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Chase. Inside ikileaks: My Time
with Julian Assange at the orld's Most Dangerous ebsite. New York, NY: Crown
Publishers, 2011. Print. Retrieved on 21 February, 2013 from <
Higgins, Melissa. Julian Assange: ikileaks Founder. Edina, MI: ABDO Pub. Co, 2012.
Internet resource. Retrieved on 21 February, 2013 from <
Leigh, David, Luke Harding, Edward Pilkington, Robert Booth, and Charles Arthur.
ikileaks: Inside Julian Assange's ar on Secrecy. New York: Public Affairs, 2011.
Internet resource. Retrieved on 21 February 2013 from <
Nicks, Denver. Private: Bradley Manning, ikileaks, and the Biggest Exposure of Official
Secrets in American History. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, 2012. Internet resource. Retrieved on 21 February 2013 from <
Sifry, Micah L. ikileaks and the Age of Transparency. New York: O/R Books, 2011. Print.
Retrieved on 21 February 2013 from <
Beckett, Charlie, and James Ball. Wikileaks: News in the Networked Era. Cambridge: Polity,
2012. Print. Rretrieved on 21, February, 2013 from <
Ethics issues raised by the conduct of the American government in dealing with ikileaks and Assange
The behavior of the American government towards ikileaks raises serious ethical issues related to government intimidation of the private company. The founder of ikileaks has also experienced a great deal of harassment in light of the ikileaks scandal which has called into question the integrity of the American government in pursuing justice through means that are inconsistent with the fairness ethos the government usually espouses. Lastly the case brings to light ethical issues related to the attempt of the government to censor free speech and limit the freedom of the press. All of these issues will be explored in the subsequent discourse.
Ethical Issue 1
The most blatant ethical issue that is raised with the American Government is the way it has gone about attempting to dismantle the ikileaks site. Instead of finding…
"deontology." The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy. BUNNIN, NICHOLAS and JIYUAN YU (eds). Blackwell Publishing, 2004. Blackwell Reference Online. 26 March 2011
Grading Rubric for Conference
Julian Assange: WikiLeaks faces 'very aggressive' investigation by U.S.
"If I had to choose between government without newspapers, and newspapers without government, I wouldn't hesitate to choose the newspapers."
Founded in 2006, ikiLeaks is a non-profit organization that publishes submissions of private, secret, and classified media from anonymous news sources and news leaks. Recently, the site has been responsible for publishing a multitude of military intelligence as well as diplomatic cables. For example, the ikileaks Iraq ar Logs showed that around 15,000 civilian deaths had not been admitted by the government, that U.S. authorities failed to investigate hundreds of reports of abuse by Iraqi police and soldiers, and that U.S. forces killed almost 700 civilians for coming too close to checkpoints, including pregnant women. The Afghanistan ar Logs revealed even more accounts of civilian killing including an incident in which U.S. forces dropped six 2,000-pound bombs on a compound where they believed a high value target…
Fowler, Andrew. The Most Dangerous Man in the World. Melbourne University Publishing Ltd., 2011.
O'Laughlin, John et al. "Peering into the Fog of War: The Geography of WikiLeaks Afghanistan War Logs, 2004-09." Eurasian Geography and Economics, No. 4: 472-95.
Banking and WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks is a global non-profit media association that distributes acquiescence of otherwise unavailable documents from nameless sources and leaks. Its website, which was started in 2006, is run by The Sunshine Press (WikiLeaks, 2011). In 2010, the director of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, said that he planned to take down a main American bank and make known a network of dishonesty with a collection of data from an executive's hard drive. With Bank of America's share price declining on the broadly held thought that the hard drive was theirs, those in charge figured out it was time to take action. Since then, a team of fifteen to twenty top Bank of America officials, led by the chief risk officer, has been managing a broad interior investigation, combing thousands of documents in the result that they become public, evaluating every instance where a computer has gone missing and looking…
Banks and WikiLeaks. (2010). Retrieved May 8, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/26/opinion/26sun3.html
Santomero, Anthony M. (n.d.). Commercial Bank Risk Management: an Analysis of the Process.
Retrieved May 8, 2011, from http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/papers/95/9511.pdf
Schwartz, Nelson D. (2011). Facing Threat From WikiLeaks, Bank Plays Defense. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/business/03wikileaks-bank.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1
The whistle-blowing WikiLeaks is an online organization situated in Sweden; this organization distributed records termed "the diplomatic cables" from U.S. foreign negotiators on November 28, 2010. Upon their distribution, lawmakers from all corners of the U.S. political space censured the organization (Steinmetz). Within a brief time period, WikiLeaks turned into the biggest and most famous whistle-blowing organization on the planet. Due partially to the release of huge amounts of secret information on the takeover of Afghanistan and Iraq, the reputation of its author, Julian Assange, and the trial and detainment of Chelsea Manning, WikiLeaks has become the subject of boundless consideration and debate (Christensen).
In April 2010, WikiLeaks distributed a feature titled "Collateral Murder" that demonstrated a circumstance where United States (U.S.) air forces murdered civilians and journalists during the Iraq war. The theme making the news concerning WikiLeaks in late July 2010 was that they had published…
Bergman, K. Michael. "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value." whitepaper. 2001.
Christensen, Christian. "WikiLeaks: From Popular Culture to Political Economy." International Journal of Communication (2014): 2553-2557.
