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White Collar Crime
Theoretical Perspectives of Criminal Behavior
Three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior have historically prevailed. These models include psychological models of criminality, sociological models of criminality, and biologically -- based models of criminal behavior. Each of these models suggests different ideologies and different methods of control for criminal behavior; however, there is quite a bit of overlap in each one.
Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior
Psychology is a broad discipline that involves many subcategories. In general psychological theories of criminal behavior share several core fundamental assumptions (Mischel 1968). First, in psychological theories of behavior the primary unit of analysis is the individual. Secondly, psychological theories of behavior typically describe personality as the driving unit of behavior within people. Third, social consensus defines normal standards of behavior. Fourth, criminal behaviors result from aspects of the personality that are either dysfunctional, abnormal, or inappropriate. Criminal behaviors may address certain…
Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. (2008). Available at: http://www.acfe.com/uploadedFiles/ACFE_Website/Content/documents/2008-rttn.pdf .
American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Benson, M.L. And Simpson S.S. (2009). The white-collar crime, an Opportunity Perspective. London: Routledge.
Brody, R.G., Melendy, S. And Perri, F.S. 2012. Commentary from the American Accounting Association's 2011 Annual Meeting Panel on Emerging Issues in Fraud Research Accounting Horizons. Accounting Horizons 26(3), pp. 513-531.
White Collar Crimes
The paper focuses on specific aspects of white collar crime. The paper primarily focuses on answering two questions directly related to white collar crime. The first question is a comparative analysis focusing on the laws on white collar crime within the United States and other countries. The question also analyzes the extent of operative power to counter the white collar crimes and strictly apply the laws and regulations between the two chosen countries. The second question takes the analysis a little further and focuses specifically on methods of practical enforcement between the two countries as well as the possible variations that might exist in the two countries in the social stigma and punishment related to white collar crimes in both countries.
USA and UK -- White Collar Crime egulations
The countries, USA and UK, have strict laws against white collar crimes and do tend to…
Blumberg & Associates (2012). Penalties of White Collar Crime, p. Accessed from: http://www.azblumberglaw.com/CM/FSDP/PracticeCenter/Criminal-Law/White-Collar-Crime.asp?focus=topic&id=4
Croall, H. (2001). Understanding White Collar Crime. Biddles Limited, Guildford and Kings Lynn, p. 123-139.
Friedrichs, D.O., (2010). Trusted Criminals (4th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson Learning, p. 253-273.
White Collar Crime: Identifying Valid Deterrents for White Collar Criminals
ecent studies suggest that white collar crime is on the rise (Chayet, Waring & Weisburg, 2001; ecine, 2002). Many stereotypical beliefs regarding white collar criminals have been debunked over time as researchers start understanding what white collar crime is and who it effects.
White collar crime affects all communities regardless of affluence, demographics, social factors or other considerations. White collar crime comes in many forms. Some traditional examples include bank fraud, blackmail, bribery, credit card fraud, extortion and more. The intent of this research is to examine what factors contribute to white collar crime and what action law enforcement officials can take to effectively deter criminals and protect citizens from fraud related to this type of crime.
The term "white collar crime" was first used by Edwin Sutherland in 1939 as he addressed the American Sociological Society (Chayet, Waring…
Chayet, E.F., Waring, E & Weisburd, D. (2001). White-collar crime and criminal careers. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Poveda, T.G. (1994). Rethinking white-collar crime. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Recine, J.S. (2002). "Examination of the white collar crime penalty enhancements in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act." American Criminal Law Review, 39(4):1535.
hite Collar Crime:
hen most people think of white collar crime today, they think of Enron and Martha Stewart -- or of a nebulous idea of a kind of crime that only the "upper class" or the very powerful occasionally engage in. However, white collar crime is actually pervasive across all sectors of American society. Although many might imagine that white collar crime is essentially "victimless" in comparison to other criminal acts, this is far from the case. Not only are billions of dollars illegally gained (and lost) to the activities associated with the concept, but entire lives are often destroyed in the process.
"hite-collar crime" as a concept was coined in a 1939 speech presented by Edwin Sutherland at the American Sociological Society (LII, 2004). During the speech, Sutherland explained that this type of crime is one "committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the…
Hurst, Charles. (2003). "Social Inequality Forms, Causes, and Consequences." 5th Edition. Pearson: London.
LII, Legal Information Institute. (2004). "White Collar Crime: An Overview." Retrieved from web site on October 4, 2004, from, http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/white_collar.htmlwhite-collar crime: an overview
Rasmussen, Hanna. (2004). "Insider Trading." Retrieved from web site on October 4, 2004, from, http://economics.about.com/cs/finance/a/insider_trading.htm
Valenti, Catherine. (2004). "With Insider Trading, The Key Is Who Knew What and How They Knew It." Retrieved from web site on October 4, 2004, from, http://abcnews.go.com/sections/business/DailyNews/insidertrading_020624.htmlThe
White collar crime is one of the most controversial subjects in America today. With the recent conviction of home-economics guru Martha Stewart for white-collar-crime related issues, the subject has only become more high profile. As white-collar crimes are continually portrayed in the media, the public can only conclude that white collar crime is a serious problem in American businesses.
White collar crime is not necessarily limited to businesses, but can also rear its head in elected governments. In a March 05 article on Philly.com, Warner, Einhorn and Davies describe the many of the legal aspects of an ongoing corruption probe of Philadelphia city hall officials. In the article, the authors note that the Street administration has hired a staggering 14 private law firms to represent city interests in an ongoing corruption probe. From this information, Warner, Einhorn and Davies suggest that as many as 12 city officials may be implicated…
Warner, Bob, Einhorn, Erin and Davies, Dave. 14 Law Firms Reap Bugging Biz. Posted on Fri, Mar. 05, 2004. 08 March 2004. http://www.philly.com/mld/dailynews/news/local/8111509.htm
White Collar Crimes
he first definition states that this is an illegal act committed via non-physical means by guile to gain personal advantage. his definition's drawback is that it belittles white collar crimes; that harm people physically and psychology and arouses concern in the society. he other is divided into two parts; occupational crime which are committed by individuals to promote their personal interests and corporate crime committed by organizations executives to benefit the company (Sutherland, 1949).
