William James saw the human psyche as being awesomely complex. To start off with, he divided it into two selves:
The phenomenal self (the experienced self, the 'me' self, the self as known)
The self-thought (the I-self, the self as knower).
There is the 'ME' which is the objective, detached term that we use -- that we see -- the empirical self. And then there is the 'I' the constant flow of subjective thought that the person has about the self and which makes the person perceive the self, moment per moment, in a certain way:
'Personality implies the incessant presence of two elements, an objective person, known by a passing subjective Thought and recognized as continuing in time. Hereafter let us use the words ME and I for the empirical person and the judging Thought.' (James (1890), op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 371.)
The ME self is further divided…… [Read More]
illiam James was a prominent psychologist and philosopher in the early 20th century. Presently, James' work is outdated, but only in the sense that Galileo's or Darwin's work is outdated. Both Darwin and Galileo were originators in their respective fields. Their work served as a basis for many incredible discoveries and innovations in the modern world. The work of James, too, serves as a foundation for modern science. He is one of the founders of what we currently call psychology and philosophy today ("Significance and Influence," 2002).
James was the originator of "pragmatism," and this new school of philosophical thought was so useful, that it even resonated in the works of such prominent early physicists as Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr. These men depended upon, "a world of events connected with one another by kinds of next-to-next relations, a world various, manifold, changeful, originating in chance, perpetuated by habits... And…… [Read More]
illiam James, Clifford, And Belief
illiam James' "The ill to Believe" was written in response to an essay on religious belief by illiam Kingdon Clifford. It is worth noting that James himself was a distinguished scholar, and sometime experimenter, on spiritual beliefs, and the author of a capacious and open-minded study of the subject entitled The Varieties of Religious Experience. Clifford provoked a response from James clearly because Clifford's approach is primarily an ethical one: as Clifford states, "it is wrong always, everywhere, and for every one, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence." (James 8). Clifford believes that it is a moral obligation to refuse any belief that lacks sufficient evidence, because in his account belief may behave almost like a virus: Clifford argues that it is a "duty…to guard ourselves from such beliefs as from a pestilence which may shortly master our own body and then spread to the…… [Read More]
William James offers us a philosophy called Pragmatism which seems designed to steer between previous philosophical positions on what constitutes the truth. For James, a thing is true insofar as it is useful. James would refer, in what seems to be a self-consciously American way of speaking (not unlike Mark Twain), to the "cash value" of an idea -- or as James expounds it "Pragmatism asks its usual question, 'Grant an idea or belief to be true...what concrete difference will its being true make in any one's actual life?"
This is where the applicability of William James' philosophy becomes particularly apparent -- not only is Pragmatism concerned with uses, but it is also concerned with how to maintain a kind of "tough-minded" (in James' words) philosophical stance within "pluralism" or "the pluralistic universe" as James called it. This entails negotiating between multiple truth claims and selecting them on the basis…… [Read More]
William James' idea of man's religious experience is that man feels God or a spiritual presence in him and that this intuition alone - real as it feels -- is the basis of evidence that a mystical something exists. Congruent to the utilitarianism of James' philosophy, he asserts the cash-value of such belief in that it helps the individual attain a more meaningful life and gives him certain direction and bliss. In this way, interaction with the Divine (or mystical feelings) whether 'real or not that such presence exists -- and it doesn't matter - are important and authentic since they contain instrumental value.
Scientists of the time perceived people who had religious 'experiences' as being, at best, in delirium; at worst, as delusional and insane. James argued that these instances were metaphysical, namely above and beyond physical experience, and could, consequently, not be measured by scientific criteria.
Drawing a…… [Read More]
William James, complete religious experience is far more than simply a theoretical, or abstract living-in -- the moment feeling. For him, religion has to be lived and experienced in a wholesome, holistic manner. It has to be conscious and permeate man's entire being.
James described this in the following way:
If religion be a function by which either God's cause or man's cause is to be really advanced, then he who lives the life of it, however narrowly, is a better servant than he who merely knows about it, however much. Knowledge about life is one thing; effective occupation of a place in life, with its dynamic currents passing through your being, is another. (489)
For James, this "effective occupation" requires experience that is a "full fact":
A conscious field plus its object as felt or thought plus an attitude towards the object plus the sense of a self to…… [Read More]
William James' Understanding of the Sick Soul; from the book The Varieties of Religious Experience. The writer of this paper takes the reader to explore the book and then determine how James depicts the process of healing and several other questions. There was one source used to complete this paper.
