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Her visions of her mother as some kind of monster-deliverer appear in Kingston's nightmares. She states on page 86, "My mother has given me pictures to dream -- nightmare babies that recur." The grotesque imagery of her mother delivering monsters corresponds also with her dreamlike memories of foods they ate when she was a child in China. The images converge in Kingston's head to provide the foundation for her self-image and her identity as a Chinese woman living as an immigrant in the United States. At the close of the "Shaman" chapter she comments about her mom's psychic legacy: "She sends me on my way, working always now and old, dreaming the dreams about shrinking babies," (109).
Kingston's memories and thoughts of her mother are partly created by her nightmares. The distinction between waking and dream life are not important for Kingston's psychological development or the creation of her self-image.…
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Knopf, 1977.
My aunt haunts me -- her ghosts drawn to me because now, after fifty years of neglect, I alone devote pages of paper to her," (16). Aunts, the sisters of fathers or mothers who serve as surrogate female role models, play a central role in Maxine Hong Kingston's The oman arrior. However, Kingston's aunts are no warrior women; in fact, "No-Name oman" and "Moon Orchid" embody the antithesis of the woman warrior-heroine. No-Name oman disgraces herself and her family, killing herself and her newborn and forever erasing her name from the family tree. Kingston can but imagine the true spirit of this no-name aunt who haunts her since her mother told her the tale of her downfall. Similarly, Moon Orchid displays shameful characteristics: she cannot pull her weight doing chores when she arrives in America and she hasn't got the gumption to stand up to her husband. Both…
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.
Maxine Kingston's Woman warrior has been a controversial addition to the literature written by Chinese-American writers. The writer has tried to answer the critical question of Chinese-American identity and hence been criticized for adopting an orientalist framework to win approval of the west. The woman warrior speaks of a culture that neatly fits the description of the "Other" in the orientalist framework. It appears alien, remote and immensely degrading to women who were treated like non-human beings by Chinese chauvinistic society. However things changed for the generation of Chinese that grew up in the U.S. Or at least that is what Kingston wants us to believe.
Frank Chin has been the most vocal critic of Kingston's who accused her "of reinforcing white fantasies about Chinese-Americans" (Chin, 1991) and claimed that writers like Maxine Hong Kingston, Amy Tan and David Henry Hwang who won approval of the American white…
Frank Chin. 1991. Come all ye Asian-American writers of the real and the fake. In: Jeffery Paul Chan, et al. (eds.), The big Aiiieeeee: An anthology of Chinese-American and Japanese-American literature. New York: A Meridian Book.
Maxine Hong Kingston. 1981. The woman warrior. London: Picador.
Maxine Hong Kingston. 1998. Cultural mis-readings by American reviewers. In: Laura E. Skandera-Trombley. (ed.), Critical essays on Maxine Hong Kingston. New York G.K. Hall & Co., 100.
Said, Edward. 1979. Orientalism. Vintage Books, New York.
It is true that while Kingston can use irony against the stereotypes of passivity imposed upon Chinese femininity, at other times she seems to use these stereotypes less self-consciously. Her portrayal of her mother calling white people 'ghosts,' and her decision to name her mother Brave Orchid, seem to reflect cultural construction of Oriental women and Asians in general as superstitious and somewhat primitive in their understanding of the world. But there are always intrusions of the modern world that satirize the tendency to render China as exotic and Oriental. The fact that Kingston calls her mother 'Brave Orchid' and her aunt 'Moon Orchid' are less important than the cultural clash that transpires between their ways of life.
The characters in Kingston's work are always recognizably human in the manner in which they illustrate the immigrant experience. Moon Orchid is shown marveling at as well as being horrified by American…
Kingston, Maxine. The Woman Warrior. New York: Vintage, 1989.
Forbidden Face and the oman arrior
In My Forbidden Face, Latifa narrates a poignant coming-of-age story of a young girl growing up under the brutal regime of the Taliban. Latifa skillfully pulls the reader into a world that seems that of a typical teenager. She writes of "college, girlfriends in search of music tapes, film videos, novels to read avidly in bed in the evening" (11).
Latifa's protected world collapses when the Taliban assume power in 1997. Until then, Latifa had enjoyed the privileges afforded by her family's relative affluence. Latifa went to school, talked to her friends about fashion, dreamed about Indian and Iranian movie stars. She did not wear a veil and donned skirts that were hemmed at the knee. More importantly, the young author had strong career ambitions. Her own mother was a gynecological nurse, while Latifa herself planned for a career in journalism.
Latifa makes it…
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Alfred A, Knopf, 1976.
Latifa. My Forbidden Face: Growing Up Under the Taliban: A Young Woman's Story. New York: Hyperion Books, 2001.
Maxine Hong Kingston's memoir, the Woman Warrior, may be considered a microcosm of the work as a whole. The section "No Name Woman" incorporates the recurring themes of silence, invisibility, ghosts and using words as weapons.
It is argued, that the story's central theme is the process of "finding a personal voice" (Ling). This is mainly about the Aunt, but also about the mother and the narrator. It is a combination of three female characters each trying to find a voice and fighting against silence, some by choice such as the narrator, some by force, such as the mother, that makes this a powerful theme.
Silence is especially important in the story in relation to women, women are not expected to be outspoken but to live in the background, not expressing their feelings and more importantly, not being expected to have feelings, "the work of preservation demands that the feelings…
Chatman, S. Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1980.
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.
Ling, Amy. Between Worlds: Women Writers of Chinese Ancestry. New York: Pergamon, 1990.
Maxine Kingston's Contribution To Literature
Maxine Kingston's Contribution to Contemporary Literature
Maxine Hong Kingston's literature falls into the Contemporary Literature movement and many critics consider her work to be an important contribution on the feminist front as well as that of Asian literature. Kingston was born in Stockton, California in 1940 and is the best recognized Asian-American writer of today. (2094) The oman arrior demonstrates the struggle experienced as a Chinese-American growing up in America as well as focusing on other issues such as success and mother-daughter relationships. The oman arrior is able to tell the story of one woman who discovers her self through overcoming the memory of her heritage and finding her place in society.
The oman arrior is formed from what many critics like to call fiction and fact and memory and imagination (Lauter 2094). The book examines the "difficulties in Kingston's development as a woman and…
Lauter, Paul, ed. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990.
Kingston, Maxine. The Woman Warrior. New York: McGraw Hill. 2000.
Women throughout Chinese history have experienced the oppression their tradition and culture exert as well as the power only members of their sex can attain in their chosen domains. Although readers have been exposed to historical anecdotes relating foot binding and Man's superiority to women, there are also many stories relating their freedom and tenacity, whether they are wives, concubines, courtesans or prostitutes. The history of Chinese women is not necessarily limited to persecution and being dominated, it is also peppered with inspirational stories of women who have been able to find happiness, success and fulfillment within the parameters Chinese tradition and culture dictate.
