William James Essays (Examples)

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James Otis and Writs of

Words: 5992 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29717648

In addition, a brief look at his family history is required, because the political fortunes of James Otis' father directly influenced the trajectory of his own career.

James Otis was part of the fifth generation in a family that first arrived in the colonies looking for economic opportunity, and James Otis' grandfather, John Otis III, was the first in the family who went beyond business into politics (aters 1968 & Halko 1969, p. 609-10). In 1760 James Otis was appointed advocate general of the Admiralty Court, which was the court responsible for dealing with smuggled goods seized in the colonies (Hickman 1932, p. 89.) hen the protest launched by the Society for Promoting Trade and Commerce within the Province made its way to court, James Otis would have been responsible for defending the legality of writs of assistance, but instead he resigned his post and took up the cause of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adair, E.R. "Writs of Assistance, 1558-1700." English Historical Review. 36.143 (1921): 356-

372. Print.

Borchers, Tim. "A Rhetorical Analysis of James Otis's Against Writs of Assistance." Minnesota

State. Minnesota State, 12 Jan 2001. Web. 20 Mar 2011.
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William Carey and the Grand Commitment

Words: 3216 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64648488

William Carey -- Father of Modern Missions

William Carey

Britain

Moravians

India

Modern Missions

William Carey, a Baptist preacher, is considered to be the Father of Modern Mission. Carey believed absolutely that the Word of God was to be taken to all nations, devoted his own life to this endeavor, and challenged other believers to engage in this sacred work. In terms of sheer numbers of converts, Carey's accomplishments would be considered small, particularly when measured against the standards in place today. William Carey demonstrated that one man's vision be the catalyst for a movement that will serve God and others in s manner that adheres to the great commission. When Carey first made his ideas about carrying the Word to people around the world, he was told by his ministering peers to sit down and give up the unrealistic and non-mandated idea. But Carey's vision stood fast on the…… [Read More]

References

Author. William Carey: A Baptist Page Portrait," Wholesome Words, Worldwide Missions. 2001 [Webpage]. Retreived www.baptistpage.com

Carpenter, John, (2002) New England Puritans: The grandparents of modern Protestant missions. Fides et Historia, 30(4), 529.

Carey, S. Pearce - William Carey "The Father of Modern Missions," edited by Peter Masters, Wakeman Trust, London. 1993 ISBN 1870855140

Kennedy, D. James. "William Carey: Texts That Have Changed Lives," Truth in Action Ministries. [Video]. Retreived  http://www.truthinaction.org/
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James Fenimore Cooper the Life

Words: 1897 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79388459

According to Mctiernan (1997), "James Fenimore Cooper's the Spy is interesting precisely because no genre had yet hardened around spying when he wrote it. Cooper relies instead on the conventions of other genres -- primarily, the domestic romance and the historical adventure, which, unlike spy fiction, did not evolve in part to justify the dishonesty and covert manipulation central to espionage" (3).

As noted above, Cooper was also able to draw on the inspiration of an unspoiled American wilderness that few people today can imagine without his help. It is this aspect of Cooper's early works, perhaps, that continue to make them popular today just as they did in his own time. As Ringe (1962) advises, though, this is unfortunate because Cooper matured as a writer over the years and some of his best work was during the last part of his career. "Ironically, Cooper is best known for what…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Becker, May Lamberton. "Introduction" to the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957.

Davis, Randall C. (1994). "Fire-Water in the Frontier Romance: James Fenimore Cooper and 'Indian Nature.'" Studies in American Fiction 22(2): 215.

Dekker, George and John P. Williams (Eds.). James Fenimore Cooper: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997.

Mctiernan, Dave. (1997). "The Novel as 'Neutral Ground': Genre and Ideology in Cooper's 'The Spy." Studies in American Fiction 25(1): 3.
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William Penn as Its Name

Words: 2272 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12083883

In 1682, the Quakers purchased East New Jersey. Penn then sought to extend the Quaker region. The King granted Penn a land charter, the area that is currently known as Pennsylvania, and that charter made Penn a sovereign ruler and the world's largest private landowner. Penn named the region Sylvania, but Charles II changed that to Pennsylvania, to honor Penn's father. (See Jacobson, pp. 43-55).

Pennsylvania was a very interesting colony. First, it guaranteed absolute religious freedom to its inhabitants. Second, it guaranteed the traditional rights of Englishmen. It guaranteed free elections, trial by jury, and freedom from unjust imprisonment. All of these guarantees were contained in Pennsylvania's first constitution, which was written by Penn. Penn also set about establishing a government much like the modern American government, which divided the legislature into two houses, and limited the power of the sovereign. Penn also introduced the idea of constitutional amendments,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Association of Friends for the Diffusion of Religious and Useful Knowledge. A Memoir of William Penn. Philadelphia: Association of Friends for the Diffusion of Religious and Useful Knowledge, 1858.

Beckman, Gail McKnight. The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania in the Time of William

Penn. New York: Vantage Press, 1976.

Hughes, Mary. The Life of William Penn. Philadelphia: Carey Lea & Carey, 1828.
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William Pitt Ballinger by John Moretta Well

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23743930

William Pitt allinger, by John Moretta well researched and enticingly written biography by John Moretta, brings the life of William Pitt allinger, into remembrance as one of the most integral men of his time (Moretta, 2000). John Moretta received his Ph.D. In history from Rice University (tamu.edu). Moretta is professor of history at Central College, Houston Community College, and teaches at the University of Houston (tamu.edu). William Pitt allinger, attorney, was born at arbourville, Kentucky, on September 25, 1825, the son of James Franklin and Olivia (Adams) allinger (utexas.edu). He attended St. Mary's College in ardstown, Kentucky, moved to Galveston in 1843, and began the study of law with an uncle, James Love (utexas.edu). He was admitted to the bar in 1847 (utexas.edu). During the Mexican War he enlisted as a private and advanced through the ranks to be adjutant of Albert Sidney Johnston's regiment (utexas.edu).

In his book, Moretta…… [Read More]

Bibliography

King, Richard. "William Pitt Ballinger." Handbook of Texas Online. 1997-2000. The Texas State Historical

Association. 26 Nov. 2002. http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/BB/fba52.html.

Moretta, John. William Pitt Ballinger: Texas Lawyer, Southern Statesman, 1825-1888. Austin: Texas State

Historical Association, 2000.
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James Fenimore Cooper the Last

Words: 1887 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95397823

Fenimore is responsible for having provided the public with an adventurous history of the old American landscape.