Davis, W. James and Meckel Miriam. "Political Power and the Requirement of Accountability in the age of Wikileaks." Zeitschrift fur Politikwissenchaft (2012): 463-491.
Ellsberg. http://www.ellsberg.net/bio . n.d. 26 April 2015.
In October 2010, ikileaks, an international organization that publishes submissions of private, secret, and classified media ("leaks") by anonymous sources, released "the Iraq ar Logs," almost 400,000 documents which allowed major media outlets to map every death that took place in Iraq or Iran during the recent conflict. In November 2010, ikileaks, released U.S. State Department diplomatic cables, creating an international scandal. The recent media coverage of these events and allegations against ikileaks alleged director, Julian Assange, have brought forth important questions about cybersecurity on both a national and an individual level. Can legislative action adequately protect American individuals from the dangers of the changing nature of media? Should the government be charged with protecting individuals' cybersecurity? On one hand, the role of the government is to protect its citizens against threat and the threat of cyber-attack looms large against its citizen; on the other hand, this new danger…
Katel, Peter. "Identity theft in cyberspace: Can Congress give Americans better protection?" CQ Researcher 15.22 (2005): 517-540.
Marshall, Patrick. "Cybersecurity: Are U.S. military and civilian computer systems safe?" CQ Researcher (2010): 169-191.
Arguably, the raw data at ikiLeaks is far more powerful than anything that can be found in traditional media or satire news. The audience here must also acquire the tools necessary to properly digest the information, as an audience accustomed to uncritical digestion of mainstream media will be challenged by the raw information presented devoid of spin and context.
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). ikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/ikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). hen news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Reilly, I. (2011). Satirical fake news and the politics of the fifth estate. University of Guelph. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:NR71829
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). WikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/Wikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). When news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
technologies, modern media has the ability to absorb and become influenced by cultures from all around the world. The media of the eastern world, such as in Saudi Arabia and Nigerian have been influenced by the west, particularly the United States of America. Marwan Kraidy's (2009) "Reality Television, Gender, and Authenticity in Saudi Arabia" and Brian Larkin's (2004) "Degraded Images, Distorted Sounds: Nigerian Video and the Infrastructure of Piracy" deal with the westernization of Middle Eastern and African cultures which has been thwarted by the governments of those societies.
Marwan Kraidy (2009) explores the ramifications of a pan-Arab reality show called Star Academy which is broadcast in Saudi Arabia. In that nation, the program caused considerable problems because the political basis on which the Saudi government is run was undermined by the production. Star Academy was obviously influenced by western media, such as the television programs "Pop Idol" and "The…
Benklar, Y. (2011). Wikileaks and the Protect-IP Act: a new public-private threat to the internet commons. Daedalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 154-64.
Deibert, R. & Rohozinski, R. (2010). Liberation vs. control in cyberspace. Journal of Democracy. (21:4). 43-57.
Kraidy, M. (2009). Reality television, gender, and authenticity in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Communication. International Communication Association. 59, 345-66.
Larkin, B. (2004). Degraded images, distorted sounds: Nigerian video and the infrastructure of piracy. Public Culture. Duke University Press. 289-314.
Anonymous is one of the groups that can be seen as participating in this form of hacktivism, as is ikileaks.
ikileaks is probably the best know hactivist site to the general public because of the sheer volume of political information that it has made public and because of the unapologetic nature of the owner of the site. This is unfortunate in many ways because it has given individuals a false view of what hacktivism is because Julian Assange seems to have been motivated more often by pique than by genuine political concerns for making the world a better place. This is not, as one might guess, how the ikileaks founder sees the nature of his mission.
ikileaks, like Anonymous, is based on the idea that information -- all information -- should be available to everyone. This is a radical claim, and indeed resembles radical claims made by groups in the…
"Analysis: WikiLeaks -- a new face of cyber-war?" Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/12/09/us-wikileaks-cyberwarfare-amateur-idUSTRE6B81K520101209 . Retrieved 8 May 2012.
The Atlantic Wire. http://www.theatlanticwire.com/technology/2011/07/did-lulzsec-trick-police-arresting-wrong-guy/40522/ . Retrieved 10 Mary 2012.
Castells, Manuel. The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business, and society. Oxford: Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001.
Old-time hacktivists: Anonymous, you've crossed the line. CNET News March 30, 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
This really depends upon which actor is selected as the begining point, the responses to the following questions will not be the same. hy is there so much beef with this website leaking information? ikiLeaks -- as it talks about on the website -- 'bring[s] significant news and info to those in the community. They give an groundbreaking, protected and anonymous way for sources to leak material to journalists' (Thomas 2012).
EMEA government organizations with no documented security. (2010). International Journal of Micrographics & Optical Technology, 28(6), 8-8.
OMB issues first report on federal information technology security. (2002). The Journal of Government Financial Management, 51(2), 8-8.
Bajaj, a., & Ram, S. (2007). A comprehensive framework towards information sharing between government agencies. International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 3(2), 29-44.
Batley, S. (2007). The I in information architecture: The challenge of content management. Aslib Proceedings, 59(2), 139-151.
Brito, Jerry. "Improving…
Brito, Jerry. "Improving Government Transparency Online." Public Manager 17, no. 3 (2008): 22-26.