In Chinese society, the positions women maintained were very indistinct (http://www.wm.edu/CAS/anthropology/faculty/hamada/Virtual_Classromm/wwwb.../208.htm,1)."In Chinese society, women as a category had a dependent status." (Watson, 1991, 232). efore a girl married, she was controlled completely by her father. After she married, this responsibility was transferred to her husband. If…
Bennett, Natalie. (2001) Women of Emperial China: A Re-Examination. http://www.journ.freeserve.co.uk/china/china4.html
Burns, Dennis. (2002) The View From the Dragon's Lair. http://www.crystal-bridge.com/dennis0402.html
Jaschok, Maria. (1988) Concubines and Bondservants: The Social History of a Chinese Custom. London: Zed Press.
Jaschok, Maria & Miers, Suzanne (eds.) (1994) Women and Chinese Patriarchy. New Jersey: Hong Kong U.
The overall literature available on this theory is more or less mixed as some studies claim that there is nor relation between the two concepts (Pelletier & Herold, 1988), whereas others state that rape fantasies are high where women are sexually suppressed (Hariton & Singer, 1974), yet another study concluded that the women who had higher ratio of rape fantasy were mentally more healthy towards the concept of sex (Gold et al., 1991; Shulman & Horne, 2006) and experienced lower levels of shame (Shulman & Horne, 2006; Strassberg & Lockerd, 1998). Hence, it is important to analyze whether there is actual link between rape fantasies and the sexual guilt phenomenon.
Openness to Sexual Experience
The philosophy of the openness to sexual experience is in direct opposition to the sexual blame avoidance phenomenon. Here the idea is that having rape fantasies is part of the sexual identity and need of a…
Allgeier, E.R. & Allgeier, a.R. (2000). Sexual interactions (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Barlow, DH, Sakheim, D.K., & Beck, J.G. (1983). Anxiety increases sexual arousal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 49-54.
Baumeister, R.F. & Twenge, J.M. (2002). Cultural suppression of female sexuality. Review of General Psychology, 6, 166-203.
Bond, S.B. & Mosher, D.L. (1986). Guided images of rape: Fantasy, reality, and the willing victim myth. Journal of Sex Research, 22, 162-183.
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
Women Called to Witness by Nancy a. Hardesty, Second Edition
The biblical feminists of today reinterpret the original scriptures with reference to women while trying to find religious reasons for their actions. An example of this is Women Called to Witness: Evangelical Feminism in the Nineteenth Century by Nancy Hardesty, as also other writers like Lucretia Mott, the Grimke sisters and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. It is suggested by the book that the motivation of women leading the fights for temperance, female ordination, abolition and women suffrage in the beginning of the nineteenth century was from their evangelical Christian faith. 1 The Second Great awakening revivals touched the lives of each of these great warriors. The author proves that the traditional, evangelical activist was as intelligent as the Christian feminist. The differences between public and private, male and female, and politics and religion that were defined through the Industrial evolution were…
Hardesty, Nancy A. 1984. Women Called to Witness: Evangelical Feminism in the Nineteenth Century. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
The possibility that such attention was paid to these event in earlier times in European cultures is obvious but absent from modern representations of rites of passage. What can be interesting is the correlation between the two rites of passage discussed here, the "sweet 16" party and the Quinceanera and their similarities to weddings. Because weddings are expected to be delayed, more so in U.S. culture but also in Mexican and other cultures, as a mark of good judgment some rites of passage and especially those for girls seem to have become mirrors or proxy weddings, where massive expenses are sometimes incurred and dress is decidedly formal.
It must first be understood that the quinceaneras is actually a religious rite performed in conjunction with a special mass in the oman Catholic Church as well a blessing and a group of ceremonies for the 15-year-old girl, 15 of her friends and/or…
Arriagada, I. (2006). Changes and Inequality in Latin American Families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 37(4), 511.
Baker, V.J. (2000). 4 Ritual Practice in a Sinhalese Village: Coping with Uncertainty. In the Nature and Function of Rituals: Fire from Heaven, Heinze, R. (Ed.) (pp. 59-79).
Fay, T.J. (2005). From the Tropics to the Freezer: Filipino Catholics Acclimatize to Canada, 1972-2002. 29.
Grimes, R.L. (2000). Deeply into the Bone: Re-Inventing Rites of Passage. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Women in the Book Of Judges
The Book of Judges talks about ancient Israel, and how they extended their territory by acquiring lands from the non-Israelites. The book narrates how Israelites conquered and reclaimed their lost land from non-Israelites and how they used to turn from God whenever they are satisfied. But it is written in the Bible that, the guilty are by no means cleared, as Exodus (34:7) says this is the reason why the Lord used several Kings and Judges like Deborah to help the people of Israel find their way back to Him. As the book reveals, it is evident that most of the judges were men (as they were most of the times referred to as Judges). The book talks about a great woman Deborah, also referred to as the "bee," as a key judge in the entire book. This book unveils the importance…
Elazar, Daniel J. "The Isralite Tribal Federation and Its Discontents."Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 16 October 2015. < http://www.jcpa.org/dje/articles/judges.htm
Keathley, H. IV. (n.d.). The Role of Women in the Book of Judges. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from https://bible.org/article/role-women-book-judges
Murphy, K. J. (n.d.). Women in Judges [Resource]. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordbiblicalstudies.com/resource/lessonplan_8.xhtml
O'Connor, M. "Northwest Semitic Designations for Elective Social Affinities." Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society. 1-8, 67-80, 1987.
Maxine Hong Kingston's short story "No Name oman" approaches the silencing of women and the potential for their expression in younger generations through the story of the narrator's unnamed, possibly fictional aunt. In particular, the story highlights the way in which women can actually work to reinforce the social standards which keep them silenced and relatively powerless, because the narrator's mother uses the story of the nameless aunt in order to scare the narrator into hewing more closely to cultural norms. However, the narrator is critical enough to see through this ideological imposition, and works to undermine not only her mother's method of control through fear but also the underlying societal assumptions which motivates her mother in the first place. By examining the motivations of the narrator's mother in conjunction with the critical perspective of the narrator, one is able to see how breaking the silence of women's voices…
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior. Vintage International Ed. New York: Random
Manchin, Linda. Ed. Women ageing: changing identities, challenging myths. New York:
Routledge, 2000. Print.
Author Goldman continues, "ather than assuming that all women are incapable of performance by virtue of the average woman's lack of capability, specific requirements should serve as the selection criteria, not gender" (Goldman 271). Gender should not matter if it does not matter to the women who want to join.
The government could open up more combat jobs to women to help solve the problem, and women who were interested in combat positions should be encouraged to serve in the armed forces. Indeed, in their own study, the government found that with the right training, women's physical capabilities can increase. Another author notes, "An Army esearch Institute of Environmental Medicine report (January 26, 1996) shows that intensive training of motivated women can increase their physical abilities" (Jernigan 51). Thus, physical limitations are simply an excuse many people use to argue against women in the military. Even the military itself recognizes…
Goldman, Nancy Loring, ed. Female Soldiers -- Combatants or Noncombatants?: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Jernigan, Pat. "Women at War: Gender Issues of Americans in Combat." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 19.1 (2001): 51.