In spite of the fact that James Fenimore Cooper has been born in New Jersey, his father decided to move the whole family to an area around Otsego Lake, near New York, a place where he owned some land. This presented James with the chance of coming across a vast forested territory where Indian tribes roamed free.

James's father had attempted to give the boy a good education, but he had not been enthusiastic his boys academic achieving, as the latter was dismissed from Yale and later resigned from the navy. The reason for his resignation had been that he wanted to spend more time with his wife, Miss Susan De Lancey. Consequent to several divergences he and his wife had over his writing style vs. his capabilities, with the latter mocking him,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Dennis Ian, "The Worthlessness of Duncan Heyward: A Waverley Hero in America," Studies in the Novel 29.1 (1997).

2. Fenimore Cooper James, the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957)

3. Lamberton Becker May, "Introduction How This Book Came to Be Written," the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957) 5.

4. Pitcher Edward W., "The Beaver and His Cousin in Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans," ANQ8.2 (1995): 11.
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William J Donovan and the

Words: 4625 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15468295

Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Us. (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. [Online]. Available:  https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html .

Donovan, William J. Preface to the Ultimate Weapon, Oleg Anisimov, Chicago: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1953.

Ford, Corey. Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.

Heidekinq, Jurgen, Christof Mauch and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
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James Monroe Early Years Born

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91757964

As a Secretary of State was the next path to Monroe's political career with whom President Madison appointed him in 1811. Monroe tried to prevent the war with Great ritain but was unable to do so because of unavoidable reasons. Monroe became the intelligence of the war and later acquired the position Secretary of War while maintaining his responsibilities as a Secretary of State (History Central Online, 2000).

Monroe as a President of the United States

Monroe won the 1816 presidential election because of his anti-Federalist actions and with the support of President Madison. He had good strategic choices for his Cabinet members, favoring Southerners, Northerners, and Westerners for his Cabinet. However, due to a contradiction from Henry Clay, Monroe was not able to elect a Westerner in his Cabinet (iography of James Monroe).

Monroe's presidency was termed as an "era of good feeling" because of political talent and skills.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Winslow, Chris. Legislators, Governor Honor Monroe.  http://www.monroefoundation.org/4.28.04honor.html 

Biography of James Monroe.

History Central Online.  http://www.historycentral.com/Bio/presidents/monroe.html 

James Monroe.
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James Longstreet

Words: 2039 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64820685

James Longstreet, January 9, 1821 -- January 2, 1904, was one of the foremost generals of the American Civil ar, who later enjoyed a successful post-war career working as a diplomat and administrator for the government of his former enemies.

Longstreet was born in Edgefield District, South Carolina, grew up in Augusta, Georgia, and at the age of twelve, his father died and the family moved to Somerville, Alabama.

In 1838, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy by the state of Alabama, and graduated from est Point in 1842, just in time to serve with distinction in the Mexican ar and rise to the rank of major.

In June 1861, he resigned from the U.S. Army to join with the Confederacy during the Civil ar.

Already highly regarded as an officer, Longstreet was immediately appointed as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army, and after fighting at…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Hampton, Brian. James Longstreet: a North Georgia Notable.

 http://ngeorgia.com/people/longstreet.html 

James Longstreet.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Longstreet 

Longstreet, James
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James Cooper's the Last of

Words: 1177 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21039616

Hawkeye again reminds us that "there is no cross" in his veins, that he is a pureblooded white man.

The book does not segregate itself to the discussion of only Native Americans and the feelings thereof, but also has occasion to discuss the prevailing sentiment in regards to African-Americans as well. As General Monro reveals in Chapter Sixteen, we find that Cora has a "cross" in her blood:

There it was my lot to form a connection with one who in time became my wife and the Mother of Cora. She was the daughter of a gentleman of those isles, by a lady whose misfortune it was, if you will" said the old man proudly, "to be descended, remotely, from that unfortunate class who are so basely enslaved to administer to the wants of a luxurious people." (Cooper 201)

It is perhaps a little difficult to discern but the General…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Cleveland, OH: World

Publishing, 1957.

Smith, Lindsey Claire. "Cross-Cultural Hybridity in James Fenimore Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans." ATQ (the American Transcendental Quarterly) 20.3 (2006)
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William Wallace Insurgency Analysis

Words: 1940 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41593926

illiam allace's Insurgency

Factors Driving illiam allace's Insurgency

illiam allace was born somewhere around 1272-1276. His childhood years were peacefully spent, without a doubt, in a large house rather than a tiny crofter's shack. illiam was exceptionally large and boisterous -- traits that didn't go well with the future his family had planned for him. Being the younger son, and without any lands of his own, illiam was bound to end up as a priest. However, the death of his father, Sir Malcolm allace, and his eldest brother, in a clash with the English at Irvine, marked a permanent change in his life and the beginning of his personal bitterness towards the English -- a feeling that subsequently intensified to extreme hatred (Reese).

The historic 1296 Ragman Roll, through which the English King Edward I aimed to make the whole of Scotland bow down to him, set off the events…… [Read More]

Works cited

Barrow, G. W. S. The Kingdom of the Scots: Government, Church and Society from the eleventh to the fourteenth century (2nd ed.), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003

Brown, Chris. William Wallace. The True Story of Brave heart, Stroud: Tempus Publishing Ltd., 2005.

Fisher, Andrew, William Wallace (2nd ed.), Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002

Morton, Graeme. William Wallace. London: Sutton, 2004.
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Beyond Evidence Reading One William

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40235625



Clifford supports his thesis by telling two stories. In the first, he discusses a man who has doubts that his ships is sea worthy, but assumes that it will make the journey because it has done so many times in the past. After the men die at sea because of the poor construction of the ship, Clifford argues that the ship owner is to blame for their deaths. If the ship does not sink and no men die, however, Clifford's position is that the owner is no less guilty. Instead, a wrong has been committed in simply believing that the ship will be sound with no evidence. In the second story, Clifford suggests that some people of power sincerely believe that others are abusing their power in a horrendous way. Because of this, these people make many publications and accusations regarding those who are believed to be abusing their power.…… [Read More]

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Henry James' Historical Character Is

Words: 2578 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 924835



The conversation in the Irish castle about the war lends to a greater understanding of the quiet life he lead around his friends; they, too, were in the dark when it came to the person lying inside the heart of their tragic, literary friend.

If there were a war between Great Britain and the United States, Mr. James, where would your loyalty lie?" Webster asked him during a lull in the conversation after dinner.

My loyalty would lie in making peace between them."

And what if that should fail?" Webster asked him.

