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While this paper may be just a scratch on the surface of what can prove to be a rich and engaging area of new research on women in leadership, it reveals that either way women still has the choice on which path to take. Neither path is easy though the struggle may be in different arenas. And while advocates for the further progress of women to reach top leadership positions in business, politics, the academe or elsewhere outside the home call for changes in perceptions and attitudes on women in general, there may also be a need to rethink how men and women view family life and see its significance in nation building. The danger, however, lies in the sad fact that our minds have been too steeped with the poison of viewing family and domestic life as inferior to anything else outside the home, thus further isolating other women…
Axelrod, Ruth. (2008). Women's Leadership Learning: Using Psychosocial Development Theory to Inform Practice. A PowerPoint Presentation.
Catalyst. (2007). The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don't. New York: Catalyst.
Catalyst. (2006). 2005 Catalyst Census of Women Corporate Officers and Top Earners of Fortune 500. New York: Catalyst.
International Labour Organization. (2004). Breaking through the Glass Ceiling. Women in Management. Geneva: International Labour Organizational.
In the first instance, the research undertaken on this topic has attempted to be as inclusive as possible. To this end databases such as Ebscohost and Quesia were consulted for up-to-date sources and data. However the research was also limited to the ideas and objectives suggested in chapter one. The following review is indicative of the some of the most important studies within the parameter of the central questions to be addressed.
The situation of women in leadership roles
The theme of female empowerment, the status of women and gender equality are significant issues in the world today. There have been dramatic changes in the past century with regard to the position of women in the workplace and in leadership. It is now generally acknowledged that leadership is a gender -- free concept. However, at the same time there are still very real differences between the genders in terms of…
Afkhami M. wt al. A LEADERSHIP TRAINING HANDBOOK for WOMEN. Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://www.learningpartnership.org/docs/engltcmanual.pdf
AH, E. (2007, March). Female leadership advantage and disadvantage: resolving the contradictions. Journal of Psychology of Women Quarterly. Retrieved February 14, 2010, from EBSCOdatabase.
Anonymous . Gender Negotiations. (2009, November 13). Forward, p. 10. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from Ethnic NewsWatch (ENW). (Document ID: 1909613591).
Ascher, W., & Hirschfelder-Ascher, B. (2005). Revitalizing Political Psychology: The Legacy of Harold D. Lasswell. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
). Lever suggests that sexist ideas, among both women and men, come from "omnipresent cultural messages" (Hally Z.). These messages suggest that women are excellent caregivers, but that men are good leaders. As such, "any woman stepping out of her area of expertise, such as by taking on the job of manager, president, or CEO, is viewed with suspicion" (Hally Z.).
To overcome the perception that women are not good leaders, they must often take on, and even exaggerate, masculine traits like toughness and selfishness. For example, Margaret Thatcher, former British Prime Minister, was often seen as tougher than many of her male counterparts. Since masculine traits are seen as unnatural for women, women who are tough and assertive are often seen as "*****y" or emasculating. Unfortunately, women leaders who choose not to be tough or assertive are seen as weak or ineffective (Hally Z.) as a result, women leaders…
Hally Z. Women Still Viewed as Unqualified for Leadership Roles. Accessed May 27, 2008.
Published Mar 07, 2007. www.associatedcontent.com/article/170695/women_still_viewed_as_unqualified_for.html?cat=3
Lips, Hilary M. Women and Leadership: The Delicate Balancing Act. (2007). Radford University. Accessed May 27, 2008. http://www.womensmedia.com/new/Lips-Hilary-Women-as-Leaders.shtml
Moneyzine.com. Women in Leadership Roles. Accessed May 27, 2008. http://www.money-zine.com/Career-Development/Leadership-Skill/Women-in-Leadership-Roles/
History of Women in Leadership oles in the U.S. MILITAY
Women in military in the evolutionary and Civil wars
Since the revolutionary periods of the war, women took center stage positions in leadership roles. This was unlike earlier periods, when they had to have disguises for them to serve alongside men in the military (Taber, 2011). During these times, the acceptance of women into military only permitted them into auxiliary positions. The reason for that was that the methods and weapons for war did not suit the female gender; however, as situations changed the warfare front had to incorporate women into more challenging positions. There was the realization of no importance held by gender on the battlefield, and women begun receiving leadership positions within the military in United States (Fredriksen, 1999).
In periods of the Mexican, Civil and revolutionary wars, remarkably few women got involved in combat. These women had…
Alfonso, K.L. (2010). Femme Fatale 2010. Air & Space Power Journal, 24(3), 59.
Bloom, M. (2011). Bombshells: Women and Terror. Gender Issues, 28(1/2), 1. doi:10.1007/s12147-011-9098-z
Fredriksen, J.C. (1999). American military leaders: From colonial times to the present. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. Print.
Haritos-Fatouros, M., Zimbardo, P., Stoltzfus, N., Fotopoulou, M., & Dikaiou, M. (2010). PTSD and female military returnees from Iraq and Afghanistan: What does the evidence tell us?. Journal Of U.S.-China Public Administration, 7(8), 80-85.
Leadership: Enhancing Lessons Experience
According to Johnson, & Giorgis (2002), Leadership is the process in which an individual influences actions of others towards common goals, Formulates policies, strategies, and influence people towards achievement of the same strategies. Over the past decades, various changes in the world have led to various definitions of leadership. The fall of the Soviet Union, globalization and various advances have changed the world we knew. A woman in leadership positions is a new phenomenon; various leadership trainings are available, and leadership as a skill is now an asset for professionals. For African Universities to ensure knowledge transfer and observing millennium development goals, a good leadership structure is essential. A leader has exception skills and acts outrageously to situations (Padam, 2009).
Scholars have advanced various theories on leadership. Leaders' Individual personal attributes beat explains the trait theory, when one looks closely at Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler it…
Johnson, N.J., & Giorgis, C. (2002). Leadership. The Reading Teacher, 56(3), 315-316. Retrieved from http:/ / proquest.com/docview/203276035
Padam, S. (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice. South Asian Journal of Management, 16(3), 136-137. Retrieved from http://.proquest.com/docview/222728386
Ilgen, D.R., Hollenbeck, J.R., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). TEAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517-543. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205830055
Hanson, K., & Leautier, F. (2011). Enhancing institutional leadership in african universities: Lessons from ACBS's interventions. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 7(2), 385-417. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20425961201000040
omen in Higher Education
Describe ways in which female college students in the era from 1920 to 1945 influence the present generation of female college students.
It would not be unreasonable to refer to women in the 1920 -- 1930 window of time in American history as pathfinders. Professor Mary McComb explains that in 1930 women workers and students "were perceived as larger threats" than in previous era; indeed, the "new women" in the 1930s received "a fair share of scorn" by pursuing higher education and entering the workforce in substantial numbers (McComb, 2006). But women did not back down. By competing with men for jobs, the female college student of the 1930s was "more suspect…" then her predecessors, and yet she marched forward with dreams and goals that were part of the "American Dream" (McComb, 2006).
