White Collar Crimes Essays (Examples)

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Blue Collar vs White Collar Crime There

Words: 1552 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39323772

Blue Collar vs. hite Collar Crime

There are many distinctions that can be made regarding different types of crime, but people seem to like to make simple distinctions so that they do not have to think about it too much. So, crime can easily be broken into two broad categories which give a broad description of what they are. The first division is called "blue collar crimes" and they make up the largest part of what people regard as crime. All violent crimes and direct crimes against individuals are in this group. The second designation is white collar crime. These are generally crimes that are done for some type of financial gain and are usually perpetrated against a large group of people at the same time. This essay looks at these two different types of crime as they relate to type, victims and punishment.

Types of Crimes Committed

The nomenclature…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bly, William. "Blue Collar vs. White Collar Crimes." Ezine. SparkNet, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2012.

D'Alleva, Nicolas. "White Collar crimes: An Overview." Ezine. SparkNet, 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012.

Doring, Michael. "Law: Blue Collar Crimes." Ezine. SparkNet, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2012.

FBI. "White-Collar Crime." Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2012. Web, 16b Nov. 2012.
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Impact on Society of White Collar Crime

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76939793

White Collar Crime on the Economy and Society

The objective of this study is to examine the impact of white collar crime on the economy and society.

White Collar Crime is reported to be a term that Edwin Southerland, Sociologist of Criminology defined and one that identifies "those illegal non-violent activities that involve traditional notions of deceit, deception, concealment, manipulation, breach of trust or illegal circumvention." (Soto, 2008, p. 1) These types of crimes are such that are generally committed by government agents and business professionals. (Soto, 2008, paraphrased) The Legal Institute at Cornell Law School defines white collar crime as "crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation." (Wayne State University, 2011, p. 1)

Expert Panel eports on White Collar Crime

It is reported that in 2011 an expert panel reported on white collar crime and stated that the Federal…… [Read More]


Bank of Credit and Commerce International (nd) American Patriots Freedom Network. Retrieved from:  http://www.apfn.org/apfn/BCCI.htm 

Soto, Melanie (2008) White Collar Crime and Its Effects on Consumers (2008) Articlesbase. 22 July 2008. Retrieved from:  http://www.articlesbase.com/economics-articles/white-collar-crime-and-its-effects-on-consumers-493020.html 

Prestigious Panel Examines Impact of White Collar Crime (2011) Wayne State University. 4 Apr, 2011. Retrieved from: http://media.wayne.edu/2011/04/04/prestigious-panel-examines-impact-of-white-collar

Kouri, J. (2005) White Collar Crime is Not Victimless. Renew America. 6 Dec 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/kouri/051206
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Different Types of White Collar Crime

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16706505

Pension fraud is a type of white-collar crime, but it can assume many different forms. In "Guilty Plea in Fraud Case Tied to New York Pension," the underlying crime was bribery, which happened to be related to a pension fraud scheme. The State of New York runs and manages a pension for its residents. It invests money workers pay into the pension. In this case, state officials accepted about $1 million in gifts in exchange for investing $250 million in pension money into the briber's company. "Looking Out for Number One" describes a slightly different type of pension fraud. In this case, the manager of the pension was defrauded by the investment company, AA Capital Partners. AA Capital Partners seem to have diverted millions of dollars from the pension money to its own dealings, amounting to a type of embezzlement. Thus, pension fraud is not actually a specific type of…… [Read More]


"Guilty Plea in Fraud Case Tied to New York Pension." International New York Times. 4 Dec, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/04/nyregion/04pension.html?_r=2&

"Identity Theft, Debt Collection, and Payday Loans Top List of Consumer Fraud Complaints," (2014). The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved online:   http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0304/Identity-theft-debt-collection-and-payday-loans-top-list-of-consumer-fraud-complaints  

"Looking Out for Number One." Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved online: http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2006-10-29/looking-out-for-number-one
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Firestone Tire White Collar Crime

Words: 1731 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47083379

corporate or white-collar crime. Specifically, it will discuss the Firestone Tire executives that allowed faulty tires to remain on U.S. vehicles. In mid-2000, Bridgestone/Firestone Tires began a recall of some of their tires that would turn into a massive recall and a public relations nightmare. The underlying problem with the recall, besides public opinion and the cost, was the issue that popped to the surface as the recall began to take on momentum. There was surprising evidence that Firestone and Ford had known about the defect since at least 1994, and had even recalled tires in other countries, but allowed them to remain on Ford Explorers in the United States, leading to hundreds of deaths and injuries in their failure to recall the tires.

In August 2000, Bridgestone/Firestone CEO Masatoshi Ono and the Ford Motor Company initiated a recall of millions of Firestone tires produced in a Decatur, Illinois plant.…… [Read More]


Garten, J.E. (2000). The mind of the CEO. New York: Basic Books.

Guest, J. (2002). Colston E. Warne lecture: Consumers and consumerism in America today. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36(2), 139+.

Healey, J.R. (2000). Firestone may have known of trouble in '94. Retrieved 16 April 2009 from the U.S.A. Today Web site: http://www.usatoday.com/money/consumer/autos/mauto870.htm.

Mashaw, J.L. (2003). Law and engineering: In search of the law-science problem. Law and Contemporary Problems, 66(4), 135+.
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Rise of White Collar Crime in the U S

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70497180

FBI website section that addresses white-collar crime and research a noted white-Collar scam. hat are the basic elements of the scam along with some tips to avoid becoming a victim?

One common white collar crime scam is that of the 'utilities person' scam. To gain entry to a house, the criminal "impersonates utilities employees by wearing jumpsuits with name tags. Actor approaches victim with story about a gas leak or electrical surge to gain entry to the home. Valuables are taken by actor" ("Types and schemes of white collar crime," National Check Fraud Center.). People may be caught off guard by the entry and since sometimes actual utilities personnel will need to obtain entry to the home homeowners may be overly credulous and not demand appropriate identification. However, when utilities companies do need entry to the home, the homeowner is alerted to this fact by the company well in advance.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Akron police say scam artists posing as utility workers." WKYC. 18 Apr 2014. 29 Apr 2014.


Cohn, M. "Accounting fraud on the rise at U.S. companies." Accounting Today. 19 Feb 2014.

29 Apr 2014. http://www.accountingtoday.com/news/Accounting-Fraud-Rise-U.S.-Companies-69646-1.html
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Farmworkers and White Collar Crime

Words: 2433 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71517694

Simple procedures can help, but not eliminate drift issues, and are quite low tech. First, depending on the wind and time of day, close the windows that face the field or prevailing wind. Add a fan to create a backdraft by pulling air through the home in the opposite direction of the drift. Once the spraying is done and the drift settled a bit, hose down nearby bushes, windows, the roof and outside of the house. At any signs of exposure, wash eyes with clear water and try to shower several times to remove as much of the potential chemical contamination as possible

Publicize -- Certainly public strikes, marches, and visible actions bring public scruitiny into the issue. Because a great deal of the problem lies in the California agricultural region, an organization was formed as a type of State and national clearinghouse for action, information, and change. This organization,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Verification of Pesticide Drift Reduction Technologies. (2007, August). Retrieved June 23, 2010,

from Epa.gov: http://www.epa.gov/etv/pubs/600etv07024.pdf

Farm Workers and Allies Ask Government to Protect Kids. (2009, October 14). Retrieved June

25, 2010, from United Farm Workers: http://ufw.org/_board.php?mode=view&b_code=news_press&b_no=5763&page=2&field=&key=&n=615
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White Collar Entrepreneurial Crime Allen Stanford Briefly

Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83471570

hite Collar

Entrepreneurial Crime

Allen Stanford

Briefly describe the entrepreneurial crime you researched.