A happen to know the answer," Lady Wolseley interrupted. "Mr. James would find out which side France was on and join that side." (30-31)

As the conversation continued, it was made clear that the actual encounter James had had with the Civil War in is reality was unknown to even those close friends, who had taken him in…… [Read More]

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Philosophical Argument by Clifford and James

Words: 1791 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1170464

Ethics of Belief

Knowledge, Truth and Belief -- Cphl 550

For a long time, issues of faith and ethics have raised many concerns. In this study, I have used Clifford's argument to elucidate my support for the "ethics of belief." The Ethics of Belief by illiam Clifford state that it is incorrect for anyone to believe on anything based on insufficient evidence. Clifford mentions that the immorality of belief unsupported by evidence is similar to that of shipowners who forgo overhaul for their ship and overcome their doubts on the ship's sea-worthiness (Clifford 45). The costs and efforts used in monitoring the implementation are sourced from necessary repairs. The depiction shows the play-off beliefs against elements of self-interest. Ship owners overcome their doubts based on self-interest. The management collects the insurance after people dies in his ship at sea because of the proven unseaworthy nature of the vessel.

Clifford generalizes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clifford, William. The Ethics of Belief and Other Essays. New York: Prometheus Books, 2008. Print

Proudfoot, Wayne. William James and a Science of Religions: Reexperiencing The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013. Print

Miller, Richard. Terror, Religion, and Liberal Thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Print
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Arden William 2005 Truth Freedom

Words: 379 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31250782

In America, the great pragmatists John Dewey and William James are blamed for the American university's current fallen 'state,' a state of freedom from shared morality.

However, Arden provides no statistical evidence or even anecdotal as to why American universities are morally lacking, other than the fact he disagrees with their embrace of the right of the individual learner to choose his or her own path. He makes the assumption that the reader agrees with his contention that American universities are morally bankrupt. Pragmatism's benefits, such as academic freedom of expression are completely discounted as having any positive influence upon higher education. While some of Arden's contentious, that American undergraduates are insufficiently community-minded, may have some (highly debatable) merit as topics of discussion, his preference for Luther's ideal of a university as a place of spiritual and moral rather than intellectual learning, and for limits upon undergraduate self-expression, are not…… [Read More]

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William Sherman's Role in the

Words: 4068 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46569160

However, despite the personal successes, he felt personally responsible for the loss and would use the events from ull Run to questions his effectiveness as a military officer.

Next, Sherman would serve under Robert Anderson. Where, he would eventually succeed him and take command of all Union forces in Kentucky. This was important, because Kentucky was considered to be a neutral state in the war, where the Union army was based and there were pockets of Confederate units as well. This would create an atmosphere, where Sherman would be unable to conduct a total war, to defeat the various Confederate elements. At which point, he would complain to Washington about the constant shortages that he would face in achieving this objective, with his army lacking the men necessary to fight a successful campaign to low food provisions / ammunition. This would cause Sherman to be relieved of command and placed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

General Sherman's March to the Sea. Son of the South, 2008 Available from Son of the South  http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/shermans-march-to-the-sea.htm . Accessed 14 July, 2010.

McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Sherman, William . After the War. Son of the South, 2008. Available from Son of the South  http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-after-war.htm  Accessed 14, July 2010.

Sherman, William . The Battle of Bull Run to Puducah 1861 -- 1862. Son of the South, 2008. Available from Son of the South  http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-battle-bull-run.htm  Accessed 14, July 2010.
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Zinsser William Writing About Your

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25198622



Source C

Roberts, Rev. Dr. Mark D. "Oprah, James Frey, and the Question of Truth" markdroberts.com.

30 January 2006.

Tone: Moralistic

Claim: James Frey's book is fraudulent and should never have been published.

Purpose: To explain his outrage at Frey's misrepresentation and the publisher's lack of fact-checking.

Important information in the title: Frey's supposedly inspirational and gut-wrenching story was prominently featured on Oprah's book club and became a best seller.

Important info in the background material: The author was published by the same publishing house as Frey, under a different imprint. He states that Frey was treated very differently than he was in terms of the scrutiny to which Frey's story was subject.

Sentence explaining author's claim and how he/she would respond to the prompt: Some things are factual and facts must be honored.

Important parts of the text that specifically show claim/purpose/tone: specifically show claim/purpose/tone: I'm tempted to say…… [Read More]

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Presidential Character by James Barber

Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63121539

He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…… [Read More]

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Kerry James Marshall Who Is

Words: 1479 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78244548

" Marshall told the interviewer that he enjoys having dialogue about art, and style, and the whole dynamic of creating; but he wants his work to be so "undeniably compelling" that the person viewing his art "can't separate the image that's pictured in it from the way the painting is made."

The artist also talks about a period in recent contemporary history when many black artists wanted to be "part of the mainstream" and to do that, they felt they had to "let go of the black representation" and instead, approach art from a more abstract point-of-view. Marshall added that he believes many black artists did that because there was a kind of stereotype associated with black artists in that the moment he or she presented images of black people, all of a sudden the issue was not art, but "social and political."

Marshall was asked about his well-known painting,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bernard, Catherine. "Kerry James Marshall." African Arts. 34.4 (2001): 93-95.

Public Broadcasting Service. "Art: 21 Art in the Twenty First Century / Kerry James Marshall. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 at  http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/marshall .

Rowell, Charles. "An Interview with Kerry James Marshall." Callaloo. 21.1 (1998): 263-272. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 at  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ug01/westkaemper/callaloo/marshall.html .

Williams, Eliza. "Kerry James Marshall: Camden Arts Centre London." Art Monthly. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 at http://www.artmonthly.co/uk/.
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David Crockett William Otter James Cook P T Barnum

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76573002

Otter -- Crockett -- cook

s William Otter's a History of My Own Time a rags-to-riches success story? To what extent does it conform to the themes associated with the Cult of the Self-Made Man and to what extent does it deviate?

William Otter's autobiographical work A History of My Own Time (1835) is truly what one would call a "rags-to-riches" tale, yet it can also be viewed as being quite the opposite. Otter started out in several professions -- a shoemaker with John Paxton in New York City, the venetian blind-making business with William Howard, a carpenter with Gausman, and finally, the bricklaying and plastering business with Kenweth King. Following these flings as an apprentice, Otter then decided to attend school with a "liberal attention to classic lore," but Otter's involvement with heavy drinking at the taverns and his association with many of New York's toughest street gangs severely…… [Read More]

In 1842, P.T. Barnum purchased what has come to be called the "Feejee Mermaid" (i.e., from the island nation of Fiji) from a Boston museum proprietor. This "mermaid" was a conglomeration of various fish parts and other faked pieces assembled to look like a real mermaid; of course, its authenticity was not promoted by Barnum who merely wished to display the "mermaid" as a curiosity of "artful deception." Considering Crockett's love for the outdoors and for nature, he most probably would have bought a ticket to see the mermaid at Barnum's museum and thus would have enjoyed the exhibit, mostly due to his innate curiosity as pointed out in his narrative and his love for nature, but since Crockett was not a stupid nor gullible man, he most assuredly would not have been fooled by Barnum's "mermaid" and would have viewed it yet another gimmick to fool the common man or woman and thus profit from their gullability. As a demagogue, Crockett would also have not liked the idea of the mermaid as a "promise" to the viewer in regard to its authenticity, for Crockett surely would have considered any attempt to make money from gullible customers as outright theft.

Question # 4: How would William Otter respond to Barnum's "What Is It?" exhibit? How would he describe it? Would he enjoy the exhibit? Would he demand his money back? Answer should draw on both James Cook's account of the exhibit and evidence from A History of My Own Times.

In his book The Arts of deception, James W. Cook describes an exhibit in Barnum's museum called "What Is It?," promoted in the museum's literature as "Nondescript," meaning something that cannot easily be identified or recognized, much like Barnum's "Feejee mermaid." This exhibit featured a black man with a shaved head, dressed in furs or tights while grunting and consuming what appeared to be a meal of "African" origin; obviously, Barnum was attempting to parody the traditional racist view of the black man as an "African" primitive far beyond the bounds of ordinary New York civilization. For William Otter, this exhibit, due to his New York City roots, would have been seen as quite hilarious yet somehow reminiscent of the streets of New York with its roving bands of thieves and rowdies, some of whom were most assuredly African-American. As to enjoying the exhibit, Otter would most probably have thoroughly liked it, for it may have reminded him of his own early roots working as a "slave" in various low-paying and often unglamorous professions in New York City. Also, Otter may have understood the true meaning of this exhibit -- a symbolic reflection of life on the streets of the city with many people living as animals while the rich and powerful enjoyed their luxuries and wealth. Of course, Otter would not have asked for his money back; in fact, he may have returned to Barnum's museum to see this exhibit several times.
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Mollie's Job William Adler's Mollie's

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84704285



Adler reveals that poverty is systemic: a sign of a corrupt system. Mollie James' and Balbina Duque's only chance of extricating themselves from poverty is to inject more political power and energy back into the formation of labor unions. The power of the people to overcome and overthrow corrupt regimes has been proven time and again throughout human history; the struggle is not an easy one but there is no way that Duque or any of her colleagues around the world are going to achieve any upward social mobility within the current system. Besides just the suppression of labor unions and the collusion between the PI and big business, other examples of how systematic and systemic the problem is include the glaring idiocy of the bailouts. The Clinton administration arranged a record-breaking fifty billion dollars to the very people who were creating the problems that James and Duque faced. As…… [Read More]

References

Adler, W.M. (2000). Mollie's Job. New York: Touchstone.
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Influential Illustrators From 1950-1960 James

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96644792



Tracy A. Sugarman (1921- )

Tracy A. Sugarman is a famous American illustrator who has had a long and provocative career in the arts. He boasts a career spanning over fifty years, producing great works within children's literature, album cover art, and socially progressive artistic statements. His work is featured in numerous children's books. Sugarman also highlighted life during World War II based on his own experiences there. He had served in the army in World War II and then turned his experiences to art. He also worked on major record covers, usually for Waldorf Music Hall ecords; Sugarman created more than 100 covers. Many later albums and CDs still carried on the original designs in the decade of the 1950s alone. His work is also featured in major magazines such as Fortune and Esquire (Ask Art 2009)

During a period of great racial tension and segregation, Sugarman highlighted prominent…… [Read More]

References

Ask Art. "Tracy Sugarman -- Artist." The Artists' Bluebook. 2009. Retrieved 18 Nov 2009 at  http://www.askart.com/askart/s/tracy_sugarman/tracy_sugarman.aspx 

Smith, Thomas B. "James Bama." Buffalo Bill Historical Center. 2009. Retrieved 18 Nov 2009 at  http://www.bbhc.org/wgwa/bama.cfm
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Slavery Art Robert Calvin Martha and William

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18849111

Slavery Art

Robert, Calvin, Martha, and illiam Scott and Mila ended up in the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco because its owner, Rev. illiam Anderson Scott, was the minister at Calvary Presbyterian Church there in 1853-61. He was originally from the South and because of his sympathy for the Confederate cause in the Civil ar, including offering public prayers for Jefferson Davis, he "had to leave the city for his safety and that of his family" (Smylie 89-90). His son Robert, depicted on the far left of the painting, became a Union Army officer in 1862, although Rev. Scott regretted that he was "on the wrong side" (Acker 79). Mila was a gift to his wife Ann from her father in 1830, and was in charge of caring for the four children. In the painting, the Scott's wished to be depicted as "relatively well-heeled members of Sothern society" even…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Acker, Emma. "Black, White and Shades of Gray: Picturing Identity in Robert, Calvin, Martha and William Scoot and Mila." Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2010.

Manigault Plantation Journal. Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina

 http://www.lib.unc.edu/blogs/shc/index.php/tag/slavery/ 

Smylie, James Hutchinson. A Brief History of the Presbyterians. Geneva Press, 1996.
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Scarlet Ibis by James Hurst Is a

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97848128

Scarlet Ibis, by James Hurst is a short story that focuses on the theme of disappointment, guilt and love, primarily in the story's narrator who tries in vain to shape his disabled younger brother into a mirror image of himself.

The story opens on the birth of the narrator's younger brother. Seven years younger than he, the narrator quickly begins referring to the baby as "Doodle" because "when he crawled on the rug, he crawled backward, as if he were in reverse and couldn't change gears. This made him look like a doodlebug" (Hurst 12). Doodle is born sickly, and no one in the family expects him to live long. The child is given a coffin before he is given a real name. Only when he is three months old do his parents name him, William Armstrong, a name which the narrator notes "sounds good only on a tombstone" (Hurst…… [Read More]

References

Hurst, James. "The Scarlet Ibis." Classic Short Stories. Virginia: Creative Education

Publishing, 1998. 12-16. Print.

The Scarlet Ibis
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Nature of Leonard Williams Levy's Origins of

Words: 2136 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36694582

nature of Leonard illiams Levy's Origins of the Bill of Rights is not as simple as it seems, and this is in fact a measure of the strength of the book. e are so accustomed to dividing the world into clear categories - popular fiction on one side, serious scholarship on another, pulp fiction over there in the corner - that we are given pause when we come across a book that cannot be so easily categorized. Our first impulse may in fact be to decided that this means that there is something wrong with such a book, that the author has failed in his (in this case) attempt to produce a particular kind of text.

But a more thoughtful examination of the work suggests that Levy has in fact succeeded doing in what he set out to accomplish, which was to create a work about the Constitution's Bill of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Levy, Leonard, Williams. Origins of the Bill of Rights. New Haven: Yale UP, 2001.
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Joyce Within James Joyce's Portrait

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44154271

Mulligan keenly notices features of Stephen's obsession when he mockingly calls him "O, shade of Kinch the elder! Japhet in search of father!" Partially, his argument for Shakespeare's autobiographical tendencies is seeded by his own frustration in his search for paternal links.

Out of this, Stephen's rejection of the Irish renaissance is significant because he wishes to judge himself against the backdrop of classical standards. "In our case, Stephen has 'entered into a competition' with Shakespeare by making himself a companion to the model of Shakespeare and placing himself, as much as he can by means of lecturing, next to the model of Shakespeare." So the contention that Shakespeare's plays are autobiographical, by being a particularly unique argument, if successful, would forever attach the name Dedalus to Shakespeare -- thus, his intellectual roots would be fundamentally defined to the external world. Notably, this would remain true regardless of Stephen's recognition…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness and the Secret Sharer. New York: Bantam Books, 1981.

Ellman, Richard. James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Jones, William Powell. Stephen Hero, a Part of the First Draft of a Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: New Directions, 1944.

Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
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Holstein William J At Southwest

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73539558



eaders must exist on every level for an organization to thrive, says Parker. "Frontline leadership, which is in many ways the most important level of leadership, is the area where a lot of companies fall apart. When they think about leadership training, what they're usually thinking about are executives who might be a vice-president or CEO someday. They don't put as much effort into training those frontline leaders, which is where a company most directly touches its customers and its employees" (Holstein 2007, p.2).

eadership by example must be shown at every level a well. Parker took pride at being one of the poorest CEOs in corporate America, noting that this was especially important during the cash-strapped days after 9/11 for an airline company. When sacrifices are called for, everyone must make sacrifices. Also, as a low-cost airline, keeping to a tight bottom line had to become part of the…… [Read More]

Leaders must exist on every level for an organization to thrive, says Parker. "Frontline leadership, which is in many ways the most important level of leadership, is the area where a lot of companies fall apart. When they think about leadership training, what they're usually thinking about are executives who might be a vice-president or CEO someday. They don't put as much effort into training those frontline leaders, which is where a company most directly touches its customers and its employees" (Holstein 2007, p.2).

Leadership by example must be shown at every level a well. Parker took pride at being one of the poorest CEOs in corporate America, noting that this was especially important during the cash-strapped days after 9/11 for an airline company. When sacrifices are called for, everyone must make sacrifices. Also, as a low-cost airline, keeping to a tight bottom line had to become part of the culture at Southwest. But everyone profited when things were going well: "While I was CEO, we gave stock options to every employee at every level, contract or noncontract, from the CEO to the guys who cleaned the bathrooms," said Parker (Holstein 2007, p.2). There must be a unified ownership mentality, and pilots must not see themselves as pilots, but as Southwest employees, just as CEOs must not see themselves as individuals, or as management, but as members of the Southwest organization.

Leadership training is about seeing every member of the organization as a potential leader, in his or her capacity. Also, it is about unity just as it is as much about individualism and rewarding top performers with leadership positions. Given that the 'real work' of an organization often begins at the bottom, much can be learned from Southwest's integrated and continuing leadership training program.
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Philosophy of Mind Emotions Philosophy

Words: 1594 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37361359

Using the death of her mother on emotional response she argues that in case it had been discovered in the whole episode that her blood pressure seemed to be very low or her pulse rate did not go beyond 60, no any reason that can be used in concluding that she was not grieving. Contrary to claim of James that without existence of bodily feeling then emotion does not have value but only a sort of cold judgment. Nevertheless, as discussed before, to some extent Nussbaum agree that emotions are eudaimonistic due to the fact that it has a bearing on the well-being and flourishing of the subject.

Upon analyzing the criticisms that is directed to the William James' theory, a conclusion can be made that emotional accuracy is not enough to be used in defining perception of bodily change. Based on the criticisms we are able to reach the…… [Read More]

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Compare and Contrast a Religious Group's Statement

Words: 2777 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15907760

eligious Group's Statement

William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "eligious Diversity and eligious Truth"

is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process

In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.

The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of…… [Read More]

References

Kaufman, Gordon D. Religious Diversity and Religious Truth. In God-Mystery-

Diversity, 172-206. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Schleiermacher, Friedrich. 1969. Romanticism. In Attitudes Toward Other Religions:

Some Christian Interpretations, ed. Owen C. Thomas, 49-69. Notre Dame:
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American Functionalism Over the Last

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91529058

The combination of these factors established a basic foundation for looking at the entire impact of specific ideas and events on the individual's cognitive system. (James, 2005, pp. 45 -- 132)

John Dewey was able to take these ideas and theorized that the social environment will have an impact on: the activities of the mind and ultimately individual behavior. At the heart of his beliefs, was the view that psychologists should move away from stimulus-based responses and towards understanding the entire neural pathway. This is when psychologists can comprehend how certain thoughts are impacting the behavior of the person. These principles are illustrating how Dewey was building off of the ideas from James to expand the role of functionalism. (James, 2005, pp. 179 -- 268)

James Angell took the ideas of Dewey and expanded upon them. Under this philosophy, he identified three major points of functionalism to include: studying the…… [Read More]

References

Functionalism. (2006). Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/ 

James, W. (2005). James and Dewey. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Simon, L. (1996). William James Remembered. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
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Christianity and the Views of Sigmund Freud

Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18329317

Christianity and the views of Sigmund Freud and William James

This paper discusses the concept of a Creator in Christianity and also focuses on the views held by Sigmund Freud and William James on this subject. While Christianity believes firmly in the existence of Creator, Freud maintains that this concept has originated from man's deep-rooted neurosis. James on the other hand felt that religious beliefs had some biological and psychological connections and therefore it is important for man to devise his own concept of a Creator rather than believing on the one that he has inherited from his ancestors.

CONCEPT OF A CEATO

Most religions in the world support the concept of a Universal Creator, the one being who has single-handedly created the entire Universe and is considered to be a benevolent merciful soul. While in some polytheist religions, the concept of Creator may differ slightly, but in all three…… [Read More]

References

William James: The Varieties of Religious Experience

Freud, Sigmund, The Future of an Illusion, 1927.
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Paul -- I Made Sure

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69598665

However, contemporary literature on the subject seems to establish the priciples of comparivie psychology as ones that focus on both proximate and ultimate causation (Dewsbury, 1984).

The power, though, of the comparative approach lies in the ability that the scholar can evaluate target behaviors from really four different perspectives, called Tinbergen's four questions (Burkhardt, 2005).

How pervasive is the behavior across the individual species -- how common is it?

How does the behavior contribute to overall evolutionary success via natural selection (reproductive success)?

What mechanisms are involved in the behavior -- what physiological, environmental or behavioral components must occur?

How does maturation and development contribute to this behavior?

Numerous studies have been done regarding comparative psychology, some even so popular that they are studied by elementary students. However, a few seminal studies have dominated the field. Pavlov, for instance, used dogs to understand the issues of conditioning. Thorndike studied cats…… [Read More]

One must first understand that Freud was not completely contemporaneous with Wundt and James, and therefore there is some scholarly overlap that occurred in the way the three men considered their subject matter, as well as their cultural experiences and the overall "theme" of the times in which they lived.

Freud tended to subdivide and categorize the mind into more quantitative levels of consciousness, but continued to emphasize the unconscious. This evoloved into his famous trio: the id, ego and superego as the building blocks for all human bahevior. It is this pre-counscious, or subconscious level that, for Freud, tended to establish the bulk of the individual's way of being, way of perceiving, and even way of learning (Kahn, 2002).

James, however, perceived himself as a philosopher, attempting to uncover the balances between reality and experience. It was the experience of religion, of esctascy, of pain,
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Truth One Cannot Simply Define

Words: 3618 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44253527

Two belief systems, then -- true believe, and justified true belief (Hauser, 1992).

Humans, however, according to Pierce, turn justified true beliefs into true beliefs by converting them into axioms. Once we have proven something there is no need to prove it again, and we use the part that was proven before to further extend our study and the inquisition of knowledge. And so it becomes necessary to accept things as the truth without proving them at every single moment. However, does not mean that the belief is an unjustified belief, for it again is the conflictual nature of justified against unjustified that, for scholars like Pierce, outpours a reality he can view as "true" (Ibid).

ene' Descartes' purpose was to make humans analyze the introspective nature of being, and to postulate on the veracity of truth as a nature of thought -- if we think it, it is, and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ayer, A.J. (2001). David Hume: A Short Introduction .Oxford University Press.

Billington, M. (2007). Harold Pinter. Faber and Faber.

Cottingham, J., ed. (1992). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge Gould, J. And R. Mulvaney. (2008). Classic Philosophical Questions, 13th ed.. Prentice-

Hall.
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American Pragmatism in the 20th

Words: 1778 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64171687



Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.

Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.

Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…… [Read More]

References

Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,

 http://perspicuity.net/sd/pub-choice.html 

James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.

-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
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Ortega Y Gasset the Spanish

Words: 1737 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54723682

However, he reconciles these opposite views in what he designs as the new religion for man:

hile he knew that a collapse and ricorso of Vico's type into a "divine" and "barbaric" epoch was possible, he did not regard any such colossal disaster as necessary or likely. He put hope above fear, and positive over negative. He seems to have foreseen a historical transformation similar to the change from Hellenic to "Hellenistic" in ancient civilization, which, in the Roman Empire, finally did collapse into such a barbaric ricorso, or cycle. European and "estern" phases of civilization have not yet experienced Spengler's or Toynbee's "Roman paradigm" of orld State and orld Religion, and Ortega trusted that such a horrible outcome could be forever avoided by a kind of federal world order built on the model of the European Union." (Graham, 2001, p.504)

Thus, Ortega y Gasset's main attempt is to create…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Graham, John T (2001) The Social Thought of Ortega Y. Gasset: A Systematic Synthesis in Postmodernism and Interdisciplinarity. Columbia: University of Missouri Press

Ortega y Gasset, Jose.(1998) Man and Crisis. New York W.W. Norton

The Modern Theme. (1961)New York W.W. Norton

Blaise Pascal. http://dailywisdom.gospelcom.net/archives/old/2000/04/dw-04-14-2000.html
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Except a Man Be Born Again He

Words: 1138 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30670989

except a man be born again, he cannot see' namely he can neither understand the nature nor share the blessedness- of the kingdom of God" can best be understood by recourse to William James's discussion on converts. A convert is a man who is born again; who perceives his 'personhood in a different way.

The Personhood or ego, according to James is categorized into two aspects:

The phenomenal self (the experienced self, the 'me' self, the self as known)

The self-thought (the I-self, the self as knower).

It is the way that one perceives the world that shapes this Me/I and, in turn, this Me/I effects the way one perceives the world.

The 'I' is the constant flow of subjective thought that the person has about the self and which makes the person perceive the self, moment per moment, in a certain way

The ME self is divided into three…… [Read More]

References

James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology (2 vols.). New York: Henry Holt (Reprinted Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1999).

James W. The Varieties of Religious Experience

 http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/WJAMES/toc.html 

Wright, NT The Kingdom New Testament: a contemporary translation New York: HarperOne, 2011
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Watson the Philosophy of Watson

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3182249

This is only using the mind as a metaphor for intelligence, however, which would again be a problem for James and would also be a problem from an ontological perspective. In order to consider whether or not Watson has a mind, and indeed whether or not any computer could ever have a mind, a consideration of Gilbert Ryle's thoughts concerning the nature of the mind is very much needed. Ryle asserts that the misunderstanding of the split between the mind and the body that has been a philosophical problem since at least the time of Rene Descartes arises because people misunderstand the nature of the mind by equating it with the body. Though the body is part of what Ryle calls the "deterministic system" of the world and though people have tried to explain the mind using the same deterministic system, what is meant by "mind" in this sense has…… [Read More]

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Psychology of Religion

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76800587

problem of evil and suffering has been an issue since the beginning of time. Carl Jung has written passionately and eloquently about the possibility and impossibility of transcending this problem.

According to Jung's reasons for this problem was that God was a schmuck towards Job (and by extension to all innocents who suffer from 'acts of God') due to His not being fully conscious. A strange theory since, it would seem that by definition God is Omniscient.

However, God, in Jung's model, contains all opposites and paradoxes, which includes choosing not to consult his own self.

If he had done so, he could have seen that Job would have been faithful to the end and not needed to take Satan's "bet."

The devil is still able to waltz into heaven in the book of Job and complain about how rotten mankind is. So, it is clear according to Jung, that…… [Read More]

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Philosophy of Truth One of

Words: 2626 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98700395

Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.

Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burch, Robert. "Charles Sanders Peirce." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/peirce/#dia .

Kessler, Gary. Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader, 5th Edition. New York: Wadsworth Publishing, 2003.

Pinter, Harold. "Nobel Lecture: Art, Truth, and Politics." 2005.  http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2005/pinter-lecture-e.html ,

Thornton, Stephen. "Karl Popper." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2009.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Strict Christian Upbringing on the

Words: 3186 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21741922

In such situations, it becomes a necessity to have all the fields of learning and engagement to be within the identified fields for the youth. The society is a diverse avenue or entity that needs a clear pathway for understanding (Clinton 72). If the youth and all the people in the world are subjected to religious teachings without making affirmed considerations of the needs of the society, it becomes a hard way for many people to be successful.

The religious teachings must appreciate the importance of its followers interacting with the other members of the secular society. This establishes a fair ground where the young can grow and develop. If the society becomes very restrictive like within a Christian atmosphere, it becomes hard for the available avenues of growth and development to be executed by the available members. The young will not be at a stable avenue of relaying their…… [Read More]

Work cited

Benton Mark Steven. Adolescent Faith Development as Related to the Influence of Christian School Teachers in Church of Christ K -- 12 Schools. ProQuest, 2008. Print 109

Bowen Kurt. Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 2004. Print 204

Clinton, Tim, and Hawkins Ron. The Popular Encyclopedia of Christian Counseling: An Indispensable Tool for Helping People with Their Problems. Harvest House Publishers, 2011. Print

Cocklin, Sarah, Bruess, Clint and Greenberg, Jerrold; Exploring the dimensions of human sexuality. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett, 2011 print.
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Glossolalia or Speaking in Tongues

Words: 4590 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46535991

Therefore, we may conclude that the speaker has some cognitive function from the structure of the speech, even if it is based on a very basic set of language rules (Samarin 1972 120).

Three major linguistic traits emerged from other research into the subjec. Regardless of the geographic area, educational level, or age of the individual, glossolalia consists of:

Verbal behavior that has a certain number of consanants and vowels.

There seem to be a limited number of syllables that are reorganized into larger units.

These units are then rearranged using variations in pitch, volume, speed and intensity (e.g. A "word" group spoken with different inflections).

The "words" put together seem haphazard but emerge as word and sentence like because of the use of realistic timbre, rhythm, and melody (Samarin 1972).

Other research confims that glossolalia shows an oddly definitive syballant commonality with the particular spoken language of the speaker.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aquinas, T. "Summa Theologica Question 176." New Advent. March 2008.  http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3176.htm  (accessed September 2010).

Bock, D. Acts: Baker Exegetical Commentary. Ada, MI: Baker Academic, 2007.

Chavda, M. The Hidden Power of Speaking in Tongues. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publishers, 2003.

Coffman, J. "Commentary on Mark 16." Abeline Christian University Press. 1999.  http://www.searchgodsword.org/com/bcc/view.cgi?book=mr&chapter=016  (accessed September 2010).
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Function of Theory in Nursing

Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29582100

According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).

Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…… [Read More]

Margaret Newman and James Fowler both focus their attention on the larger, more spiritual context of human experience and the implication this has in one's healing. There are commonalities that exist between the philosophies of both theorists: human reasoning, the ability to adopt to another's perspective, social awareness, and human formation of a world-view. Newman offers the nurse-patient relationship can be enhanced if it is viewed as a caring partnership. HEC does not really pretend to be a quick fix or direct nursing intervention; instead, it presents an opportunity to assist the sick by recognizing patterns and using this intelligence to expand a patient's consciousness, self-care, and comfort (Awa & Yamashita, 2008).

Fowler concerns himself more with faith as a lens through which we see the world. His ideas about faith over the span of one's lifetime can be particularly beneficial when working with elderly populations. Older, Stage 5 and 6 adults may begin to reincorporate earlier religious beliefs and traditions that were previously discarded (Fowler, 2004). This could be due to physical limitations or also used as a self-healing mechanism to avoid feelings of helplessness or abandonment. A nurse who is attentive can acknowledge this mature spirituality as being helpful to a patient attempting to find meaning in his or her illness.

In sum, both theories/frameworks have implications for the practice of nursing. A theory, by definition, is a group of related concepts that propose action that guide practice. From Margaret Newman and even non-nursing theorist James Fowler we see how using a systematic view of inter-relationships between concepts of spirituality, higher consciousness, caring and empathy can be useful for describing, explaining, predicting, and prescribing nursing interventions that make a difference in the lives of patients. Both philosophies offer insight that can create better nurses.
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Ethics 1 The Peculiar Ethics of Public Leadership

Words: 1356 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58717507

Peculiar Ethics of Public Leadership: Pragmatism as a Framework for Action in Public Service

The objective of this study is to examine pragmatism as a framework for action in public services. Towards this end, this work will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of study.

According to the work of Keith F. Snider entitled "ethinking Public Administration's oots in Pragmatism: The Case of Charles A. Beard" reports that pragmatism because very prominent "around the turn of the 20th century…through the ideas of well-known writers such as William James and John Dewey." (2008) Comaeger (1950) stated that pragmatism is "almost the official philosophy of America." (Stever, 2008) The work of Shields (nd) explains that classical pragmatism "is attractive because it has both depth and complexity." Shields states that these characteristics "have made it difficult to summarize and easy to misinterpret." (nd) Classical pragmatism has been held by scholars…… [Read More]

References

Dewey, J. (1927). The public and its problems. New York: Henry Holt.

Dewey, J. (1929). The quest for certainty. New York: Minton, Balch.

Dewey, J. (1998). The essential Dewey (vol. 1, L.A. Hickman & T.M. Alexander, Eds.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Garrison, J. (2000) Pragmatism, and Public Administration. Administration & Society; Sep 2000; 32,4:ABI/INFORM Global.
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Strategic Security in the Middle

Words: 3247 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53674326



Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).

Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.

Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com

Retrieved September 7, 2011, from  http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .

Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
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William Shakespeare Should Shakespeare's Work Be Translated

Words: 2548 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98861541

illiam Shakespeare

Should Shakespeare's ork Be Translated?

Shakespeare has been the lord of writing for centuries. His work, full of wit and puns has not been replaced by any other writer so far. However, the language used in Shakespeare's work has been the reflection of the then literary language which was full of flavor and richness and suited the culture of estern world then. The question is whether Shakespeare retains its meaning when translated into other languages. There are two different schools of thought on this subject. ith research, it has been proved that Shakespeare loses its essence when translated in any other language and turns into a mere story with no melody attached to it.

There are two aspects of translating Shakespeare's work; one is converting it into simple English which is the main weapon of the modernizers and the second one is converting it into other regional languages…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bohannan, Laura. Miching Mallecho, That Means Witchcraft? In Middleton, J. (ed.) Magic, Witchcraft, and Curing. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1976.

Chau, Simon S.C. (). The Nature and Limitations of Shakespeare Translation. New Asian Academic Bulletin, 1(1978): 239-50.

Craig, William James Ed. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. London: Oxford University Press. 1914.

Fan, Shouyi. . Highlights of Translation Studies in China Since the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Meta XLIV. 1999
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Pragmatic Theory of Truth in

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87047144

Jesse Jackson and Rev. Al Sharpton to Duke to denounce the acts of the lacrosse players; and three, according to the pragmatic theory of truth, with is certainly in play in America, something reported is true if it is useful to believe it is true.

Meanwhile, all the charges against the lacrosse players have been dropped (for lack of evidence), and the Attorney General of North Carolina, Roy Cooper, stated (www.cnn.law.com) that "...the inconsistencies were so significant and so contrary to the evidence that we have no credible evidence that an attack occurred..." Cooper went on to say that "No DNA confirms the accuser's story" and "no other witness confirms" her story; in fact, "other evidence contradicts her story." He criticized the district attorney who prosecuted the case, Michael Nifong, who was running for reelection at the time the charges were brought against the players; "...caution would have served justice…… [Read More]

TRANSITION: In an article published in the journal Review of Politics (Boffetti, 2004 p. 612), the author discusses the philosophical theories of two proponents of the pragmatic theory of truth, Richard Rorty and William James. Boffetti points out that, according to Rorty, "James said a lot of...conflicting things about truth - such as that it consists in some kind of agreement between ideas and reality" (Boffetti, 612). But what Rorty did approve of in the context of William James was "James first theory of truth," which is "truth is what works." James so-called second theory of truth, according to Boffetti's account of Rorty, is that "...ideas (which are themselves but parts of our experience) become true just insofar as they help us get into satisfactory relation with other parts of our experience" (Boffetti 612).

ARGUMENT #2: During the 2004 Presidential Campaign the Bush campaign committed put an ad on the air that made it sound like Democratic candidate John Kerry was trying to help the terrorists. The ad showed a dark forest and a pack of wolves, looking very hungry and seeming to be on the attack. The announcer's voice, a soft female voice, said: "In an increasingly dangerous world...Even after the first terrorist attack on America...John Kerry and the liberals in Congress voted to slash America's intelligence operations. By 6 billion dollars...cuts so deep they would have weakened America's defenses.

Meanwhile, the names most associated with pragmatism are philosophers William James, Richard Rorty, Charles Sanders Pierce, and John Dewey. The names most closely associated with recent presidential elections are Al Gore, George W. Bush, John Kerry and Karl Rove. But what
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Gertude Stein Gertrude Stein it Is Difficult

Words: 1862 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94500404

Gertude Stein.

Gertrude Stein

It is difficult to think of 1920's Paris without recalling Gertrude Stein. A friend to some of the most prominent artists and writers of the 20th century, Stein is not only known for her own accomplished writing contributions, but also for her personal lifestyle.

Gertrude Stein was born in 1874 near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She attended Radcliffe from 1893-1897, where she was a student of illiam James. One day Stein wrote, "Dear Professor James, I am sorry but really I do not feel a bit like an examination paper in philosophy today"...the next day James send her a postcard saying "I understand perfectly how you feel, I often feel like that myself," and then he gave her the highest mark in his course (orld pg). She then began premedical work at Johns Hopkins. In 1902, she decided to take a break from her studies, and went abroad,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Literature from 1860 to 1914." The Reader's Companion to American

History. January 01, 1991; pp 135.

Benfer, Amy. "Gertrude and Alice."  http://www.salon.com/mwt/feature/1999/11/18/alice/index2.html .(accessed 03-09-2003).

Curnutt, Kirk. "Parody and Pedagogy: teaching style, voice, and authorial intent in the works of Gertrude Stein." College Literature. Volume 23. June 01, 1996; pp 1.
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Covey 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

Words: 2096 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50889875

Covey, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

Stephen R. Covey was born in 1932 in Salt Lake City, Utah; he has his undergraduate degree (in business administration) from the University of Utah, an MBA from the Harvard Business School, and a Doctorate in Religious Education from Brigham Young University. (Covey is a practicing Mormon). He is currently a professor in the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business at Utah State University. Covey is perhaps best known for his 1989 bestseller The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: to date the book has sold more than fifteen million copies worldwide. It seems worthwhile to ask, therefore, what does this book have to say which has gained it such broad popularity?

The biggest clue lies in the title. Covey believes that behavior can be defined as a set of habits, essentially, but he likewise presents his own lessons in the form of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Free Press, 1989. Print.

James, William. The Principles of Psychology. New York: Dover, 1950. Print.
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Woolf Women in Violence and War

Words: 3453 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33363722

Woolf / Women in Violence and War

The current paper deals with the use of stream of consciousness and narrative technique by Virginia Wolf. The author has discussed how Woolf comes and goes in time and space to reveal her inside feelings, and why she used them especially in time of war and domestic violence.

Much has been written about Woolf's use of the stream-of-consciousness technique used widely by other Modernist writers of her time such as DH Lawrance and James Joyce. Stream of Consciousness is the technique use by Woolf and she is considered the pioneer of this technique. The stream of thought was first proposed by William James, Harvard Professor of Psychology in 1890.

Argumentation

In a diary entry that Woolf wrote on the 23 of February in 1926, she compares the writing process she went through while writing Mrs. Dalloway with the process she experienced while writing…… [Read More]

References

Bakhtin, Mikhail.M.. Art and Answerability. Eds. Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov. Trans. And notes, Vadim Liapunov. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990. Print.

James, William. Different Times of Thought" Principles of Psychology. 260. Print

Herbert, Christopher. Mrs. Dalloway, the Dictator, and the Relativity Paradox. Novel. 35.1 (Fall 2001): Duke University Press. 104-124. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 April 2010.

Mathis, Mary Shirlene, Ph.D., ?War/narrative/identity: Uses of Virginia Woolf's modernism. Dissertation. The University of Texas. 1995. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 April 2010.