In the 1930s women made up about 50% of the American workforce, McComb…
Bank, B.J. (2003). Contradictions in Women's Education: Traditionalism, Careerism, and Community at a Single-sex College. New York: Teachers College Press.
Carreon, S., Cassedy, A., Borman, K., and Dubeck, P.J. (2013). Women and Work: A
Handbook. Florence, KY: Routledge Publishing.
McComb, M.C. (2006). Great Depression and the Middle Class: Experts, Collegiate Youth
Women of today have come along way because society has recognized that they have voices as well as men do. From the entire world, women have maintained their place due to the new customs that have arisen over the years. They have been able to go vote and work, which puts them as equals with men For example, South Korea; there is a female president instead of a make. Therefore, women have overcome the stereotypes that society has created from sixty years ago. No matter what country or culture women are in, it has been proven during the last two decades they are no longer inferior when it comes to being equals with men. In other words, regardless of what society throws at women, they become stronger and more powerful every day.
In Mexico, Mexicans place a high value on family and traditional values. lthough women make up an increasingly…
Along with India, South Korea has build up support for women so that they can be equal. The Korean Women's Development Institute or KWDI was established in 1983 to promote women's social participation and welfare by carrying out research and studies on women, by providing education and training for women, and by assisting women's activities. A law passed by the Korean National Assembly in 1982 mandates the KWDI to assist government in popularizing gender consciousness, as well as in promoting gender equality in policy formulation and implementation. Originally under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and then under the Ministry of Political Affairs, KWDI is now being coordinated by the Special Committee on Women's Affairs directly under the Office of the President (South Korea).
KWDI has three anchor programs, namely; the Research Center, the Lifelong Education Center, and the Women's Information Center. The Research Center carries out basic research and policy studies to promote gender consciousness in various fields of society and life as well as to formulate and implement policies that supports gender equality. The Lifelong Education Center provides gender consciousness education, women's leadership training, women's capacity development, and training of international experts. It also hosts international activities, and acts as a comprehensive assistance center for women's non-formal education. Last but not the least, the Women's Information Center produces and distributes information about the research and projects of the KWDI, as well as information about women's issues and concerns. It systematizes and computerizes various kinds of women's information through databases, and provides information service through its library, various publications, and its nation-wide electronic information network (South Korea). Therefore, women in South Korea have become very strong and determined without the help with men which only means they are growing more powerful every day.
In that case, women in most societies were denied some of the legal and political rights accorded to men. Although women in much of the world have gained significant legal rights, many people believe that women still do not have complete political, economic, and social equality with men. In South Korea, through AWORC, the KWDI hopes to share its resource and library holdings to women outside of South Korea, and to make resource and information generated by women's organizations and institutes accessible to the communities it serves. Throughout each countrywomen are becoming more self-made and the only people that they rely on themselves.
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
omen in American History
The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.
omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth
One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…
Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.
Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .
Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
Women in Judaism: An Evolving Role in Religion and Society
Many laymen to Judaism look inward into the religion and view Jewish women as oppressed, their lives and choices dictated to them by the men who surround them. From rabbis to husbands to the ible itself, the belief has generally been that women have been essentially inferior to men since the dawn of the religion centuries ago. However, in taking a contemporary view toward women in Judaism, and in marking the significant strides that the sex has made throughout the centuries, one can immediately see that all it takes to understand the power and respect that Jewish women afford themselves is merely to take a closer look. In viewing the changes and struggles that Jewish women have been through throughout the centuries as well as taking a strictly-religious view in understanding the way Jewish people view God to have made…
Bernbaum, Tova. (2011). "The Curse of Eve." A Jewish Perspective on Women in Society. Web.
Retrieved from: http://www.chabad.org/theJewishWoman/article_cdo/aid/90765 / jewish/The-Curse-of-Eve.htm. [Accessed on 28 November 2012].
Fishelov, David. (2010). "Biblical Women in World and Hebrew Literature." Jewish Women's
Archive. Web. Retrieved from: http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/biblical-women-in-world-and-hebrew-literature [Accessed on 28 November 2012].
Women in Business
Key Qualities Women Must Possess for Success in the Business World
One of the most important qualities that women must possess for success in the business world is the knowledge and self-confidence that they are equally capable of performing well as any male in the same position. Generally, self-confidence and self-efficacy in general are necessary elements to success and women typically face more obstacles than men do in that regard, largely because of some cultural biases based in a long previous history of chauvinistic beliefs and expectations in society (Halbert & Ingulli, 2009).
Changes in Modern Business Attributable to Women in Management Positions
One of the more important changes in modern business that is attributable to more women in positions of management is that any prevailing or residual male chauvinism is reduced for every woman who achieves positions of leadership within organizations because of the opportunity to…
Halbert, T. & Ingulli, E. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Maxwell, J.C. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Rules of Leadership. Atlanta: Maxwell
Physiological effects are also a give away when we think of the effects of substance abuse. For instance, it has been noted that women have higher chances of developing liver disease, brain and heart damage than men even if their period of drinking is lesser than their male counterparts. A link between breast cancer and alcohol abuse was also found (National Women's Health eport Online, 2007).
Treatment-wise, it was noted that women who struggle with substance-related problems do not have accessible services and resources. There is also a need to "develop training curriculum for workers on the issues of domestic violence..." (Institute for Women's Leadership, n.d., pp. 3-4) as domestic violence often leads to substance abuse as it is used by women as coping mechanism to such kind of marital difficulties (NCADV, 2009). The method of "intervention" or other forms of therapy which are confrontational in nature are also problematic…
Califano, J.A. Jr. (1998). Substance Abuse and Addiction - the Need to Know. American Journal of Public Health, 1, pp. 9-10.
Chih-Hung, K. et al. (2006). Tridimensional Personality of Adolescents With Internet Addiction and Substance Use Experience. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(14), pp. 887-894.
Diaza, D. (2009). Women and Substance Abuse. Retrieved from www.womeningovernment.org/policies_publications/policy-issues/women-and-substance-abuseonMarch 14.
Estronaut (1999). Women and Substance Abuse. Retrieved from www.estronaut.com/a/women_substance_abuse_drugs_alcohol.htm. onMarch 14.
Leadership Training and Its elationship to Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, and Problem Solving Skills among Youth
Transformational leadership remains a critical phenomenon as described through behavioral components such as inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. Idealized influence is the first element and is reflected based on the conceptualization by transformational leaders who behave in a manner that allows them appear as role models among their followers. Such individuals are respected, trusted, and admired (Olive, Gottfried, Guerin, Gottfried & eichard, 2011). Followers relate with the leaders with the aim of emulating them.