In 2009, the Antigua/Texas-based global financial group (which was made up several subsidiaries that were owned by the same investment firm) owned by R. Allen Stanford was charged with scamming their customers by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Stanford Financial Group was charged with fraud on the basis that they deceptively sold consumers over seven billion dollars in deposit certificates. The company advertised the CDs as safe investments to their clients yet they paid them a rate of return that was inconsistently higher than the market rate. The rate brought in many clients however the investments were not as safe as they were advertised. Instead of backing the investments with safe assets, the company used the funds to invest in high-risk mortgage funds and other risky investments. The sentencing memorandum after Stanford was convicted reads as follows:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Drawbaugh, K., & Aubin, D. (2012, July 30). Analysis: A decade on, is Sarbanes-Oxley working? Retrieved from Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/30/us-financial-sarbox-idUSBRE86Q1BY20120730

Henning, P. (2012, June 11). Viewing Financial Crimes as Economic Homicide. Retrieved from DealB%k: http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/06/11/viewing-financial-crimes-as-economic-homicide/?ref=stanfordfinancialgroup

Reuters. (2012, July 3). Judge's Ruling Is Blow to Victims of Stanford Scheme. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/04/business/sec-loses-ruling-in-stanford-ponzi-scheme-case.html?ref=stanfordfinancialgroup

The Economist. (2005, May 19). A price worth paying? Retrieved from The Economist:  http://www.economist.com/node/3984019
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Crime 21st Century White Collar If True

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29446192

crime 21st century white collar. If true, major type cybercrime? How safeguard ? 2.MIT, prestigious universities world, began sharing online content free class ten years ago (2000).

White collar crimes focus on the concept of deception as a primary tool to harm the social order. Even though it does not involve violence, it typically concentrates on identity theft, online fraud, and bank account theft. In order for people to be able to counterattack such crimes, it is essential for the authorities to provide extensive education meant to assist people to differentiate between actions that are likely to turn them into a victim of cybercrimes and actions that are not.

Cyber ethics is not a common concept among cybercriminals and this means that the masses need to be able to protect themselves by adopting attitudes that decrease the chances of them falling victim to online scams. People need to understand that…… [Read More]


Burns, Jan, "Build Your Online Community: Blogging, Message Boards, Newsgroups, and More," (Enslow Publishers, Inc., 01.02.2011)

Edmunson, Mark, "The Trouble With Online Education," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/opinion/the-trouble-with-online-education.html?_r=0

"White Collar Crime in 2011: The Martin Act, Cybercrime, and Beyond," Retrieved March 17, 2013, from the New York County District Attorney's Office Website:  http://manhattanda.org/white-collar-crime-2011-martin-act-cybercrime-and-beyond
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White Collar

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30117989

White Collar

Situation 1: A telephone marketer promises a solar-powered clothes dryer for $500 and then sends the buyer only a clothesline and clothes pins.

The degree of responsibility depends on the exact transcript of the telephone marketing conversation. Assuming the marketer promised only a "solar-powered clothes dryer," and the buyer asked for no details, then the responsibility rests firmly with the buyer. The buyer should likely realize their stupidity and perhaps commit suicide as a result.

To deceive someone in this way would not be a crime in any state, because the product does deliver as promised. A clothesline and pins are technically solar-powered drying apparati. One should hope that the line and clips are of the best possible quality on the market and will never degrade.

Caveat emptor always applies. No one forces a consumer to purchase anything. Taking personal responsibility is an art that many Americans have…… [Read More]


Benston, L. (n.d.). Caesars responsible gaming. Retrieved online:  http://www.aswexler.com/las-vegas-sun 

"What is dram shop action?" Rottenstein. Retrieved online:  http://www.rotlaw.com/legal-library/what-is-a-dram-shop-action/
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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]


Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…… [Read More]


Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf

Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf

Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
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Crime & the Treatment of

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10798349

Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.

Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…… [Read More]


Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.

Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,

Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,

Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
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Crime and Criminals

Words: 498 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39578061

Pictorial description of the criminal

Responses on the criminal description obtained show that a criminal is an individual who is.

1. Dirty and crazy

2. Dirty sloppy - messy

3. Sociopathic

4. Dirty, twisted

5. My rapist, his face is exactly what I see when I see any crime, brawn hair, gross.

6. Kids who did not have a good upbringing, living with parents addicted to drugs.

7. Mentally unstable and dirty

8. Shady looking individual

9. Dirty living in poor properties in underdeveloped cities

10. Sociopathic, strong, and dirty

Among the responses above, it is observed that a criminal individual is likely to be untidy with an unstable mine. This is observable from the respondents saying the likely image they have is that of a person who is dirty and crazy. Since the most observed crimes are those that go against moral teachings in the society, it is likely…… [Read More]

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Crime Theories Comparison Social Organization

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7198572

Unlike the previous theories, social process theories explain criminal behavior on more microsociological terms. The emphasis of social process theories are not on the institutions, but on the relationships formed between individual family members, peer groups, teachers, church leaders and other agents of socialization.

The key concept of all social process theories is based on learning. Sociologists have believed that individuals learn social values and norms from agents of socialization. Thus, if those agents engage in behavior that is deviant or criminal, then there is a greater chance for an individual to engage in similar behavior.

Edwin Sutherland, the father of American criminology, is one of the greatest exemplars of social process theory. Though his theory of differential association was devised largely to explain white collar crime, many of the pronouncements are also applicable to violent crime. In response to psychologists who tried to explain criminal behavior in terms of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, C. & H. McKay. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: Univ. Press.

Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Crime Discuss Reasons Crime Increased Todays Society

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83252970

crime discuss reasons crime increased todays society. (Submit a 500

Crime is a transgression of the law on the part of a person or an organization. In order for a crime to be committed, there has to be some formal law enacted which prohibits an action or an occurrence. Furthermore, that law has to then be transgressed for a crime to take place. One of the main areas of crime is violent crime. Violent crime occurs when individuals act aggressively or hostilely towards one another, and choose to inflict corporal pain and punishment. This sort of crime can take place virtually anywhere. In the United States, for example, violent crime occurs fairly regularly in urban environments. Common types of violent crime include shootings, stabbings, and physical violence in the form of fighting.

Violent crime is actually stratified into blue collar crime, which is crime committed by working class people. Working…… [Read More]


Valdmanis, T. (2008). "Senate report blasts SEC's Enron oversight." USA Today. Retrieved from   http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/banking/2002-10-06-sec_x.htm
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Crime Causation I Uploaded Material Text Choose

Words: 1497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36667190

Crime Causation

I uploaded material text choose theory unit 3, unit 4. Reference: Seigel L.J. (2011). Criminology: The core (4th ed.). elmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Examine major theories crime causation. Use materials text / resources support crime occurs theories.

Sociologists and psychologists alike have over the years attempted to create theories that explain why people commit crime in the U.S. As well as the rest of the world. There have been several questions that have lingered in the minds of the scholars one of which has been on what the major theories reveal about the patterns of crime and how they contribute to tactics of combating crime. Crime is extremely complex and trying to explain it in a single theory is next to impossible. This is because crime ranges from the savage violent acts and the white collar crimes that are highly sophisticated. On the other hand, crime can be…… [Read More]

Britt, C.L., & Gottfredson, M.R. (2003). Control Theories of Crime and Delinquency. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Goodwin, C.J. (2005). A History of Modern Psychology 2nd Edition. Hoboken, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Siegel, L.J. (2012). Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565


On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]


Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
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Discretion in Relation Emphasis to White

Words: 2897 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12556498

This is one of the reasons that the United tates upreme Court has noted the difficulty in distinguishing common crime from the "gray zone of socially acceptable and economically justifiable business conduct.

Prosecutors are not eager to 'overcriminalize' and the practice of too readily extending criminal law to areas of which it is not suited is known as "overcriminalization."

For these reasons, the statues of white-collar crimes are broad and fuzzy. And the task, therefore, of defining crime and penalties falls firstly to the prosecutors and then to the court. In the 1980s, the prosecutors read the white collar statutes broadly and the courts were expected to set the perimeters of criminal labiality. There is wide scope however of criminal liability under these white collar statutes.

Is this fair?

For decades, academicians have been calling for change in this, what they see, as unjust and partisan system. To them, the…… [Read More]


Bureau of Justice Statistics, United States Department of Justice, Dictionary of Criminal Justice Data Terminology 215, 1981

Justia. U.S. Supreme Court "Braswell v. United States, 487 U.S. 99, 115," 1988


Fallone, B (2012) "Prosecutorial Discretion in the John Doe Investigation" Marq. Univ. Law School blog. Web.
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Criminal Justice Lobbyists and White

Words: 2184 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89867024

But there more to the personal side for Duke Cunningham, for doling out contracts was more than a matter of choosing the most qualified and lowest priced as mandated by federal rules. It was also a matter of choosing the contractor that could provide the most for him. The white collar criminal always looks to personal advantage. Lobbyists, like the now-convicted Mitchell Wade, helped steer paying clients to Cunningham. In exchange for a $21 million dollar contract from the Department of Homeland Security, a limousine company also furnished personal services to the Congressman, including the transport of "escorts" for Cunningham's personal pleasure. (ozen, 2006)

Cunningham also pleaded guilty to accepting $2.4 million dollars in bribes from actual defense contractors. The congressman actively sought out contacts in the defense world, boasting that, "I feel fortunate to represent the nation's top technological talent in the 'black' world.... [and] appreciated the opportunity to…… [Read More]



Grigg, W.N. (2006, February 6). Power Brokers: Jack Abramoff Brought Together Corrupt Politicians, the Criminal Underworld, and the Global Power Elite. The New American, 22, 21+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97313111

Lanier, M.M., & Henry, S. (1998). Essential Criminology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
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Gender and Crime

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31654235

Gender and Crime

How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.

The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…… [Read More]


Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/ 

Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Categorizing Crimes Against Persons and Crimes Against Property

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074583

Categorizing Crimes:

Criminal law basically classifies crime into various categories that dictates the kind of criminal act, the mental condition, and the extent of punishment. The most common categories of crime are crime against persons, white-collar crimes, and crimes against property. Moreover, crime is further categorized by the selected punishment for the offense such as misdemeanor, felony, and petty misdemeanor. A felony is regarded as the most serious offense that is punishable by imprisonment exceeding one year while misdemeanors are offenses that are punishable by imprisonment of a maximum of one year. This is primarily because they are less serious crimes that do not involve incarceration in prison (Schneider, n.d.). Actually, almost all misdemeanor sentences are usually served in a local or county jail. In contrast, petty misdemeanors are crimes that do not need imprisonment such as that are always punishable by a fine.

Crimes against Persons and Crimes against…… [Read More]


Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm

"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf

Schneider, S.W. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.netplaces.com/paralegal/criminal-law/types-of-crimes.htm

"State v. Stewart." (n.d.). Justia.com -- U.S. Law. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from  http://law.justia.com/cases/new-mexico/court-of-appeals/2005/f580-1c753-1cc91.html
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Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10016462

Sociological Theories of Crime

There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John

Wiley & Sons.

Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
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Measuring Crime

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85722559

Measuring Crime

During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…… [Read More]


"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
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Social Marketing Plan Stop Crime Be a

Words: 3285 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30386786

Social Marketing Plan

Stop Crime, Be a Human first

Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).

According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…… [Read More]


SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at   http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm   (Accessed 18 May 2011)

BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm  (Accessed 18 May 2011)

Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor

Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]


Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.

Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html

Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
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Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an

Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6186798

The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]


Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved:  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf 

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:

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Sociology - Crime Theories Making

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24217799

In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).

Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.

However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…… [Read More]


John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:

McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA

Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
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Drug Crime Does Research Evidence Suggest That

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45481255

Drug Crime

Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?

While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).

Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…… [Read More]


Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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What Motivates People or Corporations to Partake in Enterprise Crime

Words: 3638 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64212292

motivates people or corporations to partake in enterprise crime?

Among the peculiar aspects that come with business ethics, as in comparison with other domain names of applied ethics, is it handles a wide array of human matters which are more often than not stricken by serious criminality, as well as an institutional structure and atmosphere that is also oftentimes noticeably criminally inclined (Hilts, 2003). The oddity of the situation may also be lost on professionals within the area. It's quite common, for example, at business ethics discussions for most of presentations to become more concerned with straight-forward criminality and they tend to avoid ethical issues within these debates which are actually where we find frequent questions regarding where the correct strategy for countering crimes lies. In this way, all of the discussions of the 'ethics dilemmas' at the beginning of the twenty-first century continues to be very deceptive, since the…… [Read More]


Doris, J.: 2002, Lack of Character (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

Friedrichs, D. O. And Schwartz, M.D. (2008). Low Self-Control and High Organizational Control: The Paradoxes of White Collar Crimes. In E. Goode (Ed.), Out of Control? Assessing the general theory of crime (pp. 145-159). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press

Heath, J. 2008, Business Ethics and Moral Motivation: A Criminological Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 83:595 -- 614.

Heath, J.: 2006, 'Business Ethics Without Stakeholders', Business Ethics Quarterly 16, 533 -- 557.
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Economic Effects of Crime in

Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58078888

Throughout most of the 20th Century, organized crime accounted for a tremendous economic costs passed along to consumers, particularly (but hardly exclusively) in large cities like New York, and Chicago, among many others. Originally formed in this country during the Prohibition years in the 1920s, the criminal enterprises that exploited the black market for illegal liquor subsequently branched out to infiltrate other large industries, such as construction, food and liquor distribution, interstate trucking, waste disposal, and the garment industry.

Primarily by penetrating into the leadership organization of unionized industries, organized crime managed to siphon off public funds, "skim" illegal profits from large corporations, and control entire otherwise legitimate industries through intimidation, including labor strikes initiated via its control of labor unions. The result increased the cost of almost everything sold to consumers in the form of goods and services throughout much of the country. In recent years, increased federal law…… [Read More]


Ballezza, R. (2007) the Social Security Card Application Process: Identity and Credit Card Fraud Issues; FBI Law Enforcement Journal, Vol. 76 No. 5, May/07

Hendrie, E. (2006) Breaking the Bank; FBI Law Enforcement Journal, Vol. 75

No. 7, Jul/06

U.S. Department of Justice (2007) Uniform Crime Reports. Federal Bureau of Investigation Homepage. Accessed October 23, 2007, at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm#cius
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Public and Private Investigators Are Solving More Crimes Using Computer Automation

Words: 2569 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3956434

Computers in Solving Non-computer-Based Crime

This proposal for research involves a survey of law enforcement officials to determine how much they use computers as a tool to help solve crimes that are not committed by computer, such as murder and robberies. Using a questionnaire that utilizes a numerical scale for responses with opportunities for written comments as well, it will quantify the results and indicate areas for further research. Since little research has been done in this area, it should be considered a preliminary study.

Law enforcement has traditionally struggled to keep up, technologically, with the criminals they are charged with catching. During Prohibition, gangsters had machine guns and government agents did not. Now, in the year 2002, law enforcement may have a powerful and relatively new tool available to them in the war against crime: computers.

However, an exploration of the literature reveals little if any systematic study about…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Author not available. Nov. 17, 1998. "APB online launches police and crime Internet service." PR Newswire.

Author not available (ANA). June 2001. "The Long Arm of the Law." Internet Magazine.

Garber, Lee. June 2001. "A new tool for law enforcement." Computer.

Hitt, Stephanie L. July 2000. "National Crime Information Center." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
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Distinguish Between Thinking About Crime as a

Words: 1209 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6283154

Distinguish between thinking about crime as a social problem and thinking of it as a sociological problem).

Taking crime as a sociological issue one would attempt to theories regarding the causes of criminal behavior, social construction of the concept of crime, and solutions to crime on a societal level. Sociological theories and psychological theories of criminal behavior are heavily entwined. There are numerous sociological theories concerning the cause and control of criminal behavior. In general sociological theories of criminality attempt to connect the individual's behavior with broader social structures and cultural variables, discuss how the contradicting factors of these variables interact to lead to criminal behavior, investigate how these structures have historically developed, and view criminal behavior from the standpoint of social constructionism and concentrate on the social causes of criminality.

For instance, Durkheim (1897) coined the term anomie to describe a feeling of a lack of being connected to…… [Read More]


Clinard, M.R., Quinney, R., & Wildeman, J. (2014). Criminal behavior systems: A typology.

New York: Routledge.

Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.

Hatfield, R.C. (2014). The everything to coping with panic disorder. Avon, MA: Adams.
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Affiliated in Crime

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4473033

Parenting plays a finite role in shaping the criminality of children, since parents are their first teachers and can help them distinguish between right and wrong. However, their influence is limited by the fact that people are individuals and do what they want.

There should be mandatory classes for parenting that provide simple overviews on the subject so that people have some sort of objective means upon which to base their parenting. Parenting is a difficult job; most people could use help with it.

The scholarly literature says that differences between these three classes of adolescents exist because money is a determining factor in society, and can provide the basis for a host of other social factors relevant to teenagers and delinquency.

These differences can be reduced by ensuring that representatives from these groups interact with one another regularly in neutral circumstances that do not favor or disfavor any of…… [Read More]

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Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…… [Read More]


Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.

Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.

Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
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Globalization and Organized Crime Globalization

Words: 3395 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51194259

Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.

The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)

OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…… [Read More]


Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall

Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25210065

Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…… [Read More]


Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Australian Criminal Justice System Respond

Words: 3213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81904640

Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.

The Law Catches Up

Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…… [Read More]


Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"

Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from  http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf 

Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.

"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
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Criminological Theories and How They Apply to a Fictional Characters Life

Words: 4431 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31389181

Criminological Theories and Their Application

Character History

Nikita Voronov was born in Omsk, ussia in 1977 to a 17-year-old mother named Natasha Voronov. She had gotten pregnant with him after dating a man for one month, another ussian male who was working in the mining area at the time. Once Natasha became pregnant she never saw the father of her child again who fled the town. Desiring a better life for her child, rather than the dreariness and isolation of Omsk, Natasha immigrated to Brooklyn, NY ten years later where she had some relatives living in the Coney Island neighborhood. Nikita struggled to learn English and often felt teased and isolated from the other kids at school who made fun of the fact that he couldn't communicate well with them. This led to Nikita learning how to take out his anger and aggression through violence and fighting, something that Nikita…… [Read More]


Agnew, R. (2007). Great Scholars, Great Work. Retrieved from emory.edu: http://www.emory.edu/PROVOST/greatscholars_old/RobertAgnew.htm

Canevit, S. (2013). The Scholarly Development of Social Disorganization. Retrieved from Scottcanevit.net: http://scottcanevit.net/social_disorganization4.html

Cook, S. (2012, May 12). Subcultural Theories. Retrieved from Revisesociology.wordpress.com: http://revisesociology.wordpress.com/2012/05/12/3-subcultural-theories/

Fsu.edu. (n.d.). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from Fsu.edu: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
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Fraud Issues in Accounting and

Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22884458

125). The use of case study examples is a brilliant tool for making the reader believe that white-collar crime is indeed something that needs to be addressed on a macro rather than a micro level, because the people injured by fraudulent accounting and auditing to name a few white-collar crimes, are not just the people that work for a company or the criminals. The people harmed include members of the community that have used their tax dollars to support these leaders and organizations that claim to work for the benefit of society at large. osoff, Pontell & Tillman (2004) suggest that white-collar crimes should be viewed as no less hazardous than blue collar crime, a fact supported by many reviewers of the work including Bergevin, who suggests that white-collar crime as defined by osoff, Pontell & Tillman should be considered as "vilified" or costly and damaging as blue-collar crimes (p.…… [Read More]


Bergevin, Dan. Profit without honor: White-collar crime and the looting of America, 3rd

Ed. Security Management, 48.5:2004, May, p.125

Rosoff, Stephen M., Pontell, Harry N., & Tillman, Robert. Profit without honor: White-

Collar crime and the looting of America. Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, c2004, 3rd. Ed.
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Race and Gender Perceptions of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9230058

An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high…… [Read More]

Crime has continued to capture the attention of Americans although there has been a decrease in the number of crimes over the past decade. Much attention has been paid to the propitious drop in the nation's crime rates, and more specifically, the murder rate. An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high social status, they often live in wealthy neighborhoods, and are respected by the community. The researcher further states that those that are interested in studying white-collar crime seldom do not study these individuals nor were policy makers and other officials interested. The writing also reports on a researcher that believed that the definitions behind crime are incorrect and misleading; Weisburd also states that the criminal behaviors of those in the lower classes have been negated in previous research. (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001) in the United States, little controversy exists regarding race-based crime statistics reports Knepper (2000).

However, there is information on each category of race, gender, and white-collar crime; on the other hand, there is a minute amount that offers insight into what individuals feel about various races and genders regarding white-collar crime. There is information that displays whom is most likely to commit a white-collar crime, and where most crimes are committed, however very little insight is given into how people (men and women regardless of race) feel about white-collar crimes. This is important in order to express another aspect of white-collar crime and its effect on the individual and possibly the individual's surroundings. Then variations will be clearer and more defined, until then things remain obscure.

The types of offenses committed by gender are notable for their similarities and their differences. Both are more heavily involved in minor property offenses than in serious crimes like robbery or murder. However, "Women offend at much lesser rates than men for all crime categories except prostitution. This gender gap in crime is greatest for serious crime and least for mild forms of
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Psychology and the Criminal Offender

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41797198

Psychology and the Criminal Offender

Individuals commit crimes for many different reasons, and some of these and psychological in nature. In other words, the way that a person's brain works and the way that the person looks at the world can contribute to how that person reacts to many different things and whether that person commits crimes, or what kinds of crimes. The circumstances of the individual can also contribute to what kind of crimes are committed, since access to different things affects the types of crimes that are committed by specific individuals. Looked at here will be white collar, blue collar, and organized crime, since they are all different and those differences can be important. In addition to this, it will be important to describe and distinguish the common characteristics that these criminals have.

White collar crime is generally committed by those that make more money and that work…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice What Are the

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20653063

History has shown us that, time and again, more privileged offenders become excused of higher-level degrees of crime and are, instead, tagged with the lower-level descriptor of white-collar crime. The FBI's definition merges with this second definition in that the FBI agrees that most white-collar crimes are perpetrated by business and government professionals, and that these crimes can be severe in that they can devastate individuals, families, and organizations (Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). [online]).

What is the National Insurance Crime Bureau, and what functions does it perform for law enforcement?

The National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB), supported by approximately 1,000 property/casualty insurance companies, is an American non-profit organization located in Illinois that deals with insurance-related crimes and works with law enforcement agencies to ensure control and vigilance. Much of its work is related to motor vehicle theft. In general, however, the NICB describes itself as "partnering with insurers and…… [Read More]


Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Retrieved on 4/4/2011 from:


National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB). Retrieved on 4/4/2011 from:

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RICO ACT in Conception and

Words: 4576 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80600205

Moreover, a prosecution of the core leadership of an organization under RICO charges is likely to produce revelations concerning the relationship between leadership and other members who are either guilty of racketeering or some lesser scope of individual crime. This is to say that RICO was essentially designed to push the door open on the activities of such typically obscured enterprises in order to systematically disrupt its initiatives and priorities.

Still, as this investigation finds as a recurrent theme in considered research materials, even when armed with RICO's expansive authorities, there remains a fundamental difficulty in overcoming the effectively obfuscating structure of the modern organized crime enterprise. In the case of the long-ingrained style of activity instituted by La Cosa Nostra, the protective degree to which structure is designed to insulate the activities, connections and implications relating to real decisions-makers and bosses tends to effect the ability of RICO statutes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ACLU. (2003). How 'Patriot Act 2' Would Further Erode the Basic Checks on Government Power that Keeps America Safe and Free. American Civil Liberties Union. Online at http://www.aclu.org/SafeandFree/SafeandFree.cfm?ID=12161&c=206

Arshadi, N. (1998). Insider Trading Liability and Enforcement Strategy. Financial Management, 27(2), 70-84.

Cornell University Law School (CULS). (1970). Chapter 96-Racketeer Influences and Corrupt Organizations. U.S. Code Collection. Online at http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/usc_sup_01_18_10_I_20_96.html

FBI. (2004). Investigative Programs: Organized Crime. Department of Justice: Federal Bureau of Investigation. Online at http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cid/orgcrime/aboutocs.htm
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Role and Evolution of the American Prison

Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27365626

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…… [Read More]


Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
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Statute of Limitations These Are

Words: 2517 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5026780

This seems to be serious, but most of the people committing the crime are being released by the courts. (Understanding White Collar Crime)

Question 3a: What is a FOIA request and is it likely to be granted?

The request is under the Freedom of Information Act, and it is targeted to the United States Department of Justice, and there is no reason to think that the Department of Justice will refuse to reply. The question is of political interference occurring affecting the trial in the last stages of the trial against the cigarette industry. Let us not assume that the Department of Justice is now being totally controlled by the politicians, and that is why they will stop from replying. At worst, there will be the appointment of a committee to investigate and look into the matter. Even that will help the cigarette industry as they will get more time,…… [Read More]


About Southern Research. Southern Research Institute. Retrieved at  http://www2.southernresearch.org/ . Accessed on 17 June, 2005

About Us: A lasting partnership... born of dedication and cooperation. Retrieved at  http://www.atca.org/about_us.asp . Accessed on 17 June, 2005

Indicator Species. Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved at http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10370_22664-60298 -- ,00.html. Accessed on 17 June, 2005

Moral Hazard. Retrieved at  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/moralhazard.asp . Accessed on 17 June, 2005
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Society - Criminal Punishment Punishing

Words: 305 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48811707

Robert Vigil's account of the direct consequences of white collar crimes of the type at issue details the tremendous harm to innocent individuals and their families and serves as an effective reminder of the basis for penal law in the first place. While it may be appropriate to punish white collar crimes that do not cause substantial tangible harm to innocents less harshly than some violent crimes, that argument simply does not hold water in cases where those crimes do cause tremendous harms, such as those detailed by Vigil. Furthermore, the position that the advanced age of white collar criminals should justify to mitigate their criminal sentences completely ignores the effect their crimes have on the quality of the twilight years of their equally elderly victims. At the very least, white collar crime must be punished in a manner that reflects the magnitude and types of harms they cause to…… [Read More]


In his 2005 New York Times article, "How Long to Jail White-Collar Criminals?," Andrew Sorkin expresses a reluctance to punish white collar criminals as harshly as current laws allow. Sorkin cites several arguments, including the suggestion that the advanced age of defendants makes long sentences tantamount to a life sentence and that they are out of proportion to the seriousness of other crimes eligible for similar sentences. According to one of Sorkin's sources, long sentences in high-profile cases provide less deterrent value than increased enforcement efforts producing greater numbers of convictions but shorter sentences. Sorkin utterly fails to consider the impact of white collar crimes on those victimized by them and does not address that issue in his analysis at all; he merely acknowledges that the argument against harsh penalties does not go so far as to suggest that white collar crimes should go unpunished.

Robert Vigil's account of the direct consequences of white collar crimes of the type at issue details the tremendous harm to innocent individuals and their families and serves as an effective reminder of the basis for penal law in the first place. While it may be appropriate to punish white collar crimes that do not cause substantial tangible harm to innocents less harshly than some violent crimes, that argument simply does not hold water in cases where those crimes do cause tremendous harms, such as those detailed by Vigil. Furthermore, the position that the advanced age of white collar criminals should justify to mitigate their criminal sentences completely ignores the effect their crimes have on the quality of the twilight years of their equally elderly victims. At the very least, white collar crime must be punished in a manner that reflects the magnitude and types of harms they cause to innocent individuals.
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Predominantly Latino Gangs Mara Salvatrucha

Words: 17380 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44825476


Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.

Importance of the Study

The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]


Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.

Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,

2006 from  http://www.CNSNews.com .

Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
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Role of Civil Sanctions in

Words: 2951 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39123081

If police officers are not sufficiently deterred by the prospect of evidence being suppressed at a hearing where a person's liberty is in jeopardy, it is a fortiori that they will not be deterred by the possibility of suppression at a civil forfeiture hearing where only the person's property is in jeopardy.

Law enforcement officials have much to gain in the outcome of the issues raised in Scott, and will likely bring challenges to the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture. While the court's trend is moving away from applying the exclusionary rule in civil contexts, law enforcement agencies are increasingly relying on civil tools to attack crime. At the forefront of this movement is the use of civil forfeiture to seize the fruits and instrumentalities of the narcotics trade. Civil forfeiture statutes allow law enforcement officers to seize privately held assets that have been used in a crime, a practice…… [Read More]


Crandley, Mark J (2001) a Plymouth, a parolee, and the police: the case for the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture after Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott.

Albany Law Review

Bilionis, Louis D. (1998) Process, the Constitution, and substantive criminal law.

Michigan Law Review
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Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and

Words: 2014 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62031585

Literature on the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

The field of specialized literary reviews on the Sarbanes-Oxley Act is a widely spread one presenting numerous issues form various standpoints. Reviewers' opinions vary based on their position towards the bill and their prior professional expertise on white-collar crimes.

Among the mostly appreciated and close to reality works are: The Impact of Regulatory Information Disclosure on Information Security Investments, Competition and Social Welfare by Anindya Ghose at New York University and Uday Rajan at the University of Michigan; Serbanes-Oxley Whistleblower Cases, by Philip M. erkowitz and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Current Proposals by NYSE, Amex and NASDAQ.