Throughout history, we have studied religious faiths and asked for answers to the most basic of questions. Is there good and evil? Is there an afterlife? How should we be living now to prepare for it? These and other questions are the center of religious debates worldwide some that can get quite heated. William James, author of The Varieties of Religious Experiences, addresses this very issue in his works. He explains to the reader what conversion is about in the world of faith and whether or not he believes it to be real or supernatural. Along the way…… [Read More]
James believed that belief in God could be contemplated in terms of "live and dead hypotheses" (James 2010). He argues that when one is trying to find an argument for God existing or God not existing, we must consider three things: 1) Living or dead 2) Forced or unavoidable; and, 3) Momentous or trivial. He says, "and for our purposes we may call an option a genuine option when it is of the forced, living, and momentous kind" (2010). For James, a living option is when there are two hypotheses that are "live ones" (2010). He says that if he were to say that someone should become a theosophist or a Mohammedan, the option is probably dead since for that person both hypotheses seem dead. Though if he were to tell a person to be agnostic or be Christian, the person is trained in some way to a follow a…… [Read More]
Free ill and Determinism
hat is free will, according to philosophic interpretations? hat is determinism -- and how is it different from free will? hat do philosophers say about free will and determinism? These questions will be answered in this paper, along with issues that dovetail and provide additional clarification and understanding.
Trinity University's C. Mackenzie Brown, professor of religion, explains one definition: an action is "free" if and only if it's cause is internal to the agent, not external. But, Brown argues, a sneeze has an internal cause, but it's not a free action. So perhaps an action is free only it if is caused by the agent's beliefs and desires" (Brown, 2001). As for determinism: "everything has a sufficient cause," he succinctly states; and a "sufficient cause" is one which is sufficient to ensure that the event in question will indeed take place.
Jean Paul Sartre believed that…… [Read More]
The elevation of traditionally oppressed minorities also alleviates some of the historical burden placed on American society for their past abuse, in some ways this provides a sort of retrospective reparations for abused minorities. In general Affirmative action has changed the social landscape by allowing the entrance of formerly oppressed minorities to gain entrance into American mainstream society.
If on the other hand Affirmative Action did not exist, an entirely different set of circumstances would be true. Since traditionally oppressed minorities are by and large the worst off economically within our society, they will never have the resources to transform their chain of social oppression. This means that an entrenched cycle of poverty would continue to arise within American society, where the poorest sector would also ethnically reflect African-Americans in particular. Without resources to help themselves escape poverty, the minority population would become poorer and poorer, while the majority would…… [Read More]
William James finds that religious experience is useful on the whole, even amongst the most vital mankind's biological operations, but he also says that this does not make it true. Nevertheless, James presents his own belief, which he does not claim to prove, that religious experiences connect us with a greater, or further, reality not accessible in our normal cognitive relations to the world. The further limits of our being plunge into an altogether other dimension of existence from the sensible and merely understandable world:"Unquestionably, some men have the completer experience and the higher vocation, here just as in the social world; but for each man to stay in his own experience, whatever it be, and for others to tolerate him there, is surely best" (488).
James states that the conclusions of human nature can be reached through spiritual judgements only. He says that the "visible world is part of…… [Read More]
In addition, a brief look at his family history is required, because the political fortunes of James Otis' father directly influenced the trajectory of his own career.
James Otis was part of the fifth generation in a family that first arrived in the colonies looking for economic opportunity, and James Otis' grandfather, John Otis III, was the first in the family who went beyond business into politics (aters 1968 & Halko 1969, p. 609-10). In 1760 James Otis was appointed advocate general of the Admiralty Court, which was the court responsible for dealing with smuggled goods seized in the colonies (Hickman 1932, p. 89.) hen the protest launched by the Society for Promoting Trade and Commerce within the Province made its way to court, James Otis would have been responsible for defending the legality of writs of assistance, but instead he resigned his post and took up the cause of…… [Read More]
William Carey -- Father of Modern Missions
William Carey, a Baptist preacher, is considered to be the Father of Modern Mission. Carey believed absolutely that the Word of God was to be taken to all nations, devoted his own life to this endeavor, and challenged other believers to engage in this sacred work. In terms of sheer numbers of converts, Carey's accomplishments would be considered small, particularly when measured against the standards in place today. William Carey demonstrated that one man's vision be the catalyst for a movement that will serve God and others in s manner that adheres to the great commission. When Carey first made his ideas about carrying the Word to people around the world, he was told by his ministering peers to sit down and give up the unrealistic and non-mandated idea. But Carey's vision stood fast on the…… [Read More]
According to Mctiernan (1997), "James Fenimore Cooper's the Spy is interesting precisely because no genre had yet hardened around spying when he wrote it. Cooper relies instead on the conventions of other genres -- primarily, the domestic romance and the historical adventure, which, unlike spy fiction, did not evolve in part to justify the dishonesty and covert manipulation central to espionage" (3).