Children's attachment style is normally attributed to parental factors or parenting style. Attachment styles are well formed at early ages even though they are predictive of outcomes for future leadership. Early life shows that bonds developed by infants with caregivers vary between from an insecure to secure attachment styles. The relationship identifies diverse infant attachment styles which…
Day, D.V. (2011) Integrative perspectives on longitudinal investigations of leader development: From childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly 22-561 -- 571.
Gottfried, A.E., Gottfried, A.W., Reichard, R.J., Guerin, D.W., Oliver, P.H., & Riggio, R.E. (2011). Motivational roots of leadership: A longitudinal study from childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(3), 510 -- 519.
Mortensen, J., Lichty, L., Foster-Fishman, P., & Warsinske, K. (2014). Leadership through a Youth Lens: Understanding Youth Conceptualizations of Leadership. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 447 -- 462
Murphy, S.E., & Johnson, S.K. (2011) The benefits of a long-lens approach to leader development: Understanding the seeds of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 22. 459 -- 470.
Byars-Winston, A., Estrada, Y., Howard, C., Davis, D., & Zalapa, J. (2010). Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(2), doi:10.1037/a0018608
• This article explores how both social cognitive and ethnic variables can play a part in determining the academic goals of people and groups that are "under-represented" within the academic sphere. The groups centered on this study include Africa-Americans, Latinos, Southeast Asians and Native Americans. There were 223 people in the study and the study itself was centered on what is known as the social cognitive theory, as proposed and discussed by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994. There was a significant relationship found between outcome expectations, interests and goals. Self-efficacy and efficacy-mediated relationships were also in play. One area that is touched upon with fervor in this study is…
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
An analysis of an article is required for any class that is missed (as listed below). The analysis of an article will be 1-2 pages, single spaced, with one-inch margins. The analysis will include four topic headings:
I. Article reference. List the bibliography information so that the instructor can find the article if he or she so desires. The article should be chosen from a respected journal or scholarly website. Furthermore, the article must relate to the corresponding chapter reading of that particular week.
II. Summary. In this section briefly summarize the content of the article, identifying what makes this article unique.
III. Relationship to readings. Describe the relationship between the article and the chapter readings.
IV. Application. Describe how the content of the article could be used to change your workplace. Describe how the concepts could be applied to improve your organization.
The company you use should…
Two of the most pressing issues in corporate leadership today include gender equality and labor rights. In "Women See Slow Progress in Leadership," Gay (2013) cites numerous empirical studies showing that the glass ceiling remains nearly impenetrable at the highest levels of management. The report cites the work-life balance ideal as the most common reason offered for why many women are either opting out of the CEO lifestyle, or are not considered ready or willing to handle the challenges and pressures of senior leadership.
In "The Best etail Companies to Work for ight Now," Smith (2013) describes Costco's approach toward human resources management. The company has recently been named one of the best companies to work for in the United States because of their relatively high salaries, supportive work environment, opportunity for growth, and job security. Its ethical labor rights practices are helping gain positive publicity for Costco, showing…
Gay, M. (2013). Women see slow progress in leadership. The Wall Street Journal. 14 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303289904579196123043065800
Greenleaf, R. (2013). Ten principles of servant leadership. Butler University. Retrieved online: http://www.butler.edu/volunteer/resources/principles-of-servant-leadership/
Lavinsky, D. (2013). Are you a visionary business leader? Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/davelavinsky/2013/04/26/are-you-a-visionary-business-leader/
Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership (2013). What is servant leadership? Retrieved online: https://greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/
He projects a persona of trustworthiness, likability and brilliance that even his harshest critics admire. But a multiplicity of goals does not always make for a sense of coherent mission, and this sense of mission is required to sustain as well as initiate major changes. One of Obama's most-admired historical figures was Abraham Lincoln and: "Lincoln united his followers with a 'corporate mission' of preserving the Union and abolishing slavery, and this objective became more firm and resolute with the onslaught of the Civil War" (Lewis 2009). Of course, Lincoln had the advantage of having a single crisis to deal with -- Obama has many, spanning from healthcare, to the environment, to the financial crisis, to two wars. Creating a coherent philosophy to unite his ambitious, compassionate social objectives and the need for strong action on terror is no easy feat.
As a leader, Obama's greatest strength is his ability…
Finn, Christine & Sarah Baxter. (2008, November 23). Long-range love of Obama's absent mother. The Times. Retrieved July 11, 2010 at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article5213328.ece
Lebovitch, Marge. (2010, February 29). Missing element in Obama's ties with GOP leaders.
Retrieved July 11, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com /2010/02/25/us/politics/25chemistry.html?scp=1&sq=Obama%20personality&st=cse
Lander, Mark. (2010, June 24). Short, tense deliberation, then a general is gone.
Leadership is a term that can mean many things to many people in many situations. It can refer to a sergeant in the U.S. Army leading his men through minefields to track down enemy combatants in Afghanistan. It can mean the fastest car in a NASCAR race and it can allude to the young man in a Sunday School class who takes over competently when the regular teacher is unable to be present.
When discussing leadership it is helpful to use examples of people who showed leadership in various ways. The best-selling book by Michael Abrashoff (It's Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy) offers a wonderful glimpse into how a captain took over a Navy ship that was ranked very low in its capabilities because of a number of serious problems with personnel, with equipment, and obviously with leadership.
In Abrashoff's book the author…
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
During this time period I also began studying leadership and the more interesting aspects of motivation. I found that the concepts of autonomy, mastery and purpose can have a transformational effect on those I am leading as well. Instead of concentrating just on carrots and sticks to motivate others, I looked at how to create entirely new jobs that would allow for autonomy, mastery and purpose to be included in each role. This worked out extremely well in Iraq where there were many more projects that people to go around, and time, resources and talent were nearly always in short supply. This experience taught me that focusing on results was not enough; there had to be a focus on providing those reporting to me with a chance to grow professionally and find their path to their own leadership styles and approaches too.
I'm a veteran, single-mother and proven leader…
Self-confidence is one of the most universally agreed-upon traits of a leader. In order for the organization as a whole to have confidence, the leader must exude confidence. There will be moments in any initiative the followers cannot see the benefits of the initiative or do not feel that they will be able to execute the initiative. It takes the confidence of the leader in order to enable the rest of the organization to believe in the initiative.
Locke's knowledge, skills and ability form the second of the four key to leadership. These are relatively self-evident, but they are still important aspects of genuine leadership. Knowledge of the industry, for example, is built up over the course of years. This knowledge allows the leader to make the right decisions and forge the right strategies. In addition, the leader will also have more ability to instill confidence in their followers if…
Locke, E. (1991). The Essence of leadership: The four keys to leading successfully. New York: Lexington- Macmillan.
Website of Edwin A. Locke, Ph.D., various pages. (2009). Retrieved December 3, 2009 from http://www.edwinlocke.com/
Leadership for Organizations
The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).
The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (ass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).
In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).
Leaders need to possess a wide range…
Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.
Allen, K.E. (1995). Making sense out of chaos: Leading and living in dynamic systems. Campus Activities Programming, 52-59.