Galason, Peter. "What We Have Learned about Limiting Knowledge in a Democracy." Social Research, 2010: 23-34.
Public dialog in a network age can cover a lot of topics. The network age is filled with a plethora of varying interests, ideas, subjects, and issues. Some of which relate to privacy, piracy, and even technology. People often forget what an impact the Internet has made in the last couple of decades, even in just 8 years. ANON came into existence, social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter came into popularity, and the recent concept of content creators has shaped the way people view and accept media. ith all these innovative ideas that came out, what kind of impression has it left on the public? hat were the origins of some of these topics? And moreover, has the Internet shaped the identity of people in the last decade?
Several events within internet history have made public dialog important. People need to discuss and analyze things in order to fully understand…
Abelson, Harold, Ken Ledeen, and Harry R. Lewis. "Naked in the Sunlight." Blown to bits: your life, liberty, and happiness after the digital explosion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2008. 19-29. Print.
Auerbach, David, and Gabriela Coleman. Here Comes Nobody: Essays on Anonymous, 4 chan and the Other Internet Culture. N/A: Triple Canopy, 2012. Print.
Castells, Manuel. "Occupy Wall Street: Harvesting the Salt of the Earth." Networks of outrage and hope: social movements in the Internet age. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2012. 156-177. Print.
Lanier, Jaron. You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto. NYC: Vintage, 2011. Print.
The following will be a critique of the case of Julian Assange. It will look into it to see if he was a hacker or a supporter for human rights and freedom of speech.
Assange talked about a grandiose vocation: "If we get the chance to live only once, then it has to be a very daring adventurous life that draws from every available power... Men at their peak, once they are convicted, get tasked to take action." He made his potential fans know about his clandestine fresh plans: "This is one very confidential internal growth mailing list for the site w-i-k-i-l-e-a-k-s-.-o-r-g. Please ensure you avoid making a direct mention of that word in this whole discussion; instead, you can use the initials, 'WL.' On the 9th of December, 2006, Daniel Ellsberg got an email signed with the initials, 'WL' from the blues, renown Vietnam War…
Leigh, D., & Harding, L. (2011). News, sport and opinion from the Guardian's global edition -- The Guardian. Julian Assange: the teen hacker who became insurgent in information war -- Media -- The Guardian. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/media/2011/jan/30/julian-assange-wikileaks-profile
Protecting Personal Information
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, large firms must be able to effectively globalize their operations in order to reach a greater potential client base, stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields and sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth of technology and computerization of business and learning, consumers have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. In accomplishing the aforementioned objectives, firms must also be able to supply a secure environment in which clients can feel safe in accessing the products and services of the business. Knowing that many organizations are utilizing the highly effective means of online systems construction…
Allen, C., & Morris, C. (2007). Information Sharing Mechanisms to Improve Homeland Security. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/expectmore/issue_summary/issueDetailedPlan_24.pdf
Berghel, H. (2000). Identity Theft, Social Security Numbers, and the Web. Communications of the ACM, 43 (2).
Chou, N., Ledesma, R., Teraguchi, Y., & Mitchell, J.C. (2004). Client-Side Defense Against Web-Based Identity Theft. 11th Annual Network and Distributed System Security Symposium. San Diego, CA.
Jagatic, T.N., Johnson, N.A., & Jakobsson, M. (2007). Social Phishing. Communications of the ACM, 50 (10), 94-100.
After September 11th, President ush authorized the use of water boarding, as a way to gain knowledge of terrorist groups and their activities. The problem is that many of the civil rights-based groups believe that this is in violation of American law. When the people, who are interrogated (terrorists), are not American citizens and they want to do as much harm to the country as possible. Given the fact that these individuals, are more than likely hard core terrorists and posses knowledge about imminent terrorist activities, meant that the this technique would be utilized to obtain information. Even though this was successful and was used on limited number of people, the press and Congress continued to debate the issue. (Froomkin, 2010) This is troubling, because it undermines the activities of U.S. intelligence officials (who are trying to protect the nation). As they are inserted into a game of political chicken,…
Congressional Reports. (2004). Go Access to Congress. Retrieved from: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/intel_reform.html
Five Bombshells from Wiki Leaks Iraq War Documents. (2010). Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2010/1022/Five-bombshells-from-WikiLeaks-Iraq-war-documents/Details-of-torture-and-abuse
Key Provisions. (2004). CNN. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2004-12-08/politics/intelligence.key.facts_1_civil-liberties-board-intelligence-reform-bill-number-of-detention-beds?_s=PM:ALLPOLITICS
Overall U.S. Intelligence Budget Tops $80 Billion. (2010). LA Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2010/oct/28/nation/la-na-intel-budget-20101029
The sheer number and variety of sites where such ostensibly private information is made public can make it impossible for someone to truly get privacy.
What is remarkable is how well Dr. Moor did at predicting the ethical issues that would continue to be part of the Computer evolution. Even if computers are simply exacerbating existing ethical dilemmas, the fact that they are capable of doing so means that they are going to continue to present ethical problems. For example, when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, slavery was already in existence and used through the American South. That Industrial evolution invention did not create the ethical issue of slavery. However, with the improved ability to process cotton, cotton suddenly became an incredibly profitable crop. The need for cheap labor jumped dramatically, which certainly increased the demand for slave labor. What that example makes clear is that even seemingly helpful…
Moor, J. (1985). What is computer ethics? Metaphilosophy, 16(4), 266-275.