White Collar Crime over Elite Deviance
he application of deviance in the realms of white collar generates several fundamental problems. Deviance is associated with individuals such as alcoholics and mentally ill. White collar offenders are fully integrated into the society and are perceived as normal without any disorders. White collar crime offenders are in conformance with occupational norms, rather than deviating; deviance is characterized by peer group conformity but in the white collar…
The price tags attached to some white collar crimes are so huge that they are difficult to comprehend. For example, the price of bailing out a single corrupt savings and loan institution surpassed the total of all the bank robberies in American history; making the public aware that engaging in white crime is serious just as other crimes. Recent Data Processing Management Association reports that computer crime loss to banks is higher than $500,000 has made the public know that white collar crime is serious and damaging than most crimes.
White Collar Crime Victims
Most individuals have a mistaken belief that they are immune from scams thus harboring the notion that white collar victims deserve their fate. The most disturbing fact is that white collar crimes are not perceived as criminal offenses but simple bad judgment on the part of victims, by both the general public and by the victims themselves (Leap, 2007). Besides, some victims
White Collar Crimes
The extent of damage that the application of imperialistic conquests, warfare or threat of nuclear power can have on the psyche, finances and structure of the weaker countries of the world is devastating. All concepts merely aim to use force to take from the weaker states. The imperialistic conquest is a form of white collar crime because while it does not really endanger the lives of the civilians under control of the imperial government, but it does however deprive them of enjoying the fruits of their labor. On the other hand, the perception with most imperialist takeovers is that the countries taken over don't have the structure to make the best use of their utilities so foreign takeover is necessary to provide structure i.e. It does not necessarily constitute as a white collar crime.
Warfare and the threat/use of nuclear power are violent crime as…
Strader, J.K. (2002). Understanding White Collar Crime. Matthew Bender & Company, Inc.
White Collar Crime Theories, Laws and Processes
Explain white collar crime in terms of various theories related to criminology and crime.
A white collar crime is an illegal and unethical act that violates public trust (Friedrichs, 2010). Common examples include misrepresentation, stealing, misappropriation, self-dealing, and corruption (Echols & ichardson, 2011). Most are crimes of opportunity and hold similar characteristics to corporate crime -- fraud, insider trading and other illegal acts of a financial nature. A "white collar" prosecutor or defense attorney, for example, would most likely define "white collar crime" as crime that does not necessarily involve force against a person or property; involve narcotics; relate to organized crime activities; relate to such national policies as immigration, civil rights, and national security; or involve "vice crimes" or the common theft of property (Minkes, 2010). Many white collar criminals are first time offenders.
There are several basic theories in which white…
Braithwaite, J. (2010). Diagnostics of white-collar crime prevention. Criminology & Public Policy, 9(3), 621-626. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00655.x.
Echols, R.L., & Richardson, E.J. (2011). White-Collar Defense. Tennessee Bar Journal, 47(12), 14-20.
Friedrichs, D. (2010). Trusted Criminals: White collar Crime In contemporary Society. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Minkes, J. (2010). Silent or invisible?. Criminology & Public Policy, 9(3), 467-473. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00642.x.
In an environment where violent crimes outweigh white-collar crimes, the prosecutor will allocate his resources to fighting violent crimes. esource availability thus determines how many cases will be pursued by the prosecutor's office. The prosecutor may also evaluate the type of crime affecting an area. This will enable the office to pursue a tougher sentence for the crimes in the area. The increase in white-collar crimes has forced the prosecutor's office to increase resources allocated to white-collar crime.
Political influence also plays a role in the crimes pursued by the prosecutor's office. A case attracts public interest may be pursued by the prosecutor to ensure that the public is satisfied. The prosecutor is likely to allocate resources to find evidence against a defendant accused of defrauding a public company. This will ensure that the credibility of the prosecutor's office is maintained. Political pressure on the office of the prosecutor may…
Bazley, T. (2008). Investigating white collar crime. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Boyes, W., & Melvin, M. (2008). Microeconomics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Friedrichs, D.O. (2010). Trusted criminals: White collar crime in contemporary society. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Gottschalk, P. (2010). White-collar crime: Detection, prevention and strategy in business enterprises. Boca Raton: Universal Publishers.
White-Collar Crime and Public Order Crime
The objective of this study is to distinguish between white-collar crime and public order crime. The differences will be explained between the two crimes. As well, two statutes and two cases will be located with one statute and case illustrating white-collar crime and one case and statute illustrating public order crime. The cases and statutes will be summarized noting the elements of the crimes and the requisite for criminal burden of proof. Possible defenses to the selected crime will be assessed and this study will conclude with an explanation on why these statues and case law interpretations are important for the criminal justice professional to understand.
White-collar crime is reported as not being "an official legal crime category. Individuals are arrested and prosecuted for specific crimes such as forgery, fraud, or embezzlement." (United States Department of Justice, nd, p.2) The term 'white-collar crime'…
White-Collar Crime (nd) United States Department of Justice. Retrieved from: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/to-wcc.pdf
Crimes Against Public Order (2013) Legal Match Law Library. Retrieved from: http://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/crimes-against-public-order.html
The Code of Alabama 1975 (2013) Section 13A-9-45: FALSIFYING Business RECORDS. Retrieved from: http://alisondb.legislature.state.al.us/acas/codeofalabama/1975/coatoc.htm
The Code of Alabama 1975 (2013) Section 13A-5-4 Article 1 Designation of Offenses. Retrieved from: http://alisondb.legislature.state.al.us/acas/codeofalabama/1975/coatoc.htm
This law contributed to the development of the white-collar crimes since it was yet another restriction on the operation of the employers.