Argyris, C. (1970). Intervention theory and method: A behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
Thus, in comparison to King's leadership style of pacifism and quiet strength, Powell's is a style involving the characteristics of confrontation, sacrifice of personal desires for the best interest of the groups, and confidence in the leader. While Powell's leadership style does not make him a better leader than King, it certainly exemplifies the fact that leadership styles must change based on circumstance. King's quiet strength gained him the respect he needed to become a champion of the civil rights movement. Powell's confrontational attitude gave him the motivation and confidence he needed to confront other nations in the name of peace.
Finally, Harriet Tubman's leadership style involved a combination of the styles and characteristics advocated by both King and Powell. Tubman's situation as a slave and eventual leader of the Underground ailroad forced her to accept the confrontational style of Powell to some degree. She displayed both confidence in herself…
Ling, P.J. (2003, April 1). Martin Luther King's Style of Leadership. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from the BBC. Web Site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/recent/martin_luther_king_01.shtml
Harari, O.A Leadership Primer from General (Ret.) Colin Powell, Secretary of State.
Retreived March 29, 2009, from the HR Chally Group. Web Site: http://www.chally.com/enews/powell.html
U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs. (2008, April
Response to Post #1
Your example of Shaar Mustaf, founder and leader of the Take Charge Juvenile Diversion Program, Inc. does exemplify the value of programs dedicated to helping at-risk individuals, especially young people, to overcome some of the most serious challenges they face in becoming productive and law-abiding members of society. However, I am not clear from your post what style or personal philosophy of leadership Mr. Mustaf uses to achieve the worthwhile objectives of the Take Charge Juvenile Diversion Program. I would be curious to know how much of his success and that of the organization and program is a function of his substantive knowledge and the effectiveness of the organization in other areas and how much of the success of the organization and program might be directly related to leadership style or leadership effectiveness on the part of Mr. Mustaf and, more generally, within the hierarchy…
Course No -- Leadership
It had often been said earlier that leadership is an inherent quality in certain individuals, but there are also leaders who are made through management institutions, by organizations, through institutions like the armed forces and even through political relationships, etc. There are certain qualities that a leader must have or develop to be a leader and remain a leader and those are the subject matter of discussion now.
The situation in the world is changing and it has come to a position in the beginning of the twenty-first century, that certain characteristics are seen as requirements for being able to influence future changes. Some of them are the ability to bring together individuals as much as possible for them to take a collective action, demonstrate collaborative decision and inclusive decision making for the entire group, maintain a flexible and responsive reaction in reference to all…
"Devolution in Practice: An Update" Retrieved from http://www.wkkf.org/Pubs/Devolution/Pub3623.pdf Accessed 10 September, 2005
"Leadership" Retrieved from http://www.productivesolutions.com.au/leadership.htm Accessed 10 September, 2005
Leboeuf, Maureen K. "Developing a Leadership Philosophy" Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/milreview/leboeuf.htm
Accessed 10 September, 2005
Leadership and Realtors
I have many aspirations and many things I would like to accomplish in my lifetime. That said, one of my strongest vocations is establishing myself in my community as a successful real estate agent.
I've always had a knack for sales and I love architecture and residential construction. But my affinity for real estate probably dates back to my childhood, when my uncle Herbie used to drive me around in his big tan Buick Skylark, taking me to all his listings so I could see how he showcased his properties. My uncle Herbie used to make me guess how much he had listed each property for, if I was wrong, he would wonk me on the head with this old leather scabbard he had in the back seat, if I was right, he would give me a piece of salt-water taffy. Long story short, I've wanted to…
Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics
Helping Leaders Deal With Change and Ambiguity. (2009) Human Capital
Online. Retrieved from http://www.hcamag.com/business-review/Executive -
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
To the host country, this translates into cheap imports, which, despite the good they do for the consumer, help demise the national industries, which are no longer able to compete. All these lead to the indubitable conclusion that competition in the twenty-first century is as fierce as it has ever been.
Aside the threat of cheap imports, the modern leaders also fear the possibility of losing their best staff members. Again, the forces of globalization have allowed a free circulation of not only commodities, but also human resource. Given that a company invests in the professional formation of its personnel, it is possible that the employees leave the organization for a better paid job within another global region. In this order of ideas, it can be concluded that competition for human resource is also increased. The same can be said about financial opportunities, in the meaning that national investors might…
Kuratko, D.F., June 22, 2007, Entrepreneurial Leadership in the 21st Century: Guest Editor's Perspective, Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies
McCrimmon, M., 2009, What Is Leadership? Leaders Direct, http://www.leadersdirect.com/leadership.html last accessed on August 17, 2009
Peterson, R.R., 2004, 21st Century Leadership Challenges and Opportunities, Engineering News Record, http://www.enr.com/news/bizlabor/archives/041213-ralphSpeech.pdf last accessed on August 17, 2009
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Traits of Modern Leaders, the Management Blog, http://www.management-blog.com/2008/03/traits-of-moder.html last accessed on August 17, 2009
Leadership Style Book Review: Summary of Book
"Blessed are the flexible, for they shall not be broken," reads the quotation on the title page of 17 Essential Qualities of a Team Leader: Becoming the Kind of Person Every Team ants, by management guru John C. Maxwell. The word 'leadership' on its own often brings to mind rather stultifying and outdated modalities of leading by command, much like a general, or cliches about being true to one's values. Besides, few readers will be put in charge of a military unit, or hold the title of CEO -- but virtually every individual who participates in the business world will one day either lead or be part of a team designated to work on a particular product or target area of interest for the company.
To suit the needs of today's marketplace and corporate structure, thus John C. Maxwell offers a different concept…
Maxwell, John. (2002) 17 Essential Qualities of a Team Leader: Becoming the Kind of Person Every Team Wants. Atlanta, Georgia: Maxwell Motivation, Inc.
Over the last several years, a wide variety of organizations have been addressing challenges associated with effective leadership. This is because most firms have traditionally created strategies behind closed doors and then introduced these ideas to everyone. The problem with this kind of approach is that no one is able to share the same kind of vision as the individuals in the planning group. The reason why is, most people were left out of the process (which makes it difficult to become excited about the new strategy). Once this takes place, is when a firm will waste time, money and resources in trying to implement an approach that has very little support.
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Lussier (2009) he determined that vision and sharing is essential for any kind of organization to be successful. Commenting about these ideas Lussier observed, "Organizational leaders too…
Baker, T. (2010). Effective Leadership. Flushing, NY: Loose Leaf Law.
Chait, J. (2007). The Big Con. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Goldsmith, M. (2012). Coaching for Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Josey Bass.
Kantabutra, S. (2010). The Power of Vision. Journal of Business Strategy, 31 (1), 37 -- 45.
