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omen in Prison
The justice system is designed to enact punishment on those who have committed a crime. It is not supposed to be a gateway to a regime of state imposed terror. For many women incarcerated in the United States, the prison system is nothing less than a torture chamber. For these women, sexual abuse and gross misconduct at the hands of those who are supposed to protect them are commonplace.
omen in U.S. Prisons Statistics
Before engaging in the specifics of the injustices faced by many women in U.S. prisons we must first look at who is incarcerated. The omen and Global Rights eb site offers the following statistics on the female prison population.
In 1997, there were 138,000 women in prison in the United States. Most of these incarcerations were drug-related or self-defense.
The number of women incarcerated in the United States is TEN TIMES more than…
All Too Familiar: Sexual Abuse of Women in U.S. State Prisons" Human Rights Watch Work on Women in State Custody in the United States. 2001 Human Rights Watch. 17 Dec. 2002. http://www.hrw.org/women/custody.php?country=United%20States,%20Domestic .
Deen, Thalif. "Rights-U.S.: U.N. Official Barred from U.S. Women's Prisons" 1998. 17 Dec 2002 http://www.oneworld.net/ips2/aug98/03_56_003.html.
Hartz, Lynn. "Women Prisoners Caged in Texas: Restrained During Birth." Prisoner Advocacy and the Criminal Justice System. 2001. Suite 101.Com. 17 Dec 2002 http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/prisoner_advocacy/72538.
Olson. Elizabeth. "Guards' Misconduct In Prison Reprted U.N. Says Women Prisoners in U.S. Abused" San Francisco Chronicle. 31 March 1999. Renee Boje Special Defense Fund 17 Dec. 2002. http://www.reneeboje.com/prison.html .
Women in prison were often exposed to sexual abuse by their male supervisors. There were rapes, beatings and sexual favors for the return of food or clothing in many of the nation's female penitentiaries.
One prison chaplain who was visiting women in the New York prison system recorded in his diary the hardships of women in prisons during that period of American history (Dodge, 1999).
To be a male convict in this prison would be quite tolerable; but to be a female convict, for any protracted period, would be worse than death (Dodge, 1999)."
Prison officials routinely ignored any need of female prisoners and instead complained about the experiences they had supervising a female population.
As the female population of prisoners grew however, families and loved ones of those in prison began to demand change.
For the last century there have been many changes implemented in the female prison system.…
Dodge, L. Mara (1999) One female prisoner is of more trouble than twenty males": women convicts in Illinois prisons, 1835-1896. Journal of Social History
Shatell, Cathy (2004) Females in Prison: A Call for Change. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Women in Policing
women's initial police work followed work in prisons
Estelle B. Freedman's book, Their Sister's Keepers: Women's Prison eform in America, 1830-1930, focuses not on women emerging as police officers, but rather on women in prisons, and women who were employed by prisons to work with female inmates. On page 19, Freedman explains that in the late 19th Century, "sexual ideology began to suggest that purity came naturally to women, in contrast to men, who had to struggle to control their innate lust." It was argued by "influential Victorian authorities" that women did not have an appetite for sex, but rather they just went through the motions to have children. This attitude laid the groundwork for the vicious hatred society had for "impure women" who had the capacity "to unleash not just male sperm, but more importantly, the social disintegration that sexuality symbolized" (20).