Security in Healthcare
The recent advances in technology -- databases that store personal medical records and information -- are bringing tools to patients, doctors and other healthcare professionals that were simply not available just a few years ago. There is hope that eventually, a doctor in Hawaii that is treating a medical emergency for a tourist from Florida, will be able to access the digitally kept medical and healthcare records for that injured tourist. In other words, there will likely be in the foreseeable future a national database -- that perhaps links state databases with each other the way the FBI and local law enforcement agencies are linked -- that will be of enormous benefit to citizens and their healthcare providers.
But before that nationally linked database can become a reality, there are a number of potential problems that need to be ironed out. For example, legislation needs to be…
Dogac, Asuman, and Laleci, Gokce B. (2005). A Survey and Analysis of Electronic
Healthcare Record Standards. ACM Computing Surveys, 37(4), 277-315.
Glaser, John, and Aske, Jennings. (2010). Healthcare IT trends raise bar for information security.
Healthcare Financial Management, 64(7), 40-44.
The first 10 years the 21st century began a seemingly new age of terror and fear where heightened alert statuses and preventive measures can be seen as taken to extremes. The macrocosmic status of the global affairs which are often riddled with warfare, strife and suspicion can be examined at the microcosmic level within the information security and data protection industry. The purpose of this essay is to examine these questions: "How should we decide how secure we want our information to be? And who should be responsible to make these decisions? I'll answer these questions using ideas connecting the rationality of fear and security. Next I'll examine how materialism has distracted technology from its true essence, to help mankind. Lastly I will offer solutions to hopefully eliminate confusing and overbearing problems that humanity's quest for security can both effectively and efficiently have serious impact on that condition.
Antonopoulos, A. (2011). " Can you have too much security? "NetworkWorld May31, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.networkworld.com/columnists/2011/053111-andreas.html
CIOinsight. (2005). "Jurassic Plaque: the u-curve of security." April 21, 2005.
Fact Forum Framework. (n.d.) "Computer Security." Retrieved from http://www.caplet.com/security/taxonomy/index.html
Lipowicz, A. (2010). "Wikileaks fallout: white house orders classified data security review." Federal Computer Week Nov 30, 2010. Retrieved from http://fcw.com/articles/2010/11/30/white-house-wikileaks-classified-data-security - review.aspx
Social Engineering Attacks Counter Intelligence
Social Engineering Counter Intelligence
Describe what social engineering and counterintelligence are and their potential implications to our national security in regard to the leaked Afghan War Diary and the Iraq War Logs.
Social engineering is the theft of classified information. Then, using it to change everyone's opinions and perceptions about what is happening. Counter intelligence is preventing hostile enemies or organizations from obtaining access to sensitive material. These areas are viewed from two different perspectives. The first one is that of more liberal attitudes. They believe that any kind of secret files, are allowing the U.S. government to hide the truth. This is when it has no accountability for engaging in different actions. These voices, feel any kind of disclosures of classified information, is critical to understanding the larger issues and letting the public (i.e. world) know what they are up to. (Mulrine, 2013) (Harding,…
Wiki Leaks. (2010). ABC News. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wikileaks-109000-deaths-iraq-war/story?id=11949670
Wiki Leaks Releases. (2010). VOA News. Retrieved from: http://www.voanews.com/content/wikileaks-releases-400000-classified-us-military-files-105568738/128719.html
Fowler, A. (2011). The Most Dangerous Man in the World. Carlton: University of Melbourne Press.
Harding, L. (2011). Wiki Leaks. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
Cyber-Crime in a New Age of Law Enforcement
ith the new introduction of the online sphere, law enforcement today faces unique challenges those previous generations could never even imagined. The internet allows the ability to create an online presence that has virtually no relevance to the real world character of the user. People can now create an online presence with the ability to construct a range of pseudonymity that was never before possible (Gyorgy, 2002). Therefore the person that you think you are communicating with may be a different person altogether.
Furthermore, people can set up a range of different personalities and have multiple identities online that they can use for a range of malicious activities. For example, it is possible for an elderly man who has perverted tendencies to portray himself as a young school girl on online chat forums. In these arenas there is seldom any verification…
Gyorgy, P. (2002). The Tale of Cookies (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde). Social Research, 239-245.
Jayakumar, A. (2014, March 13). Target looking into response to cybersecurity breach; retail sales rose in Feb. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/target-looking-into-response-to-cybersecurity-breach-retail-sales-rose-in-feb/2014/03/13/91d16ece-aae8-11e3-af5f-4c56b834c4bf_story.html
TEDGlobal. (2010, July). Julian Assange: Why the world needs WikiLeaks. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_assange_why_the_world_needs_wikileaks.html
TEDGlobal. (2012, July). Michael Anti: Behind the Great Firewall of China. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/michael_anti_behind_the_great_firewall_of_china.html
President George H.. Bush is an eloquent speaker and an effective negotiator. Regardless of what your particular feelings on the what the US policies have been in the Middle East, it is clear by the address before Congress that President Bush offered before the American people how support for the war was gained. He acted with firm conviction and dedication to what he believed, as well as operated in an organized and effective leadership style. It is also clear that he was a skilled politician and carefully selected his battles. Although his calls for intervention in the Middle East were dressed in rhetoric that focuses on high ideals, there is reason to believe that Bush's motivations were largely pragmatic.