As it pertains to the physical differences women have to miss some time at work after having a child to allow their bodies to heal. Missing this time from work can be detrimental to pursuing certain management positions. However men who become fathers do not have this same type of barrier. In addition, although many fathers are more involved with the daily care of their children, mothers are still the primary caregivers (Sumer, 2006). With this being understood, women often have a harder time balancing work and family life (Sumer, 2006).
In some cases it may be difficult for women to find childcare and as a result they may not have the luxury of being able to work the long hours that male counterparts can work. Some corporations have attempted to assist working mothers as it relates to childcare by offering childcare facilities in the workplace (Sumer, 2006). It appears…
Mitra, a. (2003). Access to Supervisory Jobs and the Gender Wage Gap among Professionals. Journal of Economic Issues, 37(4), 1023+.
Nelson, T., & Levesque, L.L. (2007). The Status of Women in Corporate Governance in High-Growth, High-Potential Firms. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(2), 209+.
Sumer, H.C. (2006). Women in Management: Still Waiting to Be Full Members of the Club. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 55, 63+.
Just this past April I was promoted to Head of the Standard and Criteria Development Office for the Department of Health and Medical Services (DOHMS) in xxx (location?
). In this capacity, I am expected to ably handle a variety of responsibilities including: Overseeing all aspects of standards development activities and quality activities in the Licensing and Specifications Department with all the private healthcare facilities in the area; leading and supporting the development of standards and criteria related to the healthcare practice; contributing to the development and on going review of DOHMS standards strategy and offering advice about current clinical practices, quality, safety, and service development; and keeping abreast of standard requirements and evidence and effectively communicating these to a variety of concerned individuals.
The reason for this promotion to the Head of the Standard and Criteria Development Office was because of my previous success as the Head of the…
Thus, women have skills that can bring new ideas and fresh prospective to break up the adverse effects of group thinking, which can cost companies consumers.
"hatever their gender, directors first and foremost must be individuals who possess the key skills required by a board, including integrity, sound judgment, financial knowledge and strategic thinking. But boards must also understand their customers, and Strandberg notes that "women represent a significant part of the consumer market. They have a lot of economic power in the marketplace" (Perkins).
However, having women on the board of directors does not bring a sustained improvement within the board room. Its argument of equality: everyone should be equally does not meet the BOD recruitment process. BOD should be elected based on their competencies that can actually provide value to their shareholders and not based on what a gender can bring to the table. Furthermore, the evironment is…
Marketing to Women. 2011. 16 May 2012. .
McMull, Greg Parsons and Kathryn. Trends in University Graduation, 1992 to 2007. 2009. 16 May 2012. .
Perkins, Tara. Women in the boardroom: are Canadian companies changing? 2011. 16 May 2012. .
Others, however, saw things differently.
Perhaps the clearest way to come to an understanding of the status of the WKK as either an independent or an auxiliary organization is to examine the central philosophies of the two groups. While the leadership of the WKKK by and large supported the racial and religious policies of the larger Ku Klux Klan -- i.e. A mistrust or outright hatred of blacks, Catholics, and Jews -- there were fears that even "Protestant men…were likely to be 'unyielding' in opposition to gender equality since they benefited directly from the current situation" (Blee 1991, pp. 76). Given this level of mistrust and irreconcilable difference, it seems unlikely that the most vocal, staunch, and long-standing members of the WKKK considered themselves a part of the same organization as the man they viewed as their oppressors. Though working in tandem with the Ku Klux Klan and using many…
Blee, K. (1991). Women of the Klan. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Leadership in the Girl Scouts
Before becoming involved as a Girl Scout Leader, I would have minimized the amount of leadership necessary for the position. ather than being a true leader, I envisioned that a Girl Scout Leader would simply be the person organizing Scouting activities. What I did not realize is that leading a Girl Scout troop is a true exercise of one's leadership skills. After all, a Girl Scout troop leader must lead not only girls, but also the other parents in the group. Moreover, while troops are generally organized by age, they generally contain girls with a variety of backgrounds and experiences, so that the skills necessary for leading in one scenario are not the same ones required for leading in another scenario. Therefore, while I had hoped to be a transformational leader when I began my role as troop leader, inspiring each of the girls to…
Cherry, K. (2011). Transformational leadership: what is transformational leadership? Retrieved
April 18, 2011, from About.com website: http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/transformational.htm
Girl Scouts of the United States of America. (2011). Girl Scouts cookie program. Retrieved from http://www.girlscouts.org/program/gs_cookies/
Girl Scouts of the United States of America. (2010). Safety tips. Retrieved from
Aside from familial obligations -- since the vast majority of expatriate roles assume that such positions would require managers to live their spouses and progeny in their native countries while they worked abroad -- another particularly interesting facet revealed in this article was the fact that initially, women were just as eager to pursue international careers in management positions as men were. This notion was confirmed by a survey performed by Adler (1993) that surveyed over a thousand MBAs who were graduating from seven highly esteemed business schools in throughout Europe, Canada, and the United States, and revealed that both men and women had equal aspirations for international careers.
Perhaps the most valuable result gained from the survey conducted in "Women in Global Business -- Female Expatriation" is the worth of including women in the decision making process endemic in upper management positions. Due to the variety of thought-process…
Adler, N.J. 1984. Women in International Management: Where Are They? California Management Review, 26 (4), 78-89.
Adler, N.J. 1993. Competitive Frontiers: Women Managers in the Triad. International Studies of Management & Organization, 23 (2), 3-24.
Kooskora, M and Bekker E. 2007. Women in Global Business -- Female Expatriation. EBS Review, 23 (3) 70-84.
Linehan, M and Scullion, H. 2001. Selecting, Training, and Development for Female International Management. Career Development International, 6 (6), 318-323.
Women comprise an essential part of the society; the role of women in the modern world is becoming more influential compared to the traditional days. The society is realizing the importance of women as leaders in the community and calling upon their ability to ensure that there is growth in the society. The rise of women in the society has been faced with stiff opposition from the male counterparts. In some developing countries, gender equality has not been achieved, but the pressure from developed is pushing many governments to recognize equality. Nations that have recognized the contributions of women have high economic growth compared to other countries that have ignored women.
Women empowerment refers to providing equal opportunities to women as men. Traditional organizational setting considers division of labor in the organization. Women are given roles that are not physically challenging while leadership roles are reserved for men.…
She argues that the evasiveness and incongruites in the narrative exist since Spenser is facing issues that are not easily answered.
From the start, Britomart represents an authority figure, a power not found in any other knight in the Faerie Queene. Spenser says that Britomart literally cannot be beaten, since she carries a powerful magic spear, or phallic symbol (depending on the interpretation) that refers back to the theme of woman's chastity. Britomart easily knocks Sir Guyon off his horse at the beginning of Book 3. She then comes to a castle and once again pushes her authority, characterized as "masculine" with her armor and spear, and confronts six of Malecasta's knights at the Castle Joyous at the end of the first canto.