MODULE 6/DISCUSSION 2 -- egulatory System and White Collar Crime
What are the principal differences and points of intersection between private policing and public policing?
It is often difficult to differentiate between the two since private police often behave like the public police. The point intersection arises from the reasoning that both of the two are contained in the criminal justice field making the two inevitable for the security of individuals in the society. The differences only arise when exploring their activities and responsibilities. Private policing, in the white-collar crime arena, is a form of crime prevention detection and apprehension provided by the private organization or agents for commercial purpose (Friedrichs, 2010). The elite would have rather used the private police forces in protecting them while they committed…
Friedrichs, D.O. (2010). Trusted criminals: White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
White-Collar Crime Discussion
White-collar crime differs significantly from street crime. In addition to having varying punishments and penalties, each classification of crime in this case has unique targets. It should, however, be noted that in most cases, both classifications of crime tend to be intentional and well-planned.
Impact of White-Collar Crime
According to Edwin H. Southerland (as cited in Vito, Maahs, and Holmes, 2005, p. 411), a white-collar crime could be defined as "a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation." The perpetrator of white-collar crime could, therefore, be an accountant, professional banker, fund manager, etc. In most cases, white-collar crime is motivated by, amongst other things, financial gain. According to Vito, Maahs, and Holmes (2005, p. 412), "white-collar offenses are as harmful to the public as street crimes."
To individuals, white-collar crimes could lead to financial turmoil, extreme stress,…
Davies, P., Francis, P. & Greer, C. (Eds.). (2012). Victims, Crime, and Society. London: SAGE Publications.
DiMarino, F.J. & Roberson, C. (2013). Introduction to Corporate and White-Collar Crime. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Ferguson, J.E. (2010). White-Collar Crime. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.
Titus, M.R. & Gover, A.R. (2004). Personal Fraud: The Victims and the Scams. Crime Prevention Studies, 12(1), 133-151.
White Collar Crimes
There are two major categories of crime majorly grouped into 'blue collar' and 'White Collar' crimes. The blue collar usually involves violence and of interest here is the 'white collar' which is usually found among the well educated and informed people in the society. The white collar crimes are mainly committed by the upper educated class through the pen and paper, do not involve a lot of violence and may not necessarily involve crimes against humanity. But the blue collar crimes are predominantly violent crimes that may involve serious injuries or even death. They do not require much educational intelligence to commit and are common among the poorer population of the society (Gonzales J.D., 2011).
One such case that has of late attracted the attention of the media with its beginning being in 2009 and the conclusion being this month is the case of od Blagojevich, who…
The criminal acts within those legitimate realms continue to be more familiar and ongoing. When there are rampage on the WCCs and Organized crimes, the line existing between them and other groups they infiltrate in will definitely start blurring resulting to illegal corporations and to states that are rogue.
The other reason is that WCCs and organized crimes are both money motivated. This means that, the two crimes are committed for money, but it is usually true that, the crimes that are committed for money cannot be all as a result of WCCs and organized crime. However, crimes such as violence and infractions of laws usually occur due to monetary acquisition even though they could be they are not part of the organized crime. This still shows how it may be very hard to differentiate WCCs from organized crimes in 21st century (Baker, 2004).
The other issue making this difficult…
Baker, J.S., (2004). The Sociological Origins of "White-Collar Crime. Conservative Policy Research and Analysis. Retrieved September 27, 2012 from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2004/10/the-sociological-origins-of-white-collar-crime
Rosenzweig, P., (2002). Sentencing and Enforcement of White Collar Crimes. Conservative Policy Research and Analysis. Retrieved September 27, 2012 from http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/sentencing-and-enforcement-of-white-collar-crimes
White Collar Crimes
A white collar crime can be simply defined as the framework that instigates immoral actions that don't always endanger lives but do harm the society in one way or another (Freidrichs, 2010). The aspects or factors that might thus be considered by white collar theories to validate a crime as a white collar crime include the following:
It is defined illegal: no act if officially legal or illegal till there is a law in place for it defining it as such.
It involves human input: any and all white collar crimes involve an input of a human to be conceived and completed. All human inputs that are considered factors of the white collar crimes are harmful to the society at some level and are thus countered either on a state/legal level or through informal structure of cultural norms or standards.
It is a mental phenomenon:…
Friedrichs, D.O., (2010). Trusted Criminals (4th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson Learning.
Hall, S., Winlow, S. And Ancrum, C. (2008) Criminal Identities and Consumer Culture, London: Willan/Routledge.
Slattery, Martin (2003). Key Ideas In Sociology. Nelson Thornes.
White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society
Assessment of the objectivity and likely competence of trial juries in white collar crime cases
The biggest and most important aspect of trial juries in white collar crimes is the personal likeness towards an individual or a prospect that sways their judgment. There is a lot of speculation on a trial jury's personal traits and trends of prior judgments that can allow the court to understand even before the case starts on how the jury will most likely vote. This hampers a complete objective decision; as, even if the majority of the jury members in a trial do end up taking complete objective decisions, there are always one or two sway votes that are not bound to be completely objective (Friedrichs, 2010). Furthermore, there is also significant skepticism with regards to whether or not the modern structures of crime are baffling the modern trial…
Australian Institute of Criminology. (2012). Welcome to the Australian Institute of Criminology. Accessed 20-10-12 from: http://www.aic.gov.au/
Friedrichs, D.O., (2010). Trusted Criminals (4th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson Learning, p. 326-330.
Moore, H.A. And Gerecke, E.F. (1996). Qualitative Research, Thematic Development and Jury Selection in Mass Tort Litigation. Accessed 20-10-12 from: http://trialpractice.com/PDFs/QualitativeResearch.pdf
Rafsanjani, N. (2010). SLAPP Back: Transcript. ON THE MEDIA (onthemedia.org). WNYC (National Public Radio, PBS). Accessed 20-10-12 from: http://www.onthemedia.org/2010/apr/02/slapp-back/transcript/
Other tactics are harsh condemnation, and selective penal measures to these white collar crimes to enhance voluntary compliance.
By promoting a culture of trust, and offering incentives for avoiding white collar crimes, is efficient in addressing these crimes. Additional training of the law enforcement personnel, additional funding, and rewarding frameworks is a necessity. In addition to this, the judge requires extra options, and resources to enable them take effective judgement against these white collar offenders.
esponding and challenging white collar crimes is a high priority in the society. Although resolving the tension between progressive and pragmatic, idealists, and realists are not an easy dilemma to resolve, adoption of the position can describe a progressive pluralism, which entails going against white collar crimes using two approaches at the same time. In one approach, individuals create a much broader consciousness of the effects from white collar crimes. This enables undertaking the cultural,…
Responding and challenging white collar crimes is a high priority in the society. Although resolving the tension between progressive and pragmatic, idealists, and realists are not an easy dilemma to resolve, adoption of the position can describe a progressive pluralism, which entails going against white collar crimes using two approaches at the same time. In one approach, individuals create a much broader consciousness of the effects from white collar crimes. This enables undertaking the cultural, and structural change necessary for substantial reduction of white collar crimes. The other simultaneous approach involves addressing the immediate white collar crimes challenge with a significant mixture of persuasion and punishment. Methods of responding to challenges of white collar crimes are initiating a wide range demonstrably efficient sanctions on the culprits behind these criminal cases. Others involve any other effective means of enhancing self-regulation.
Responding to White Collar Crimes Using Structural transformation
There is a view that human nature is corrupt. This view stresses that no human intervention can affect the impulses that enhance the white collar crimes commission. In another optimistic viewpoint, a substantial reduction of the challenge from white collar crimes is possible but requires structural transformation of the society's economical, political, and cultural structure. James (2008) considers the fundamental repudiation of
White Collar Crime: The Influence of Societal Changes on Criminal Opportunities and the Nature of Crimes of Fraud
The process of globalization, coupled with the advent of the information age has had a significant influence on the nature of crime. For instance, the complexity and diversity of white collar crime has surpassed that of traditional street crime by far and it continues to cost the United States billions every year. Introduced by Edwin Sutherland in 1939, the term white collar crime refers to unethical or illegal acts committed by individuals or organizations, often during the course of legitimate occupational activities by persons of high social status and respectability, usually for organizational or personal gain (Friedrich, 2010 p. 6). In particular, fraud, which involves obtaining of another person's property through deception, is the most common type of white collar crime. The main distinguishing factors between fraud and traditional street crime is…
Albanese, J.S. (2005). Fraud: The characteristic crime of the twenty-first century. Trends in Organized Crime, 8(4), 6 -- 14. Retrieved 29 June 2015 from https://www.pravo.unizg.hr/_download/repository/Fraud_The_Characteristic_Crime_of_the_Twenty-First_Century.pdf
Benson, M.L.(1985). Denying the Guilty Mind: Accounting for Involvement in White - Collar Crime. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds.), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 241-254). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press. (Cromwell, Chapter 14)
Copes, H & Vieraitis, L.(2007). Identity Theft: Assessing Offenders' Motivations and Strategies. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds.), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 124-139). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press. (Cromwell, Chapter 8).
Friedrich, O.D. (2010). "Fraud." In T. Peikoff (Ed.), Trusted Criminals. (pp.48-57). Toronto, ON: Nelson Education Ltd.
White Collar Crime and Coal Companies
According to Black's Law Dictionary (1990), a "white collar crime" is the term "signifying various types of unlawful, nonviolent conduct committed by corporations and individuals including theft or fraud, and other violations of trust committed in the course of the offender's occupation" (p. 1596). The coal industry in the United States has been historically been characterized by such white collar crimes, many of which have only recently come to light. To this end, this paper provides an examination of how coal companies have evaded the law over the years, including practices such as filing bankruptcy and reorganizing to avoid pension and healthcare responsibilities, their practices on reclaiming the land, and others. A review of the safety regulations that govern the coal industry is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Background and Overview. Coal mining is an especially…
Buckley, G.L. (1998). The environmental transformation of an Appalachian valley, 1850-1906.
The Geographical Review, 88(2), 175.
Fishback, P.V. (1992). Soft coal, hard choices: The economic welfare of bituminous coal miners, 1890-1930. New York: Oxford University Press.
Laidler, H.W. (1931). Concentration of control in American industry. New York: Thomas Y.
white-collar crime. Specifically, it will focus on white-collar crime in America, including reasons why it occurs so frequently in the United States, and what business, industry, and the courts can do to combat it. White-collar crime is not a new idea in America, but it seems to have become even more prevalent in recent years. White-collar crime may not seem as harmful as other forms of violent crimes, but it seem to be more pervasive in a society that has become increasingly centered on money, possessions, and appearing affluent and successful. It is possible to control white-collar crime, but that control must begin in the colleges and courtrooms of America.
In the scheme of social history, the term "white-collar crime" is relatively new. Sociologist Edwin Sutherland actually coined the phrase in 1939 at an American Sociological Society conference (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001, p. 1). He used the phrase to…
Editors. (2005). Economic and high-tech crime papers, publications, reports. Retrieved from the National White-Collar Crime Center Web site: http://www.nw3c.org / 17 Aug. 2005.
Johnston, R. (2002, January). The battle against white-collar crime: "The exponential growth of technology and the use of computers have triggered a purposeful rethinking of the tools needed by law enforcement organizations to address Internet-related crime." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 36+.
Weisburd, D., Waring, E., & Chayet, E.F. (2001). White-collar crime and criminal careers. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
1 Identify and discuss some of the principal elements of E. H. Sutherland's contribution to the study of White Collar Crime and some of the limitations regarding his work.
Sutherland defined white collar crime as “crimes committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation,” and broke them into two types based upon: 1) the offender’s social status and, 2) the occupation/mechanism “by which the offense is committed” (Rosoff, Pontell & Tillman, 2003, p. 3). Sutherland argued that white collar criminals were of a higher class than regular blue collar criminals: they were more sophisticated and their crimes were not shown on the six o’clock news routinely the way blue collar crimes like murder, rape and theft routinely were. In other words, white collar crime was not as visible to the ordinary people on the street because the ordinary person is not of…
professions promote illegal conduct, and which attributes should inhibit it?
Professions such as law and medicine are enclosed vocations which set barriers to entry through educational requirements and other constraints. Members of the profession are subjected to additional ethical standards above and beyond that of the ordinary public. These standards are usually set by outside entities, such as professional associations as the AMA (American Medical Association), ABA (American Bar Association), and the various ethics committees of universities. It is perfectly possible for certain behaviors not to be illegal but to be unethical, and to result in the expulsion of the professional from such an association. This type of ethical scrupulousness by outside bodies should ideally promote more ethical behavior.
However, there are other aspects of membership in the professions which inhibit rather than promote ethical behavior. The inclusiveness of the professions can create a sense of needing to 'protect one's…
Ford Pinto and Corporate Crime
Experts on corporate crime such as David O. Friedrichs (1996) used to lament the lack of attention given to white collar crime. This was due to the mistaken assumption that unlike violent street crimes, white collar crimes were victimless and therefore, less harmful.
However, recent events such as the recent Firestone tire blowouts, the rollover of Ford's rollover vehicles and Enron Company's padding of profits and Arthur Anderson's creative accounting practices have generated new interest in white collar crime. The growing litigiousness of the American public and media coverage generated by product failures have likewise put more attention on what Rosoff, Pontell and Tillman (2002) label as "the other crime problem."
Friedrichs (1997) identifies three major types of white collar crime - government crime, occupational crime and finally, corporate crime.
This paper focuses on the issue of corporate crime through a close examination of the…
Adams, Guy B. And Balfour, Danny L. 1998. Unmasking Administrative Evil. London: Sage Publications.
Cullen, Francis T.; Makestaad, William J. And Gray Cavender. 1987. Corporate Crime Under Attack: The Ford Pinto Case and Beyond. Cincinnati: Anderson.
Dowie, Mark. 1977. "Pinto Madness." In The Ford Pinto Case: A Study in Applied Ethics. Douglas Birsch and John H. Fielder, eds. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994.
Friedrichs, David O. 1996. Trusted Criminals: White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society. New York: Wadsworth.
security manager prevent white collar crime. Guidance White collar crime vary definitions ensure critically response essay question. While spend long aspect, important clear definition adopt assignment.
White Collar Crime Prevention
The prevention of white collar crime is an important issue that organizations, whether public or private, are facing in their activity. The importance of white collar crime can be attributed to its effects. These types of crimes can determine financial effects, image disadvantages, or can threaten other people's jobs.
White collar crime definition
The "white collar crime" phrase was introduced in 1939 by Edwin Sutherland in a speech performed in front of American Sociological Society members. In that context, white collar crime was represented by crimes performed by respectable individuals with high social status within their occupation's activity (Cornell University, 2012). Currently, white collar crimes refer to a large range of nonviolent crimes committed for financial benefits, during commercial situations.…
1. White Collar Crime: An Overview (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved April 13, 2015 from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/white-collar_crime .
2. Vance, N. & Trani, B. (2008). Situational Prevention and the Reduction of White Collar Crime. The University of Arizona. Retrieved April 13, 2015 from http://sgpp.arizona.edu/sites/sgpp.arizona.edu/files/Situational%20Prevention%20and%20the%20Reduction%20of%20White%20Collar%20Crime%20by%20Dr.%20Neil%20R.%20Vance.pdf .
3. Green, L. (2001). How to Prevent White Collar Crime. Business New Haven. Retrieved April 13, 2015 from http://www.conntact.com/archive_index/archive_pages/484_Business_New_Haven.html .
4. Guide to Preventing Workplace Fraud (2006). KPMG. Retrieved April 13, 2015 from http://www.chubb.com/businesses/csi/chubb5305.pdf .
White Collar Crime
Corporations are considered fictional 'persons' under the law and they can, just like 'real' human persons, also perpetuate violence against individuals and against the community. An excellent example of this is environmental contamination. The consequences can be deadly, such as when individuals residing in a community contract cancer because of improper disposal of waste materials. Chemical corporations have a particularly notorious record in minimizing the harms from their products for self-interested reasons. Even when cancer is not directly caused by the violence, the quality of life (and property values) of nearby residents can be directly impacted by corporate indifference to human health. Air pollution, pollution from oil spills, and water pollution are all examples of such corporate violence (Friedrichs 2010: 66). Over time, the negative impact of such actions begins to affect a larger and larger community of individuals, as seen in the example of…
Friedrichs, David O. (2010). Trusted criminals. Wadsworth.
White Collar Crime
A grade fixing scandal emerged at William Cullen Bryant High School in Long Island City in 2015. The principal of the school, Namita Dwarka, had been adamant with teachers that they help students to pass so that they can meet their graduation quotas (Gonen, Edelman & Golding, 2015). Several teachers and some students began to speak out about the pressure they were getting from the principal. Mary Bozoyan was one of them. She blew the whistle on what became known as the grade fixing scandal at William Cullen Bryant. Her reward was retaliation from the principal (Edelman, 2015). This paper will describe the issues and criminal activity that really goes all the way up the chain of command to the Department of Education. The major issues concern falsifying student grades but more importantly the quid pro quo conditions placed on schools and states by the federal government,…
White-collar crime is a term that has existed since 1939 when it was introduced by Edwin Sutherland during his speech to the American Sociological Society. In the speech, he defined white-collar crime as an offense committed by an individual of high social status and respectability in the course of his/her occupation. These crimes also refer to financially motivated non-violent offenses carried out by governmental and business professionals. Despite the disagreements on what constitutes white-collar crime, the term has widely been used to incorporate various types of non-violent offenses that are conducted in commercial situations for a person's or an organization's financial gain. Law enforcement agencies have experienced numerous challenges in investigating and preventing most of these crimes since offenders use sophisticated methods to cover their activities through a range of complex dealings and transactions. Some of the most common types of white-collar crimes include ponzi schemes, bait and switch, charity-based…
Beaudrie, D. (n.d.). Charity Fraud. Retrieved May 26, 2014, from http://homesecurity.about.com/od/threats/fl/Charity-Fraud.htm
"Common Fraud Schemes." (n.d.). Scams & Safety. Retrieved from The Federal Bureau of Investigation website: http://www.fbi.gov/scams-safety/fraud
"Ponzi Schemes." (2013, August 20). Investment Scams. Retrieved from Australian Securities & Investments Commission website: https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/scams/investment-scams/ponzi-schemes
Root III, G.N. (n.d.). Examples of Bait & Switch Advertising. Retrieved May 26, 2014, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-bait-switch-advertising-10575.html
Categories of White Collar Crime
Categories of White-Collar Crime:
Best way to re-coup losses
Occupational crimes vs. vocational crimes comparison
Elements of political white-collar crime
The increase in white collar financial, political and cybercrime is observed. The extensive usage of technology for trading and business has also instigated escalation of cybercrime activities. The businesses and individuals are prone to numerous risks of financial losses through white collar crimes. The laws and regulation to reduce white collar internet crime should be improved and implemented. The process of recoup of losses for victims of cybercrime is complicated and time consuming. It requires adequate measures for dressing of the grievances. The involvement of political parties in personal and political white collar crimes are challenges for effective legal system. The economic conditions and lack of jobs leads to vocational crimes.
There are multiple types of white-collar crime and case law…
Chander, A., Gelman, L., & Radin, M.J. (2008). Securing privacy in the Internet age.USA: Stanford University Press.
Friedrichs, D.O. (2009). Trusted criminals: White collar crime in contemporary society. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Furnell, S. (2005). Computer insecurity: Risking the system. USA: Springer.
Herring, M.K. (2007).Fool's Gold: Why the Internet Is No Substitute for a Library. USA: McFarland Company Inc. Publishers.
security manager can do to prevent white collar crime.
hite collar crime and its prevention
The masses are often inclined to associate criminal behaviors with individuals who are socially and economically disadvantaged. However, individuals who are part of privileged socioeconomic communities are also likely to engage in criminal activities. "The types of crime may differ from those of the lower classes, such as lawyers helping criminal clients launder their money, executives bribe public officials to achieve public contracts, or accountants manipulating balance sheet to avoid taxes." (Gottschalk 11) Security practitioners experience much difficulty in dealing with white-collar crime because of the multitude of ways it differs from conventional crime.
hite collar crime
In spite of his or her privileged position, the white collar criminal is much more likely to be caught because of his or her social status, especially considering individuals who are public figures. Even with this, the fact…
Arvelund, E. 2009. "Madoff: The Man Who Stole $65 Billion." Penguin UK.
Braithwaite, J. "WHITE COLLAR CRIME," Retrieved February 17, 2014, from http://cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/criminology/Documents/braithwaite.pdf
Benson, M., & Simpson, S.S. (2009). "White Collar Crime: An Opportunity Perspective." Routledge
Fay, J. 2007. "Encyclopedia of Security Management." Butterworth-Heinemann.
Social class status is something that can be projected onto a person based on superficial external characteristics or the situations of one's life including neighborhood characteristics or national identity. From the status that is projected onto the person, an individual may internalize status and behave according to stereotypes, norms, and expectations. A community can contribute to the perpetuation of status attributions and stereotypes via the socialization process. Several of the readings show how social status, stigma, and socialization combine to influence a person's behavior, and how that behavior can be labeled or identified as being deviant or criminal.
One of the most important issues discussed in the readings related to socialization and crime is the article on white collar crime. White collar crime is more than just the specific acts like fraud or embezzlement because reactions to white collar crime reveal the importance of class status and socialization. White…
Anderson, E. (1997). Violence and the inner city code. In Charon, J. M., & Vigilant, L. G. (2012). Social problems: readings with four questions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Benavie, A. (2009). Drugs: America's Holy War. In In Charon, J. M., & Vigilant, L. G. (2012). Social problems: readings with four questions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Jones, A. (2006). Genocide. In In Charon, J. M., & Vigilant, L. G. (2012). Social problems: readings with four questions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Hypothetical Incident and Response
Investigating Fraud and Embezzlement in White Collar Crime
It is believed by the CEO of a medium-sized tech company that the CFO is engaged in the white collar crime of embezzlement. He is not sure why this is, but he has a gut feeling that the CFO—although well-liked by everyone—is doing something illegal. What has set him on edge about the CFO is that the company’s bank called while the CFO was on holiday and inquired about a check written to the CFO. The CEO could not say why such a check would be written to the CFO and all of a sudden it seemed that numerous red flags were visible: unexplained expenses charged to other units, for instance. Various units have made comments over the years that unexplained large expenses seemed to be charged to their units. Nothing was ever done because it seemed…
Chen, J. (2019). Forensic accounting. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/forensicaccounting.asp
Municipal Association of South Carolina. (2013). Internal controls to prevent fraud. Retrieved from https://www.masc.sc/Pages/resources/Internal-controls-key-to-preventing-fraud.aspx
Nemeth, C. P. (2019). Private Security and the Investigative Process, 4th Edition. Florida: CRC Press.
Sennewald, C. A. (2004). Security Consulting, 3rd Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Simple procedures can help, but not eliminate drift issues, and are quite low tech. First, depending on the wind and time of day, close the windows that face the field or prevailing wind. Add a fan to create a backdraft by pulling air through the home in the opposite direction of the drift. Once the spraying is done and the drift settled a bit, hose down nearby bushes, windows, the roof and outside of the house. At any signs of exposure, wash eyes with clear water and try to shower several times to remove as much of the potential chemical contamination as possible
Publicize -- Certainly public strikes, marches, and visible actions bring public scruitiny into the issue. Because a great deal of the problem lies in the California agricultural region, an organization was formed as a type of State and national clearinghouse for action, information, and change. This organization,…
Verification of Pesticide Drift Reduction Technologies. (2007, August). Retrieved June 23, 2010,
from Epa.gov: http://www.epa.gov/etv/pubs/600etv07024.pdf
Farm Workers and Allies Ask Government to Protect Kids. (2009, October 14). Retrieved June
25, 2010, from United Farm Workers: http://ufw.org/_board.php?mode=view&b_code=news_press&b_no=5763&page=2&field=&key=&n=615
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…
Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/
Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.
Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.
Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…
Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.
Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,
Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,
Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
Pictorial description of the criminal
Responses on the criminal description obtained show that a criminal is an individual who is.
1. Dirty and crazy
2. Dirty sloppy - messy
4. Dirty, twisted
5. My rapist, his face is exactly what I see when I see any crime, brawn hair, gross.
6. Kids who did not have a good upbringing, living with parents addicted to drugs.
7. Mentally unstable and dirty
8. Shady looking individual
9. Dirty living in poor properties in underdeveloped cities
10. Sociopathic, strong, and dirty
Among the responses above, it is observed that a criminal individual is likely to be untidy with an unstable mine. This is observable from the respondents saying the likely image they have is that of a person who is dirty and crazy. Since the most observed crimes are those that go against moral teachings in the society, it is likely…
Crime a Socially Constructed
One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…
Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime . Available: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0050.xml . Last accessed 9 Mar, 2015.
Henry. (2009). Social Construction of Crime. Available: http://www.sagepub.com/haganintrocrim8e/study/chapter/handbooks/42347_1.2.pdf . Last accessed 9 Mar 2015.
crime discuss reasons crime increased todays society. (Submit a 500
Crime is a transgression of the law on the part of a person or an organization. In order for a crime to be committed, there has to be some formal law enacted which prohibits an action or an occurrence. Furthermore, that law has to then be transgressed for a crime to take place. One of the main areas of crime is violent crime. Violent crime occurs when individuals act aggressively or hostilely towards one another, and choose to inflict corporal pain and punishment. This sort of crime can take place virtually anywhere. In the United States, for example, violent crime occurs fairly regularly in urban environments. Common types of violent crime include shootings, stabbings, and physical violence in the form of fighting.
Violent crime is actually stratified into blue collar crime, which is crime committed by working class people. Working…
Valdmanis, T. (2008). "Senate report blasts SEC's Enron oversight." USA Today. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/banking/2002-10-06-sec_x.htm
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…
Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.
Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.
Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
This is one of the reasons that the United tates upreme Court has noted the difficulty in distinguishing common crime from the "gray zone of socially acceptable and economically justifiable business conduct.
Prosecutors are not eager to 'overcriminalize' and the practice of too readily extending criminal law to areas of which it is not suited is known as "overcriminalization."
For these reasons, the statues of white-collar crimes are broad and fuzzy. And the task, therefore, of defining crime and penalties falls firstly to the prosecutors and then to the court. In the 1980s, the prosecutors read the white collar statutes broadly and the courts were expected to set the perimeters of criminal labiality. There is wide scope however of criminal liability under these white collar statutes.
Is this fair?
For decades, academicians have been calling for change in this, what they see, as unjust and partisan system. To them, the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics, United States Department of Justice, Dictionary of Criminal Justice Data Terminology 215, 1981
Justia. U.S. Supreme Court "Braswell v. United States, 487 U.S. 99, 115," 1988
Fallone, B (2012) "Prosecutorial Discretion in the John Doe Investigation" Marq. Univ. Law School blog. Web.
But there more to the personal side for Duke Cunningham, for doling out contracts was more than a matter of choosing the most qualified and lowest priced as mandated by federal rules. It was also a matter of choosing the contractor that could provide the most for him. The white collar criminal always looks to personal advantage. Lobbyists, like the now-convicted Mitchell Wade, helped steer paying clients to Cunningham. In exchange for a $21 million dollar contract from the Department of Homeland Security, a limousine company also furnished personal services to the Congressman, including the transport of "escorts" for Cunningham's personal pleasure. (ozen, 2006)
Cunningham also pleaded guilty to accepting $2.4 million dollars in bribes from actual defense contractors. The congressman actively sought out contacts in the defense world, boasting that, "I feel fortunate to represent the nation's top technological talent in the 'black' world.... [and] appreciated the opportunity to…
Grigg, W.N. (2006, February 6). Power Brokers: Jack Abramoff Brought Together Corrupt Politicians, the Criminal Underworld, and the Global Power Elite. The New American, 22, 21+.
Lanier, M.M., & Henry, S. (1998). Essential Criminology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Gender and Crime
How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.
The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…
Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/
Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Criminal law basically classifies crime into various categories that dictates the kind of criminal act, the mental condition, and the extent of punishment. The most common categories of crime are crime against persons, white-collar crimes, and crimes against property. Moreover, crime is further categorized by the selected punishment for the offense such as misdemeanor, felony, and petty misdemeanor. A felony is regarded as the most serious offense that is punishable by imprisonment exceeding one year while misdemeanors are offenses that are punishable by imprisonment of a maximum of one year. This is primarily because they are less serious crimes that do not involve incarceration in prison (Schneider, n.d.). Actually, almost all misdemeanor sentences are usually served in a local or county jail. In contrast, petty misdemeanors are crimes that do not need imprisonment such as that are always punishable by a fine.
Crimes against Persons and Crimes against…
Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm
"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf
Schneider, S.W. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.netplaces.com/paralegal/criminal-law/types-of-crimes.htm
"State v. Stewart." (n.d.). Justia.com -- U.S. Law. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://law.justia.com/cases/new-mexico/court-of-appeals/2005/f580-1c753-1cc91.html
Sociological Theories of Crime
There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.
Social Control Theory
According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…
Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John
Wiley & Sons.
Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…
"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…
Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf
Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:
In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).
Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.
However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.
Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…
John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:
McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA
Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
motivates people or corporations to partake in enterprise crime?
Among the peculiar aspects that come with business ethics, as in comparison with other domain names of applied ethics, is it handles a wide array of human matters which are more often than not stricken by serious criminality, as well as an institutional structure and atmosphere that is also oftentimes noticeably criminally inclined (Hilts, 2003). The oddity of the situation may also be lost on professionals within the area. It's quite common, for example, at business ethics discussions for most of presentations to become more concerned with straight-forward criminality and they tend to avoid ethical issues within these debates which are actually where we find frequent questions regarding where the correct strategy for countering crimes lies. In this way, all of the discussions of the 'ethics dilemmas' at the beginning of the twenty-first century continues to be very deceptive, since the…
Doris, J.: 2002, Lack of Character (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).
Friedrichs, D. O. And Schwartz, M.D. (2008). Low Self-Control and High Organizational Control: The Paradoxes of White Collar Crimes. In E. Goode (Ed.), Out of Control? Assessing the general theory of crime (pp. 145-159). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Heath, J. 2008, Business Ethics and Moral Motivation: A Criminological Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 83:595 -- 614.
Heath, J.: 2006, 'Business Ethics Without Stakeholders', Business Ethics Quarterly 16, 533 -- 557.
Computers in Solving Non-computer-Based Crime
This proposal for research involves a survey of law enforcement officials to determine how much they use computers as a tool to help solve crimes that are not committed by computer, such as murder and robberies. Using a questionnaire that utilizes a numerical scale for responses with opportunities for written comments as well, it will quantify the results and indicate areas for further research. Since little research has been done in this area, it should be considered a preliminary study.
Law enforcement has traditionally struggled to keep up, technologically, with the criminals they are charged with catching. During Prohibition, gangsters had machine guns and government agents did not. Now, in the year 2002, law enforcement may have a powerful and relatively new tool available to them in the war against crime: computers.
However, an exploration of the literature reveals little if any systematic study about…
Author not available. Nov. 17, 1998. "APB online launches police and crime Internet service." PR Newswire.
Author not available (ANA). June 2001. "The Long Arm of the Law." Internet Magazine.
Garber, Lee. June 2001. "A new tool for law enforcement." Computer.
Hitt, Stephanie L. July 2000. "National Crime Information Center." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
Parenting plays a finite role in shaping the criminality of children, since parents are their first teachers and can help them distinguish between right and wrong. However, their influence is limited by the fact that people are individuals and do what they want.
There should be mandatory classes for parenting that provide simple overviews on the subject so that people have some sort of objective means upon which to base their parenting. Parenting is a difficult job; most people could use help with it.
The scholarly literature says that differences between these three classes of adolescents exist because money is a determining factor in society, and can provide the basis for a host of other social factors relevant to teenagers and delinquency.
These differences can be reduced by ensuring that representatives from these groups interact with one another regularly in neutral circumstances that do not favor or disfavor any of…
Distinguish between thinking about crime as a social problem and thinking of it as a sociological problem).
Taking crime as a sociological issue one would attempt to theories regarding the causes of criminal behavior, social construction of the concept of crime, and solutions to crime on a societal level. Sociological theories and psychological theories of criminal behavior are heavily entwined. There are numerous sociological theories concerning the cause and control of criminal behavior. In general sociological theories of criminality attempt to connect the individual's behavior with broader social structures and cultural variables, discuss how the contradicting factors of these variables interact to lead to criminal behavior, investigate how these structures have historically developed, and view criminal behavior from the standpoint of social constructionism and concentrate on the social causes of criminality.
For instance, Durkheim (1897) coined the term anomie to describe a feeling of a lack of being connected to…
Clinard, M.R., Quinney, R., & Wildeman, J. (2014). Criminal behavior systems: A typology.
New York: Routledge.
Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.
Hatfield, R.C. (2014). The everything to coping with panic disorder. Avon, MA: Adams.
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:
Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).
Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…
Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.
Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.
Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).
In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…
Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.
The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)
OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…
Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high…
Crime has continued to capture the attention of Americans although there has been a decrease in the number of crimes over the past decade. Much attention has been paid to the propitious drop in the nation's crime rates, and more specifically, the murder rate. An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high social status, they often live in wealthy neighborhoods, and are respected by the community. The researcher further states that those that are interested in studying white-collar crime seldom do not study these individuals nor were policy makers and other officials interested. The writing also reports on a researcher that believed that the definitions behind crime are incorrect and misleading; Weisburd also states that the criminal behaviors of those in the lower classes have been negated in previous research. (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001) in the United States, little controversy exists regarding race-based crime statistics reports Knepper (2000).
However, there is information on each category of race, gender, and white-collar crime; on the other hand, there is a minute amount that offers insight into what individuals feel about various races and genders regarding white-collar crime. There is information that displays whom is most likely to commit a white-collar crime, and where most crimes are committed, however very little insight is given into how people (men and women regardless of race) feel about white-collar crimes. This is important in order to express another aspect of white-collar crime and its effect on the individual and possibly the individual's surroundings. Then variations will be clearer and more defined, until then things remain obscure.
The types of offenses committed by gender are notable for their similarities and their differences. Both are more heavily involved in minor property offenses than in serious crimes like robbery or murder. However, "Women offend at much lesser rates than men for all crime categories except prostitution. This gender gap in crime is greatest for serious crime and least for mild forms of