For example, in June 1989, the Chinese military suppressed a pro-democracy movement demonstrating in Beijing's Tiananmen Square in a violent demonstration that used a disproportionate use of tanks and…
Global Research. (2012, March 5). Gulf War Documents: Meeting between Saddam Hussein and US Ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie. Retrieved from Global Research: http://www.globalresearch.ca/gulf-war-documents-meeting-between-saddam-hussein-and-ambassador-to-iraq-april-glaspie/31145
Miller Center. (N.d.). George H. W. Bush: Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from Miller Center: https://millercenter.org/president/bush/foreign-affairs
Walt, S. (2011, January 9). WikiLeaks, April Glaspie, and Saddam Hussein. Retrieved from Foreign Policy: http://foreignpolicy.com/2011/01/09/wikileaks-april-glaspie-and-saddam-hussein/
With the continued integration of technology, and especially internet-based technologies, into everyday life, the threat of cyberterrorism becomes more and more of a concern, as the potential for exponentially devastating effects increases alongside reliance on these emerging technologies. However, combating cyberterrorism is not as simple as one might think (or hope), because even the definition of the word itself remains under discussion. Nonetheless, after examining some of the more common definitions of cyberterrorism as well as the most obvious and evolving cyberterrorist threats, it becomes clear that much of the official preparation and response to cyberterrorism tends to focus on red herrings, missing the areas with the greatest potential for harm while focusing on far less likely doomsday scenarios. ealizing this fact ultimately offers some better ideas for stopping current and future cyberterrorists.
The first hurdle to understanding and combating cyberterrorism is the fact that there is no singularly…
Anonymous, . (2001). Client-side distributed denial-of-service: valid campaign tactic or terrorist act?. Leonardo, 34(3), 269-274.
Baldwin, FN. (2004). The financing of terror in the age of the internet: wilful blindness, greed or a political statement?. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 8(2), 127-158.
Collin, B. (1997). Future of cyberterrorism: the physical and virtual worlds converge. Crime and Justice International, 13(2), 15-18.
Kaiser, J. (1999). Cyberterrorism threat hyped?. Science, 283(5399), 139.
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
hile the U.S. is only showing the first signs of recovery from the global economic crisis, other nations such as Australia and China have recovered much more quickly. There are a number of factors that have contributed to the disparity in economic performance in the past three years in these different nations. In particular, three factors will be considered. The first is the situation in each country at the outset of the crisis. As the crisis was largely precipitated by a credit crunch, the differences between the structure and regulation of the banking sectors in each country will be given particular attention. The second factor will be the response on the part of each federal government to the crisis. The third factor will be the nature of the different economies -- the degree to which different structures have impacted the recovery process. Lastly, policy implications will be drawn for…
BEA. (2011). National income and product accounts table. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/TableView.asp?SelectedTable=1&ViewSeries=NO&Java=no&Request3Place=N&3Place=N&FromView=YES&Freq=Year&FirstYear=2007&LastYear=2010&3Place=N&Update=Update&JavaBox=no#Mid
Chinability.com. (2010). GDP growth in China 1952-2009. Chinability.com. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.chinability.com/GDP.htm
Jones, F. (2011). Krugman: Stimulus didn't fail because it never happened. Moneynews.com. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.moneynews.com/StreetTalk/paul-Krugman-Stimulus-Didnt/2011/02/16/id/386333
Maiden, M. (2009). Australia's banking sector is as strong as a brick outhouse. The Age. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.theage.com.au/business/australias-banking-sector-is-as-strong-as-a-brick-outhouse-20090506-avdj.html
England - China
For managers conducting cross-border activity between England and China, there are a number of factors that should be considered. The differences between English and Chinese business culture are striking, and it is important to understand the nature of those differences and how they can affect business relations between the two countries. There are also significant differences in the economies of each country and again it is valuable for managers to understand these differences and how they may affect the business dealings between English companies and Chinese ones.
This report will analyze the differences between England and China from a number of perspectives. The first component of the report will focus on the macro-level environmental differences between the two, using the PESTLE framework as the basis of the analysis. The second component of the report will focus on the business culture of the two nations, including Geert Hofstede's…
BusinessMate.org. (2009). What are Fons Trompenaars' cultural dimensions? Business Mate. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=5
Bradsher, K. (2010). China leading global race to make clean energy. New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/31/business/energy-environment/31renew.html
CIA World Factbook. (2011). China. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
CIA World Factbook. (2011). United Kingdom. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uk.html
Quiet Revolution on Real ID details a middle path between the extremes on both sides of the issue. It is informative as well balanced. In the wake of 9/11, we can not afford to sit quietly back and wait for tragedy to happen again. In that tragedy, fake ids allowed a small group of terrorists to perpetrate the largest and most devastating attack on American soil in its history. hat becomes largely apparent is that the delay of Real ID can make such days (or even worse) a reality for Americans. The solution that the authors of the article not only make sense but are critical to our survival as a nation, especially in the light of the threat of terrorist nuclear weapons to America. As recently as 25 April, 2011, an Investor's Daily article spoke about ikileaks allegations about Khalid Sheikh Muhammad's threat of a "nuclear hellstorm" if Osama…
Ahers, Mike M. "Obama administration delays rule to improve driver's license security."
CNN. 2011. Web. 30 Apr 2011.
Ni, A.Y., and A.T.K. Ho. "The Real ID Act and U.S. National Identification System
Communications Media -- Media Culture
Meet the Press June 24, 2012 (NBC)
The mainstream news program, Meet the Press June 24, 2012 (NBC), focused primarily on some of the different views about the most important needs of the nation between Republicans and Democrats. More specifically, the moderator raised the issues of racial profiling laws in various states, immigration policy reform, the potential consequences of a pending Supreme Court decision on President Obama's Affordable Care Act that has been the source of so much conflict in political circles since the first months of the current presidential administration. Other topics of discussion included the national budget in connection with the need to generate revenue, the current conflict over the "Fast and Furious" debacle and the bizarre allegations leveled against the U.S. Attorney General, and predictions about the different challenges faced by the respective presidential campaigns of President Obama and the…
Rise of the Narrative
Are we returning to a narrative in history? Yes. But now it is a narrative impacted by the numbers of the technology of the information age, which is a different type of impact tha the guardians of the past saw coming.
There is little question but that narrative has again begun to find a place in documenting and shaping the substance of history. Few people believe that numbers, be they those of the math of the hard sciences or those of the democracy of the softer sciences, can provide all the answers. As Lucien Febvre is reported to have complained to some of his students, "We have no history of Love. We have no history of Death. We have no history of Pity nor of Cruelty. We have no history of Joy." These were not of the topics of scientific inquiry in the traditional sense when…
Social Media Has Had on Society
Social Media has had a particularly influential power over society during recent years as more and more individuals start to guide themselves in accordance with principles put across by such devices. However, it is difficult to determine whether social media has had a positive influence or a negative influence on the social order, taking into account that many are unable to filter information they are bombarded with and end up having a distorted understanding of the world as a whole.
Internet has revolutionized the way information is being sent across the world and this means that it would be impossible for particular events happening in the past to happen in the contemporary society. By simply looking at how the radio and the television have brought significant change to particular environments, one is more likely to understand the degree to which internet can bring change…
Blossom, John, "Content Nation: Surviving and Thriving as Social Media Changes Our Work, Our Lives, and Our Future," (John Wiley & Sons, 14.09.2011)
Duhe, Sandra C., "New Media and Public Relations," (Peter Lang, 2007)
Nunns, Ales and Idle, Nadia, "Tweets from Tahrir: Egypt's Revolution as it Unfolded, in the Words of the People who Made it," (OR Books, 2011)
Curious Case of Gary McKinnon
There is much controversy with regard to information in the digital age and Gary Mckinnon's case is especially intriguing when considering this discussion. The Scottish hacker is charged of having hacked into a U.S. database containing information stored on around one hundred computers owned by the U.S. military and by NASA. Mckinnon committed these activities between 2001 and 2002 and faced over ten years of judicial battles against extradition until 2013. In addition to the problematic implications of his crime, the case was even more difficult to address because of the U.K.'s reluctance to extradite the hacker.
hen discussing this case, it is essential to consider the gravity of the situation, taking into account that McKinnon willingly acted against the U.S. military and NASA at the time when he accessed and stole files from the two institutions. Such an act is a direct affront to…
Bassiouni, M.C. (2014). "International Extradition: United States Law and Practice." Oxford University Press.
Curtis, G. (2011). "The Law of Cybercrimes and Their Investigations." CRC Press.
Slack, J., & Semark, M. "Spotlight falls on Starmer: Will Director of Public Prosecutions now order Gary McKinnon to face UK court on hacking charge?." Retrieved January 30, 2014, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2218872/Gary-McKinnon-extradition-U.S.-outrage-hacker-wont-American-authorities.html
Wall, D. (2007). "Cybercrime: The Transformation of Crime in the Information Age." Polity.
Ecuador is a South American nation on the northwest Pacific coast of the continent. It is bordered by Colombia and Peru, and its territorial waters in the Pacific include the famous Galapagos islands. Historically the region has been defined by two major empires: the Inca and the Spanish. The Inca empire was based in Cuzco, located the south of Ecuador in present-day Peru, and eventually by the fifteenth century the Inca would conquer much of present-day Ecuador, which was at the time inhabited by a confederation of smaller indigenous tribes, who fought annexation by the Inca. The native peoples were thus assimilated into the Inca empire, and adopted the language of the Inca, known as Quechua. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the Inca presence in Ecuador was fairly recent, but it of course led to the introduction of the language of the colonists. As Hurtado describes it the…
Czarnecki, Lukasz; Balleza, Erik; and Saenz, Maya. Poverty and Inequality in Ecuador, Brazil and Mexico after the 2008 Global Crisis. New York: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2014. Print.
Hurtado, Osvaldo. Portrait of a Nation: Culture and Progress in Ecuador. Trans. Barbara Sipe. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 2010. Print.
Sawyer, Susan. Crude Chronicles: Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil, and Neoliberalism in Ecuador. Raleigh: Duke University Press, 2004. Print.
Cinema and American Politics
The modern politics of the U.S. and their imperialistic manifestations within the global political economy (GPE) have often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result. For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent ridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity, and democracy). Yet…
Benoit, William; Nill, Dawn. "Oliver Stone's Defense of JFK." Communication
Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 2 (1998): 127-143.
Cole, David. Republican Party Animal. WA: Feral House, 2014.
Elliott, William; Schenck-Hamlin, William. "Film, Politics and the Press: The Influence
Cinema and American Politics
will address the relationship between film and politics in the U.S.
The modern politics of the U.S. has often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result.
For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent Bridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity,…
In this article, Grenier discusses the history of paranoia in political classes, dissecting groups according to ethnicity, political affiliation, and culture. He points to Stone's film on JFK as evidence that the paranoid class has evolved into a force worth reckoning. This article will be helpful to my paper because it highlights one of the ways in which the political establishment views critically the success of Stone's work.
King, Noel. "Reconsidering the film-politics relation." Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, vol. 6, no. 1 (1992): 228-235.
This study focuses on the way in which society is shaped by a film-political discourse, with cinema both reflecting the political ideology and attacking it at alternate intervals. Thus there is a tendency for the political establishment to reach out to and use Hollywood and a tendency for Hollywood to be both receptive to the embrace and resistant to it. The article is helpful to this paper because it shows how there is an uneven relationship between the political field and cinema and how a two-way flow can be perceived.
Standard Outline of Presentation
The purpose of this presentation is to inform the audience about why voters are angry in today's political climate so that they might better understand their choices at the polls this November. The central idea of this presentation is that voters are angry because they perceive the Establishment to be against them, the system to be "rigged," and the wars in the Middle East to be unending and dangerous to global security.
The ideal audience for this presentation would be anyone attempting to understand why this election is seeing two unpopular candidates in a presidential contest -- on the one hand, a political insider and polished member of the Washington Establishment, and on the other hand an unpolished outsider who seeks to represent Middle America. The audience could be broad and include all genders, races, and ages.
This topic is important for the audience because an…
Altheide, D. (2007). The mass media and terrorism. Discourse and Communication,
Bakker, B., Rooduijn, M., Schumacher, G. (2016). The psychological roots of populist
voting. European Journal of Political Research, 55(2): 302-320
Chelsea Manning Tried Committing Suicide a Second Time in October
In this article, Charlie Savage reports about Chelsea Manning second attempted suicide. Miss Chelsea had previously served in the Army in Iraq as an intelligence analyst. During this time, Miss Chelsea had attempted suicide for the second time. She was convicted and sentenced to 35 years for allegedly leaking confidential army documents to Wikileaks.
In my opinion, the court sentence was unwarranted and contributed to Miss Manning's multiple suicide attempts. During the trials for this case, the court established that Miss Manning had undergone both psychological and mental deterioration at the time when she committed the alleged crime. As such, the court ought to have considered that fact by the time it made the ruling. This application of the law that did not consider Miss Manning's special case has contributed to her frustrations and hence the attempted suicide. Moreover, the…
This essay reviews the relevant literature to provide a background on Edward Snowden and how his high-profile actions adversely affected the work of the National Security Agency (NSA). An analysis of what the NSA was doing prior to the leaks and how it collects intelligence information now is followed by an examination concerning what Snowden leaked and why. Finally, a discussion concerning whether the U.S. government violated Snowden’s constitutional rights is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue in the conclusion.
Background of the Issue
Beginning in June 2013, Edward Snowden, a computer analyst working for the National Security Agency began leaking thousands of classified documents. These classified documents were disclosed to the Guardian and alleged that the NSA routinely gathered telephonic metadata from telecommunications companies, allowing them to scrutinize American citizens’ Internet activities (Morrison, 2014). According to Francheschi-Bicchierai (2014), among the thousands of…
In this essay about special prosecutor Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, we provide an overview of the information available at the time of publication about that investigation. The essay will explain who Robert Mueller is; what the investigation is trying to find; and why the investigation was instigated. In addition, the essay will discuss the latest news, as of May 21, 2018, about the investigation. In addition to discussing the Mueller investigation, the essay will provide you with a technical guide for writing academic essays. In addition to being formatted in an appropriate academic style, it will include all of the standard parts of an academic essay, including: introduction, thesis statement, evidence and analysis in the body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
Robert Mueller- Robert Mueller is the special prosecutor appointed to look into Russian interference in the 2016 Presidential campaign. As evidence increases…
Breach of Faith
Over the course of twenty-two years, from 1979 to 2001, Robert Hanssen participated in what is possibly the most severe breach of national intelligence in the United States' history. hrough a combination of skill and sheer luck, Hanssen was able to pass critical information from his job at the FBI to Soviet and later Russian intelligence agencies, information that may have contributed to the capture and execution of a number of individuals. Hanssen's case is particularly interesting because it takes place over the course of two decades that included the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the internet age, and as such examining the various means by which Hanssen was able to breach security offers extra insight into the security threats, new and old, that face those tasked with protecting sensitive government information. Ultimately, the Hanssen case reveals a number of ongoing vulnerabilities concerning…
The first substantial action that could be taken to help ensure future breaches do not occur is a reorganization of the FBI's security and intelligence functions. The Webster Commission compared the FBI's organization of its security functions with the rest of the Intelligence Community and found that, "in sharp contrast to other agencies," the FBI's security and intelligence functions "are fragmented, with security responsibilities spread across eight Headquarters divisions and fifty-six field offices" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). This fragmentation of security functions dramatically increases the likelihood of a breach because it means that the overall security apparatus is that much more porous, with adequate, lacking, or inconsistent oversight depending on particular Headquarters or field office.
To combat this phenomenon, the Webster Commission recommended that the Bureau establish an Office of Security tasked with, among other things, consolidating security functions under a senior executive" in order to "prompt management to focus on security, resolve conflicts between operational and security objectives, and foster Headquarters and field coordination" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). The FBI did not establish an Office of Security, which would have meant a high level office reporting directly to the deputy director, but rather in 2005 established the National Security Branch, a lower-level division responsible for Counterterrorism, Counterintelligence, Intelligence, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Holder, 2011, & FBI, 2012). Even with the consolidation of these security-related functions under one Branch, the FBI's security functions still remain fragmented and ultimately lacking. For example, while Counterintelligence and Intelligence are both divisions of the National Security Branch, a Security Division still remains under the control of the Associate Deputy Director. Furthermore, the Bureau still lacks one of the most important assets recommended by the Webster Commission: a unit dedicated to information system security, clearly an important aspect of overall security considering that much of Hanssen's success depended on being able to use the FBI's automated databases without fear of being flagged for suspicious behavior, or even identified at all (Webster, 2002, p. 4).
Just as the FBI's security issues prior to Hanssen's arrest were microcosmic of the larger problems facing the Intelligence Community prior to the attacks of September 2001, so too is the FBI's failure to institute necessary reforms while exacerbating existing problems microcosmic of the difficulties facing the Intelligence Community in its attempts to institute the intelligence reforms passed in the wake of 9/11. Though the FBI's National Security Branch was born out of a presidential directive and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence out of an act of Congress, both organizations represent attempts to fix security and intelligence
BP Deepwater Horizon
In April, 2010, Gulf of Mexico oil rig Deepwater Horizon, managed by British Petroleum (BP) suffered an explosion, sank to the bottom of the sea and precipitated an oil leak that would take months to cap (Pagnamenta & Goddard, 2010). The disaster was costly for BP both financially and reputationally, and the company's responses have not engendered much faith among the general public with respect to BP's ethics or its willingness to address the concerns of those whose lives have been devastated by the disaster. The company's strategy throughout the course of the disaster from the point prior to the disaster to its handling of the legal actions taken against it, has drawn the ire of many observers.
This paper will analyze BP's strategy, in particular with respect to its balance between the public relations issues and the financial issues. BP's approach appears to be internally consistent,…
Friedman, M. (1970) The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Holt, R. & McNulty, T. (2008) Securing the license to act: a foundational capability. Journal of Strategy and Management 1 (1) 72-92.
Pagnamenta, R. & Goddard, J. (2010). Pollution disaster as Deepwater Horizon oil rig sinks into sea. The Times. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/environment/article7105649.ece
Peel, M. (2010). Opposition grows to BP's strategy. Financial Times. September 15, 2010. In possession of the author.
BP and how it can impact on the performanve of the firm
In the recent times, a number of people have opposed the strategies that have been developed by BP. The major strategies that have been opposed by individuals is that of stoping the case regarding oil spill in the gulf of mexico.Operational strategy and effectiveness are vital for superior performance which is usually the main aim of all enterprises and organizations. A firm may perform better than its rivals only if the organization is capable of establishing a difference it is capable of preserving. The firms have to deliver higher values to its customers. Besides, the organizations should be capable of creating comparable values at very low costs. Delivering higher values enables companies to charge higher unit prices. Similarly, very great efficiency and effectiveness will result into very low unit costs. Operational effectiveness (OE) implies performing same activities more…
Austin, E.W., & Pinkleton, B.E. 2006. Strategic public relations management:
Planning and managing effective communication programs (2nd ed). Mahwah,
Axson, A.J. 2003. Best practices in planning and management reporting. New York:
It should be no surprise that the United States often takes the "convenient" and "short-term" solution to many problems; this is part of the American character. However, at times inzer seems to be on a pulpit, leading the reader by the nose at whom to laud and at whom to hiss. Since this is not written as a historical book, there is also an expectation that the reader will already have a semblance of the "basic facts" from at least Panama and Guatemala forward.
This is perhaps the largest weakness of the book. There are 14 different regime changes that are critically analyzed, yet some clearly fit his argument more than others. In fact, Grenada and Panama seem like different foreign policy goals than Afghanistan and Iraq. On the other hand, one of the strengths of the book is the manner in which inzer outlines the "propagandistic" manner in which…
Kinzer concludes his book with a frightening and powerful observation about the future of American policy: "The United States rose to world power more quickly than almost any nation or empire ever has. Filled with the exuberance and self-confidence of youth, it developed a sense of unlimited possibility. Many Americans came to believe that since they had been so successful in building their country, they not only duplicate that success abroad but were called by Providence to do so. Responding to this call, and to their belief that they are entitled to a large share of the world's resources, they set out to overthrow foreign governments. Most of these adventures have brought them, and the nations whose histories they sought to change, far more pain than liberation" (Kinzer 321). Perhaps the current regime in Washington should remember that there are precedents for actions in one administration to negatively affect the next administration.
Kinzer, S. Overthrow: America's Century of Revime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. New York: Times Books, 2007.