As noted above, Cooper was also able to draw on the inspiration of an unspoiled American wilderness that few people today can imagine without his help. It is this aspect of Cooper's early works, perhaps, that continue to make them popular today just as they did in his own time. As Ringe (1962) advises, though, this is unfortunate because Cooper matured as a writer over the years and some of his best work was during the last part of his career. "Ironically, Cooper is best known for what…… [Read More]
In 1682, the Quakers purchased East New Jersey. Penn then sought to extend the Quaker region. The King granted Penn a land charter, the area that is currently known as Pennsylvania, and that charter made Penn a sovereign ruler and the world's largest private landowner. Penn named the region Sylvania, but Charles II changed that to Pennsylvania, to honor Penn's father. (See Jacobson, pp. 43-55).
Pennsylvania was a very interesting colony. First, it guaranteed absolute religious freedom to its inhabitants. Second, it guaranteed the traditional rights of Englishmen. It guaranteed free elections, trial by jury, and freedom from unjust imprisonment. All of these guarantees were contained in Pennsylvania's first constitution, which was written by Penn. Penn also set about establishing a government much like the modern American government, which divided the legislature into two houses, and limited the power of the sovereign. Penn also introduced the idea of constitutional amendments,…… [Read More]
William Pitt allinger, by John Moretta well researched and enticingly written biography by John Moretta, brings the life of William Pitt allinger, into remembrance as one of the most integral men of his time (Moretta, 2000). John Moretta received his Ph.D. In history from Rice University (tamu.edu). Moretta is professor of history at Central College, Houston Community College, and teaches at the University of Houston (tamu.edu). William Pitt allinger, attorney, was born at arbourville, Kentucky, on September 25, 1825, the son of James Franklin and Olivia (Adams) allinger (utexas.edu). He attended St. Mary's College in ardstown, Kentucky, moved to Galveston in 1843, and began the study of law with an uncle, James Love (utexas.edu). He was admitted to the bar in 1847 (utexas.edu). During the Mexican War he enlisted as a private and advanced through the ranks to be adjutant of Albert Sidney Johnston's regiment (utexas.edu).
In his book, Moretta…… [Read More]
Fenimore is responsible for having provided the public with an adventurous history of the old American landscape.
In spite of the fact that James Fenimore Cooper has been born in New Jersey, his father decided to move the whole family to an area around Otsego Lake, near New York, a place where he owned some land. This presented James with the chance of coming across a vast forested territory where Indian tribes roamed free.
James's father had attempted to give the boy a good education, but he had not been enthusiastic his boys academic achieving, as the latter was dismissed from Yale and later resigned from the navy. The reason for his resignation had been that he wanted to spend more time with his wife, Miss Susan De Lancey. Consequent to several divergences he and his wife had over his writing style vs. his capabilities, with the latter mocking him,…… [Read More]
Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]
As a Secretary of State was the next path to Monroe's political career with whom President Madison appointed him in 1811. Monroe tried to prevent the war with Great ritain but was unable to do so because of unavoidable reasons. Monroe became the intelligence of the war and later acquired the position Secretary of War while maintaining his responsibilities as a Secretary of State (History Central Online, 2000).
Monroe as a President of the United States
Monroe won the 1816 presidential election because of his anti-Federalist actions and with the support of President Madison. He had good strategic choices for his Cabinet members, favoring Southerners, Northerners, and Westerners for his Cabinet. However, due to a contradiction from Henry Clay, Monroe was not able to elect a Westerner in his Cabinet (iography of James Monroe).
Monroe's presidency was termed as an "era of good feeling" because of political talent and skills.…… [Read More]
James Longstreet, January 9, 1821 -- January 2, 1904, was one of the foremost generals of the American Civil ar, who later enjoyed a successful post-war career working as a diplomat and administrator for the government of his former enemies.
Longstreet was born in Edgefield District, South Carolina, grew up in Augusta, Georgia, and at the age of twelve, his father died and the family moved to Somerville, Alabama.
In 1838, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy by the state of Alabama, and graduated from est Point in 1842, just in time to serve with distinction in the Mexican ar and rise to the rank of major.
In June 1861, he resigned from the U.S. Army to join with the Confederacy during the Civil ar.
Already highly regarded as an officer, Longstreet was immediately appointed as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army, and after fighting at…… [Read More]
Hawkeye again reminds us that "there is no cross" in his veins, that he is a pureblooded white man.