At last as nigh out of the wood she came,
A stately Castle farre away she spyde,
To which her steps directly she did frame.
Abate, Corinne S. Spenser's 'The Faerie Queen. The Explicator 55.1 (1996): 6+.
Heale, Elizabeth. The faerie queene: a reader's guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Spencer, Edmund. The Faerie Queene. Gutenberg. 29 April 2010. http://www.gutenberg.org
The women's work, therefore, continues to be arduous and tedious, potential productivity, unrealized and quality of life is substandard. According to Jehan, for example, solutions to bettering this situation include enhancing data on women's economic participation and increasing the proportion of women in education, rural incomes and productivity.
In India, for instance, a number of economic initiatives have been undertaken in regard to the role and status of women. These include the economic exposure and access to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), an entrepreneurship program that allows women to engage in home-based work. This allows them to continue to fulfill their domestic responsibilities at the same time as helping to financially support their family. Financial institutions, companies, and NGOs are discovering the impact that can be made by extending different forms of entrepreneurial assistance to women startup businesses, such as micro-credit, or small loans, Meerut Seva Samaj demonstrates the way that…
Jehan, Qamar "Role of women in economic development in Pakistan." PhD thesis, 2000
University of Balochistan, Quetta. 10/25/08 http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/442/
Nanu-Fabu, Stella. "An analysis of economic status of women in Cameroon." Journal of International Women's Studies 8.1(2006):148-162.
Roy, K.C., Tisdell, C.A., Blomqvist, H.C. Economic Development and Women in the World Community, Praeger, London, 1996
The glass ceiling that women bump up against in many workplaces and cannot move past exists because of fear, and partly because of misunderstanding. Many men fear or are hostile to competition by women in the workforce, and others simply do not feel women are qualified to manage or oversee a company. Yes, the glass ceiling exists, and statistics prove it.
Tannen notes that it is common for women not to receive all the credit they deserve for projects and for their positions in general. Some women never are promoted, while others make it to a certain level of management and no further. For example, Tannen notes, "A woman who headed a major division of her company, and who did work comparable to that of six men who headed the other six divisions, had the title 'director" while the men were vice-presidents" (Tannen 134). There seems little reason for disparities…
Tannen, Deborah. Talking from 9 to 5: Women and Men at Work. New York, Harper Paperbacks, 1995.
Judy, Richard W. And Carol D'Aminco. Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, in: Hudson Institute, 1997.
Yet women with similar or comparable education and experience or achievement still earn less than men in work organizations. A missing link or the absent ingredient, between performance and a just payoff, was identified as women's own ability to comfortably and consistently draw the attention they deserve to the contributions they made or gave. Findings of a study conducted on 322 male and female executives showed that women were less comfortable in promoting themselves than men. Many of them still believed that self-promotion by women was still unacceptable and that hard work alone would not put them in the same level as men. Women were also found to be "over-preparers" who wanted their work to be technically correct but who did not bring this sense of accuracy and care to the attention or notice of influential individuals in the organization. Goodson found that even women who understood the importance of…
1. Auster, Ellen R. professional Women's Mid-career Satisfaction. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research, June 2001
2. Hultin, Mia. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: an Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination. Administrative Science Quarterly: Connell University Johnson Graduate School
3. Lemons. Mary A. Contextual and Cognitive Determinants of Procedural Justice: Perceptions in Promotion Barriers for Women. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation
4. Moya, Miguel. Close Relationships, Gender and Career Salience. Sex Roles: a Journal of Reserch: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2000
S. Constitution, and Susan B. Anthony was very upset at that.
For one thing, the women's suffrage movement had vigorously supported the abolition of slavery well prior to (and, of course, during the Civil War); and now that blacks were free, and were given the right to vote (although many blacks in America didn't really get to vote until the Voting ights Act of 1965 guaranteed their right to cast votes) prior to the women in American having the right to vote.
For another thing, many women were already stretched to the maximum in terms of the patience over their lack of voting rights.
According to an article in www.About.com (Women's History: Susan B. Anthony), "Some of Susan B. Anthony's writings were...quite racist by today's standards." She made the point that "educated white women would be better voters than 'ignorant' black men or immigrant men." In the late 1860s, she…
About.com. "Women's History: Susan B. Anthony; Seneca Falls Convention;
Declaration of Sentiments." 2004. Available
History of the American Suffragist Movement (2004). "Timeline: 1861-1867,"
It is possible that early American history would be taught very differently today if based on history books such as this. To play devil's advocate, there perhaps would have been women historians who agreed with the men's decisions, women historians who did not believe in the actions of their fellow females. Those histories, too, would have had an impact on today's perspective of that period.
Similarly, what would have happened if the topic of women's equality had been covered by a famous female historian who did not support the suffragist cause? The early 1900s saw some women, called the anti-suffragists, who were strongly opposed to giving the vote to their gender. These women were afraid of change and believed the family would fall apart if women could vote. They also feared suffrage would overload women already burdened by their own many responsibilities. They called the suffragists communists, among other things,…
Des Jardins, Julie. Women and the Historical Enterprise in America: Gender, Race, and the Politics of Memory, 1880 -- 1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
Sherr, Lynn. Failure is Impossible. New York: Random House, 1995.
Weatherford, Doris. A History of the American Suffragist Movement. Santa Barbara, CA:
This gave her husband the right to sell any of her property and she was not in a position to object in any way. Religious women with their vows of obedience and poverty really had no reason to get involved in legal matters and were untouched in any way by the legal structure.
idows were the only women who held in legal position in the society. "She (a widow) regained her legal personality, was entitled to a certain share of her husband's holdings and, for the first time in her life, could make independent decisions." Legally, this was the best position for women. It was not without problems especially for wealthy women. These women were frequently intimidated into a second marriage or into relinquishing parts of their holdings. They had no legal recourse against this kind of intimidation in the same way that married women could not object to domestic…
Barber, Richard. The Penguin Guide to Medieval Europe. New York: Penguin
Conway, Stephen. "Silent Voices: Women in the Middle Ages." 1991. http://www.subverbis.com/essays/medievalwomen.rtf .
Delort, Robert. Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Robert Allen. New York:
Dr. Hayden believes the reason for this change at the school level is due to greater recruitment efforts, financial and academic support, and more women role models to provide encouragement. Dr. Hayden sees a similar situation happening in the engineering field.