6. Conclusions

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was passed in order to better supervise the actions within the business department. The Senate and the House of Representatives felt the crucial need for such legislature due to the increased number of white-collar fraud cases in…… [Read More]


Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Sarbanes-Oxley Act, postedon October 18, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarbanes-Oxley_Act,last accessed on October 21, 2006

Warren W. Hamel, Esq. Venable Howards, it's Not Just Enron: A Guide to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act for Nonprofit Organizations

Larry E. Ribstein, Corporate Governance at Crossroads: Sizing Up SOX, Draft of January 18, 2005

Anindya Ghose and Uday Rajan, the Economic Impact of Regulatory Information Disclosure on Information Security Investments, Competition and Social Welfare, Submitted to Workshop on Economics of Information Security, March 2006
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Ethical and Financial Risks of Banking Industry Meltdown

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4428235

Banking Industry Meltdown: The Ethical and Financial isks

The 2008 financial meltdown has been rated as the worst global economic crisis after the Great Depression of 1930. It shook the financial fabric of all the nations regardless of their economic status. It also led to the closure of most of the world's renowned banks and other financial institutions. Analysts have related the problems and the causes of this meltdown to the failure of the banks in their use of derivatives (Will, Handelman, Brotherton, 2013). Derivatives are defined as the financial arrangements that financial institutions formulate in order to hedge out against a future loss. The nature if these financial assets are that they are highly profitable and at the same time perilous (Beder & Marshall, 2011). The allure of profits is what baits the managers to adopt and use them in their institutions. This study focuses on the ethical dimensions…… [Read More]


Beder, T.S., & Marshall, C.M. (2011). Financial Engineering: The Evolution of a Profession. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Koslowski, P. (2011). The Ethics of Banking: Conclusions from the Financial Crisis. New York: Springer Science & Business Media

Will, S., Handelman, S, Brotherton, D. (2013). How they got away with it: White Collar Criminals and the Financial Meltdown. New York: Columbia University Press
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Auto Various Questions Relating to Automotives Safety

Words: 533 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22807026


Various questions relating to Automotives, Safety and Environmental Concerns

Discuss the apparent reluctance of auto manufacturers to put consumer safety ahead of profits.

Money is, of course vitally important, especially in America. However, just recently we have heard news on how a Toyota killed a family, who was not able to use the breaks on the highway. Auto accidents are climbing rapidly, and often traffic on the highway is due to such accidents, which is a sad fact.[footnoteRef:1] Of course, auto manufacturers are not necessarily at the base of these statistics, and human error undoubtedly plays a role; yet many studies do conclude that the emphasis is often on profit instead of customer safety, which is worrying indeed. [1: U.S. Census Bureau-Accidents and Fatalities (011). Retrieved September , from . ]

One study, for example, is concerned that the U.S. is much too complacent with the incidence of accidents…… [Read More]

2. What is "environmental racism"? What about minority/economically disadvantaged populations encourages or allows this situation? How is environmental racism relevant to white-collar crime?

Environmental racism is yet another problem that faces our country. This means that certain races are more affected by environmental crises as others.[footnoteRef:3] For example, the disadvantaged in the Katrina hurricane were more affected than the affluent, and many more of the latter perished, sadly. This situation is encouraged by the poor standards that are enforced with it comes to minority populations. It is not unusual that they live in worse areas, under worse conditions (i.e. dilapidated houses, worse terrain, etc.) The fact that most of these populations are not helped and that the government does relatively little to remedy such situations does not help either. This concept is related to white collar crime due to the fact that companies, and the executives of these companies in specific, often go around safety measures for housing, for example, built for minority populations, which in turn affects the latter, as mentioned above.[footnoteRef:4]

[3: Environmental Justice/Environmental Racism. (2011). Retrieved September 22, from .] [4: While Collar Crime (2011). FBI. Retrieved September 22, 2011, from . ]
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Three Strikes Laws From the

Words: 4798 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9858190

herefore, by increasing the costs of imprisonment by the three strikes law, it is intended that there will be less crime. Marwell and Moody express several difficulties with the laws in the 24 states: Criminals are not always aware of the laws, at least not initially; repeat criminals can be expected to serve substantial prison terms even in the absence of the laws; almost all of the states already had habitual criminal statutes where criminals with prior convictions could be given lengthy sentences under the judge's discretion; the deterrent effect on homicides is limited in any case because the law most likely does not increase sanctions for homicides. However, the law may reduce homicides by deterring robberies and other felonies where homicides may take place; some criminals may limit their expected costs by taking evasive action, such as moving to another jurisdiction or to other areas of crime where the…… [Read More]

Trends: Crime, the Police, and Civil Liberties

Greg M. Shaw; Robert Y. Shapiro; Shmuel Lock; Lawrence R. Jacobs

1998 62:405-426. Public Opinion Quarterly
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Consensus and Conflict Models

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95026946

consensus vs. The conflict model

Consensus and Conflict Models

Compare and contrast the consensus model and the conflict model:

And how do both fall short?

The 'conflict'-based model of criminal justice theory views all of human society as inherently gripped by conflict, with a specific emphasis on class-based conflict. Marxism is the economic theory primarily associated with the conflict theory. Marxists take a broad, sweeping view of all of human global history as an eternal, polarized struggle between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world. The haves, which in modern, industrialized society are the bourgeois property-owners, try to hold onto their power by manipulating all existing political and economic structures to disenfranchise the have-nots.

Naturally, the have-nots of the world occasionally chafe against this control. But, they often do so ineffectually, through petty crimes and unorganized and organized criminal activities. Crime can actually act as a kind of 'safety'…… [Read More]


Gaines, Larry K. & Roger Le Roy Miller. (2011). Criminal justice in action. New York:

Wadsworth. Retrieved December 16, 2011 at http://instruct.westvalley.edu/smith/aj1handouts/gaines_chapter1.pdf

Greek, Cecil. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminal Theory Homepage.

Retrieved December 16, 2011 at http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm
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Overarching Purpose of Criminal Justice

Words: 1973 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49541281

If citizens do not trust the courts to deliver fair sentences, then trust in the government itself falls apart. If citizens do not recognize the legitimacy of the correctional institutions that embody punishment, then the entire criminal justice system has failed.

Punishment by the state for crime must be legitimate. The act of punishment must be systematic and not arbitrary, dealt in an unbiased manner and according to rule of law. For years, differential sentencing for crack cocaine and powdered cocaine in the United States reveals an arbitrary punishment that reflects race and class conflict. Such irrational manifestations of punishment serve to delegitimize the authority of the state. When the legitimacy of the state is lost, the foundation of a free society crumbles.

Ideally, the state possesses credible authority. That authority is used to uphold the rights and freedoms upon which a liberal democracy is based. The shared values of…… [Read More]


Bedau, H.A. (2010). Punishment. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/punishment/ 

Fagan, J. (2008). Legitimacy and criminal justice. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:CCgCViIiz_QJ:moritzlaw.osu.edu/osjcl/Articles/Volume6_1/Fagan.Intro.PDF.pdf+punitive+legitimacy+criminal+justice&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShJXobcMDmglV5TlF0d0d8XPcpqHyHT7gApxqlyHB-ynAXZXXBPBiOhsyEDeO_9hXlAmWbI6NALIf6VspF0Ox77-F-8kGN04vmftun6kxQh1cvaeK8KZQMg92kQ3GRmlfssgPQ2&sig=AHIEtbTOhZcNkalDBm6G11ceblm6HlrRng

Johnson, D. (2009). Anger about crime and support for punitive criminal justice policies. Punishment & Society. January 2009 vol. 11 no. 1 51-66.

Levine, B.B. (2005). Legitimacy and the process why which it is pursued. In Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology. Eds. Beckert, J. & Zafirovski, M. Retrieved online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=7&ved=0CE4QFjAG&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.fiu.edu%2F~levineb%2FReadings%2FLegitimacy_for_Milan_final.doc&rct=j&q=weber%20legitmacy&ei=0yeaTYvCJMOBhQfLh6j5CA&usg=AFQjCNFY2ueJB2ECMxAN1Wz9m0_b248JAQ&sig2=lZTHzm5bjGI4oVULeml3wg&cad=rja
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Criminal Justice RICO in 1970

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50410671

Since ICO focuses on a pattern of behavior instead of just on the criminal acts that are involved prosecutors find it relatively easy to prove these cases. If an organization is convicted of committing two of the specified crimes within a ten-year period then they can be convicted of racketeering.

Legitimate business owners deserve to have protection from groups that wish to pursue illegal activity. The ICO Act was put into place in order to afford these legitimate businesses this protection. Since the interpretation of the ICO Act has been expanded we have also seen protections from mail fraud and wire tapping to be included in the protections that are guaranteed to the people. The ICO Act is always going to be subject to interpretation, but the protections that if gives business owners will always be seen as good.


Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of ico? Or…… [Read More]


Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of Rico? Or Only The Beginning: The Ongoing Debate

Over the Expanded Use of Criminal and Civil Rico. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from Web

site: http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html

Chapter 96 -- Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations. (2000). Retrieved April 20, 2009,
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Women Offenders

Words: 5340 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27946496

delineation of the research hypotheses. The chapter will conclude with an outline of the remaining chapters.

Relevant Background Information

Increasingly, female offenders and issues associated with their incarceration have been identified as a problem of concern. Evidence suggests that female offenders represent a growing population within the U.S. penal system. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of female inmates in state prisons increased 75% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994). Between 1981 and 1991, the number of females incarcerated in federal penal institutions also increased by 24%. Since 1980 the population of women inmates has increased by more than 200% (Gabel & Johnston, 1995). Women inmates currently account for 9% of the entire prison population and of this group, 57% are women of color.

The majority of women are arrested for nonviolent crimes. Typical offenses include fraud, use of illegal drugs, and prostitution (Singer, Bussey, Song, & Lunghofer, 1995). Evidence also…… [Read More]

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New Zealand and the United

Words: 3004 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 254181

Furthermore, there have been very few cases of police corruption. New Zealand police officers are also known for their involvement in various community and youth outreach programs. (the New Zealand Police)

7. General comparison of New Zealand and the United States.

Both the United States and New Zealand have many fundamental similarities in their historical, religious, social and legal development. In the first instance, both countries were formed through colonization - which implies that they both encountered in their history different but comparable problems with regard to diversity and cultural inequalities. However, this is much less pronounced than in the larger United States.

The religious structure and composition of the two countries are also relatively similar, with a preponderance of the Christian denomination. The United States is, according to the PE Foundation, approximately seventy percent Protestant and just over twenty percent Catholic, with the balance divided over a variety of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

History of Youth Justice in New Zealand. Oct 3, 2008. http://www.justice.govt.nz/youth/history/part1.html

Census snapshot: cultural diversity. Oct 3, 2008. http://www.stats.govt.nz/products-and-services/Articles/census-snpsht-cult-diversity-Mar02.htm

Crime and Justice in the United States of America. Oct 3, 2008. http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2003/December/articlesdb/articles/3500

Criminal Justice System in Action: The Adversarial System. Oct 3, 2008. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/31690/criminal_justice_system_in_action_the.html?cat=17
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Criminal Justice - Gender and

Words: 3438 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98457029

In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]


Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.

Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35

Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon
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Investigations and Privatization

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34892480

Corporate Criminal Justice

The following study is a critical analysis of four articles or book passages relevant to the study of criminal justice in a corporate context. Each essay or book excerpt will be analyzed in turn and in the context that each has a significant intellectual contribution to make to the contemporary study of corporate criminal justice. hile this is a relatively new specialization within the corporate and criminal justice fields, it is nevertheless a very important one. The IRS indicates that crime has recently been categorized in terms of motivation, not in terms of the victim (Internal Revenue Service). This means that greed has become an enormous criminal category, one that must consider the excesses of white-collar crime. Additionally, there is the matter of corporate security and management of asset securities. For corporations, this means achieving a delicate balance between complying with the law, relying on federal law…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dalton, Daniel R. Security Management: Business Strategies for Success. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. 1-37.

Internal Revenue Services. Financial Investigations: A Financial Approach to Detecting and Resolving Crimes. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION.

Keller, Kimberley S. "Securing Security Expert Testimony: Overcoming the Daubert Challenge to Reach the Witness Stand." Security Journal 17.3 (2004): 21-29.

McCrie, Robert. "Three Centuries of Criminal Justice Privatization in the United States." Police. Ed. EDITORS. PLACE OF PUBLICATION: PUBLISHER, DATE. 12-26.
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Social Interaction Social Interaction Is

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36002405

It is also possible to have professional networks of contacts and people with whom one has a relationship with. Again, there are web sites that specialize in this form of a network, such as Linked in.

Ultimately, people benefit from these networks by being able to take advantage of the opportunities and insights that they might not otherwise have been aware of if someone in their network had not told them about it (How Social Contagion, 2004). Social networks allow a person to vastly extend his or her resources.

What is deviant behavior? Deviant behavior is behavior that is considered the opposite of behavior that is characterized as conforming to some sort of a social norm. However, as there are many different social groups within society as a whole, the definition of what is considered deviant and what is considered normative or conforming behavior switches and may even conflict between…… [Read More]


Giddens, a. (2011). Essentials of sociology (3rd ed.). New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton.

"How social contagion affects consumers' willingness to try online retailers." (2004).

Retrieved from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1056

Miller, D. (2007). "Dyad/Tryad." Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology Online. Retrieved from  http://www.sociologyencyclopedia.com/public/tocnode?id=g9781405124331_yr2011_chunk_g978140512433110_ss2-55#citation
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Ethnicity in Stafford Virginia Living in the

Words: 2098 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91267179

Ethnicity in Stafford, Virginia

Living in the commonwealth of Virginia in the year 2012 is a mostly enjoyable existence for myself and the fellow members of my community. Stafford, Virginia is a relatively small place. e have about 100,000 people living here. This is a community steeped in heritage. One of the landmarks of our community is the boyhood farm of First President of the United States, George ashington. Ferry Farm is the central tourist attraction in Stafford and many of our local events center around our Founding Father. During the Civil ar, President Abraham Lincoln visited Chatham, a private home in the region. The land was used as a station for the Union army during that war. America's history is part of our daily lives. This is evidenced by the fact that the phrase "here history meets the promise of tomorrow" is emblazoned on the town's website (Stafford 2012).…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Callandar, Alane (2008). "Race Remains Complex Issue in South." The Stafford County Sun.

Cohan, Stacey (2010). "Autistic Teen Jailed for Officer Assault." Fox DC: Washington, D.C.

Freehling, Bill (2011). "Stafford Moving on Up on U.S. Wealth List." The Free Lance Star.

Fredericksburg, VA.
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Different Forms of Fraud

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33188692

Corporate fraud as a dishonest activity for organizations that is considered as white collar crime has serious legal implications. Though it can be difficult to detect and catch, it is important to prevent it by creating effective and efficient policies for the organizations that ensure an efficient system of checks and balances exists in the organization for its physical and fiscal security. Whenever fraud happens in a company or organization, it often takes the form of hiding sources of revenue, overstating expenses or growth, or disguising payments made to individuals in the company. Often, fraudulent activities within the organization are complex in nature and have a gross impact on the financial nature of the organization. It is usually perpetrated by the company management and other employees are often unaware of these fraudulent activities (Mele, 2005).

Corporate fraud, as difficult as it is to prevent, often has a ripple effect whereby…… [Read More]


Bertrand, V. (2009). Organizational Isomorphism and Corruption: An Empirical Research in Russia. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(1), 59-76.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2014). Rooting out health care fraud is central to the well-being of both our citizens and the overall economy. Retrieved April, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/white_collar/health-care-fraud

Mele, D. (2005). Ethical Education in Accounting: Integrating Rules, Values and Virtues. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(1), 97-109.

Panda, J.K. (2006). Accounting & Finance For Management. New Delhi: Sarup Book Publishers Pvt. Limited.
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Theft in the Office it

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16958820

Indeed, in RICO cases, there may well be elements of violent and even homicidal criminal activities involved that clearly make the thefts involved fall outside the purviews of the sentencing regimens established for white collar crimes. According to Podger, "If the conduct is fraud and the predicate act is mail or wire fraud, it should be designated as a white collar crime. hen, however, the RICO predicate relates to a state-based offense such as murder or robbery, it should clearly be outside the realm of being a white collar crime" (731). Consequently, a mere cursory analysis of the specific controlling statute may not provide any substantive guidance concerning whether the criminal activity should be handled as a white collar crime. As Podger points out, "The circumstances of the conduct may be equally important in categorizing the activity" (732). These circumstances relate to the position of trust held by the perpetrator.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company, 1990.

Podgor, Ellen S. 2007. "The Challenge of White Collar Sentencing." Journal of Criminal Law

and Criminology 97(3): 731-732.
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Versus the Overclass in Regards

Words: 3612 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34298744

That is if no successful intervention takes place. Campson and Laub go on to say that:

e further hypothesize that the concentration of racial poverty and inequality will exert macrolevel effects on punitive forms of social control that are larger for blacks than whites and for drug offenses than other delinquencies. As argued above, the dual image of minority offenders and the "drug war" appears to have formed a symbolic yet potent threat to the middle class population. (Sampson, and Laub 293)

In sharp contrast to this perceived threat, overclass crime such as embezzlement or other money pilfering schemes, are often considered merely "paper crimes" and disasters such as Enron, while horrific to the persons involved, are not the fodder for sensational journalism. Computers and stock reports are not as interesting as police chases and body counts when it comes to attracting the attention of lay people, criminologist and forensic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gibbs, Blair. "The Underclass and Crime: How to Deal With an Economic, Political, and Cultural Disaster?" The Spectator 16 January 2006

Gordon, Randall a. "Perceptions for Blue-Collar and White-Collar Crime: The Effects of Subject and Defendant Race on Simulated Juror Decisions." Journal of Applied Social

Psychology 20 (1990): 971-983

Magnet, Myron. "Rebels With a Cause." National Review. 45 (1993): 46-50
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Poor and the Powerless Conflict

Words: 2582 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66643894

The blue collar criminal faces much harsher consequences, even after the formal phase of their punishment is complete.

Social inequality can be seen in the punishments for various crimes. When the lower class commits a crime, such as theft, that threatens to dispossess the upper class, the punishments are much more severe than for "white collar" crimes. It is more likely that the white collar criminal is of higher socioeconomic status than the common thief. Therefore, these types of crimes are punished much less severely, once again to protect the status of the upper class. They must be able to take action, even if it is immoral to protect their social status. Any act that attempts to dispossess the wealthy of their material goods and status is viewed as much more "criminal" than when the wealthy attempt to further deprive the poor of material goods.

A prime example of social…… [Read More]


Doepke, M. & Zilibotti, F. (2005). Social Class and the Spirit of Capitalism. Paper 1277. The European Economic Association. 3(2-3), 516-524. Retrieved April 10, 2008 at http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3297&context=postprints

Dyer, Joel. (2000). The Perpetual Prisoner Machine: How America Profits From Crime. Boulder: Westview.

Mehlum, H., Moene, K., & Torvik, R. (2005). Crime induced poverty traps. Journal of Development Economics. 77 (2), 325-340. Retrieved April 11, 2003 at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VBV-4FTS34K-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=09d21c12671f63f5647177e201a01550.

Neiman, F (2000). Coincidence or Causal Connection? The Relationship between Thomas Jefferson's Visits to Monticello and Sally Hemings's Conceptions. William and Mary Quarterly, 27 (2), 198-210.
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Criminology Critique the Central Aim

Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68055632

The environment extends beyond the family to friends and neighborhood. Neutrality has no effect on development of criminal behavior.


In order to understand the authors reasoning it is important to understand the concepts of behavior development, i.e. how observation of a behavior leads to development of that behavior. It is also important to understand the dynamics in various groups to understand why behaviors may be imitated from some sources and not others.


The author is working on the assumption that there are no other factors which develop criminal behavior. For example the assumption is that if criminal behavior develops then the criminal will undertake criminal activity at any possible opportunity. The theory does not explain why some children grow up in an environment which promotes crime and yet does not develop these behaviors and vice-versa.


If the reasoning of the author were to be accepted it has…… [Read More]

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Government Ethics

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64672022


Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.

However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…… [Read More]


American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling

Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.

Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.

Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
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Strict Liability & Securities Law Congress Defined

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27315701

Strict Liability & Securities Law

Congress defined security laws to include investment contracts, but "investment contract" is not itself defined in law (Condomimiums as Investment Contracts under the Security Laws, 2011). An Eleventh Circuit court decision indicated "The test for an investment contract is whether the contract is (1) an investment of money (2) in a common enterprise (3) made with expectation of profits to be derived solely from efforts of others" (Condomimiums as Investment Contracts under the Security Laws, 2011). ecause law is lacking in adequate definitions, it is completely possible for a business owner to operate a business without fully understanding the laws that govern the individual practices.

The Trust Indenture Act of 1939 applies to debt securities such as bonds, debentures, and notes offered for public sale (The Laws That Govern the Securities Industry). The Securities Acts of 1933 and 1934 govern the disclosure of financial information…… [Read More]


White Collar Crime. (2008). Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http://encyclopedia.com/topic/white-collar_crime.aspx

Condomimiums as Investment Contracts under the Security Laws. (2011). Loyala's Institute for Investor Protection Major Appelate Court Decisions, 1(12),October.

Securities Fraud. (n.d.). Retrieved from Legal Information Institute: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/securities_fraud

The Laws That Govern the Securities Industry. (n.d.). Retrieved from Security Exchange Commission: http://www.sec.govb/about/laws.shtml
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Words: 1439 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5083803

4. Retributive justifications for punishment- such as theories about making punishment "fit" what the crime or criminal "deserves" have been criticized on grounds that they assume we know a lot more than we do. For example, it is notorious that different jurisdictions assign different punishments for the same offense. In addition, it is notoriously difficult to assess an individual's personal blameworthiness for criminal conduct in terms of his or her personal history. However, neither of these factors is substantial enough to challenge the validity of retributive justice schemes. After all, it is to be expected that different jurisdictions would have different punishments for the same criminal behavior, because cultural values vary across the United States, with certain cultures and regional areas placing greater emphasis on different values. The federal system of government practically dictates that there will be conflict among the many criminal justice systems in the United States. Furthermore,…… [Read More]