Marley, David John. "Phyllis Schlafly's Battle against the ERA and Women in the Military." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 18.2 (2000):
Toktas, Sule. "Nationalism, Militarism and Gender Politics: Women in the Military." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 20.2 (2002): 29+.
omen to History
omen have contributed to the history of the world from the beginning of time. Their stories are found in legends, myths, and history books. Queens, martyrs, saints, and female warriors, usually referred to as Amazon omen, writers, artists, and political and social heroes dot our human history. By 1865, women moved into the public arena, as moral reform became the business of women, as they fought for immigrant settlement housing, fought and struggled for the right to earn living wages, and stood up to the threats of the lynch mobs. The years beginning in 1865 is known as the Civil ar era and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. It was a time of great changes, especially for African-American women such as Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. omen of all races had to fight for equal rights, even the right to vote (http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html).omenhave indeed 'come a long…
Women in American History. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads05.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads12.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica06.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica02.html.
A accessed 07-04-2002).
Bryson, Donna. "MOTHER TERESA LED LIFE OF HARD WORK AND LOVE DIMINUTIVE NUN NEVER WAVERED FROM HER SELF-IMPOSED MISSION TO BRING COMFORT TO THE WORLD." Denver Rocky Mountain News. September 14, 1997, pp 3A. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Denver_Rocky_Mountain_News&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~InsideDenver.com~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Donna+Bryson&title=MOTHER+TERESA+LED+LIFE+OF+HARD+WORK+AND+LOVE+DIMINUTIVE+NUN+NEVER+WAVERED+FROM+HER+SELF%2DIMPOSED+MISSION+TO+BRING+COMFORT+TO+THE+WORLD++&date=09%2D14%2D1997&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=7.(accessed07-04-2002).
Lloyd, Marion. "Nun's Sainthood effort moves fast; Callers report miracles of Mother Teresa." The Washington Times. August 28, 1999, pp A6. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=The_Washington_Times&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.washtimes.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Marion+Lloyd&title=Nun%27s+sainthood+effort+moves+fast%3B+Callers+report+miracles+of+Mother+Teresa++&date=08%2D28%2D1999&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=6 accessed 07-04-2002).
Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise by Dorothy Dinnerstein. Specifically it will discuss a major women's issue brought forth by the book. Dorothy Dinnerstein's book, 'The Mermaid and the Minotaur" rocked the feminist world when it was first published in 1976. Not only was the book controversial, it espoused some values that did not seem entirely feminist at all. In fact, the central thesis of Dinnerstein's book is that many of the gender difficulties and differences between men and women arise from the fact that a majority of children spend their early childhood under the influence and domination of women, and so, this affects our relationships throughout our lives. Many people, of course, took offense to this theory, and so, re-released in 1999, the book remains controversial and thought-provoking at the same time.
Dorothy Dinnerstein was born in 1923, the daughter of Jewish Socialist pacifists. After graduating…
Dinnerstein, Dorothy. The Mermaid and The Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise. New York: Other Press, 1999.
Easlea, Brian. "Patriarchy, Scientists, and Nuclear Warriors." Course Text. 79-89.
Griffin, Susan. "Rape: The Power of Consciousness." Course Text. 329-339.
Johnson, Allan G. "The Gender Knot: What Drives Patriarchy?" Course Text. 94-104.
This meant that men held positions of power and authority in all the public spheres including economics/business, politics/the law, and the bearing of arms. Men also possessed social status that women did not have, enabling the perpetuation of a patriarchal society.
y applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra ergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra ergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the…
By applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra Bergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra Bergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the leadership is a male-specific quality. Cather creates an overtly political novel with O Pioneer! As her protagonist single-handedly proves that women can be completely self-determined and self-reliant. This would have been a revolutionary view when Cather first published her novel.
The 1913 novel O Pioneer! By Willa Cather, one of the greatest American women writers, is a good illustration for the frontier literature in general, regardless of its political views on gender. However, Cather differentiates herself from her contemporaries and other writers in the Wild West genre, by stressing the other half of the human race: the half that is typically excluded from histories and literature alike. Cather accomplishes what Robinson comments on in "Treason Our Text," a feminist challenge to the accepted and established literary canon. The established canon of literature propagated by mainstream academia is a decidedly and unapologetically patriarchal one; that is, until the second wave of feminism (Robinson). It is therefore important to appreciate Cather's novel within her own historical context, which makes O Pioneer! truly revolutionary. Cather, although certainly not the first or only female American novelist, expands the canon of American literature by addressing the social, political, and economic worldviews from a more global and inclusive perspective, one that takes into account the lives of half of humanity. Patriarchal literature limits itself to constructing women out of stereotypes and projections of feminine ideals and mystiques; Cather simply tells it like it is (Duby, Perrot and Pantel).
The novels heroine embodies all feminine characters who disregard the complex American West during the time the novel was written. The narratives reveals out the difficulties experienced by women
Education of omen in Renaissance
Several methods relating to the education of women in Renaissance changed the world. However, these methods of Humanists and the queries of religious reformers had no impact on the lives of early modern European omen. Education, changing drastically between the 15th and 17th centuries was certainly kept from women although the rich and powerful were able to receive some education: it was not always used. Opportunities arose for the daughters of the rich and wealthy. However, the eventuality of all their efforts in education narrowed down to the typical role of a woman: a housewife. They still faced choices and challenges unique to their gender. hile some women did receive this education alongside men, the options of what to do with that education were cut severely. It is evident from the study that women did not have a Renaissance because of lack of education and…
Bell, Susan G. Women: from the Greeks to the French Revolution. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1973. Print 181-209
Rice, Eugene F., and Anthony Grafton. The foundations of early modern Europe, 1460-1559. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994. Print. 77-109
Other women, such as this slave girl, do not have any rights. On the grave is only Haegeso's father's name. In fact, this box of jewels probably represents part of the dowry Proxenos gave to his daughter's husband when she left her father's home to begin her life in her husband's. Marriages are arranged and a woman gives up all her belongings and rights when she is married. This is a patriarchal society with the woman as a second-class citizen (142).
In most cases, except for the Minoan culture, the women's status continued to decline as the culture became more structured and urban. Except for the earliest times, therefore, women have had a subservient role. This has not only been in Western society, but Eastern cultures as well. Women did not fare well in early Japan or China either. It has only been in the recent century that women have…
Kleiner, Fred S., and Mamiya, Christin. Gardner's Art through the Ages. New York: Thomson, 2005.
American History: Rights and Freedoms of Women in the 1600's
In the early 1600's the ritish King made grants of charters were granted for settlements that were to become established colonies in the New World or America. y the 1700's 13 colonies had been established namely Massachusetts, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Rhode Island. The Constitution was not yet and Freedom not yet won and the rights of women varied from area to area.
This paper intends to explore what rights women possessed in the different areas of settlement in the early America as well as the difference of women's rights in other race and cultural groups in that time period. Further to understand what freedom was held by "Free Colonial Women" as well as what motivated the white and black women of that time to either declare…
Reader's Companion: Encyclopedia of North-American Indians (nd) located [Online] available at: http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/index/html/topic/colo.htm
"Colonial History of Maryland" (nd) excerpt from: Our Country Vol.1 1800's [Online] available at:
With respect to sexual harassment claims of the quid pro quo nature, one of the most important elements of modern sexual harassment principles establishes specific vicarious liability on the part of employers for failure on the part of management to redress any complaints of sexual harassment by employees (Friedman, 2005).
In 2003, Courtney Price, an employee of the New York angers organization of the NHL sued the angers and their parent organization, Madison Square Garden, after she was fired for warning a fellow employee that a public relations executive within the organization had solicited her for sexual favors. In that case, the employer could have avoided liability by following up on the matter as soon as it came to light and disciplining the executive (Sandomir, 20071).
Instead, when the organization learned that the plaintiff had warned her coworkers to stay away from the executive in question and that her warning…
Crouse, K. (2007). Browne Sanders Is an Inspiration After Winning a Lawsuit. The New York Times; November 4, 2007. Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Finn, R. (2007). A Warrior in the Sexual Harassment Battle. The New York Times; October 26, 2007.
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2008) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies.
Honor Code of Chinese Warriors
The objective of this study is to discuss the honor code of warrior-heroes in Chinese history and to answer to what the honor code consists of and the origin of the honor code. As well, this study will examine how this honor code influenced the intentions, words, and actions of the warriors and how the honor code manifests itself in novels, how and when the codes apply and what competing visions existed in human conduct.
Wuxia is a term in Mandarin that means literally "martial arts chivalry" and is representative of a unique Chinese type of story that is dated back as far as the Tang Dynasty (681-907). Wuxia is defined by stories "that combine wushu (martial arts) tradition with deeds of heroic chivalry perfomed by men and women." (Pollard, 2011, p.1) Wuxia stories are rooted in "early youxia (?
) and cike (?
The Warrior Code (nd) China History Forum. Retrieved from: http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/31149-warrior-spirit-in-china-chinese-warrior-codes/
Hsia, C.T.C.T. Hsia on Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press, 2004 (ISBN 0231129904), pg. 149
Bordahl, Vibeke. Four Masters Of Chinese Storytelling: Full-length Repertoires Of Yangzhou Storytelling On Video. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies; Bilingual edition, 2004 (ISBN 8-7911-1464-0), pg. 166
Guth, Christine. Longfellow's Tattoos: Tourism, Collecting, and Japan. University of Washington Press (2004), p147
The legend itself tells very significant things about the Native Indian cultures in general and the Oneida culture in particular. The story offers at once hints to the heroic ideal of the Iroquois, to the cult of the female gender specific to some Native American peoples and to the metaphoric significance of the tribe's name. The most important conclusion to be derived from the analysis of the story is therefore the fact that there is a tight connection between the legend and the values and ideals specific to the Oneidas. Other versions of the arrior Maiden legend, such as the variant told by the Hopi tribe, also render the image of feminine modesty combined with spiritual strength. In the Hopi tradition, the maiden actually fights against the enemies of her people, because she is left alone at home with her mother, who at the time of the attack was just…
Erdoes, Richard and Alfonso Ortiz. American Indian Myths and Legends. New York: Pantheon Fairy Tales and Folklore Library, 1984.
Oneida Culture. Indian Country Wisconsin. http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-57.html
Oneida Culture and Language. http://www.native-languages.org/oneida.htm
Oneida Culture. Indian Country Wisconsin. http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-57.html
In some ways, the men who practice violence against women and attempt to control them to the degrees that the Taliban has decreed are simply carrying out the violence and the repression that was practiced against them; though it serves no constructive purpose and is indeed highly detrimental both to women and to the country as a whole, the Taliban's action against the women is at least partially a result of the cultural psychological repression that Afghanistan has suffered for thirty years. That, and the fact that a common enemy in women makes the Taliban that much stronger in its operations and control of the government and society as a whole, can be seen as the primary psychological motives for the Taliban's treatment of women.
Women in Islam
According to the Taliban themselves, however, their actions and attitudes towards women simply carry out strict Islamic law, and are necessary for…
Sengupta, Kim. "Abuse of Afghan women: 'It was my decision to die. I was getting beaten every day'." The Independent, 24 November 2006. Accessed 20 February 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/abuse-of-afghan-women-it-was-my-decision-to-die-i-was-getting-beaten-every-day-425580.html .
Skaine, Rosemarie. The Women of Afghanistan Under the Taliban. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
Antony and Cleopatra. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Brown, Lenora Inez. "Enter the Body: omen and Representation on Shakespeare's Stage." American Theatre. May 01, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Desmet, Christy. "omen's Matters: Politics, Gender, and Nation in Shakespeare's Early History Plays." Comparative Drama. September 22, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Hunt, Maurice. "Shakespeare's Venetian paradigm: stereotyping and Sadism in The Merchant of Venice and Othello." Papers on Language & Literature. March 22, 2003. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Julius Caesar, The Life and Death of. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Othello, The Moore of Venice. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Starks, Lisa S. "Like the lover's pinch, which hurts and is desired: The Narrative
of Male Masochism and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra." Literature and Psychology. December 22,…
Antony and Cleopatra. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Brown, Lenora Inez. "Enter the Body: Women and Representation on Shakespeare's Stage." American Theatre. May 01, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Desmet, Christy. "Women's Matters: Politics, Gender, and Nation in Shakespeare's Early History Plays." Comparative Drama. September 22, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Ironically, Apollo who preferred Troy to Greece in the Trojan ar could have saved his city. Apollo's anger resulted in his beloved city of Troy's destruction. hen Cassandra warned that the Trojan horse would bring about the destruction of Troy, no one believed her, even her own father and mother.
hat is truly tragic about Cassandra, however, is not simply that the Trojan ar results in her eventual demise -- she is taken by Agamemnon at the war's end and killed by his angry and avenging wife Clymmenstra -- but of all the character of the Trojan saga, she alone does not chose her fate. Paris chooses to abscond with Helen, and thus brings about the war. Achilles on the Greek side chooses a short life filled with glory, rather than a long and uneventful life, and thus chooses to fight in the war. But Cassandra did not even chose…
Fitton, Laura. "Cassandra: Cursed Prophetess." Art history. Images of Women. 1998. http://www.arthistory.sbc.edu/imageswomen/papers/fittoncassandra/intro.html
Parada, Carlos. "Cassandra." Greek Mythology. Accessed 12 Apr. 2005. http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/gml/cassandra.html
Sandels, V.E.K. "Cassandra." Greek Mythology: Troy. Page last modified 2004. Accessed 12 Apr 2005. http://www.in2greece.com/english/historymyth/mythology/names/cassandra.htm
Saunders, Chas & Peter Ramsey. Godchecker.com. Page last modified on 12 February 2004. Accessed 12 Apr 2005. http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/gml/cassandra.html
Many have seen her as Aeneas's counterpart, as she herself has led her people from Tyre to Carthage in an attempt to escape environmental vicissitudes. Like Aeneas, she is a true leader, a strong willed character and independent woman. Juno and Venus (the Roman counterparts of Hera and Aphrodite) manipulate them and Dido is soon seen infatuated with Aeneas, neglecting all ruling duties. She cannot change destiny and realizes this in ook IV, as she points out that "What am I saying? Where am I? What madness / Takes me out of myself? Dido poor soul, / Your evil doing has come home to you." According to ancient traditions, for a strong character such as Dido, the only possible ending is by suicide.