Dr. Lin, a male electrical engineer, on the other hand, somewhat ironically, seems to feel that women face a tougher challenge in engineering than Dr. Hayden stated. According to Dr. Lin, women can succeed as an electrical engineer if "they are determined." This is clearly a male-oriented view of how to succeed. According to typical male beliefs, success is an individual achievement. If you work hard you will succeed. If you do not succeed, it is because you did not work hard enough. However, Dr. Hayden emphasized in her response to the same question the role of peer mentors, academic support and other outside resources. This is typically a…
Baker, Wayne. Achieving Success Through Social Capital. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Dr. Hayden. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Dr. Lin. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Fuller, Georgina. "Recent Graduates Expect More from their Employers" Personnel
This brings us to the idea of ideal femininity. What is the ideal woman? What should we expect of the female gender in the new millennium? When comparing the two views above, I would say that Chan's ideal of the woman as one who is worthy of recognition for her efforts in any context is far more valid than that forwarded by Campbell, who creates an emotional victimhood for women. When combining these views, I would say the ideal woman is indeed emotional, but she is also capable of using her emotion to energize her efforts towards the life she desires. Emotion can translate into passion, and I believe that women have a possible advantage here. A woman's emotion for her family can create a passion for creating the perfect home. Her passion to contribute economically to her relationship with her partner or her family can lead to great excellence…
Campbell, S. (1994, Summer). Being Dismissed: The Politics of Emotional Expression. Hypatia, Vo. 9, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810188
Chan, Z. (2002, Nov.) Cooking Soup to Writing Papers: A Journey Through Gender, Society and Self. Journal of International Women's Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://vc.bridgew.edu
Women throughout Chinese history have experienced the oppression their tradition and culture exert as well as the power only members of their sex can attain in their chosen domains. Although readers have been exposed to historical anecdotes relating foot binding and Man's superiority to women, there are also many stories relating their freedom and tenacity, whether they are wives, concubines, courtesans or prostitutes. The history of Chinese women is not necessarily limited to persecution and being dominated, it is also peppered with inspirational stories of women who have been able to find happiness, success and fulfillment within the parameters Chinese tradition and culture dictate.
In Chinese society, the positions women maintained were very indistinct (http://www.wm.edu/CAS/anthropology/faculty/hamada/Virtual_Classromm/wwwb.../208.htm,1)."In Chinese society, women as a category had a dependent status." (Watson, 1991, 232). efore a girl married, she was controlled completely by her father. After she married, this responsibility was transferred to her husband. If…
Bennett, Natalie. (2001) Women of Emperial China: A Re-Examination. http://www.journ.freeserve.co.uk/china/china4.html
Burns, Dennis. (2002) The View From the Dragon's Lair. http://www.crystal-bridge.com/dennis0402.html
Jaschok, Maria. (1988) Concubines and Bondservants: The Social History of a Chinese Custom. London: Zed Press.
Jaschok, Maria & Miers, Suzanne (eds.) (1994) Women and Chinese Patriarchy. New Jersey: Hong Kong U.
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…
Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.
Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
Women's Issues In The Software Industry
Women's Issues in the Software Industry
Whatever women do they must do twice as well as men to be thought half as good. Luckily this is not difficult.
Charlotte Whitton, Canada Month, June 1963
The software industry is widely thought of as a meritocracy. Race, color, gender, and even formal education need play no role in the level of success one might achieve under the banner of Microsoft, Oracle, Red Hat, or Apple (just look at the famous college drop-out, ill Gates). Indeed, when one considers the tremendous success that people of relatively humble backgrounds have achieved, it is an image many are willing to accept. Many, especially budding computer science students, truly believe that "software-land" is a utopian existence -- a place where anyone with a love of computers, an innovative mind, and more of their share of natural intelligence can…
Catalyst. Bit by Bit: Catalyst's Guide to Advancing Women in High Tech Companies. Catalyst: 2003.
Sacramento Bee. (1996). Women in Computing. Retrieved December 11, 2003, Web site: http://www.sacbee.com/static/archive/news/projects/women/wcvoices.html.
Hammond, Keith. (2001). The Real Gap in Tech. Retrieved December 11, 2003, from Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/careers/content/aug2001/ca20010822_112.htm
Womenof.com. No Improvement in Pay Gap Over Two Decades. Web site: http://www.womenof.com/News/cn_11_24_03.asp.
This is furthered by the fact that the daughter closest to the infant, who perches on her mother's lap, holds that baby's hand, implying an ascent to motherhood. Behind the family, the picture window showing grand gardens and mansion details implies wealth. Indeed, the smooth texture and use of dark colors further suggests royalty. hile both Drurer's and van Ceulen's portraits use light and dark and positioning as symbols, then, Druer's work is focused on the Bibles -- spirituality -- while van Ceulen's painting is quite clearly focused on the earth -- economics, royalty, inheritance, and family.
The symbolism contained in these paintings is extremely relevant to another symbolic work out of the late Renaissance, Lanyer's "Eve's Apology in Defense of omen." In this work, Lanyer argues that women should not be held wholly responsible for Adam's actions in the Garden of Eden -- where women were rumored to have…
Lanyer, Amelia. "Evel's Apology in Defense of Women." CharleyYoung's.com 1611. 17
Hence, a more corporate attitude is being embraced by pro-vice-chancellors, but the salient question in this article is this: will a university be better off with corporate-style, bureaucratic leadership, or with leadership that pursues academic excellence and a pure mission of educating students?
Wang, Yong, and Poutziouris, Panikkos. (2010). Leadership Styles, Management Systems and Growth: Empirical Evidence from UK Owner-Managed SMEs. Journal of Enterprising
Culture, 18(3), 331-354. Doi: 10.1142/So21849581000604.
What these authors bring to light in this article is that a higher rate of sales and growth for medium sized businesses can be realized when run by an owner that also manages the business. This survey of 5,710 respondents in the UK further pointed to the fact that when the owner-manager delegates authority, the operation is more professional and successful.
Webb, Kerry S. (2009). Creating Satisfied Employees in Christian Higher Education: Research
on Leadership Competencies. Christian Higher Education, 8(1), 18-31.…
Zembylas, Michalinos, and Iasonos, Sotiroula. (2010). Leadership styles and multicultural education approaches: an exploration of their relationship. Leadership in Education,
13(2), 163-0183, doi: 10.1080/13603120903386969.
In this article the authors surveyed 17 principals in multicultural schools in Cyprus in order to find out what leadership styles worked best. The issue is relevant because immigration means new challenges for education leaders. About half of the 17 principals embraced a transactional leadership and "conservative multiculturalism" although another group adopted a style more in tune with what the authors call "critical multiculturalism embedded in critical and social justice leadership."
Throughout history and at every corner of the world, there are great men and women who have heeded the call to power, influence and even fame and glory. These personalities changed history through the exalted deeds they performed and even the notorious acts committed. People followed them and to those true believers, they have given their lives to these influential people who are regarded by many names but foremost amongst them, they are known as leaders. Leaders are those that influence people's behaviors and make them believe and follow the leader's will in order to achieve the goal set for by the one leading. There are various styles of leaders from the charismatic, autocratic, democratic, to the delegative. Some leaders use one style while others combine two or more especially when situations warrant differing approaches. There is an adage that goes, "leaders are made not born" and despite…
Center for Creative Leadership. (2009, May). "Developing a leadership strategy: A critical ingredient for organizational success." Global Organizational Leadership Development White Paper Series. Retrieved August 20, 2011 from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/LeadershipStrategy.pdf
Herold, D.M. & Fedor, D.B. (2008). Changing the way you lead: Leadership strategies that work. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Palmer, R.E. (2008). Ultimate leadership: Winning execution strategies for your situation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Leadership is defined as a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive (obins, Pinsky, & Krichko, 2004). Bernard Bass' theory of leadership (Bass, 1990) states that there are three ways to explain the development of how one becomes a leader. The Trait Theory explains that some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. The Great Events Theory states that a crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. Finally, the Transformational Leadership Theory states that people can choose to become leaders or people can learn leadership skills. The latter theory is the most widely accepted theory today (Fabian, 2004).