And so, the "fallen…
Freedman, Estelle B. (1981). Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Schulz, Dorothy Moses. (1995). From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal Policing. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
Segrave, Kerry. (1995). Policewomen: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland
Not only was it cost effective but the study also reported that offenders who were treated in the community setting were 43% less likely to reoffend compared to the prison population clearly suggesting the effectiveness of community-based sentences. [Amanda Noblet, 2008, pg 27]
The criminal justice system is clearly unprepared and ill equipped to manage the unique needs of women in prison. There is clearly a need for a specific focus on Mental illness, sexual violence and drug abuse, reproductive health and other issues that are very relevant to the incarcerated female population. Clearly our female correctional facilities are under resourced and over crowded and overcrowded prisons are not ideal for reformation but instead create more problems. Since majority of women prisoners are incarcerated for minor drug related offenses and property crimes, a more liberal and effective reformative approach should be pursued. Community based alternative sentencing programs should be…
1) the Sentencing Project, (2007), 'Women in the Criminal Justice System: Briefing Sheets', retrieved April 25th 2010, from, http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/womenincj_total.pdf
2) Amanda Noblet, (2008), ' Women in Prison: A Review of Current Female Prison System: Future Directions and Alternatives',, retrieved April 25th 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Noblet%20-%20Women%20in%20Prison.pdf
3) Nancy Kurshan, 'Women and imprisonment in U.S.', retrieved April 25th 2010, from, http://www.prisonactivist.org/archive/women/women-and-imprisonment.html
4) Barbara Owen, 2010, ' Women in Prison', retrieved April 25th 2010 http://www.drugpolicy.org/communities/women/womeninpriso/
5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)
The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)
The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…
delineation of the research hypotheses. The chapter will conclude with an outline of the remaining chapters.
Relevant Background Information
Increasingly, female offenders and issues associated with their incarceration have been identified as a problem of concern. Evidence suggests that female offenders represent a growing population within the U.S. penal system. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of female inmates in state prisons increased 75% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994). Between 1981 and 1991, the number of females incarcerated in federal penal institutions also increased by 24%. Since 1980 the population of women inmates has increased by more than 200% (Gabel & Johnston, 1995). Women inmates currently account for 9% of the entire prison population and of this group, 57% are women of color.
The majority of women are arrested for nonviolent crimes. Typical offenses include fraud, use of illegal drugs, and prostitution (Singer, Bussey, Song, & Lunghofer, 1995). Evidence also…
Studies indicate that there are more poor women in prison than ever before, and this puts women at risk to become mothers younger, and to have more instability in relationships and family life as their relationships progress. Authors Travis and Visher continue, "Imprisoned offenders are disproportionately from impoverished backgrounds, which places them at greater risk for early and nonmarital parenthood. Early transitions to parenthood are clearly linked to later instability in marriage and relationships and welfare dependency (Travis and Visher, 2005, p. 222-223). Thus, incarcerating more women is putting more families at risk, and creating a vicious circle of poverty, despair, and hopelessness that can simply lead to more criminal activity and incarceration. In addition, this leads to overcrowding of prisons and higher costs for the criminal justice system that must now administer and support more females in prison, rather than on probations, which is what many received before the…
Pope, a.E. (2002). A feminist look at the death penalty. Law and Contemporary Problems, 65(1), 257+.
Travis J. And Visher, C.A. (2005). Prisoner reentry and crime in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Yet, one should take into account a cetain pat of the statement, egading the status of the victims. The expession "low net woth people" must not, by any chance and even if it's the case of citing an authoity, appea in an aticle. No matte the status and the position of a peson in the society's hieachy, life is the most valuable good one has and has the same impotance fo all pees.
In geneal, the aticle can eceive a positive eview. It is objective and the case is clealy exposed, it does not contain ielevant pieces of infomation and it does not insist on mino details. The lack of desciption fo potagonists leads to ceating no peconceptions. Futhemoe, media does not oughly exploit the stoy. One can not assume thee is sensitiveness in naating the case, but as mentioned befoe, the aticle elies on objectiveness. Howeve, the only aspect…
references for including some details and avoiding others is what leads to misperceptions and created social attitudes towards a case or a category of people.
Moreover, this type of approach emphasizes not the violent act that has occurred and whose victim was a helpless, undefended woman, but the image of a woman offering sex in exchange of a home. One should ask, first of all, what were the reasons of the respective woman that made her resort to such a solution. The same case, with the same protagonists can be analyzed from different perspectives and the guilty person would appear differently, in accord to what is mentioned about her and what is avoided.