The book does not segregate itself to the discussion of only Native Americans and the feelings thereof, but also has occasion to discuss the prevailing sentiment in regards to African-Americans as well. As General Monro reveals in Chapter Sixteen, we find that Cora has a "cross" in her blood:
There it was my lot to form a connection with one who in time became my wife and the Mother of Cora. She was the daughter of a gentleman of those isles, by a lady whose misfortune it was, if you will" said the old man proudly, "to be descended, remotely, from that unfortunate class who are so basely enslaved to administer to the wants of a luxurious people." (Cooper 201)
It is perhaps a little difficult to discern but the General…… [Read More]
illiam allace's Insurgency
Factors Driving illiam allace's Insurgency
illiam allace was born somewhere around 1272-1276. His childhood years were peacefully spent, without a doubt, in a large house rather than a tiny crofter's shack. illiam was exceptionally large and boisterous -- traits that didn't go well with the future his family had planned for him. Being the younger son, and without any lands of his own, illiam was bound to end up as a priest. However, the death of his father, Sir Malcolm allace, and his eldest brother, in a clash with the English at Irvine, marked a permanent change in his life and the beginning of his personal bitterness towards the English -- a feeling that subsequently intensified to extreme hatred (Reese).
The historic 1296 Ragman Roll, through which the English King Edward I aimed to make the whole of Scotland bow down to him, set off the events…… [Read More]
Clifford supports his thesis by telling two stories. In the first, he discusses a man who has doubts that his ships is sea worthy, but assumes that it will make the journey because it has done so many times in the past. After the men die at sea because of the poor construction of the ship, Clifford argues that the ship owner is to blame for their deaths. If the ship does not sink and no men die, however, Clifford's position is that the owner is no less guilty. Instead, a wrong has been committed in simply believing that the ship will be sound with no evidence. In the second story, Clifford suggests that some people of power sincerely believe that others are abusing their power in a horrendous way. Because of this, these people make many publications and accusations regarding those who are believed to be abusing their power.…… [Read More]
The conversation in the Irish castle about the war lends to a greater understanding of the quiet life he lead around his friends; they, too, were in the dark when it came to the person lying inside the heart of their tragic, literary friend.
If there were a war between Great Britain and the United States, Mr. James, where would your loyalty lie?" Webster asked him during a lull in the conversation after dinner.
My loyalty would lie in making peace between them."
And what if that should fail?" Webster asked him.
A happen to know the answer," Lady Wolseley interrupted. "Mr. James would find out which side France was on and join that side." (30-31)
As the conversation continued, it was made clear that the actual encounter James had had with the Civil War in is reality was unknown to even those close friends, who had taken him in…… [Read More]
Ethics of Belief
Knowledge, Truth and Belief -- Cphl 550
For a long time, issues of faith and ethics have raised many concerns. In this study, I have used Clifford's argument to elucidate my support for the "ethics of belief." The Ethics of Belief by illiam Clifford state that it is incorrect for anyone to believe on anything based on insufficient evidence. Clifford mentions that the immorality of belief unsupported by evidence is similar to that of shipowners who forgo overhaul for their ship and overcome their doubts on the ship's sea-worthiness (Clifford 45). The costs and efforts used in monitoring the implementation are sourced from necessary repairs. The depiction shows the play-off beliefs against elements of self-interest. Ship owners overcome their doubts based on self-interest. The management collects the insurance after people dies in his ship at sea because of the proven unseaworthy nature of the vessel.
Clifford generalizes…… [Read More]
In America, the great pragmatists John Dewey and William James are blamed for the American university's current fallen 'state,' a state of freedom from shared morality.
However, Arden provides no statistical evidence or even anecdotal as to why American universities are morally lacking, other than the fact he disagrees with their embrace of the right of the individual learner to choose his or her own path. He makes the assumption that the reader agrees with his contention that American universities are morally bankrupt. Pragmatism's benefits, such as academic freedom of expression are completely discounted as having any positive influence upon higher education. While some of Arden's contentious, that American undergraduates are insufficiently community-minded, may have some (highly debatable) merit as topics of discussion, his preference for Luther's ideal of a university as a place of spiritual and moral rather than intellectual learning, and for limits upon undergraduate self-expression, are not…… [Read More]
However, despite the personal successes, he felt personally responsible for the loss and would use the events from ull Run to questions his effectiveness as a military officer.
Next, Sherman would serve under Robert Anderson. Where, he would eventually succeed him and take command of all Union forces in Kentucky. This was important, because Kentucky was considered to be a neutral state in the war, where the Union army was based and there were pockets of Confederate units as well. This would create an atmosphere, where Sherman would be unable to conduct a total war, to defeat the various Confederate elements. At which point, he would complain to Washington about the constant shortages that he would face in achieving this objective, with his army lacking the men necessary to fight a successful campaign to low food provisions / ammunition. This would cause Sherman to be relieved of command and placed…… [Read More]
Roberts, Rev. Dr. Mark D. "Oprah, James Frey, and the Question of Truth" markdroberts.com.
30 January 2006.
Claim: James Frey's book is fraudulent and should never have been published.
Purpose: To explain his outrage at Frey's misrepresentation and the publisher's lack of fact-checking.
Important information in the title: Frey's supposedly inspirational and gut-wrenching story was prominently featured on Oprah's book club and became a best seller.
Important info in the background material: The author was published by the same publishing house as Frey, under a different imprint. He states that Frey was treated very differently than he was in terms of the scrutiny to which Frey's story was subject.
Sentence explaining author's claim and how he/she would respond to the prompt: Some things are factual and facts must be honored.
Important parts of the text that specifically show claim/purpose/tone: specifically show claim/purpose/tone: I'm tempted to say…… [Read More]
He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…… [Read More]
" Marshall told the interviewer that he enjoys having dialogue about art, and style, and the whole dynamic of creating; but he wants his work to be so "undeniably compelling" that the person viewing his art "can't separate the image that's pictured in it from the way the painting is made."
The artist also talks about a period in recent contemporary history when many black artists wanted to be "part of the mainstream" and to do that, they felt they had to "let go of the black representation" and instead, approach art from a more abstract point-of-view. Marshall added that he believes many black artists did that because there was a kind of stereotype associated with black artists in that the moment he or she presented images of black people, all of a sudden the issue was not art, but "social and political."
Marshall was asked about his well-known painting,…… [Read More]
Otter -- Crockett -- cook
s William Otter's a History of My Own Time a rags-to-riches success story? To what extent does it conform to the themes associated with the Cult of the Self-Made Man and to what extent does it deviate?
William Otter's autobiographical work A History of My Own Time (1835) is truly what one would call a "rags-to-riches" tale, yet it can also be viewed as being quite the opposite. Otter started out in several professions -- a shoemaker with John Paxton in New York City, the venetian blind-making business with William Howard, a carpenter with Gausman, and finally, the bricklaying and plastering business with Kenweth King. Following these flings as an apprentice, Otter then decided to attend school with a "liberal attention to classic lore," but Otter's involvement with heavy drinking at the taverns and his association with many of New York's toughest street gangs severely…… [Read More]
Adler reveals that poverty is systemic: a sign of a corrupt system. Mollie James' and Balbina Duque's only chance of extricating themselves from poverty is to inject more political power and energy back into the formation of labor unions. The power of the people to overcome and overthrow corrupt regimes has been proven time and again throughout human history; the struggle is not an easy one but there is no way that Duque or any of her colleagues around the world are going to achieve any upward social mobility within the current system. Besides just the suppression of labor unions and the collusion between the PI and big business, other examples of how systematic and systemic the problem is include the glaring idiocy of the bailouts. The Clinton administration arranged a record-breaking fifty billion dollars to the very people who were creating the problems that James and Duque faced. As…… [Read More]
Tracy A. Sugarman (1921- )
Tracy A. Sugarman is a famous American illustrator who has had a long and provocative career in the arts. He boasts a career spanning over fifty years, producing great works within children's literature, album cover art, and socially progressive artistic statements. His work is featured in numerous children's books. Sugarman also highlighted life during World War II based on his own experiences there. He had served in the army in World War II and then turned his experiences to art. He also worked on major record covers, usually for Waldorf Music Hall ecords; Sugarman created more than 100 covers. Many later albums and CDs still carried on the original designs in the decade of the 1950s alone. His work is also featured in major magazines such as Fortune and Esquire (Ask Art 2009)
During a period of great racial tension and segregation, Sugarman highlighted prominent…… [Read More]
Robert, Calvin, Martha, and illiam Scott and Mila ended up in the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco because its owner, Rev. illiam Anderson Scott, was the minister at Calvary Presbyterian Church there in 1853-61. He was originally from the South and because of his sympathy for the Confederate cause in the Civil ar, including offering public prayers for Jefferson Davis, he "had to leave the city for his safety and that of his family" (Smylie 89-90). His son Robert, depicted on the far left of the painting, became a Union Army officer in 1862, although Rev. Scott regretted that he was "on the wrong side" (Acker 79). Mila was a gift to his wife Ann from her father in 1830, and was in charge of caring for the four children. In the painting, the Scott's wished to be depicted as "relatively well-heeled members of Sothern society" even…… [Read More]
Scarlet Ibis, by James Hurst is a short story that focuses on the theme of disappointment, guilt and love, primarily in the story's narrator who tries in vain to shape his disabled younger brother into a mirror image of himself.
The story opens on the birth of the narrator's younger brother. Seven years younger than he, the narrator quickly begins referring to the baby as "Doodle" because "when he crawled on the rug, he crawled backward, as if he were in reverse and couldn't change gears. This made him look like a doodlebug" (Hurst 12). Doodle is born sickly, and no one in the family expects him to live long. The child is given a coffin before he is given a real name. Only when he is three months old do his parents name him, William Armstrong, a name which the narrator notes "sounds good only on a tombstone" (Hurst…… [Read More]
nature of Leonard illiams Levy's Origins of the Bill of Rights is not as simple as it seems, and this is in fact a measure of the strength of the book. e are so accustomed to dividing the world into clear categories - popular fiction on one side, serious scholarship on another, pulp fiction over there in the corner - that we are given pause when we come across a book that cannot be so easily categorized. Our first impulse may in fact be to decided that this means that there is something wrong with such a book, that the author has failed in his (in this case) attempt to produce a particular kind of text.
But a more thoughtful examination of the work suggests that Levy has in fact succeeded doing in what he set out to accomplish, which was to create a work about the Constitution's Bill of…… [Read More]
Mulligan keenly notices features of Stephen's obsession when he mockingly calls him "O, shade of Kinch the elder! Japhet in search of father!" Partially, his argument for Shakespeare's autobiographical tendencies is seeded by his own frustration in his search for paternal links.
Out of this, Stephen's rejection of the Irish renaissance is significant because he wishes to judge himself against the backdrop of classical standards. "In our case, Stephen has 'entered into a competition' with Shakespeare by making himself a companion to the model of Shakespeare and placing himself, as much as he can by means of lecturing, next to the model of Shakespeare." So the contention that Shakespeare's plays are autobiographical, by being a particularly unique argument, if successful, would forever attach the name Dedalus to Shakespeare -- thus, his intellectual roots would be fundamentally defined to the external world. Notably, this would remain true regardless of Stephen's recognition…… [Read More]
eaders must exist on every level for an organization to thrive, says Parker. "Frontline leadership, which is in many ways the most important level of leadership, is the area where a lot of companies fall apart. When they think about leadership training, what they're usually thinking about are executives who might be a vice-president or CEO someday. They don't put as much effort into training those frontline leaders, which is where a company most directly touches its customers and its employees" (Holstein 2007, p.2).
eadership by example must be shown at every level a well. Parker took pride at being one of the poorest CEOs in corporate America, noting that this was especially important during the cash-strapped days after 9/11 for an airline company. When sacrifices are called for, everyone must make sacrifices. Also, as a low-cost airline, keeping to a tight bottom line had to become part of the…… [Read More]
Using the death of her mother on emotional response she argues that in case it had been discovered in the whole episode that her blood pressure seemed to be very low or her pulse rate did not go beyond 60, no any reason that can be used in concluding that she was not grieving. Contrary to claim of James that without existence of bodily feeling then emotion does not have value but only a sort of cold judgment. Nevertheless, as discussed before, to some extent Nussbaum agree that emotions are eudaimonistic due to the fact that it has a bearing on the well-being and flourishing of the subject.
Upon analyzing the criticisms that is directed to the William James' theory, a conclusion can be made that emotional accuracy is not enough to be used in defining perception of bodily change. Based on the criticisms we are able to reach the…… [Read More]
eligious Group's Statement
William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "eligious Diversity and eligious Truth"
is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process
In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.
The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of…… [Read More]
The combination of these factors established a basic foundation for looking at the entire impact of specific ideas and events on the individual's cognitive system. (James, 2005, pp. 45 -- 132)
John Dewey was able to take these ideas and theorized that the social environment will have an impact on: the activities of the mind and ultimately individual behavior. At the heart of his beliefs, was the view that psychologists should move away from stimulus-based responses and towards understanding the entire neural pathway. This is when psychologists can comprehend how certain thoughts are impacting the behavior of the person. These principles are illustrating how Dewey was building off of the ideas from James to expand the role of functionalism. (James, 2005, pp. 179 -- 268)
James Angell took the ideas of Dewey and expanded upon them. Under this philosophy, he identified three major points of functionalism to include: studying the…… [Read More]
Christianity and the views of Sigmund Freud and William James
This paper discusses the concept of a Creator in Christianity and also focuses on the views held by Sigmund Freud and William James on this subject. While Christianity believes firmly in the existence of Creator, Freud maintains that this concept has originated from man's deep-rooted neurosis. James on the other hand felt that religious beliefs had some biological and psychological connections and therefore it is important for man to devise his own concept of a Creator rather than believing on the one that he has inherited from his ancestors.
CONCEPT OF A CEATO
Most religions in the world support the concept of a Universal Creator, the one being who has single-handedly created the entire Universe and is considered to be a benevolent merciful soul. While in some polytheist religions, the concept of Creator may differ slightly, but in all three…… [Read More]
However, contemporary literature on the subject seems to establish the priciples of comparivie psychology as ones that focus on both proximate and ultimate causation (Dewsbury, 1984).
The power, though, of the comparative approach lies in the ability that the scholar can evaluate target behaviors from really four different perspectives, called Tinbergen's four questions (Burkhardt, 2005).
How pervasive is the behavior across the individual species -- how common is it?
How does the behavior contribute to overall evolutionary success via natural selection (reproductive success)?
What mechanisms are involved in the behavior -- what physiological, environmental or behavioral components must occur?
How does maturation and development contribute to this behavior?
Numerous studies have been done regarding comparative psychology, some even so popular that they are studied by elementary students. However, a few seminal studies have dominated the field. Pavlov, for instance, used dogs to understand the issues of conditioning. Thorndike studied cats…… [Read More]
Two belief systems, then -- true believe, and justified true belief (Hauser, 1992).
Humans, however, according to Pierce, turn justified true beliefs into true beliefs by converting them into axioms. Once we have proven something there is no need to prove it again, and we use the part that was proven before to further extend our study and the inquisition of knowledge. And so it becomes necessary to accept things as the truth without proving them at every single moment. However, does not mean that the belief is an unjustified belief, for it again is the conflictual nature of justified against unjustified that, for scholars like Pierce, outpours a reality he can view as "true" (Ibid).
ene' Descartes' purpose was to make humans analyze the introspective nature of being, and to postulate on the veracity of truth as a nature of thought -- if we think it, it is, and…… [Read More]
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…… [Read More]
However, he reconciles these opposite views in what he designs as the new religion for man:
hile he knew that a collapse and ricorso of Vico's type into a "divine" and "barbaric" epoch was possible, he did not regard any such colossal disaster as necessary or likely. He put hope above fear, and positive over negative. He seems to have foreseen a historical transformation similar to the change from Hellenic to "Hellenistic" in ancient civilization, which, in the Roman Empire, finally did collapse into such a barbaric ricorso, or cycle. European and "estern" phases of civilization have not yet experienced Spengler's or Toynbee's "Roman paradigm" of orld State and orld Religion, and Ortega trusted that such a horrible outcome could be forever avoided by a kind of federal world order built on the model of the European Union." (Graham, 2001, p.504)
Thus, Ortega y Gasset's main attempt is to create…… [Read More]
except a man be born again, he cannot see' namely he can neither understand the nature nor share the blessedness- of the kingdom of God" can best be understood by recourse to William James's discussion on converts. A convert is a man who is born again; who perceives his 'personhood in a different way.
The Personhood or ego, according to James is categorized into two aspects:
The phenomenal self (the experienced self, the 'me' self, the self as known)
The self-thought (the I-self, the self as knower).
It is the way that one perceives the world that shapes this Me/I and, in turn, this Me/I effects the way one perceives the world.
The 'I' is the constant flow of subjective thought that the person has about the self and which makes the person perceive the self, moment per moment, in a certain way
The ME self is divided into three…… [Read More]
This is only using the mind as a metaphor for intelligence, however, which would again be a problem for James and would also be a problem from an ontological perspective. In order to consider whether or not Watson has a mind, and indeed whether or not any computer could ever have a mind, a consideration of Gilbert Ryle's thoughts concerning the nature of the mind is very much needed. Ryle asserts that the misunderstanding of the split between the mind and the body that has been a philosophical problem since at least the time of Rene Descartes arises because people misunderstand the nature of the mind by equating it with the body. Though the body is part of what Ryle calls the "deterministic system" of the world and though people have tried to explain the mind using the same deterministic system, what is meant by "mind" in this sense has…… [Read More]
problem of evil and suffering has been an issue since the beginning of time. Carl Jung has written passionately and eloquently about the possibility and impossibility of transcending this problem.
According to Jung's reasons for this problem was that God was a schmuck towards Job (and by extension to all innocents who suffer from 'acts of God') due to His not being fully conscious. A strange theory since, it would seem that by definition God is Omniscient.
However, God, in Jung's model, contains all opposites and paradoxes, which includes choosing not to consult his own self.
If he had done so, he could have seen that Job would have been faithful to the end and not needed to take Satan's "bet."
The devil is still able to waltz into heaven in the book of Job and complain about how rotten mankind is. So, it is clear according to Jung, that…… [Read More]
Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.
Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…… [Read More]
In such situations, it becomes a necessity to have all the fields of learning and engagement to be within the identified fields for the youth. The society is a diverse avenue or entity that needs a clear pathway for understanding (Clinton 72). If the youth and all the people in the world are subjected to religious teachings without making affirmed considerations of the needs of the society, it becomes a hard way for many people to be successful.
The religious teachings must appreciate the importance of its followers interacting with the other members of the secular society. This establishes a fair ground where the young can grow and develop. If the society becomes very restrictive like within a Christian atmosphere, it becomes hard for the available avenues of growth and development to be executed by the available members. The young will not be at a stable avenue of relaying their…… [Read More]
Therefore, we may conclude that the speaker has some cognitive function from the structure of the speech, even if it is based on a very basic set of language rules (Samarin 1972 120).
Three major linguistic traits emerged from other research into the subjec. Regardless of the geographic area, educational level, or age of the individual, glossolalia consists of:
Verbal behavior that has a certain number of consanants and vowels.
There seem to be a limited number of syllables that are reorganized into larger units.
These units are then rearranged using variations in pitch, volume, speed and intensity (e.g. A "word" group spoken with different inflections).
The "words" put together seem haphazard but emerge as word and sentence like because of the use of realistic timbre, rhythm, and melody (Samarin 1972).
Other research confims that glossolalia shows an oddly definitive syballant commonality with the particular spoken language of the speaker.…… [Read More]
According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).
Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…… [Read More]
Peculiar Ethics of Public Leadership: Pragmatism as a Framework for Action in Public Service
The objective of this study is to examine pragmatism as a framework for action in public services. Towards this end, this work will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of study.
According to the work of Keith F. Snider entitled "ethinking Public Administration's oots in Pragmatism: The Case of Charles A. Beard" reports that pragmatism because very prominent "around the turn of the 20th century…through the ideas of well-known writers such as William James and John Dewey." (2008) Comaeger (1950) stated that pragmatism is "almost the official philosophy of America." (Stever, 2008) The work of Shields (nd) explains that classical pragmatism "is attractive because it has both depth and complexity." Shields states that these characteristics "have made it difficult to summarize and easy to misinterpret." (nd) Classical pragmatism has been held by scholars…… [Read More]
Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).
Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…… [Read More]
Should Shakespeare's ork Be Translated?
Shakespeare has been the lord of writing for centuries. His work, full of wit and puns has not been replaced by any other writer so far. However, the language used in Shakespeare's work has been the reflection of the then literary language which was full of flavor and richness and suited the culture of estern world then. The question is whether Shakespeare retains its meaning when translated into other languages. There are two different schools of thought on this subject. ith research, it has been proved that Shakespeare loses its essence when translated in any other language and turns into a mere story with no melody attached to it.
There are two aspects of translating Shakespeare's work; one is converting it into simple English which is the main weapon of the modernizers and the second one is converting it into other regional languages…… [Read More]
Jesse Jackson and Rev. Al Sharpton to Duke to denounce the acts of the lacrosse players; and three, according to the pragmatic theory of truth, with is certainly in play in America, something reported is true if it is useful to believe it is true.
Meanwhile, all the charges against the lacrosse players have been dropped (for lack of evidence), and the Attorney General of North Carolina, Roy Cooper, stated (www.cnn.law.com) that "...the inconsistencies were so significant and so contrary to the evidence that we have no credible evidence that an attack occurred..." Cooper went on to say that "No DNA confirms the accuser's story" and "no other witness confirms" her story; in fact, "other evidence contradicts her story." He criticized the district attorney who prosecuted the case, Michael Nifong, who was running for reelection at the time the charges were brought against the players; "...caution would have served justice…… [Read More]
It is difficult to think of 1920's Paris without recalling Gertrude Stein. A friend to some of the most prominent artists and writers of the 20th century, Stein is not only known for her own accomplished writing contributions, but also for her personal lifestyle.
Gertrude Stein was born in 1874 near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She attended Radcliffe from 1893-1897, where she was a student of illiam James. One day Stein wrote, "Dear Professor James, I am sorry but really I do not feel a bit like an examination paper in philosophy today"...the next day James send her a postcard saying "I understand perfectly how you feel, I often feel like that myself," and then he gave her the highest mark in his course (orld pg). She then began premedical work at Johns Hopkins. In 1902, she decided to take a break from her studies, and went abroad,…… [Read More]
Covey, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
Stephen R. Covey was born in 1932 in Salt Lake City, Utah; he has his undergraduate degree (in business administration) from the University of Utah, an MBA from the Harvard Business School, and a Doctorate in Religious Education from Brigham Young University. (Covey is a practicing Mormon). He is currently a professor in the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business at Utah State University. Covey is perhaps best known for his 1989 bestseller The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: to date the book has sold more than fifteen million copies worldwide. It seems worthwhile to ask, therefore, what does this book have to say which has gained it such broad popularity?
The biggest clue lies in the title. Covey believes that behavior can be defined as a set of habits, essentially, but he likewise presents his own lessons in the form of…… [Read More]
Woolf / Women in Violence and War
The current paper deals with the use of stream of consciousness and narrative technique by Virginia Wolf. The author has discussed how Woolf comes and goes in time and space to reveal her inside feelings, and why she used them especially in time of war and domestic violence.
Much has been written about Woolf's use of the stream-of-consciousness technique used widely by other Modernist writers of her time such as DH Lawrance and James Joyce. Stream of Consciousness is the technique use by Woolf and she is considered the pioneer of this technique. The stream of thought was first proposed by William James, Harvard Professor of Psychology in 1890.
In a diary entry that Woolf wrote on the 23 of February in 1926, she compares the writing process she went through while writing Mrs. Dalloway with the process she experienced while writing…… [Read More]