When one considers a person as a leader, he/she does not think about personal attributes. Observation is typically…
Bass, B.M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics (Winter), 19-31.
Beccaria, L.M., & Favero, N. (2000). [Expectations of nursing managers and assistants as to the managerial style of an executive director of a teaching hospital]. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem, 8(2), 83-90.
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (1992). Leading and managing: effects of context, culture and cender. Education Administration Quarterly, 28, 314-329.
Fabian, N. (2004). Leadership -- what is it and are you headed for it? J. Environ Health, 67(3), 54, 52.
The speeches by Chris Christie and Bill Clinton at their respective national conventions highlight a number of characteristics of collaborative leadership. In politics, being able to collaborate while retaining one's sense of identity is essential success. Obama won by building a coalition of African-Americans, Latinos, women, the young, city dwellers and the educated. Romney failed to build a coalition of different groups, relying primarily on rural white voters. Collaborative leadership and team-building are clearly essential to political success.
Both speeches spent considerable time attacking the other side, and those elements of the speeches work against collaborative leadership. We can learn from the negativity, because there is a tremendous fracture in American politics. As a result of this fracture, the last Congress passed a low number of laws, failed to do even the basic tasks of government, and managed to get the credit rating of the country lowered. Dedicating your…
Deborah is believed to have played a key role in public arena.
Even in the male dominant society of Israel, Deborah's orders were followed and people looked up to her for advice. In the position of a prophetess, she could give orders which were readily followed: "She sent for Barak...and said to him, 'The Lord, the God of Israel, commands you: "Go, take with you ten thousand men..."" Barak was not willing to go alone and wanted Deborah to accompany him. Deborah is an important figure in ancient Hebrew culture and it is through her that we can see how this culture allowed women to have some freedom in their restricted sphere.
The daughter of Jephthah was another prominent figure. She was also a judge who ruled Israel as she was a woman of strong faith. After her father promised Lord that if he won, he would offer "whatever comes…
The Odyssey, the Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces, 6th ed. Vol 1, Ws. Norton & Co. Inc. New York
Book of Joshua" accessed online 16th april 2005:
Leadership and Diversity
What would you consider?
I would consider that this is a very diverse group. Group members come from different ethnicities. The "Asian Group" is the strongest as it consists of four group members: Julie, Jinsoo, Arash and Harpeet. There is only one American: John. There is only one representative of Europe: Tom. Group members are of different age ranging between 30 years (Harpeet) and 51 years (Julie). Group members are also of different gender. There are two women: Julie and Harpeet, both of them having an Asian background. Both their gender and ethnicity and the fact that they are a minority in the group will probably make them prone to develop a closer relationship (e.g., be allies) than to the rest of the group. The rest of the four group members are males. I would find it also important that the group members share different religious beliefs.…
Cultural Diversity. Retrieved 28 September 2011 from www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/diversity_lsn.pdf.
Moon, M.M.M. (1997). Understanding the Impact of Cultural Diversity on Organizations: 1-31. Retrieved 28 September 2011 from www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/acsc/97-0607c.pdf.
Team Conflict Management Strategies to Grow Your Organization: 1-4. Retrieved 28 September 2011 from www.mdbgroup.com/conflict1.html.CachedSimilar
And certainly those men and women that have the ability to be trained, and have the character and judgment and willingness to be led before they are ready to lead, are certainly ready become military leaders. And just as a diamond must have three properties to become a diamond -- carbon, head, and pressure -- a leader must have three properties as well -- "character, knowledge, and application" (UC).
In conclusion, inspiring troops as they go into harm's way is the solemn, august responsibility of military leaders. The traits that a leader must have in order to lead and inspire, include: engendering trust; be willing to assume the same risks as those he is leading; be competent and cooperative and have sound judgment; and have the character and knowledge to know what to do and when to do it.
Crandall, Doug. (2006). Leadership Lessons from est Point. Hoboken,…
Crandall, Doug. (2006). Leadership Lessons from West Point. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Harvey, Robert. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders: The Extraordinary Battles of Washington,
Nelson, Patton, Rommel and others. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.
Sweeney, Patrick J. (2010). Do Soldiers Reevaluate Trust in Their Leaders Prior to Combat
Leadership, Values, And Beowulf
The epic poem of Beowulf is a narrative a famous warrior who eventually becomes a powerful king. The story involves the exploits of a Scandinavian warrior-prince who comes from the land of the Geats, located in what is now southern Sweden. The poem may be divided into two periods of the Beowulf's life. These two periods exemplify the heroic life in youth and old age.
The poem starts by acquainting the reader with the problems of Hrothgar, King of the Danes, who is being threatened by Grendel, a monster who relentlessly has come to the kingdom night after night for twelve years to carry off and devour the vassals of Herot. Beowulf hears of this situation and resolves to defeat the monster. Eventually, Beowulf defeats Grendel in hand to hand combat tearing off one of the monster's arms. The following night Grendel's mother comes to avenge…
Anonymous. Beowulf. Ed. Michael Alexander. Penguin Books: London, 2001.
Hall, Lesslie (Trans.). Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem." Boston, New York, Chicago: D.C. Heath & Co., 1892. Web. 30 May 2013.
Serriallier, Ian. Beowulf the Warrior. New York: Henry Walck Incorporated,1961. Print.
Stitt, Michael J. "Beowulf and the Heroic Code." English 477 Tolkien & Fantasy Literature, University of Navada, Las Vegas, (ND). Web. 30 May 2013.
Women in Aztec Creation
Compare and Contrast
Women in Aztec creation story and women in the Book of Genesis (The Holy Bible) creation story
Compare and Contrast the women in Aztec creation story and women in The Book of Genesis (The Holy Bible) creation story
Women have been the part of arts, philosophy, and theology since the history. Women and their creation has been a subject of interest and many myths and stories are affiliated with the creation of women. The paper compares and contrasts between the women in Aztec creation story and women in the Book of Genesis. There are a few universal roles of a woman. Like giving birth to children, raising kids and feeding them and taking care of the husband and his house. However, beyond this conventional role, there is a lot more than that a woman does and that she is expected to do. The…
Anne, J., (2013), "Judaism 101: Creation Stories," Retrieved from:
Aztec Creation Story, (2012), Retrieved from: