Women In Prison Essays Examples

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Prison Nurseries There Are Few Assets as

Words: 2731 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73021498

Prison Nurseries

There are few assets as precious to a nation as it children. Especially in the developed world. Social, care, and education systems are set up in such a way as to nurture the young ones to that they can grow and develop effectively to make the most of their lives and their future. Indeed, not making sure that children's lives can progress along optimal levels can result in dire consequences for a nation and its future. It affects everything from the economy to the moral fabric of a nation to not care for its children. It is also, however, a sad fact of the world today that not all children are born to loving parents, a home and family, or in otherwise ideal circumstances. Indeed, some children are born to mothers who are in prison. While there are many programs to care for these children, there is little consistency among the nature and number of these. In the United States, for example, some states include programs via which mothers can care for their children from 12 to 24 months via prison nurseries. In others, children are taken away from their mothers and entered into foster care or given…… [Read More]

Resources:
Benevolent (2013, Jul. 15). Prison Babies. Retrieved from:  http://benevolentnet.blogspot.com/2013/07/prison-babies.html 

Carlson, J.R. (2009, Spring). Prison Nurseries: A Pathway to Crime-Free Futures. Corrections Compendium 34(1). Retrieved from: http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/krienert/readings/Carlson_2009.pdf
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Prison Industrial Complex

Words: 2762 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69517339

Prison Industrial Complex as Another Form of Mandatory Minimum Sentencing

US sentencing policies are still lean which has led to the federal government to incarcerate so many people. There are too many criminals committing too many crimes, and this explains why we have too many prisoners. Currently, the government's prison is holding 200,000-armed robbers, 150,000 sex offenders and 100 murderers (Davis, 2008). These people are enough to make fill a city. Many people have been opposed to the idea that these people should be released form prisons. U.S. have the largest number of violent offenders despite the recorded decline in crime rate. However, the number of people sent to prison for committing violent offences has gone down during the prison boom. In 2010, over 50% of people being taken to prison were violent offenders. America has enormous prison populations because the courts are sentencing individuals who have not committed violent offences. These nonviolent crimes, in other countries, would be punished by fines, community service or would not be held as crimes. The U.S. is currently leading in the harshest form of punishment to prisoners. Research indicates that whichever the case in America's justice system, prison is the only solution (Schlosser,…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Davis, A. (2008). Masked racism: reflections on the prison industrial complex. Homewood, IL:

Irwin
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Prison Conditions

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29871864

Prison Conditions

There are two major issues that need to be addressed with regards to prison conditions. One is the whether humane conditions are provided and the other is concerned with the degree of rehabilitation that prisons facilitate. On both counts, U.S. prisons need to take actions to prevent abuse and to reduce the high number of repeat offenders as our prison populations swell beyond control.

According to Human Rights Watch, prisoners suffer from physical mistreatment, excessive disciplinary measures, intolerable physical conditions and inadequate medical and mental health care. Prisons are severely overcrowded and do not have adequate staffing.

Many local jails are unsafe, vermin-infested and lack areas where inmates can get exercise or fresh air. Violence by inmates and guards is common. Mentally ill inmates who comprise between six and fourteen percent of the incarcerated population do not receive adequate monitoring and treatment. Private prisons operate without sufficient control and oversight from public correctional authorities. Both prisoner-on-prisoner sexual abuse and sexual abuse of women is a huge problem. Amnesty International reported that sexual abuse of female inmates is rampant but said many cases go unreported for fear of retaliation. Amnesty reported an undetermined number of cases of prison guards…… [Read More]

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Prison Libraries

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3215800

Prison Libraries

When most people think about prison libraries today they most likely recall the 1995 movie, "The Shawshank Redemption" which revolved around the library of Maine's state prison from 1947 through the late1960's (Shawshank pg). The movie portrayed the evolution of the library during some twenty years, as it went from a small cramped room housing a meager selection of books to larger quarters with vast selections of books, music and educational materials (Shawshank pg). This evolution would not and could not have taken place if not for the relentless solicitations by the movie's main character, Andy Dufresne. His tireless efforts resulted in donations from various organizations (Shawshank pg). The movie was an accurate depiction of a typical prison library. Until the last century, most were non-existent and the few that did exist were poorly stocked. Due to the funding shortages that have always faced federal and state prisons, prison libraries, as in "Shawshank," rely heavily on donations from various charities and foundations. Moreover, just as in "Shawshank," prison libraries have become communal niches where inmates gather for entertainment, research, support groups and educational classes.

As grim as the conditions were portrayed at Main's state prison in the movie,…… [Read More]

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Women in Policing

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85392001

Women in Policing

women's initial police work followed work in prisons

Estelle B. Freedman's book, Their Sister's Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930, focuses not on women emerging as police officers, but rather on women in prisons, and women who were employed by prisons to work with female inmates. On page 19, Freedman explains that in the late 19th Century, "sexual ideology began to suggest that purity came naturally to women, in contrast to men, who had to struggle to control their innate lust." It was argued by "influential Victorian authorities" that women did not have an appetite for sex, but rather they just went through the motions to have children. This attitude laid the groundwork for the vicious hatred society had for "impure women" who had the capacity "to unleash not just male sperm, but more importantly, the social disintegration that sexuality symbolized" (20).

And so, the "fallen women" received terrible treatment in prisons (particularly in the early 19th Century), and thus, were to be examples to all women, to behave and stay within the boundaries of raising children, cooking meals, being obedient to men. After all (20), "women had to be pure to enforce male continence."

The…… [Read More]

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Women in Jails Women in

Words: 1873 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24797269

Not only was it cost effective but the study also reported that offenders who were treated in the community setting were 43% less likely to reoffend compared to the prison population clearly suggesting the effectiveness of community-based sentences. [Amanda Noblet, 2008, pg 27]

Conclusion

The criminal justice system is clearly unprepared and ill equipped to manage the unique needs of women in prison. There is clearly a need for a specific focus on Mental illness, sexual violence and drug abuse, reproductive health and other issues that are very relevant to the incarcerated female population. Clearly our female correctional facilities are under resourced and over crowded and overcrowded prisons are not ideal for reformation but instead create more problems. Since majority of women prisoners are incarcerated for minor drug related offenses and property crimes, a more liberal and effective reformative approach should be pursued. Community based alternative sentencing programs should be implemented in full swing as they have proven to be reformative and cost effective. Women are the center of the family structure and incarceration and isolation not only affects them but the entire family.

There is no question of doubt that incarceration is a failed, inhuman and ineffective approach to…… [Read More]

References:
1) the Sentencing Project, (2007), 'Women in the Criminal Justice System: Briefing Sheets', retrieved April 25th 2010, from,  http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/womenincj_total.pdf 

2) Amanda Noblet, (2008), ' Women in Prison: A Review of Current Female Prison System: Future Directions and Alternatives',, retrieved April 25th 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Noblet%20-%20Women%20in%20Prison.pdf
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Women at Five State Prison

Words: 10602 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80834550

5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)

The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)

The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties for drug related violations, has caused the level of women's incarceration to spiral upward. For the year 1999, 1 in 109 women were under correctional supervision. (6) in 1997, African-American women had an incarceration rate of 200 per 100,000 compared to 25 per 100,000 for non-Hispanic white women. (Jacobs, 2004,…… [Read More]

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Women Offenders

Words: 5340 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27946496

delineation of the research hypotheses. The chapter will conclude with an outline of the remaining chapters.

Relevant Background Information

Increasingly, female offenders and issues associated with their incarceration have been identified as a problem of concern. Evidence suggests that female offenders represent a growing population within the U.S. penal system. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of female inmates in state prisons increased 75% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994). Between 1981 and 1991, the number of females incarcerated in federal penal institutions also increased by 24%. Since 1980 the population of women inmates has increased by more than 200% (Gabel & Johnston, 1995). Women inmates currently account for 9% of the entire prison population and of this group, 57% are women of color.

The majority of women are arrested for nonviolent crimes. Typical offenses include fraud, use of illegal drugs, and prostitution (Singer, Bussey, Song, & Lunghofer, 1995). Evidence also exists that suggests that incarcerated women experience many problems in addition to their criminal acts that may have influenced their engagement in criminal activity (Gabel & Johnston, 1995; Singer et al., 1995).

Statement of the Problem

As the numbers of incarcerated women has continued to increase both in state and…… [Read More]

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Women's Issues in the Criminal

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94196627



Studies indicate that there are more poor women in prison than ever before, and this puts women at risk to become mothers younger, and to have more instability in relationships and family life as their relationships progress. Authors Travis and Visher continue, "Imprisoned offenders are disproportionately from impoverished backgrounds, which places them at greater risk for early and nonmarital parenthood. Early transitions to parenthood are clearly linked to later instability in marriage and relationships and welfare dependency (Travis and Visher, 2005, p. 222-223). Thus, incarcerating more women is putting more families at risk, and creating a vicious circle of poverty, despair, and hopelessness that can simply lead to more criminal activity and incarceration. In addition, this leads to overcrowding of prisons and higher costs for the criminal justice system that must now administer and support more females in prison, rather than on probations, which is what many received before the sentencing guidelines were put into effect. Finally, this "equity" in sentencing also affects the social welfare system, which must care for more children of mothers sentenced to prison.

In conclusion, gender equity in sentencing has resulted in more women in prison, especially poor, minority women, and it has left a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Pope, a.E. (2002). A feminist look at the death penalty. Law and Contemporary Problems, 65(1), 257+.

Travis J. And Visher, C.A. (2005). Prisoner reentry and crime in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Women and Violence Natural Born

Words: 2776 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26337494



Yet, one should take into account a certain part of the statement, regarding the status of the victims. The expression "low net worth people" must not, by any chance and even if it's the case of citing an authority, appear in an article. No matter the status and the position of a person in the society's hierarchy, life is the most valuable good one has and has the same importance for all peers.

In general, the article can receive a positive review. It is objective and the case is clearly exposed, it does not contain irrelevant pieces of information and it does not insist on minor details. The lack of description for protagonists leads to creating no preconceptions. Furthermore, media does not roughly exploit the story. One can not assume there is sensitiveness in narrating the case, but as mentioned before, the article relies on objectiveness. However, the only aspect that might be considered as being insensitive regards the characterization of the victims.

Also, the most important aspect is the cited source, which follows the statement of a person involved in the investigation and therefore, becomes trustful.

Alberta Woman Assaulted after Answering Online Ad

The current article narrates the case…… [Read More]

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Women in American History in

Words: 1304 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74312981



In colonial America, formal education for girls historically has been secondary to that for boys. In colonial America girls learned to read and write at dame schools. They could attend the master's schools for boys when there was room, usually during the summer when most of the boys were working. (Women's International Center)

During the latter half of the Republic Era, rapid economic growth presented new opportunities for northern white women. Previously limited to homework or to household-related jobs like cleaning and cooking, some young women now became school teachers or mill workers. One destination for young farm women was the Lowell mills in Massachusetts, at the falls of the Merrimac River. An unnamed rural crossroads in 1823, Lowell by 1830 boasted ten mills and three thousand operatives, nearly all of them female. (Boyer)

Beginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased. This tended to prevent many young women, who married early and bore many children, from entering professional careers. Although home nursing was considered a proper female occupation, nursing in hospitals was done almost exclusively by men. (Women's International Center)

The late eighteenth century was an era of medical, economic, and…… [Read More]

Sources:
Boyer, Paul S. "Early Republic, Era of the." 2001. encyclopedia.com. 20 February 2009 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html.

Do History. "Who Was Martha Ballard?" n.d. Do History. 19 February 2009  http://dohistory.org/martha/index.html .
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Women of Today Have Come Along Way

Words: 1494 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30526144

Women of today have come along way because society has recognized that they have voices as well as men do. From the entire world, women have maintained their place due to the new customs that have arisen over the years. They have been able to go vote and work, which puts them as equals with men For example, South Korea; there is a female president instead of a make. Therefore, women have overcome the stereotypes that society has created from sixty years ago. No matter what country or culture women are in, it has been proven during the last two decades they are no longer inferior when it comes to being equals with men. In other words, regardless of what society throws at women, they become stronger and more powerful every day.

In Mexico, Mexicans place a high value on family and traditional values. Although women make up an increasingly large portion of the labor force (about one-quarter in the mid-1990s), many women continue to work within the home since it has been the custom for many years. Therefore, children, in middle- and upper-income homes, typically remain at home longer than their counterparts in the United States. There are vast…… [Read More]

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Women and Acts of Violent Crimes

Words: 1364 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33092201

Women and Acts of Violent Crimes in the Year Of

The increased involvement of women involved in violent crimes in the year of 2013 has led to the development of more equitable services in a system primarily created from research based on male adolescent offenders (Sondheimer, 2001). Studying women and violent crimes has been crucial to understanding their acts compared to men. Statistics show that there is a growing amount of violence coming from women in the past two years when compared to women. Since 2012 the amount of female defendants convicted of felonies in State courts has grown at more than 2 times the rate of rise in male defendants. In 2013 an estimated 960,000 women were under the care, control, or custody of correctional agencies & probation or parole organizations verseeing 75% of these offenders in the community. The entire equals a rate of around 1 woman involved with the criminal justice system for every 108 adult women in the U.S. population.

Male committing acts of violent crimes equals about 1 violent criminal for every 9 males age 10 or older, each person percentage 6 times that of women. Around 84,000 women were limited in jails in 2013.…… [Read More]

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Women Today and Yesterday in

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41418783

Her we see resentment emerge even in death. Love was an "unsolved mystery" (636) for Louise and she had no problem giving up the "possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being" (636). Louise appreciates a life without love because love is nothing but a hindrance. Contemporary women simply cannot relate to marriage being so much like an ownership deal. Women enjoy marriage and love and men have learned to recognize the potential of women outside the home. Women look forward to marriage because they know they are not sacrificing anything when they do it. Marriage is more like a sharing of two persons rather than a husband lording his power over his wife. In short, something is wrong when the death of a spouse brings joy instead of sorrow. Through this observation, we see how important a sense of self is for every living being. Louise did not know who she was until her husband died and her happiness was such that losing it would simply kill her.

Louise symbolizes the type of oppression that destroys lives. This kind of oppression is odd because husbands probably did not intend to make their wives…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lauter,

Paul, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990. Print.
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Women in Abusive Relationship

Words: 1833 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59149144

Women in Abusive Relationships

According to a report in the Public Broadcasting Service, the home is one of the "most dangerous places for a woman" (PBS). That is because of the legacy of domestic abuse that many women have had to go through, and are going through today. Indeed, the U.S. Department of Justice reports that two-thirds of violent attacks against women are perpetrated by someone that woman knows. Every year about 1,500 women are actually killed by boyfriends or husbands, the Justice Department explains. And every year nearly 2 million men "beat their partners," according to the FBI. This paper reviews the statistics, the reasons that women decide to stay in those relationships, and what alternatives there are for her.

The Abuse of Women -- Background Information

The Public Broadcasting Service story indicates that 95% of victims of domestic violence are women, and that women are "7 to 10 times more likely to be injured men," no matter who instigated the violence. This is a huge problem for the healthcare profession, in terms of the social and psychological issues that are part of the legacy of abuse in a household; but the abuse of women is also an issue…… [Read More]

Sources:
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (2011). Antoine Robert Three Fingers Sentenced in U.S. District Court. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://saltlakecity.fbi.gov.

Mayo Clinic. (2010). Domestic Violence Against Women: Recognize Patterns, Seek Help.
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Women's and Gender Studies

Words: 3367 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70447437

Women and Gender Studies

Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow Wallpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia Woolf's extended essay A Room of One's Own confronts it directly, revealing "the extent to which the patriarchal pressures of that period posed severe obstacles" to women (Ramos 145). By considering The Yellow Wallpaper in light of Woolf's arguments about the power of education and writing to restrict or liberate, as well as Gertrude…… [Read More]

References:
Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins

Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.
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Women Suffrage 19th Century However

Words: 1381 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69872383



In 1869, Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, another prominent 19th century suffragist, formed the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) to collectively lobby for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote. The NWSA also focused their attention on universal suffrage for African-Americans. Their efforts toward abolition succeeded first, as the 15th Amendment passed in 1871.

Also in 1869 Lucy Stone, Julia Ward Howe, and other suffragists formed a separate suffragist organization due to political and ideological differences with the NWSA. The American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) favored a states-rights approach to suffrage and rather than petition the federal government for an amendment to the American constitution granting women the right to vote the AWSA appealed to state legislatures. Their efforts were "tied...closely to the Republican Party," ("Teaching with Documents").

The women's suffrage movement progressed slowly. Several Western territories such as Wyoming and Utah guaranteed women the right to vote in 1869 and 1870, respectively. The NWSA petitioned Senate and the House diligently since 1878 but their efforts to earn respect in Congress failed repeatedly. In 1890, after years of discouraging political results at the federal and state levels, the NWSA and the AWSA joined forces to rally for universal…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote (1920)." Historical Documents. 2005. Retrieved July 31, 2006 at http://www.historicaldocuments.com/19thAmendment.htm

Petition to U.S. Senate Women Voters Anti-Suffrage Party of New York World War I." United States Senate: Records Group 46. 1917. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2006 at http://www.archives.gov/global-pages/larger-image.html?i=/education/lessons/woman-suffrage/images/ny-petition-l.gif&c=/education/lessons/woman-suffrage/images/ny-petition.caption.html
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Women's Rights Movement in the 1970s

Words: 1120 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66185324

Women's Rights Movement In The 1970s

In A People's History of the United States, Zinn begins his narrative of the liberation of women with the women's suffrage movement of the early twentieth century. However, according to Zinn, even after women were granted their vote, their identity was still largely measured by their success in living up to the idealized role models of wife and mother till the overt feminist movement of the late 1960s. Till then, the only time that women were allowed to break the traditional stereotype mold of femininity and domesticity was during periods such as war, civil strife or extreme economic conditions (Zinn, 503-6).

Zinn, in his account, gives a detailed description of the events that occurred in the 1960s. Women of all ages took active part in the civil rights movement of the sixties, which in a sense laid the ground for women collectively voicing their needs and demanding their rights. The principal issues fought for were recognition of women's abilities outside the domestic sphere and the overall breaking of traditional stereotypes of femininity and sexuality (Zinn, 505-514).

Though Zinn may have chosen to see universal suffrage as significant tangible evidence of an overt women's movement…… [Read More]

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Women and Children Are Facing Abuse All

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61421205

Women and children are facing abuse all over the world, astonishingly, in countries where rights against abuse are more pronounced than in any other country. We are going to take the case of the abuse of immigrant women and children, mainly those who struggle to get into the United States of America through the Mexican border.

It's only in the 21st century that we have to come to notice the rapid increase of women and children immigrants moving out for job opportunities.

Men, usually get work as laborers in industries of some kind while the women or children have to do odd and low jobs just to make ends meet and earn enough money to send or take back to their family. They usually find work as hired help in places like Grande valley, El Paso, San Diego, and Beverly Hills. (Jane Juffer, 1988)

Furthermore, women face daily harassments by the hands of border patrol officials and even coyotes, those that have connections to get illegal entrance of immigrants into the country. These authoritarians don't only harass these underprivileged women and children physically but they horde and steal whatever amount of money they have on them. (Jane Juffer, 1988)

In…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
AP Worldstream. Female illegal immigrants reporting sexual assaults, abuse. TUCSON, Arizona; 2004

Jane Juffer. Abuse at the border: Women face a Perilous crossing. The progressive; 1988.
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Prison the Modern Prison System Represents a

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43273349

Prison

The modern prison system represents a macrocosmic understanding of how to punish the collective sins of society. Within any environment, the strength of its contents is a direct reflection on the worst of its contents as well. The importance of the cathartic rehabilitation that occurs during learning, growth, understanding and forgiveness dictates how one would be rehabilitated in any system, prison or not. The sheer numbers of prisoners within the United States represents a concept of punishment that appears to exceed rational thought and reasoning. Are our citizens that troubled? Do we really need such an extensive prison system that is lost in bureaucratic inefficiency and sadistic behavior? The purpose of this essay is to examine these questions in an attempt to compare and contrast the present penal and prison systems and whether these methods are striving towards any type of collective goals. Furthermore these goals themselves will be analyzed to determine whether or not incarceration and punishment is philosophically aligned with today's general mind frame.

Any collective group must decide where it's authoritative power is located. Humanity's subjugation to law must be examined before understanding how a group can determine what is punishable and what is allowable. Law…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Anderson, G. (2000). " Prisons for profit." America The National Catholic Weekly, 18 Nov, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=2321

Foucault, M (1977). Discipline and Punish. New York: Routledge.
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Women's Rights Cases for Gender

Words: 4162 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90558822

The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.

The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's

Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law of the Creator. (20-21) Background to Muller v. Oregon section, ¶ 3).

Bradwell v. Illinois (1979) constitutes the first case initiated in a long line of cases that denied women protection against sex. This study examines five cases from the long line of cases relating to women's rights, from the…… [Read More]

Resources:
Vindication of the Rights of Woman Harvard University (Original); Walter Scott.

Retrieved April 1, 2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=3GgWoIUt91UC

Women's Equality Day (2002). Presidential Press. Retrieved April 5, 2009 from  http://womenshistory.about.com/library/news/pr/blpr0208.htm
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Prison Overcrowding Empirical Analysis of

Words: 6511 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57249199



This view stresses a sociological approach to crime, suggesting that the behavior of criminals is more easily adapted and changed when law enforcement agents understand the circumstances and immediate environment an offender lives in that may contribute to offensive behaviors, and to one's behavioral characteristics.

Literature Review

The purpose of the preliminary literature presented is to provide an overview of the historical foundations leading to prison overcrowding, an exploration of the populations of people incarcerated and empirical evidence that provides an explanation for overcrowding. By examining this evidence the researcher will find support for the hypothesis presented, develop appropriate research questions and present insight into the significance and importance of the study topic selected for this research. The preliminary research review will include an overview of texts, primary and secondary research articles and studies that explore prison overcrowding, criminal behavior and law enforcement policies and procedures during the last three decades. Much of the research presented focuses on empirical evidenced gathered between the 1980s through the present. The results of this literature review will contribute to the meaning and impact of the primary research study proposed by the author.

History Incarceration and Prison Overcrowding

Alexander (1998) provides some history about…… [Read More]

References:
Alexander, Elizabeth. A troubling response to overcrowded prisons. Civil Rights Journal,

Clark, R.V. & Homeal, R. "A revised classification of situational crime prevention techniques," in S.P. Lab (ed.), Crime Prevention at the Crossroads, Cincinnati: Anderson (1997): 17-27.
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Prison System According to the

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23872442

S. during 2004 were actually at the lowest level in over three decades (U.S.).

Given the growing prison population, U.S. legal experts are urging policy-makers to reconsider current sentencing policies, in an effort to avoid expensive incarceration costs and to invest in more productive prevention and treatment approaches to crime (U.S.).

Many believe that prisons and incarceration have become the panacea for all of society's ills, and where once the U.S. looked to the welfare state to alleviate social problems, today it simply looks to prisons, and in particular the phenomenon of the prison-industrial complex, where capitalism flourishes from locking people in cages (History). Prison has become not only a class weapon, but an instrument of control, in particular the control of 'alien' populations, populations that were formerly colonized peoples, such as former slaves, Native Americans, Latin Americans, Asians, and Pacific Islanders, who all too often have been considered the internal enemy (Buck). Despite the stereotype of country club atmosphere, prisons have become a system of inhumanity and cruelty, in which the mentally ill are warehoused and healthy prisoners fall prey to the insane and brutal conditions of prison's bedlam (Buck). Prison rape is common, both rape by guards of…… [Read More]

Sources:
Buck, Marilyn. "The U.S. Prison State." The Monthly Review. February 2004. Retrieved November 05, 2005 at http://www.monthlyreview.org/0204buck.htm

Corrections Statistics: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved November 05 from The United States Department of Justice Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/correct.htm
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Women Who Kill Their Children

Words: 2425 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22538701

When their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.

The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).

With all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity. However, understanding of psychoses, especially postpartum psychosis, is still a long way from complete, and medical experts do not always agree on what constitutes insanity in the context of postpartum physical and psychological stresses. In the case of Andrea Yates, for instance, she was initially found guilty of murder and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Child Abuse Prevention Network.  http://child-abuse.com/ . Accessed 1 February 2011.

Jones, a. (2009) Women Who Kill. New York: The Feminist Press of the City College of New York.
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Women and the Book of Judges

Words: 1559 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85407148

Women in the Book Of Judges

Prof Name

The Book of Judges talks about ancient Israel, and how they extended their territory by acquiring lands from the non-Israelites. The book narrates how Israelites conquered and reclaimed their lost land from non-Israelites and how they used to turn from God whenever they are satisfied. But it is written in the Bible that, the guilty are by no means cleared, as Exodus (34:7) says this is the reason why the Lord used several Kings and Judges like Deborah to help the people of Israel find their way back to Him. As the book reveals, it is evident that most of the judges were men (as they were most of the times referred to as Judges). The book talks about a great woman Deborah, also referred to as the "bee," as a key judge in the entire book. This book unveils the importance of women (through acts and strengths of Deborah (mainly) and other heroic female characters) and their power to the readers.

The Book of Judges narrates six women who are and will always be remembered by their outstanding and remarkable work. They are, Achsah, Deborah, Jael, Japhthah's daughter, Delilah and the…… [Read More]

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Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners Research Question

Words: 3099 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52728944

Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners

RESEARCH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION

On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).

The rapid increase of female prisoners in a male-dominated system has left fewer adequate resources available for women. In addition, most research shows that women's prison experiences differ drastically from those of men because their relationships inside and outside prison tend to shape the culture then enter into in prison.

Women…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
West, H. (2010, June 23). Prison Inmates at Midyewar 2009. Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs:

http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2200

Zaitow, B. And Thomas, J. eds. (2003). Women in Prison: Gender and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishing.
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Role of Prostitution Laws in Criminalizing Women

Words: 2271 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67003903

Criminalization occurs when women are treated like offenders rather than victims when they defend themselves against abusive males. Criminalized women are made to feel like they are the ones responsible for situations such as damage to property, child exposure to violence, immigration status issues, reputational damage, homelessness, and poverty occurring as a direct result of male violence. We have heard of numerous cases -- for instance, where women living with abusive partners are accused of failing to protect their children, and are held responsible in the unfortunate event that the children fall victim to, or witness disturbing episodes of domestic violence. The situation is no different in the prison system, where these women are incarcerated upon conviction. Rather than strive to address the social injustices such as poverty, sexual and domestic abuse, and psychological issues that drive such women to commit crime, we dedicate our attention to making their lives in prison as hard as is humanly possible.

We use the severest of techniques and put the most insensitive of people in as prison officials to induce them to change their criminal ways; but what we do not realize is that we are only colonizing them further and cultivating a…… [Read More]

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Pocatello Prison Case Study

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95581698

Pocatello, Idaho New Women's Prisons

ISSUES, COST, BENEFITS

New Women's Prisons in Pocatello, Idaho

Approximately 8 years ago, former State Corrections Director Tom Beauclair defended the need for three new prisons at the Pocatello Women's Correctional Center before the Joint-Finance Appropriations Committee (Russell, 2005). If lawmakers would approve the proposal, the additional 300 beds to the existing privately-run prison near Boise, a new 400-bed prison for female inmates and a 1,500-bed new prison for male inmates. These additional structures would cost almost $160 million Director Beauclair emphasized that these structures were needed in the five succeeding years in order to manage prisoners safely. He said that every State prison is overbooked, with the corrections department then having 360 more inmates than beds. At that time, the State had 6,502 inmates, which was an increase from 2,900 in 1994. Director Beauclair said they expected the population to increase by 30 every month the following year. He argued against overcrowding their prisons in order to save but warned against the adverse consequences of overcrowding. He explained that wardens did not have a separate place for those who severely misbehaved or attacked other inmates or the guards. He added that the prison staff,…… [Read More]

References:
Idaho State Journal: The Associated Press. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from  http://www.idahostatejournal.com/news/local/article_dd40c684-0aec-11df-b882-001cc4c002e0.html ?

Russell, B.Z. (2005). Idaho wants new prisons. The Spokesman-Review: The

Spokesman. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2005/jun/16/idaho-wants-new-prisons
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Analyzing the Women Prisoners

Words: 3397 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38077254

Incarcerated Women

The number of people incarcerated in the United States has been on the rise and women have greatly contributed to this trend. Through their increased numbers in jail it is estimated that their numbers grow annually by about 8%. Women from minority groups form the major part of this population. These are the women who come from low economic backgrounds and areas neglected politically. The women of color are the majority of those incarcerated. They come from neighborhoods that are typically poor, have little access to mental health facilities and receive little or minimal help from social services. These women make up the larger proportion of inmates at jails, prisons, and detention centers. Irwin (2009) and Jenness (2010) states that these women are in jail for committing non-violent offences related to poverty, drug abuse and being abused domestically.

Thesis Statement

This paper will focus on the ethnography of incarcerated women. Research will be carried out on penal confinement. The current developments are outlined and grouped by the themes of gossip, race and ethnicity, gender and the number of times of incarceration. The main direction of the paper will be focusing on how the prison society relates and communicates…… [Read More]

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Holloway Hmp Holloway Road Prison

Words: 6856 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22617462

The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000

BY HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.

4. Theoretical aspects

There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are important in order to improve conditions for the female prisoners and to encourage as lower rate of recidivism after release. Related to this is the important issue of child care within and outside the prison and the general finding that children who are separated for their mother for long periods…… [Read More]

References:
Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By

 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html  [Accessed 2 April, 2010].
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Treatment of Women Offenders The

Words: 3904 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52229761

CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.

Recommendation #2)

The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)

Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress by being confined in an institution with mainly male authority structures. One issue that has only recently been studied is post-traumatic stress within prisons. A woman entering prison may experience extreme states of stress which can lead to further psychological problems. "A woman's first symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome may…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bilchik, Shay, Cyntha Seymour, and Kristen Kreisher. "Parents in Prison." Corrections Today Dec. 2001: 108+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com/.

Bjorhus, Jennifer. "Getting into Prison." Columbia Journalism Review July-Aug. 1994: 14+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com/.
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Drug Prison Email L Jones Officer

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86701001



Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check out the publications from Deputy Director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn -- especially, "Drugs in Prison, Another Quick Fix (2005)." Also, consider the 2002 Corrections Today article by Jeff Goodale. I trust that both of these writers will present my point quite will.

In short, I urge you to consider my opinion regarding an alternative sentencing option for offenders like Mr. Smith. In my opinion one of the states in-patient, minimum security rehabilitation centers may be more appropriate. Please let me know what you think.

Thank you very much for your time.

Sincerely:

Officer Betty Rumble

Works Cited

Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August. Retrieved from Web site on October 18, 2005, from, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1850/is_200208/ai_n7187734

Flynn, Nick. (2005). Drugs in Prison: Another Quick Fix. Web page. DrugText.org. Retrieved on October 18, 2005, from, http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/four1.html… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August. Retrieved from Web site on October 18, 2005, from, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1850/is_200208/ai_n7187734

Flynn, Nick. (2005). Drugs in Prison: Another Quick Fix. Web page. DrugText.org. Retrieved on October 18, 2005, from, http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/four1.html
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Women First Wave Susan B

Words: 1812 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15247087

She is the daughter of Alice Walker, who wrote the Color Purple. She took her mother's maiden name at the age of 18. Rebecca graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1993, and moved on to co-found the Third Wave Foundation. She is considered to be one of the founding leaders of third-wave feminism. In addition to her contributing editorship for Ms. Magazine, Walker's work has also been published by Harper's, Essence, Glamour, Interview, Buddhadharma, Vibe, Child, and Mademoiselle magazines. Her relationship with her mother has been strained because of various public indictments the younger Walker made against her. Nevertheless, some believe that Rebecca might not have been as famous or powerful today without her ties to the illustrious Alice Walker.

Jennifer Baumgardner is a prominent voice for women and girls. She works as a writer, speaker and activist. During 1993-1997, she worked as the youngest editor at Ms. Magazine, after which she began writing for various publications, including Harper's and the Nation. She has also written for major women's magazines, such as Jane, Glamour, Marie Claire, and Elle. She co-authored the book Manifesta: Young Women, Feminism, and the Future and Grassroots: A Field Guide with Amy Richards. Jennifer is…… [Read More]

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Women in Society

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21360066

Room of One's Own," the author discussed how men continuously perpetuated the idea that men are superior than women. Woolf asserted this position through the "looking-glass vision," in which she posits that, "[w]omen have served all these centuries as looking-glasses possessing the magic and delicious power of reflecting the figure of man at twice its natural size." Thus, acting as looking-glasses of the society, women are then relegated to a lower status while men, having witnessed their superiority through their "perceived" 'frailty' of women, takes up a higher status superior than women. Audre Lorde in her work, "Age, Race, Class, and Sex," illustrates how different view their stratification in the society. Lorde shows how a difference of perspectives of people with different ages, classes, races, and sexes manifest the degree of his/her outlook about his/her standing or status in the society. Thus, just like what Lorde exemplifies in her essay, a white American woman might view herself as stratified based on sex while an Africa-American woman might view herself stratified based on class, race, and sex. Because of differing and not reconciled perspectives, women continue to perpetuate their role as the sector belonging to the lower strata of the society.…… [Read More]

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Women Offenders

Words: 1444 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34357643

Department of Corrections for the state of California, there are approximately 160,000 individuals in jail in the state of California. (California Prison Growth 2003) The census shows that 9,797 of these individuals are women and 150,000 are men. (California Prison Growth 2003)There are several issues that make prison life in California particularly difficult for women. These issues concern vocational services, educational services, healthcare, and rehabilitation services. The purpose of this discussion is to review previous studies that have examined the disparity in the treatment of men and women in California's prisons.

Methodology-Secondary Data Analysis

Healthcare

One of the most significant issues facing female inmates in California and throughout the country is the issue of healthcare. The first study that we examined discussed the challenge of providing healthcare to California's female inmate population.

The report was published by the California Policy Research Center, University of California. The author of the article did not conduct the study.

Research Design and Procedure

The published report is a combination of various studies on the conditions facing female inmates in California's Corrections System. The research includes information gathered from filed complaints and interviews with prisoners. The study

Examines access to health care for women who…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Prison Life for Inmates

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77684400

Prison Life for Inmates

Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The British constructed the historic cell at Port Blair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the actual punishment. In the recent past, imprisonment has been largely perceived as a way of reforming the inmates and not necessarily punishing them. Mahatma Gandhi once said acts of crime are a result of a diseased mind. He proposed that the prisons that host the offenders must be crafted as…… [Read More]

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How Did Nursing Change Social Roles of Northern Women During the Civil War

Words: 7299 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96446723

Nursing & Women's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil War

The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil War and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil War (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil War changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.

The Woman's role in America prior to the Civil War

"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it has never become out of date; indeed, because it has more than a ring of truth to it, it has been used often in the 217 years since Martha Moore Ballard penned it in her journal one November night around midnight in 1795 (Cott, 1997, p. 19). Author Nancy Cott…… [Read More]

Resources:
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A

Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
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Sensibility Women's Identities Are Determined and Limited

Words: 3459 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9019013

Sensibility Women's Identities Are Determined and Limited by the Expectations of Their Societies

Literature written by and about women lends itself very well to feminist interpretative approaches of various kinds. Such approaches often examine the literature of earlier centuries for signs of discontent with or subversive suggestions against aspects of a society in which men have exclusive control of power. Such an approach is especially fruitful to use when examining Jane Austen's novels since she was writing in a cultural climate that did not accept direct opposition to the status quo. Only through an indirect critique could she publish views critical of the prevailing laws and conditions under which women of her time were forced to live.

By 1811, when Sense and Sensibility was published, an intense backlash against the women's rights fiction of the 1790s had made the publication of blatantly feminist works impossible in England. Yet the women's rights literature of fifteen to twenty years earlier had been very widely read and discussed, and many of the concepts explored in it continued to be in the minds of many of the writers of the early nineteenth century. Jane Austen was one such writer. In Sense and Sensibility she…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.

Cosslett, Tess. Woman to Woman: Female Friendships in Victorian Fiction. Atlantic Heights: Humanities P, 1988.
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Civil War Era Important Women

Words: 1469 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38150730

Her involvement finally earned her the Medal of Honor, and enduring gratitude for her contribution as a physician to the war effort.

Probably one of the most famous women who worked during the Civil War was Clara Harlowe Barton. Barton was a nurse during the war, who at first simply stockpiled medical supplies and food that she knew the soldiers would need, and later took her supplies into the field where they were most needed. One historian wrote of her right after the war ended, "Her devotion to her work has been remarkable, and her organizing abilities are unsurpassed among her own sex and equaled by very few among the other" (Brockett and Bellows 132). Later, her work in the field and her stockpiling of supplies in warehouses became known as the "Sanitary Commission," which eventually evolved into the worldwide humanitarian organization known as the Red Cross. Clara Barton worked tirelessly to bring food, medical supplies, and solace to the injured and dying soldiers on both sides of the war, and she is one of the most well-known women who worked during the Civil War.

Life was difficult for women during the war. With their men off fighting, they had…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Brockett, L.P., and Henry W. Bellows. Woman's Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Ed. Mary C. Vaughan. Philadelphia: Zeigler, McCurdy, 1867.

Dumene, Joanne E. "A Woman's Military Service as 'Albert Cashier'." The Washington Times 7 Dec. 2002: B03.
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Jealousy Among Men and Women

Words: 2690 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23500412

This implies that the jealousy trait is in fact not evolutionary, since it is not always the same reaction (DeSteno, et al., 2002).

In addition, DeSteno also found that, while women showed a slight tendency to rate emotional infidelity as worse than sexual infidelity, they did not differ from men on sexual infidelity ratings alone. When asked to rate the level of distress due to sexually infidelity, without comparing it to emotional infidelity, men and women rated the distress the same (DeSteno, et al., 2002). This implies that while women may be more distressed then men at emotional infidelity, there is no difference between the sexes in levels of distress for sexual infidelity alone.

In fact, even studies which purport to support the theory that men are more jealous than women show similar results to those of DeSteno. Buss and his colleagues' study in 1992 reported a difference in male and female jealousy ratings. However, when examined, only electrodermal skin activity and pulse rate differed between men and women in the study. Brain activity between men and women did not differ (Buss, et al., 1992). According to DeSteno, this result means that while the findings may indicate some level of…… [Read More]

References:
Brehm, S.S. (1985). Intimate relationships. New York: Random House, Inc.

Buss, D.M., Larsen, R.J., Westen, D., & Semmelroth, J. (1992). Sex differences in jealousy: Evolution, physiology, and psychology. Psychological Science, 3: 251-255.
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Yellow Woman Story Linda Hogan's Aunt Moon's

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41688409

Yellow Woman Story: Linda Hogan's

"Aunt Moon's Young Man"

Native American literature recounts legends which have meaning for the people for thousands of years. Like stories told around the campfires of any early culture, the telling of tales kept the culture relevant through their maintenance of the group's shared history. Among those tales are the "Yellow Woman" stories of "the Keres of Laguna and the Acoma Pueblos in New Mexico" (Allen 226). These stories were about unconventional women who often did not accept traditional roles. Sometimes "she lives with her grandmother at the edge of the village, for example, or she is in some way atypical, maybe a woman who refuses to marry, one who is known for some particular special talent, or one who is very quick-witted and resourceful" (Allen 226). The tales continue in the writings of modern authors such as Linda Hogan whose short story "Aunt Moon's Young Man" describes the attitudes and journeys of three women who embody three levels of women found in many of the Yellow Woman legends. The story's narrator, her mother, and the title character Aunt Moon (Bess Evening), are all contributors, within the short, of the yellow woman mythos in different…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Allen, Paula Gunn. " Kochinnenako: The Figure of 'Yellow Woman.'" The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the feminine in American Indian Traditions. Boston: Beacon, 1992.

Hogan, Linda. "Aunt Moon's Young Man." 1991. Rpt. In Purdy and Rupert, eds. 266-81.
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First Women's Movement

Words: 1539 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59674844

Women's Movement

During the early 19th century, advocacy for equal suffrage was conducted by few people. Frances Wright first publicly advocated womens suffrage in an extensive series of lectures. In 1836, Ernestine Rose carried out a similar lecture series, which eventually resulted in a personal hearing before the New York Legislature. However, the petition contained only five signatures and was subsequently denied. The first true women's movement marks July 13, 1848 as its beginning. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and four female friends had a discussion regarding the limitations imposed upon them by society because of their gender. Several days later, this group picked a date to hold a convention to discuss the "social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman." The gathering took place at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 and 20, 1848 (Stodart, 1993).

Elizabeth Cady Stanton constructed a document entitled "Declaration of Sentiments." In this Declaration, Stanton detailed areas of life in which women were unjustly treated. A portion of the text read, "The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny…… [Read More]

References:
Hektor, L.M. (1994). Florence Nightingale and the women's movement: friend or foe? Nurs Inq, 1(1), 38-45.

Morgan, T.M. (2003). The education and medical practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), first black American to hold a medical degree. J Natl Med Assoc, 95(7), 603-614.
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Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Words: 7415 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92508545

Women in Prison

Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Problems in corrections:

Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system

The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to their involvement in serious crime. Women imprisoned in state and federal correctional institutions throughout the United States totaled 94,336 at mid-year 2001, representing 6.6% of the total prisoner population" (Zaitzow 2004).

The 'war on drugs' and laws such as 'three strikes and you are out' have increased incarceration rates for…… [Read More]

Sources:
Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.

Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,
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Born but Rather Becomes a Woman Simone

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88717533

born, but rather becomes, a woman.

Simone de Beauvoir

In her famous quotation from The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir challenges the notion that biology is destiny, and one's sex determines one's character. Although males and females may possess different physical characteristics, the interpretation of those characteristics is cultural in nature. For example, women menstruate -- this is a biological fact. However, the social interpretation of this fact, that women are somehow inferior to men because they menstruate, is a product of culture. Different cultural notions are imposed upon the sexes from a very early age, in both explicit and subtle ways. A boy may be told not to cry when he falls down playing soccer; a girl may be praised for loving pink. However, over time, these messages come to shape the human personality and because human beings are social animals, such gender-related pressures are difficult to resist. This becomes particularly true in adolescence, when there is pressure upon young men and women to find a partner.

Although both the social shaping of men and women affects their developing psyches, De Beauvoir believed that for women, the social strictures were particularly onerous. In the case of middle-class women, gender…… [Read More]

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Transnational Feminism Women's Culture- This

Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3177851

For centuries women have entered into political struggle in order to secure the livelihoods of their families and communities." What is new is the advent of women in leadership positions and political office who have incorporated women issues into their programs which offers new hope and presents new possibilities. Just as British women felt their country was full of freedom even though they did not have the right to vote there are cultures in the world that freedom within that specific society would be prison within another in the view of women.

In order for feminism to become transnational the elite women in the richer countries must be able to consider and conceive the plight of the rural women in a third world country and as well all within the feminist movement must be able within their own consciousness to cross a deep chasm in order to comprehend women of other nations and cultures as to what their specific needs might be, even though those may be very different from their own.

References

Brenner, Johanna (2003) Transnational Feminism and The Struggle for Global Justice [from New Politics, vol.9 no.2 whole 34, winter 2003) Online available at http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue34/brenne34.htm.

Grewal, Inderpal &…… [Read More]

Resources:
Brenner, Johanna (2003) Transnational Feminism and The Struggle for Global Justice [from New Politics, vol.9 no.2 whole 34, winter 2003) Online available at http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue34/brenne34.htm.

Grewal, Inderpal & Kaplan, Caren (2000) Postcolonial Studies and Transnational Feminist Practices San Franciso State University and University of California Berkley Online available at http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v5i1/grewal.htm.
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Physical Activity in Prison the Effects That

Words: 4156 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16334162

Physical Activity in Prison

The effects that prison incarceration has on the health and well-being of inmates are multi-faceted and complex. The prison environment presents stressors not experienced outside of the prison context that can bring about exacerbated health problems and psychological difficulties. Health care delivery in prisons is an important issue, as primary healthcare initiatives designed to focus on disease prevention are required in order to maintain health in the prison population that is comparable to the outside world. An important component for many primary health programs is a physical exercise regimen. The following discussion outlines the issue of including organized physical activity as a component to prison programming, examining its many benefits and suggestions are made with regard to how exercise programs within prisons could be improved upon in order to best serve the health and well-being of prisoners and contribute to inmate rehabilitation.

Prisoners' rights to physical activity in prison

Since prisoners are not a visible demographic to the general population, the health and well-being of this group is not often reflected upon in typical healthcare considerations. Little is known about the health conditions and needs for healthcare within prison because in the United States, inmates are…… [Read More]

References:
Agozino, B., Volpe, S.L. (2009). Health inequalities in correctional institutions: implications for health inequalities in the community. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 15(4), 251-67.

American Diabetes Association (2008). Diabetes management in correctional institutions. Diabetes Care, 34(1), S27-S81.
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History of Women in Law

Words: 2227 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66426936

"By the end of the 1980s many departments had set up detailed procedures to ensure equality and had employed full-time and specialist staff to promote and pursue such policies." (Heidensohn, 1995, p. 60)

The number of females in law enforcement was to increase rapidly and in 1986 about 9 per cent of U.S. officers were female. (Adler 1990) One of the key issues that had to be overcome was the concern about women policemen on patrol. In 1968 "Indianapolis sent two women out on patrol... But the decision of Washington, DC to deploy eighty-six women on patrol in 1972, and to evaluate their performance, is perhaps the best-known example." BLOCH P, and ANDERSON D., et al. 1973)

With these advances of women's rights and the continual evidence of female ability and accomplishment in the field of law enforcement, women were able to apply for all specialist posts in the Unites States. However, there were still reported areas of discrimination and barriers to advancement for female officers'. Heidensohn states: "In my own research, I found that women officers faced barriers to appointments as dog handlers, mounted police, and detectives. (Heidensohn, 1995, p. 63)

3. Conclusion

While there are many areas in…… [Read More]

Sources:
ADLER Z. (1990), a Fairer Cop, U.S. Police Record on Equal Opportunities, Wainwright Trust Study Tour Report No. 1 (Wainwright Trust: London).

BLOCH P., and ANDERSON D., et al. (1973), Policewomen on Patrol: Major Findings: First Report, (Police Foundation: Washington, DC)
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Gilman and Henrik Ibsen Women

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74586232



Finding no recourse or way to express her true feelings and thoughts, the Narrator began reflecting on her oppression through the yellow wallpaper patterns on the walls of her room: "The front pattern does move -- and no wonder! The woman behind shakes it! Sometimes I think there are a great many women behind, and sometimes only one, and she crawls around fast...and in the very shady spots she just takes hold of the bars and shakes them hard" (Roberts and Jacobs, 1998:550). This passage can be interpreted in two ways: seeing the woman within the wallpaper patterns may signify her dissociation from herself psychologically by succumbing to insanity. However, this process may also be construed as her way of breaking out of the prison that is her marriage, the oppression she felt being dominated by John and the limits that marriage had put on her as a woman. Though the Narrator ended up insane, she succeeded in overcoming her oppression; in fact, she gained the power to overcome her husband's control through insanity. Dissociating the married woman and wife that is the Narrator to become the insane individual she has become in "Yellow Wallpaper" was Gilman's radical resolution against…… [Read More]

References:
Jacobs, H. And E. Roberts. (1998). Literature: an introduction to reading and writing. NJ: Prentice Hall.