A comparison between Dido and Helen, both in terms of the influence they have on men and on their power to change courses in history and determine…
1. Character Analysis - Dido. On the Internet at http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-3,pageNum-53.html
2. Virgil. The Aeneid. Translated by John Dryden. Book IV.
4. Homer. The Iliad. Translated by Samuel Butler. Book II. 420-423
Queen Hatshepsut, The oman ho ould Be King
If one asks people their opinions about what characteristics describe a hero, the responses will probably vary across cultures and historical periods. Even so, there are several traits which seem to have almost universal appeal. One such trait that is frequently associated with the world's most enduring myths and legends is the depiction of a hero as someone who triumphs over obstacles. In the male-dominated civilization of ancient Greece, strong warriors were considered heroes. In the mythology of ancient Egypt, where religion was important at all levels of society, priest-magicians were often heroes. And in many cultures, women, by using their intelligence and forceful personalities to outwit their foes, came to be known as heroes ("Heroes"). Such was the case with Hatshepsut, an 18th-dynasty pharaoh who was one of only a handful of female rulers across ancient Egypt's three millennia of royal…
African Code. Queen Hatshepsut (1500B.C.) 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
Bediz, David. The Story of Hatshepsut. n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
Brown, Chip. The King Herself. 2009. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
Heroes. Myths Encyclopedia, Myths and Legends of the World, 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
Their sexual desire is as strong as their male counterparts, revealing much about the way women were viewed in ancient society. Women were not shown as chaste, innocent, or virginal. Prostitutes and single women both play major roles in the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the Odyssey. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, a prostitute transforms Enkidu completely with her sexual prowess. The power of female sexuality is explored in Homer's Odyssey too. The war hero meets and lives with several women on his way home to Penelope. Odysseus seems uniquely able to seduce women and many fall deeply in love with him: especially Calypso and Circe. Calypso and Circe are independent, unmarried women with strong sex drives.
The titular hero of Gilgamesh seems more enraptured with his burly male friend than with the females he encounters. Gilgamesh is not motivated by the love of a woman, and unlike Odysseus is…
Epic of Gilgamesh.
Black Women in White Male Industries
evise and esubmit
You have chosen in this paper a topic that has both national and international significance. How indeed inclusive, fair, and just are so called "inclusion or set-aside" initiatives? How open and accessible are the programs to new immigrants and minorities? These are all very interesting questions that your paper raises.
But you don't fully address whether or not the rational approach considers such programs to be either fair, effective, and even legitimate. Are these programs acceptable or legitimate in the eyes of a policy analyst or maker who subscribes to the rational choice perspective? Why and why not? Your paper also seems to contain a few sentences at the end that are not properly paraphrased but yet are not under quotation marks. This needs to be paraphrased or removed or quoted to avoid plagiarism.
Please find below your Paper 1 Grade…
Clemons, R., Mcbeth, M., (2001). Public Policy Praxis: A Case approach for understanding policy and analysis.
Gigerenzer, G., & Selten, R. (Eds.). (2001). Bounded rationality: The adaptive toolbox. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gigerenzer, Gerd. (2001). Decision-Making: Nonrational Theories, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 3304 -- 3309
Miller, G. (2004). Frontier Masculinity in the oil industry: The experience of women engineers. Gender, Work & Organization, 11(1): 47-73.
I do not mind that Shu can ask questions about the novel such as, "hy were Chinese-American businesses separated from the mainstream economy? hy didn't working class immigrant women like herself get any adequate training for the workforce?" (Shu); however, I do not think that it is fair to criticize the novel because these questions are not answered according to Shu's expectations. These are important questions to ask but the novel does not set itself up to answer these questions and should be read as the work of art it was intended to be rather than an historically accurate piece.
I do agree with Shu on the idea, "Kingston combines stories from different sources in Chinese history and culture. She constructs the woman warrior as one who both fulfills her filial obligations to her family and village and cherishes her own dream of love and the world of success" (Shu).…
Shu, Yuan. "Cultural Politics and Chinese-American Female Subjectivity: Rethinking Kingston's Woman Warrior." Melus. 2001. Site Accessed November 16, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
In Kingston's more feminine rendering of identity, although she resists the ideals of silence and sexual repression, she accepts the idea that women have more permeable boundaries of selfhood and stronger ties to their family in the telling of her text.
Both works point to the inexorability of the past, especially for individuals of ethnic or racial minorities who consider themselves 'other.' Obama is 'other' because of his multiethnic heritage that alienates him from parents as well as friends, and because of the Americanness that separates him from his father. Kingston sees herself as Chinese, but female in a culture as well as a nation that mistrusts this aspect of a woman's self. Both make claims to how their lives speak for other lives -- Obama explicitly with his overly political narration, and his determination to use his struggle as fuel for success as an advocate of community enfranchisement, Kingston…
Kingston, Hong Maxine. The Woman Warrior. Vintage, 1989
Obama, Barak. Dreams from my Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance.
Three Rivers Press, 2004.
Ghosts in Two Novels
Immigration can be a painful and to a certain extent puzzling experience for those who leave behind a culture, which was starkly different from the one, they encountered upon immigration. We have heard and read numerous tales of immigration and related problems and thus there have been numerous books on the subject and some of them have left an indelible impression on reader's mind. Two such books, which we shall discuss in this paper are "The woman warrior" and "How Garcia Girls lost their accents" written by Maxine Kingston and Julia Alvarez respectively. In the first novel, which is part fiction and part autobiography, author has described her experience as an immigrant in the United States with reference to her native culture and its restrictions. In the second novel, we come across immigration problems of a Latin American family. While ethnicity, racism and cultural differences are…
Jerry Berrios, IMMIGRANT FINDS HER VOICE IN GAP BETWEEN CULTURES., The Arizona Republic, 11-01-1998, pp. E14.
Alvarez, Julia, How the Garcia girls lost their accents, Plume Publishers, 1990
Maxine Hong Kingston, The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 1991.
The struggle with tradition and one's personal history comes to the forefront in two other family memoirs, Ayaan Hirsi Ali's Infidel and Maxine Hong Kingston's the Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. In the case of the former, Ali is thrust into exile because of her unwillingness to conform to her parents' expectations of what is proper for a woman in her native culture. Maxine Hong Kingston experiences similar issues, although the consequences for her are far less extreme.
In my analysis of the issues outlined above, I intend to show how all three writers transform the personal into the political, effectively establishing that the most minute, particular happenings in our lives can indeed have universal implications.
Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage ooks, 1975.
Walls, Jeannette. The…
Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage Books, 1975.
Walls, Jeannette. The Glass Castle. New York: Scribner, 2006.
Death of a Salesman" by Arthur Miller, and "The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts" by Maxine Hong Kingston. Specifically, it will discuss conflict between generations and the "American Dream" in the two works. Both of these works clearly show the conflict between generations that often results from differing views of the "American Dream," the dream that is so elusive to so many of us.
