same investment firm) owned by R. Allen Stanford was charged with scamming their customers by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Stanford Financial Group was charged with fraud on the basis that they deceptively sold consumers over seven billion dollars in deposit certificates. The company advertised the CDs as safe investments to their clients yet they paid them a rate of return that was inconsistently higher than the market rate. The rate brought in many clients however the investments were not as safe as they were advertised. Instead of backing the investments with safe assets, the company used the funds to invest in high-risk mortgage funds and other risky investments. The sentencing memorandum after Stanford was convicted reads as follows:

Robert Allen Stanford is a ruthless predator responsible for one of the most egregious frauds in history, and he should be sentenced to the statutory maximum sentence of 230 years' imprisonment. For more than twenty years, Stanford orchestrated an epic, multibillion dollar fraud to indulge an extraordinarily lavish lifestyle and…… [Read More]

Drawbaugh, K., & Aubin, D. (2012, July 30). Analysis: A decade on, is Sarbanes-Oxley working? Retrieved from Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/30/us-financial-sarbox-idUSBRE86Q1BY20120730

Henning, P. (2012, June 11). Viewing Financial Crimes as Economic Homicide. Retrieved from DealB%k: http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/06/11/viewing-financial-crimes-as-economic-homicide/?ref=stanfordfinancialgroup
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Crime 21st Century White Collar If True

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29446192

crime 21st century white collar. If true, major type cybercrime? How safeguard ? 2.MIT, prestigious universities world, began sharing online content free class ten years ago (2000).

White collar crimes focus on the concept of deception as a primary tool to harm the social order. Even though it does not involve violence, it typically concentrates on identity theft, online fraud, and bank account theft. In order for people to be able to counterattack such crimes, it is essential for the authorities to provide extensive education meant to assist people to differentiate between actions that are likely to turn them into a victim of cybercrimes and actions that are not.

Cyber ethics is not a common concept among cybercriminals and this means that the masses need to be able to protect themselves by adopting attitudes that decrease the chances of them falling victim to online scams. People need to understand that "the internet is the crime scene of the 21st century" (White Collar Crime in 2011: The Martin Act, Cybercrime, and Beyond). The online environment provides criminals with a series of tools that they can use with the purpose of achieving their goals. Although the authorities have opened a series of…… [Read More]

Burns, Jan, "Build Your Online Community: Blogging, Message Boards, Newsgroups, and More," (Enslow Publishers, Inc., 01.02.2011)

Edmunson, Mark, "The Trouble With Online Education," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/opinion/the-trouble-with-online-education.html?_r=0
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White Collar

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30117989

White Collar

Situation 1: A telephone marketer promises a solar-powered clothes dryer for $500 and then sends the buyer only a clothesline and clothes pins.

The degree of responsibility depends on the exact transcript of the telephone marketing conversation. Assuming the marketer promised only a "solar-powered clothes dryer," and the buyer asked for no details, then the responsibility rests firmly with the buyer. The buyer should likely realize their stupidity and perhaps commit suicide as a result.

To deceive someone in this way would not be a crime in any state, because the product does deliver as promised. A clothesline and pins are technically solar-powered drying apparati. One should hope that the line and clips are of the best possible quality on the market and will never degrade.

Caveat emptor always applies. No one forces a consumer to purchase anything. Taking personal responsibility is an art that many Americans have forgotten. Marketing is an integral part of business, and businesses will do whatever they can to sell products. As long as there is no outright lie, then marketing may be as aggressive as the business is comfortable with. Lying is crossing the line. If this company's marketer sent a photo…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Benston, L. (n.d.). Caesars responsible gaming. Retrieved online:  http://www.aswexler.com/las-vegas-sun 

"What is dram shop action?" Rottenstein. Retrieved online: http://www.rotlaw.com/legal-library/what-is-a-dram-shop-action/
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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. Rational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

Rational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different needs and goals. "The variety of reasons in which one offends can be based on a variety of personal needs, including: greed, revenge, need, anger, lust, jealousy, thrills, and vanity," (Dechant, 2009).

According to Turner (1991), rational choice theory is based on the assumption that human beings are "purposive and…… [Read More]

Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society found itself in need of an alternative to the social disorganization perspective of criminology. Hirschi observed that social institutions such as organized religion, the family, and educational institutions have lost their appeal for young people with the arrival of rock and roll, drugs, and the civil rights movement. These trends…… [Read More]

Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
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Crime & the Treatment of

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10798349

Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.

Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example, the Federal system passed laws for "Truth in sentencing," and then most states followed suit. A "life sentence" is now a "life in prison with no possibility of parole" sentence. In many states parole has been effectively abolished.

Today there are about 2.1 million people in prison, the highest prison…… [Read More]

Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.

Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,
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Crime and Criminals

Words: 498 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39578061

Pictorial description of the criminal

Responses on the criminal description obtained show that a criminal is an individual who is.

1. Dirty and crazy

2. Dirty sloppy - messy

3. Sociopathic

4. Dirty, twisted

5. My rapist, his face is exactly what I see when I see any crime, brawn hair, gross.

6. Kids who did not have a good upbringing, living with parents addicted to drugs.

7. Mentally unstable and dirty

8. Shady looking individual

9. Dirty living in poor properties in underdeveloped cities

10. Sociopathic, strong, and dirty

Among the responses above, it is observed that a criminal individual is likely to be untidy with an unstable mine. This is observable from the respondents saying the likely image they have is that of a person who is dirty and crazy. Since the most observed crimes are those that go against moral teachings in the society, it is likely that the person who undertakes such activities will possess negative characters of a normal human being. The understanding and conception of human being is that a normal person well dressed and tidy will not undertake criminal activities.

From these responses, it is understood that human being have a pre-conceived notion…… [Read More]

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Crime Is a Social Phenomenon

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38278426

Crime a Socially Constructed

One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (Rosenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and ethical standing of the perpetrator and the offended (Rosenfeld, 2009).

Beliefs and values, and social conditioning assert that the definition of deeds, conducts and occurrences are not held as to their actual values but are regarded as to the standards given to them via communal interactions. Implying that, they are…… [Read More]

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Crime Theories Comparison Social Organization

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7198572

Unlike the previous theories, social process theories explain criminal behavior on more microsociological terms. The emphasis of social process theories are not on the institutions, but on the relationships formed between individual family members, peer groups, teachers, church leaders and other agents of socialization.

The key concept of all social process theories is based on learning. Sociologists have believed that individuals learn social values and norms from agents of socialization. Thus, if those agents engage in behavior that is deviant or criminal, then there is a greater chance for an individual to engage in similar behavior.

Edwin Sutherland, the father of American criminology, is one of the greatest exemplars of social process theory. Though his theory of differential association was devised largely to explain white collar crime, many of the pronouncements are also applicable to violent crime. In response to psychologists who tried to explain criminal behavior in terms of psychosis, Sutherland's differential association theory believed that like much of behavior, engaging in criminal activities is part of the social learning process (Sutherland 1983).

Social process theories further believe that criminal behavior is learned through interaction with other members of the community, most likely through communication by an individual's "significant…… [Read More]

Shaw, C. & H. McKay. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: Univ. Press.

Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Crime Discuss Reasons Crime Increased Todays Society

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83252970

crime discuss reasons crime increased todays society. (Submit a 500

Crime is a transgression of the law on the part of a person or an organization. In order for a crime to be committed, there has to be some formal law enacted which prohibits an action or an occurrence. Furthermore, that law has to then be transgressed for a crime to take place. One of the main areas of crime is violent crime. Violent crime occurs when individuals act aggressively or hostilely towards one another, and choose to inflict corporal pain and punishment. This sort of crime can take place virtually anywhere. In the United States, for example, violent crime occurs fairly regularly in urban environments. Common types of violent crime include shootings, stabbings, and physical violence in the form of fighting.

Violent crime is actually stratified into blue collar crime, which is crime committed by working class people. Working class people generally commit crimes because of some deficiency in their lives. Such deficiencies may include dearth of food, income, shelter, etc. Other than violent crime, examples of blue collar crime include selling drugs, robbery or armed robbery, and human trafficking or pimping and pandering and prostitution.

Another major stratification…… [Read More]

Valdmanis, T. (2008). "Senate report blasts SEC's Enron oversight." USA Today. Retrieved from  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/banking/2002-10-06-sec_x.htm
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Crime Causation I Uploaded Material Text Choose

Words: 1497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36667190

Crime Causation

I uploaded material text choose theory unit 3, unit 4. Reference: Seigel L.J. (2011). Criminology: The core (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Examine major theories crime causation. Use materials text / resources support crime occurs theories.

Sociologists and psychologists alike have over the years attempted to create theories that explain why people commit crime in the U.S. As well as the rest of the world. There have been several questions that have lingered in the minds of the scholars one of which has been on what the major theories reveal about the patterns of crime and how they contribute to tactics of combating crime. Crime is extremely complex and trying to explain it in a single theory is next to impossible. This is because crime ranges from the savage violent acts and the white collar crimes that are highly sophisticated. On the other hand, crime can be conducted by one person alone or by a highly organized syndicate of criminals. It is for this reason that even the most sophisticated of theories has failed to explain the existence of criminal behavior. Many criminologists have debated on their opinions of the analysis of crime patterns. However, none of…… [Read More]

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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565


On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a Rite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking a useful or accurate theoretical basis. In fact, when considering these events, including the shooting and community response, in the context of two different criminological theories, it becomes clear that more critical approaches, like Marxist criminology, can provide more accurate explanations for criminal events than theories which attempt to explain…… [Read More]

Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
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Discretion in Relation Emphasis to White

Words: 2897 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12556498

This is one of the reasons that the United States Supreme Court has noted the difficulty in distinguishing common crime from the "gray zone of socially acceptable and economically justifiable business conduct.

Prosecutors are not eager to 'overcriminalize' and the practice of too readily extending criminal law to areas of which it is not suited is known as "overcriminalization."

For these reasons, the statues of white-collar crimes are broad and fuzzy. And the task, therefore, of defining crime and penalties falls firstly to the prosecutors and then to the court. In the 1980s, the prosecutors read the white collar statutes broadly and the courts were expected to set the perimeters of criminal labiality. There is wide scope however of criminal liability under these white collar statutes.

Is this fair?

For decades, academicians have been calling for change in this, what they see, as unjust and partisan system. To them, the system contains at least two wrongs: Firstly, it places too much power in the hands of prosecutors. Secondly, the system invests prosecutors with the ability to accord differential treatment based upon partisan allegiances. The issues, back and forth about the fairness or unfairness of the discretionary system are febrile and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bureau of Justice Statistics, United States Department of Justice, Dictionary of Criminal Justice Data Terminology 215, 1981

Justia. U.S. Supreme Court "Braswell v. United States, 487 U.S. 99, 115," 1988
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Criminal Justice Lobbyists and White

Words: 2184 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89867024

But there more to the personal side for Duke Cunningham, for doling out contracts was more than a matter of choosing the most qualified and lowest priced as mandated by federal rules. It was also a matter of choosing the contractor that could provide the most for him. The white collar criminal always looks to personal advantage. Lobbyists, like the now-convicted Mitchell Wade, helped steer paying clients to Cunningham. In exchange for a $21 million dollar contract from the Department of Homeland Security, a limousine company also furnished personal services to the Congressman, including the transport of "escorts" for Cunningham's personal pleasure. (Rozen, 2006)

Cunningham also pleaded guilty to accepting $2.4 million dollars in bribes from actual defense contractors. The congressman actively sought out contacts in the defense world, boasting that, "I feel fortunate to represent the nation's top technological talent in the 'black' world.... [and] appreciated the opportunity to work with you on key service funding priorities." (Rozen, 2006)

More disturbing still was the fact that Cunningham and his lobbyist friends appeared determine to collect their financial windfall regardless of the actual consequences for national security. One company to which the Congressman awarded a contract, MZM, Inc. - founded,…… [Read More]


Grigg, W.N. (2006, February 6). Power Brokers: Jack Abramoff Brought Together Corrupt Politicians, the Criminal Underworld, and the Global Power Elite. The New American, 22, 21+.
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Gender and Crime

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31654235

Gender and Crime

How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- Radical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.

The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate causes of crime are the law. This is from them feeling that they are restricting the actions of everyone and how they favoring one group in society over everyone else. ("Feminist Perspective on Work and Class," 2010) (Elwood, 2004)

As a result, the life experiences of women will impact how…… [Read More]

Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/ 

Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
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Organized Crime and Its Influence

Words: 15157 Length: 48 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46653779

Organized Crime has been witnessed to prosper with the infiltration on legitimate businesses in a way that they associate themselves in order to steal from the host. Organized crime organizations execute such activities in order to generate income, sweep profits, achieve more power, and launder wealth (Abadinsky, 2009).

The crimes that are committed by the individuals that are employed in the legitimate corporations are particularly known as white collar crimes. A white collar crime is another salient aspect of organized crime, which is constantly growing at an accelerated pace in the current times. Embezzlement, fraud, and theft are the key characteristics that define the white collar crime, usually executed by the employees working within the organization (Edwards & Gill, 2006).

However, it has also been monitored that nowadays the members of the organized crime enterprises embed themselves into multinational and giant corporations so that they can create substantial revenues through risking on the investments such as narcotics trafficking. Through this approach, where money is transferred swiftly on a global scale, it has transmitted the illicit excise duties and made it into legitimate accounts with the manipulation of the system (Edwards & Gill, 2006).

According to some schools of thoughts, organized…… [Read More]

Abadinsky, H. (2009). Organized Crime. 9th Edition. USA: Cengage Learning.

Albanese, J.S. (2010). Organized Crime: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. USA: Oxford University Press.
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Categorizing Crimes Against Persons and Crimes Against Property

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074583

Categorizing Crimes:

Criminal law basically classifies crime into various categories that dictates the kind of criminal act, the mental condition, and the extent of punishment. The most common categories of crime are crime against persons, white-collar crimes, and crimes against property. Moreover, crime is further categorized by the selected punishment for the offense such as misdemeanor, felony, and petty misdemeanor. A felony is regarded as the most serious offense that is punishable by imprisonment exceeding one year while misdemeanors are offenses that are punishable by imprisonment of a maximum of one year. This is primarily because they are less serious crimes that do not involve incarceration in prison (Schneider, n.d.). Actually, almost all misdemeanor sentences are usually served in a local or county jail. In contrast, petty misdemeanors are crimes that do not need imprisonment such as that are always punishable by a fine.

Crimes against Persons and Crimes against Property:

Crimes against persons are the most serious offenses because they involve physical harm to another individual (Schneider, n.d.). As a result, this category of crimes is also referred to as violent crimes to an extent that a huge percentage of these offenses are felonies. Some major examples of crimes…… [Read More]

Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm

"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf
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Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10016462

Sociological Theories of Crime

There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do people obey the rules at all? Why don't more people break the law?

His answers include what other theorists would reply to that question. The "choice theorist" would answer that question by saying people fear getting punished for wrongdoing (Siegel, 248). The "structural theorists" would observe, "…obedience is a function…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John
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Measuring Crime

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85722559

Measuring Crime

During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime Reporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based Reporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points out, there are also instruments used to measure crime at the state and local level, as well as state and local level crime reporting programs. Some local jurisdictions like major metropolitan areas require their own means of data gathering and analysis.

Crime rates refer to the number of reported offences…… [Read More]

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Social Marketing Plan Stop Crime Be a

Words: 3285 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30386786

Social Marketing Plan

Stop Crime, Be a Human first

Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).

According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar jobs with the latter occupying the vast majority of the official positions despite being the lesser population. This precipitates a very dangerous state where the poor black South Africans, who are the majority, keep targeting the minority rich whites for their money. This has seen many racially motivated killings and…… [Read More]

SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at  http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm  (Accessed 18 May 2011)

BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FBI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, Budapest, and Moscow. The investigation was initiated in 1993 after the FBI was alerted to Ivankov's presence in the United States by the Russian Ministry of the Interior (MVD)" (2003) According to Ashley, Ivankov and five other individuals were arrest by the FBI in June, 1994 and in June 1996 Ivankov…… [Read More]

Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
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Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an

Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6186798

The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (Ramchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors of the article generally assume that this assumption is valid, although it could be argued that even this is a relatively arbitrary distinction and unfairly penalizes certain groups that may be more apt to engage in specific types of crimes (like car-jacking vs. white-collar crime, or selling crack vs. cocaine)…… [Read More]

Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved: