White Collar Crime Essays (Examples)

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White Collar Entrepreneurial Crime Allen Stanford Briefly

Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83471570

hite Collar

Entrepreneurial Crime

Allen Stanford

Briefly describe the entrepreneurial crime you researched.

In 2009, the Antigua/Texas-based global financial group (which was made up several subsidiaries that were owned by the same investment firm) owned by R. Allen Stanford was charged with scamming their customers by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Stanford Financial Group was charged with fraud on the basis that they deceptively sold consumers over seven billion dollars in deposit certificates. The company advertised the CDs as safe investments to their clients yet they paid them a rate of return that was inconsistently higher than the market rate. The rate brought in many clients however the investments were not as safe as they were advertised. Instead of backing the investments with safe assets, the company used the funds to invest in high-risk mortgage funds and other risky investments. The sentencing memorandum after Stanford was convicted reads as follows:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Drawbaugh, K., & Aubin, D. (2012, July 30). Analysis: A decade on, is Sarbanes-Oxley working? Retrieved from Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/30/us-financial-sarbox-idUSBRE86Q1BY20120730

Henning, P. (2012, June 11). Viewing Financial Crimes as Economic Homicide. Retrieved from DealB%k: http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/06/11/viewing-financial-crimes-as-economic-homicide/?ref=stanfordfinancialgroup

Reuters. (2012, July 3). Judge's Ruling Is Blow to Victims of Stanford Scheme. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/04/business/sec-loses-ruling-in-stanford-ponzi-scheme-case.html?ref=stanfordfinancialgroup

The Economist. (2005, May 19). A price worth paying? Retrieved from The Economist:  http://www.economist.com/node/3984019
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Crime 21st Century White Collar If True

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29446192

crime 21st century white collar. If true, major type cybercrime? How safeguard ? 2.MIT, prestigious universities world, began sharing online content free class ten years ago (2000).

White collar crimes focus on the concept of deception as a primary tool to harm the social order. Even though it does not involve violence, it typically concentrates on identity theft, online fraud, and bank account theft. In order for people to be able to counterattack such crimes, it is essential for the authorities to provide extensive education meant to assist people to differentiate between actions that are likely to turn them into a victim of cybercrimes and actions that are not.

Cyber ethics is not a common concept among cybercriminals and this means that the masses need to be able to protect themselves by adopting attitudes that decrease the chances of them falling victim to online scams. People need to understand that…… [Read More]


Burns, Jan, "Build Your Online Community: Blogging, Message Boards, Newsgroups, and More," (Enslow Publishers, Inc., 01.02.2011)

Edmunson, Mark, "The Trouble With Online Education," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/opinion/the-trouble-with-online-education.html?_r=0

"White Collar Crime in 2011: The Martin Act, Cybercrime, and Beyond," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the New York County District Attorney's Office Website:  http://manhattanda.org/white-collar-crime-2011-martin-act-cybercrime-and-beyond
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White Collar

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30117989

White Collar

Situation 1: A telephone marketer promises a solar-powered clothes dryer for $500 and then sends the buyer only a clothesline and clothes pins.

The degree of responsibility depends on the exact transcript of the telephone marketing conversation. Assuming the marketer promised only a "solar-powered clothes dryer," and the buyer asked for no details, then the responsibility rests firmly with the buyer. The buyer should likely realize their stupidity and perhaps commit suicide as a result.

To deceive someone in this way would not be a crime in any state, because the product does deliver as promised. A clothesline and pins are technically solar-powered drying apparati. One should hope that the line and clips are of the best possible quality on the market and will never degrade.

Caveat emptor always applies. No one forces a consumer to purchase anything. Taking personal responsibility is an art that many Americans have…… [Read More]


Benston, L. (n.d.). Caesars responsible gaming. Retrieved online:  http://www.aswexler.com/las-vegas-sun 

"What is dram shop action?" Rottenstein. Retrieved online:  http://www.rotlaw.com/legal-library/what-is-a-dram-shop-action/
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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]


Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…… [Read More]


Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf

Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf

Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
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Crime & the Treatment of

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10798349

Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.

Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…… [Read More]


Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.

Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,

Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,

Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
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Crime and Criminals

Words: 498 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39578061

Pictorial description of the criminal

Responses on the criminal description obtained show that a criminal is an individual who is.

1. Dirty and crazy

2. Dirty sloppy - messy

3. Sociopathic

4. Dirty, twisted

5. My rapist, his face is exactly what I see when I see any crime, brawn hair, gross.

6. Kids who did not have a good upbringing, living with parents addicted to drugs.

7. Mentally unstable and dirty

8. Shady looking individual

9. Dirty living in poor properties in underdeveloped cities

10. Sociopathic, strong, and dirty

Among the responses above, it is observed that a criminal individual is likely to be untidy with an unstable mine. This is observable from the respondents saying the likely image they have is that of a person who is dirty and crazy. Since the most observed crimes are those that go against moral teachings in the society, it is likely…… [Read More]

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Crime Is a Social Phenomenon

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38278426

Crime a Socially Constructed

One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…… [Read More]



Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime . Available: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0050.xml. Last accessed 9 Mar, 2015.


Henry. (2009). Social Construction of Crime. Available: http://www.sagepub.com/haganintrocrim8e/study/chapter/handbooks/42347_1.2.pdf. Last accessed 9 Mar 2015.
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Crime Theories Comparison Social Organization

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7198572

Unlike the previous theories, social process theories explain criminal behavior on more microsociological terms. The emphasis of social process theories are not on the institutions, but on the relationships formed between individual family members, peer groups, teachers, church leaders and other agents of socialization.

The key concept of all social process theories is based on learning. Sociologists have believed that individuals learn social values and norms from agents of socialization. Thus, if those agents engage in behavior that is deviant or criminal, then there is a greater chance for an individual to engage in similar behavior.

Edwin Sutherland, the father of American criminology, is one of the greatest exemplars of social process theory. Though his theory of differential association was devised largely to explain white collar crime, many of the pronouncements are also applicable to violent crime. In response to psychologists who tried to explain criminal behavior in terms of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, C. & H. McKay. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: Univ. Press.

Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Crime Discuss Reasons Crime Increased Todays Society

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83252970

crime discuss reasons crime increased todays society. (Submit a 500

Crime is a transgression of the law on the part of a person or an organization. In order for a crime to be committed, there has to be some formal law enacted which prohibits an action or an occurrence. Furthermore, that law has to then be transgressed for a crime to take place. One of the main areas of crime is violent crime. Violent crime occurs when individuals act aggressively or hostilely towards one another, and choose to inflict corporal pain and punishment. This sort of crime can take place virtually anywhere. In the United States, for example, violent crime occurs fairly regularly in urban environments. Common types of violent crime include shootings, stabbings, and physical violence in the form of fighting.

Violent crime is actually stratified into blue collar crime, which is crime committed by working class people. Working…… [Read More]


Valdmanis, T. (2008). "Senate report blasts SEC's Enron oversight." USA Today. Retrieved from  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/banking/2002-10-06-sec_x.htm
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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565


On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]


Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
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Discretion in Relation Emphasis to White

Words: 2897 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12556498

This is one of the reasons that the United tates upreme Court has noted the difficulty in distinguishing common crime from the "gray zone of socially acceptable and economically justifiable business conduct.

Prosecutors are not eager to 'overcriminalize' and the practice of too readily extending criminal law to areas of which it is not suited is known as "overcriminalization."

For these reasons, the statues of white-collar crimes are broad and fuzzy. And the task, therefore, of defining crime and penalties falls firstly to the prosecutors and then to the court. In the 1980s, the prosecutors read the white collar statutes broadly and the courts were expected to set the perimeters of criminal labiality. There is wide scope however of criminal liability under these white collar statutes.

Is this fair?

For decades, academicians have been calling for change in this, what they see, as unjust and partisan system. To them, the…… [Read More]


Bureau of Justice Statistics, United States Department of Justice, Dictionary of Criminal Justice Data Terminology 215, 1981

Justia. U.S. Supreme Court "Braswell v. United States, 487 U.S. 99, 115," 1988


Fallone, B (2012) "Prosecutorial Discretion in the John Doe Investigation" Marq. Univ. Law School blog. Web.
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Criminal Justice Lobbyists and White

Words: 2184 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89867024

But there more to the personal side for Duke Cunningham, for doling out contracts was more than a matter of choosing the most qualified and lowest priced as mandated by federal rules. It was also a matter of choosing the contractor that could provide the most for him. The white collar criminal always looks to personal advantage. Lobbyists, like the now-convicted Mitchell Wade, helped steer paying clients to Cunningham. In exchange for a $21 million dollar contract from the Department of Homeland Security, a limousine company also furnished personal services to the Congressman, including the transport of "escorts" for Cunningham's personal pleasure. (ozen, 2006)

Cunningham also pleaded guilty to accepting $2.4 million dollars in bribes from actual defense contractors. The congressman actively sought out contacts in the defense world, boasting that, "I feel fortunate to represent the nation's top technological talent in the 'black' world.... [and] appreciated the opportunity to…… [Read More]



Grigg, W.N. (2006, February 6). Power Brokers: Jack Abramoff Brought Together Corrupt Politicians, the Criminal Underworld, and the Global Power Elite. The New American, 22, 21+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97313111

Lanier, M.M., & Henry, S. (1998). Essential Criminology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
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Gender and Crime

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31654235

Gender and Crime

How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.

The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…… [Read More]


Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/ 

Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Categorizing Crimes Against Persons and Crimes Against Property

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074583

Categorizing Crimes:

Criminal law basically classifies crime into various categories that dictates the kind of criminal act, the mental condition, and the extent of punishment. The most common categories of crime are crime against persons, white-collar crimes, and crimes against property. Moreover, crime is further categorized by the selected punishment for the offense such as misdemeanor, felony, and petty misdemeanor. A felony is regarded as the most serious offense that is punishable by imprisonment exceeding one year while misdemeanors are offenses that are punishable by imprisonment of a maximum of one year. This is primarily because they are less serious crimes that do not involve incarceration in prison (Schneider, n.d.). Actually, almost all misdemeanor sentences are usually served in a local or county jail. In contrast, petty misdemeanors are crimes that do not need imprisonment such as that are always punishable by a fine.

Crimes against Persons and Crimes against…… [Read More]


Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm

"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf

Schneider, S.W. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.netplaces.com/paralegal/criminal-law/types-of-crimes.htm

"State v. Stewart." (n.d.). Justia.com -- U.S. Law. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from  http://law.justia.com/cases/new-mexico/court-of-appeals/2005/f580-1c753-1cc91.html
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Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10016462

Sociological Theories of Crime

There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John

Wiley & Sons.

Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
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Measuring Crime

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85722559

Measuring Crime

During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…… [Read More]


"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
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Social Marketing Plan Stop Crime Be a

Words: 3285 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30386786

Social Marketing Plan

Stop Crime, Be a Human first

Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).

According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…… [Read More]


SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at  http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm  (Accessed 18 May 2011)

BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm  (Accessed 18 May 2011)

Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor

Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]


Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.

Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html

Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
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Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an

Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6186798

The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]


Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved:  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf 

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:

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Sociology - Crime Theories Making

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24217799

In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).

Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.

However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…… [Read More]


John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:

McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA

Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
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Drug Crime Does Research Evidence Suggest That

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45481255

Drug Crime

Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?

While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).

Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…… [Read More]


Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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What Motivates People or Corporations to Partake in Enterprise Crime

Words: 3638 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64212292

motivates people or corporations to partake in enterprise crime?

Among the peculiar aspects that come with business ethics, as in comparison with other domain names of applied ethics, is it handles a wide array of human matters which are more often than not stricken by serious criminality, as well as an institutional structure and atmosphere that is also oftentimes noticeably criminally inclined (Hilts, 2003). The oddity of the situation may also be lost on professionals within the area. It's quite common, for example, at business ethics discussions for most of presentations to become more concerned with straight-forward criminality and they tend to avoid ethical issues within these debates which are actually where we find frequent questions regarding where the correct strategy for countering crimes lies. In this way, all of the discussions of the 'ethics dilemmas' at the beginning of the twenty-first century continues to be very deceptive, since the…… [Read More]


Doris, J.: 2002, Lack of Character (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

Friedrichs, D. O. And Schwartz, M.D. (2008). Low Self-Control and High Organizational Control: The Paradoxes of White Collar Crimes. In E. Goode (Ed.), Out of Control? Assessing the general theory of crime (pp. 145-159). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press

Heath, J. 2008, Business Ethics and Moral Motivation: A Criminological Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 83:595 -- 614.

Heath, J.: 2006, 'Business Ethics Without Stakeholders', Business Ethics Quarterly 16, 533 -- 557.
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Economic Effects of Crime in

Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58078888

Throughout most of the 20th Century, organized crime accounted for a tremendous economic costs passed along to consumers, particularly (but hardly exclusively) in large cities like New York, and Chicago, among many others. Originally formed in this country during the Prohibition years in the 1920s, the criminal enterprises that exploited the black market for illegal liquor subsequently branched out to infiltrate other large industries, such as construction, food and liquor distribution, interstate trucking, waste disposal, and the garment industry.

Primarily by penetrating into the leadership organization of unionized industries, organized crime managed to siphon off public funds, "skim" illegal profits from large corporations, and control entire otherwise legitimate industries through intimidation, including labor strikes initiated via its control of labor unions. The result increased the cost of almost everything sold to consumers in the form of goods and services throughout much of the country. In recent years, increased federal law…… [Read More]


Ballezza, R. (2007) the Social Security Card Application Process: Identity and Credit Card Fraud Issues; FBI Law Enforcement Journal, Vol. 76 No. 5, May/07

Hendrie, E. (2006) Breaking the Bank; FBI Law Enforcement Journal, Vol. 75

No. 7, Jul/06

U.S. Department of Justice (2007) Uniform Crime Reports. Federal Bureau of Investigation Homepage. Accessed October 23, 2007, at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm#cius
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Public and Private Investigators Are Solving More Crimes Using Computer Automation

Words: 2569 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3956434

Computers in Solving Non-computer-Based Crime

This proposal for research involves a survey of law enforcement officials to determine how much they use computers as a tool to help solve crimes that are not committed by computer, such as murder and robberies. Using a questionnaire that utilizes a numerical scale for responses with opportunities for written comments as well, it will quantify the results and indicate areas for further research. Since little research has been done in this area, it should be considered a preliminary study.

Law enforcement has traditionally struggled to keep up, technologically, with the criminals they are charged with catching. During Prohibition, gangsters had machine guns and government agents did not. Now, in the year 2002, law enforcement may have a powerful and relatively new tool available to them in the war against crime: computers.

However, an exploration of the literature reveals little if any systematic study about…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Author not available. Nov. 17, 1998. "APB online launches police and crime Internet service." PR Newswire.

Author not available (ANA). June 2001. "The Long Arm of the Law." Internet Magazine.

Garber, Lee. June 2001. "A new tool for law enforcement." Computer.

Hitt, Stephanie L. July 2000. "National Crime Information Center." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
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Distinguish Between Thinking About Crime as a

Words: 1209 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6283154

Distinguish between thinking about crime as a social problem and thinking of it as a sociological problem).

Taking crime as a sociological issue one would attempt to theories regarding the causes of criminal behavior, social construction of the concept of crime, and solutions to crime on a societal level. Sociological theories and psychological theories of criminal behavior are heavily entwined. There are numerous sociological theories concerning the cause and control of criminal behavior. In general sociological theories of criminality attempt to connect the individual's behavior with broader social structures and cultural variables, discuss how the contradicting factors of these variables interact to lead to criminal behavior, investigate how these structures have historically developed, and view criminal behavior from the standpoint of social constructionism and concentrate on the social causes of criminality.

For instance, Durkheim (1897) coined the term anomie to describe a feeling of a lack of being connected to…… [Read More]


Clinard, M.R., Quinney, R., & Wildeman, J. (2014). Criminal behavior systems: A typology.

New York: Routledge.

Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.

Hatfield, R.C. (2014). The everything to coping with panic disorder. Avon, MA: Adams.
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Affiliated in Crime

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4473033

Parenting plays a finite role in shaping the criminality of children, since parents are their first teachers and can help them distinguish between right and wrong. However, their influence is limited by the fact that people are individuals and do what they want.

There should be mandatory classes for parenting that provide simple overviews on the subject so that people have some sort of objective means upon which to base their parenting. Parenting is a difficult job; most people could use help with it.

The scholarly literature says that differences between these three classes of adolescents exist because money is a determining factor in society, and can provide the basis for a host of other social factors relevant to teenagers and delinquency.

These differences can be reduced by ensuring that representatives from these groups interact with one another regularly in neutral circumstances that do not favor or disfavor any of…… [Read More]

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Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…… [Read More]


Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.

Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.

Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
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Globalization and Organized Crime Globalization

Words: 3395 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51194259

Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.

The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)

OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…… [Read More]


Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall

Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25210065

Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…… [Read More]


Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Effects of Immigration on U S Crime Rates

Words: 3208 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 708584

Immigration on U.S. Crime Rates

Immigration in the United States of America

Structure of Immigration

Impact of Immigration on the Crime rates of the United States of America

Conclusion and Policy Implications

Immigration Structure in 1970

Immigration Structure in 2010

Foreign Born Population in the United States of America

Immigrant Share in the Total Population and Across Counties, 1950-2000

Immigrant Flows and Rate of Homicide

Rate of Growth of Incarceration and Immigration

Reasons for the Removal of Criminal Immigrants

This paper aims at identifying the relationship that exists between immigration and crime rates. It aims at highlighting the impact of immigration on the rate of crimes. In addition to that, this paper also makes recommendation, in relation to the alteration of immigrant policies so as to make immigration more secure and safe.

There has been an evident increase in the number of crimes along with the increase in the rate…… [Read More]

Works cited

Bianchi, Milo, Paolo Buonanno, and Paolo Pinotti. 'Do Immigrants Cause Crime?' Journal of the European Economic Association 10.6 (2012): 1318 -- 1347. Print.

Borjas, George J, Jeffrey Grogger, and Gordon H. Hanson. 'Immigration and the Economic Status of African-American Men'. Economica 77.306 (2010): 255 -- 282. Print.

Camarota, Steven A, Jessica Vaughan, and Staff Members of the Center for Immigration Studies. Immigration and Crime. 1st ed. Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies, 2009.

Jones-Correa, M. Contested Ground: Immigration In The United States. 1st ed. Washington, D.C: Migration Policy Institute, 2012. Web. 2 Jun. 2014.
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Australian Criminal Justice System Respond

Words: 3213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81904640

Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.

The Law Catches Up

Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…… [Read More]


Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"

Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from  http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf 

Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.

"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here