Author Kingston's story is fact, rather than fiction, but the generational differences between her and her mother are still apparent. She remembers, "We'd have to face four- and five-day-old leftovers until we ate it all. The squid eye would keep appearing at breakfast and dinner until eaten. Sometimes brown masses sat on every dish. I have seen revulsion on the faces of visitors who've caught us at meals" Kingston 108). Her life is far different from her mother's, and she is firmly entrenched…
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage International, 1976.
Miller, Arthur. "Death of a Salesman." Masters of Modern Drama. Haskell M. Block and Robert G. Shedd, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1962.
Gertrude Stein, The Gentle Lena
The most obvious thing about this story was that nothing really happened. At the start, continually reading about the "patient, gentle, sweet and german" Lena and her "peaceful life" I was expecting there to be some twist to the story, perhaps with Lena snapping and becoming something other than patient, gentle and sweet. However, this twist did not come, which is probably what makes the story work so well. It is a simple and sad story about a life lived without consequence. Having Lena resolve the situation in some way, would not be true to the story, since any action would mean Lena's life did have some meaning.
Overall, it is a story of a woman accepting her life without questioning it. Lena does not appear either content or happy, instead it is more like she is numb. This is emphasized by the fact that…
Shakespeare's Sister," and Maxine Hong Kingston's story, "No Name oman," reveal the theme of silencing women within literature, resurrection by the female author, while the lives of the authors' provide a dramatic contrast to the suppression of women depicted in their works. Ultimately, female writers like Hong Kingston are the fulfillment of oolf's dream for Shakespeare's sister, and represent the death of the tradition of silencing women's voices within the estern world.
The Silencing of omen Depicted in oolf and Hong Kingston
oolf's essay, "Shakespeare's Sister" is a clear portrait of the silencing of women by larger society. ithin "Shakespeare's Sister," Virginia oolf describes the fictional life of Judith, the sister of Shakespeare. She begins this analysis by noting the lack of women's presence in either history books or within literature. rites oolf, "what I find deplorable, I continued, looking about the bookshelves again, is that nothing is known about…
Cross, Edwina Peterson. 2003. Shakespeare's Sister. Outback Online. Made in Australia Advent Cross. 05 May 2004. http://www.outbackonline.net/Advent%20Calendar/Cross_ShakespeareSister.asp
Ling, Amy. Maxine Hong Kingston (b. 1940). Houghton Mifflin Company. 05 May 2004. http://college.hmco.com/english/heath/syllabuild/iguide/kingston.html
Kingston, Maxine Hong. No Name Woman. The Modern World. 05 May 2004. http://www.cis.vt.edu/modernworld/d/kingston.html
Ockerbloom, Mary Mark, Editor. 2000. Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) - in full Adeline Virginia Woolf, original surname Stephen.
Andre Lorde "Beams" Explication
In Audres poem "Beams" she suggests that the process of aging and the loss of the vigor youth is something that cannot be halted. The poem expresses the sadness and loss of innocence that results from the perception of aging. It also expresses her sense of nostalgia and loss at the passing years and lost opportunities. The poem describes the poet's desire and efforts to regain the exuberance of youth. A number of poetic techniques are used in the poem. Imagery is used extensively to express the intention of the poet. Rhythm is also used as a means of enhancing meaning. One of the central devices used in the poem is word usage or diction; where various words can have double or ambiguous meanings.
The first two lines of the first section introduce images and content that relate to the past as well as to the…
Film Analysis orksheet Karmen Gei / ednesday October 14, 2015
Joseph Gai Ramaka, 2001
Mode (for instance, adaptation)
Adopted from novel; influenced by Carmen.
Approximate time code (beg. -- end.) of selected scene
Title or brief description of sequence
Opening dance scene
Number of shots in selected sequence
hat happens, at the level of plot or narration, in this sequence?
As a musical sequence, it sets the tone for the film and introduces the audience to the main character and the overarching themes including sexuality and the cultural constraints upon women of color. The dancer seduces a female prison guard into dancing, and when that happens, the entire group of women express their joy through their bodies.
hat role does this sequence play within the larger action of the film (e.g. rising action, climax, turning point, exposition, character development, motifs, patterns, etc.)?
This scene is critical…
Works cited. Think about and list some specific types of outside sources that may be helpful in your analysis (i.e., historical information, other literary texts, etc.)
Sources include references to the role of women in Senegalese society, including articles that show that Senegalese women are often asserting their identities and power: http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/08/africa/gallery/yz-yseult-the-women-warriors-of-senegal/
Similarly, this United Nations website discusses the role of women in Senegalese society: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15857&LangID=E
16b) Which specific outside sources will you use (based on the information above)? Do you have specific quotations, paraphrases, etc. already identified? What are they?
The CNN article offers messages of hope and empowerment like those given in the film, whereas the United Nations website is more realistic in detailing the daily lives of women in Senegal, where "strong socio-cultural and legal constraints continue to stand in the way of the achievement of gender equality."
However, she is no bloodless female, absent of sexuality, despite her resistance of Apollo. In this respect, Wolf does update her story -- rather than a virgin or a sexless prophetess, Cassandra does have a relationship with Aeneas. She loves this hero with the ardor of a young woman, calling him the soul of Troy. But because he is a man, unlike Cassandra, Aeneas can master history and triumph. The admiration of Aeneas indicates the verisimilitude Wolf brings to her tale -- Cassandra has emotions and feelings, rather than simply spouts words, as in Agamemnon.
Wolf also interjects anecdotes into the story to make it more clearly told with Trojan eyes such as the Trojan's allegation that Helen was abducted because Priam's sister Hesione's eloped with a Spartan. Again, this underlines Wolf's theme of women as pawns and spoils of war -- it does not matter what Helen or Hesione…
Queen of Sheba
Makeda, also known as the Queen of Sheba was a monarch in the ancient kingdom of Sheba; she is refered to in the Habeshan history, the New Testament, the Hebrew Bible and also the Qur'an. Other than these four sources, there are no evidences of her existence. The current location of her kingdom now is assumed to be in Yemen (Korotayev).
She is known to the Ethiopian people now as Makeda or Maqueda; throughout different sources, her name varies and she is called different things by different people during different times. Most of Black history has been suppressed throughout time, it has also been widely distorted or ignored by the modern world (Korotayev). However, there are some African traditions are so persistent that all of the power and deception of the estern academic establishment have failed to stamp them out. One of these is the story which…
Comay, Joan and Ronald Brownrigg. Who's Who in the Bible:The Old Testament and the Apocrypha, The New Testament. (New York: Wing Books, 1993). pp. 351.
Jones, David E., Women Warriors: A History, Brasseys, Inc. (2000).
Hansberry, W.L. And Johnson, E.H. "Part V: Africa's Golden Past: Queen of Sheba's true identity confounds historical research," Ebony (magazine). 1965 p. 136.
Andrey Korotayev. Ancient Yemen. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Psychological aspects of combat
Extreme high-stress incidents can trigger a number of possible experiences and responses including intrusive thoughts slow-motion time, sharper focus, dissociation, visual clarity and temporary paralysis. The occurrence of 'dissociation,' which is a disconnection from emotional and physical reality, might be a sign of danger for the start of post traumatic disorder or PTSD. One of the common and seldom discussed matters is the loss of bowel and bladder control that occurs during intense moments and it's also used as an exemplification by Grossman of the reluctance that people feel in talking about their natural reaction towards the fight against their condition (Grossman and Christensen, 2007).
According to some studies, there were far number of psychiatric calamities as compared to the physical casualties during the Second World War. 98 per cent of the individuals participating in the war would emotionally breakdown after no more than 60 continuous…
Grossman, D. And Christensen, L.W. (2007). On Combat: The Psychology and Physiology of Deadly Conflict in War and Peace. 2nd ed. PPCT Research Publications. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bksum/grossman-on-combat
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer S.C., McGurk, D. Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa040603#t=articleTop
Litz, B.T. (2006). A Brief Primer on the Mental Health Impact of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.ne.gov/pdfs/impact-of-the-wars-in-afghanistan-iraq.pdf
Williamson, V. And Mulhall, E. (2009). Invisible Wounds: Psychological and Neurological Injuries Confront a New Generation of Veterans. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans of America. Retrieved from: http://iava.org/files/IAVA_invisible_wounds_0.pdf
Amy Tan and Maxine Hong Kingston both compose fiction through the lenses of gender and ethnicity. Both authors use symbolism, imagery, and rhetorical strategies to provide unique insight into Asian American experiences and identity. Likewise, both Tan and Kingston show how gender impacts their self-concept and status within the overarching patriarchal society. Their work can and should be read concurrently to best appreciate the gamut, diversity, and breath of the Asian-American female experience. Although Tan and Kingston naturally have different perspectives based on their own personal experiences and also on their different social and political goals, these two authors share much in common in terms of their elucidation of how racism and patriarchy intersect in American society.
Amy Tan’s most famous work is likely The Joy Luck Club, which focuses on mother-daughter relationships within the Chinese American subculture. The emphasis on mother-daughter relationships stresses the significance of gender to identity…
omen in Ancient Tragedy and Comedy
Both the drama of Euripides' "Medea" and the comedy of Aristophanes' "Lysistrata" seem unique upon a level of even surface characterization, to even the most casual students of Classical Greek drama and culture. Both in are female-dominated plays that were produced by male-dominated societies and written by men. Both the drama and the comedy features strong women as their central protagonists, whom are depicted under extreme circumstances, in relatively positive lights. And both plays, despite their very different tones, also have an additional, unique feature in that they show 'the enemy' -- or the non-Greek or non-Athenian, in a fairly positive and humane fashion.
The sympathies of the viewer for female's plights are immediately arisen by Aristophanes from the first scene of "Lysistrata," as Cleonice, the friend of Lysistrata, and a common Athenian housewife states, regarding the lateness of the other women that frustrates…
Arkins, Brian. "Sexuality in Fifth-Century Athens." Ancient History: Journal of University College Dublin, Ireland, Volume 1: 1994. http://ancienthistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.ucd.ie/%7Eclassics/94/Arkins94.html
Aristophanes. "Lysistrata." Retrieved on 6 November 2004 from Exploring World Cultures Website, 1997. http://m3.doubleclick.net/875354/freeze10012004.html
Euripides. "Medea." MIT Classics Archive, 2001. Retrieved on 6 November 1997 at http://classics.mit.edu/Euripides/medea.html
Hemminger, Bill. "Why Study Ancient World Cultures?" Retrieved on 6 November 2004 from Exploring World Cultures Website, 1997.
Women Status Contemporary India
The Status and ole of Women in Contemporary India
The women in contemporary India have a very significant role as they fulfill crucial responsibilities in almost every sector including family life, agricultural development and industrial development. However, it is unfortunate that such contributions have remained mostly indistinguishable to the planners and policy makers due to which the Indian women have always experienced an unstable status in the country. Even in this modern era of science and technology, women in India are still considered a disadvantaged group as there has been no change in the conventional structure of society as well as cultural and moral standards (Chakrapani and Kumar, 1994).
In addition, a majority of women are still unaware of the social laws that have been designed to alleviate the problems women face in the society. As a consequence, distressed situations influence Indian women more than Indian…
Berman, B.J., Bhargava, R., & Laliberte?, A. (2013). Secular States and Religious Diversity. Vancouver: UBC Press. Print.
Chakrapani, C., & Kumar, S.V. (1994).Changing Status and Role of Women in Indian Society. New Delhi: MD Publications. Print.
Chowdhuri, J.P. (2012). Caste System, Social Inequalities and Reservation Policy in India: Class, Caste, Social Policy and Governance Through Social Justice. Saarbru-cken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing. Print.
Jain, T.R., & Ohri, V.K. (2006). Indian Economy: Issues in Economic Development and Planning in India and Sectoral Aspects of Indian Economy. New Delhi: V.K. Publications. Print.
However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.
On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…
Coerver, Don M.. Suzanne B. Pasztor and Robert Buffington. Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history Santa Barber, CA: ABC-Clio.
Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 no. 4 (1995): 525-553.
King, Benjamin. "Iconography and Stereotype: Visual Memory of the Soldaderas" http://www.umich.edu/~historyj/pages_folder/articles/Iconography_and_Stereotype.pdf (Accessed May 3, 2010)
Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982
Dark Age and the Archaic Age
Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…
Despite these omens, Noisi was killed, along with his brothers. The subsequent death of Noisi and his brothers at Conchobhar's hand resulted in Deirdre's decision to commit suicide as a result of her sorrows and the sorrows she caused for Ulster and the Red Branch.
Thus, feminine beauty, sorrow, suicide, and military war are all conjoined in this tale. But even though beauty results in the death of a great warrior and the loss of Noisi to Conchobar's forces, if the King of Ulster had not ignored the prophesy regarding Deirdre, the sorrowful end of the tale would not have transpired and resulted in the death of such great warriors. Thus, kings as well as women are to blame, if not more so, in this tale, for ignoring the portents of fate. Not even kings are absolved from the need to respect omens, fate, and foretelling. Although Conchobar is described…
Caldecott, Morya. Women in Celtic Myth. New York: Destiny Books, 1993, pp.139-152.
Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…
1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.
3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.
4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.
Humanities 202 FINAL EXAM
Emilia: the wife of Iago. She provides the handkerchief for her husband, unwittingly facilitating Iago's orchestrated revenge upon Othello. However, she sympathizes with Desdemona, regarding all men as savages. She represents the ugly side of Iago's view of women, as there are hints Iago has abused her and he openly treats her cruelly when she irritates him -- eventually he kills her when she reveals his scheme.
Roderigo: a commoner who foolishly and hopelessly loves Desdemona, and stupidly trusts Iago. Like Othello, he also is desperate to advance in society and subject to the green-eyed monster of jealousy over a woman. Like Iago he is also jealous of those of more military advancement than himself.
Cassio: Michael Cassio is the man who Othello promotes to lieutenant rather than Iago at the beginning of the play. He is handsome and dashing, even though he is less experienced…
Ladies and Gentleman
Ladies and Gentlemen
Ladies & Gentlemen
Ladies & Gentlemen
Ladies & Gentlemen
Current essay is a survey report. The author surveyed 10 men and women about the image of a perfect lady and a perfect gentleman as described in the book "The Courtier" by Characteristics of a gentleman
In describing the excellent courtier in her book "The Courtier" Castiglione has discussed the characteristic of a perfect gentleman. In the book the perfect gentleman has been portrayed as cool minded, having good voice, using good, elegant and brave words as well as appropriate manners and gestures. The perfect gentleman should also possess a warrior spirit, be athletic and should keep good knowledge of humanities, fine arts and classics. The debate of perfect gentleman revolves around the aspects of humor, nobility, women and love. Amongst the several qualities discussed for a perfect gentleman the most discussed in the book…
Catiglione, Baldesar. (2002). The Book of the Courtier, trans. Charles Singleton, ed. Daniel Javitch. New York: W.W.Norton, 2002
Wayne, R. (1993). "Baldesar Castiglione, Thomas Wilson, and the Courtly Body of Renaissance Rhetoric." Rhetorica 11 (3): 241 -- 274.
Saccone, Eduardo (1987). "The Portrait of the Courtier in Castiglione." Italica64 (1): 1 -- 18.
Artistic Analysis of "The Weeping Woman": A Plan to Develop a New Work
The meaning of artistic work continues to evolve to mold into new forms and shapes. The current sociological and economic developments are significantly influencing the artistic creations. Women have the power in the society, and, therefore, they have the freedom to do jobs, own businesses, and at a personal level, they now possess the option of sexual orientation. The modern era remained quite merciful towards women who had a role of sexual slaves in the past. The omans along with the Greeks considered the females as toys that had a function of providing comfort to warriors. Females were responsible for taking care of domestic chores, and they had no right of receiving payments against their services. However, males identified and treated them as trophies, and they collected them according to their level of bravery in the battlefield.…
Barnes, M., Davis, A., & Rogers, H. (2006). Women's voices, Women's choices: Experiences and creativity in consulting women users of mental health services. Journal of Mental Health 15 (3), 329-341.
Gonzalez-Ruibal, A. (2007). Making things public: Archaeologies of the Spanish Civil War. Public Archaeology Vol 6 (4), 203-226 .
Picasso, P (1937).The Weeping Woman . Tate. Tate Modern, London.
Old Western Frontier -- the Pervasiveness of the Western Frontier Hero in the American Imagination
The heroic American national character and the search for an ungoverned American frontier are fused in the America national imagination. America envisions itself as a wide-open place, rather than a contained place of tradition like Europe. America is seen in the natural cultural mythos as an area of limitless expansion. Thus, there are little consequences for the environment because of capitalism and industrialism, because national resources are never-ending. Resettlement of natives and immigrants is of little consequence, because there is so much land. And all restrictive laws regarding the use and abuse of land, people, and morality are seen impingements and infringements upon the ability of masculine commerce and the American spirit to realize their fullest potentials.
The frontier is also a place for and of men, where women are encroachers, never at home. The…
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The religion of Islam is very misunderstood and pervasively skewed within its true meaning and original intent by extremists in the Islamic society. Never did the prophet intend that the abuses and oppression which today's Muslim women suffer should occur. It is the conclusion of this writer that extremists exist in all religions and these are those who garner the most attention and receive the most press however, those who are moderate and who adhere to the true beliefs and meaning of the Islamic religions receive little attention and little press and even littler in the way of chances to convey the truth of this religion to the world. The abuses and oppression will continue however, it is hopeful that the ignorance surrounding the Muslim religion will eventually lose out to better dissemination of information and to more intelligent reporting backed by diligent investigation of the facts.…
Soares, Claire (2009) Delara Darabi: 'Oh Mother, I Can See The Noose'. The Independent UK. 4 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/delara-darabi-oh-mother-i-can-see-the-noose-1678543.html
Zahra, Sadaf (2005) Women in Pakistan -- Victims of the Social and Economic Desecration" In Defense of Marxism. 10 Oct 2005. online available at: http://www.marxist.com/women-pakistan-victims-of-desecration.htm
Ahmed, L. (1993) Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate
Yale University Press, 1993
... Paents' expectations had a stong and positive diect effect on adolescents' expectations and indiect effects though school-based paental involvement and though students' high school involvement. (Tusty, 2002)
All in all, Afican-Ameican gils appeaed to be positively influenced in almost evey measue of achievement, if those desiable behavios wee einfoced by positive goup inteactions. Such a study pesents clea evidence that the psychology of the goup, and the assumptions made by society, play a lage and significant ole in shaping oppotunities fo Afican-Ameican women. Those who do not have the suppot of thei families, fiends, and educatos, will not eceive the encouagement necessay to make the pope choices in egad to caee. They will not pusue the education that is equied fo advancement to positions with highe eanings potential. Even moe likely, lacking sufficient encouagement, young Afican-Ameican gils will find themselves locked into unfulfilling "caees" that bing little in the…
references for Job Attributes Associated with Work and Family: A Longitudinal Study of Career Outcomes. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(5-6), 303+.
Phillips, S.D., & Imhoff, a.R. (1997). Women and Career Development: A Decade of Research. 31+.
Trusty, J. (2002). African-Americans' Educational Expectations: Longitudinal Causal Models for Women and Men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 332+.
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a, b_27.16)." In Heilbrunn Timeline
of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.
November 15, 2010.
Jacking, male, stated, "We know the kick-ass ladies really exist, and they are increasing." Twisted Soul, like all interview subjects, mentioned the prevalence of females in the martial arts. All subjects did acknowledge that female action heroes are less common than male ones, but at the same time, both males and females could name at least one real-life active heroine.
The most avid viewer of Tarantino's Kill Bill was, in fact, a woman. Helena Yip, who studies martial arts, saw Kill Bill twice "for the sake of reviving it." She especially appreciated "the power, the female power...that strong female characters kick ass." Yip compared the Bride to Chyna, a real life professional wrestler who has not only won championships against other women but also against other men. "She became equal with the male wrestlers...as a female I feel so gratifying," (sic). TKDavid, a male reflected Helena's values. Regarding the character…
Ladies and Gentleman
Cultures change dramatically over time, and thus how we view different cultural and societal roles have also changed. In a modern context, where women are fighting for greater equality, what is considered gentlemanlike and ladylike has evolved since the time of Baldassare Castiglione's The Courtier. Although some elements remain relatively similar when comparing a modern idea of what a gentleman is, there are a number of clear distinctions that have changed dramatically.
Castiglione's The Courtier presents a very clear and defined sense of what it was like to be a gentleman and lady back in the 1500s, when it was written. Published in 1528, the work outlines both the characteristics of a gentleman, or courtier, and a perfect lady written in the style of fictional conversations. From this description, a character type can be generated, which can then be tested against the more modern connotation of gentleman…
Castiglione, Baldassarre. (1903). The Book of the Courtier. C. Scribner's Sons.
Reed, Austin. (2010). What do women expect of a 'modern gentleman'? Newslite. Web. http://newslite.tv/2010/09/30/what-do-women-expect-of-a-mode.html
Sayre, Henry M. (2011). Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change. Volume 1. Pearson Education, Limited.
As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).
In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…
American Health Information Management Association. (2012). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ American_Health_Information_Management_Association' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>