In terms of cited source, the article uses statements from people involved in the community and local service, which one can consider a positive aspect, as people who can share from their day-to-day experience from a community are not only interested in talking, but can offer important information both for the media and for the local inhabitants.
As a conclusion, the article offers the exact model of a case which emphasizes not the offence itself, but the character's background, managing to place the responsibility almost exclusively on the victim. Moreover, details about the aggressor are not even mentioned. The only statement regarding consists in reminding the existence of a precedent in these type of cases, a robber and a killer who used to find his victims through advertisements.
What one must know is that, in contrast to this article, crimes that occur must be analyzed from all points-of-view and one must look for the context as a whole. Not the fact the above-mentioned woman rejoined the advertisement is relevant for the case, but the reasons which stood behind her choice. Only by finding correlations among all factors, one can contribute to the improvement of crimes' statistics, as he can learn how to prevent.
In colonial America, formal education for girls historically has been secondary to that for boys. In colonial America girls learned to read and write at dame schools. They could attend the master's schools for boys when there was room, usually during the summer when most of the boys were working. (Women's International Center)
During the latter half of the Republic Era, rapid economic growth presented new opportunities for northern white women. Previously limited to homework or to household-related jobs like cleaning and cooking, some young women now became school teachers or mill workers. One destination for young farm women was the Lowell mills in Massachusetts, at the falls of the Merrimac River. An unnamed rural crossroads in 1823, Lowell by 1830 boasted ten mills and three thousand operatives, nearly all of them female. (oyer)
eginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased.…
Boyer, Paul S. "Early Republic, Era of the." 2001. encyclopedia.com. 20 February 2009 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html .
Do History. "Who Was Martha Ballard?" n.d. Do History. 19 February 2009 http://dohistory.org/martha/index.html .
Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Women and Work in Early America." n.d. about.com. 20 February 2009 http://womenshistory.about.com/od/worklaborunions/a/early_america.htm .
PBS. "Martha Ballard's Diary." n.d. PBS. 19 February 2009 http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/midwife/gallery/index.html.
Women of today have come along way because society has recognized that they have voices as well as men do. From the entire world, women have maintained their place due to the new customs that have arisen over the years. They have been able to go vote and work, which puts them as equals with men For example, South Korea; there is a female president instead of a make. Therefore, women have overcome the stereotypes that society has created from sixty years ago. No matter what country or culture women are in, it has been proven during the last two decades they are no longer inferior when it comes to being equals with men. In other words, regardless of what society throws at women, they become stronger and more powerful every day.
In Mexico, Mexicans place a high value on family and traditional values. lthough women make up an increasingly…
Along with India, South Korea has build up support for women so that they can be equal. The Korean Women's Development Institute or KWDI was established in 1983 to promote women's social participation and welfare by carrying out research and studies on women, by providing education and training for women, and by assisting women's activities. A law passed by the Korean National Assembly in 1982 mandates the KWDI to assist government in popularizing gender consciousness, as well as in promoting gender equality in policy formulation and implementation. Originally under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and then under the Ministry of Political Affairs, KWDI is now being coordinated by the Special Committee on Women's Affairs directly under the Office of the President (South Korea).
KWDI has three anchor programs, namely; the Research Center, the Lifelong Education Center, and the Women's Information Center. The Research Center carries out basic research and policy studies to promote gender consciousness in various fields of society and life as well as to formulate and implement policies that supports gender equality. The Lifelong Education Center provides gender consciousness education, women's leadership training, women's capacity development, and training of international experts. It also hosts international activities, and acts as a comprehensive assistance center for women's non-formal education. Last but not the least, the Women's Information Center produces and distributes information about the research and projects of the KWDI, as well as information about women's issues and concerns. It systematizes and computerizes various kinds of women's information through databases, and provides information service through its library, various publications, and its nation-wide electronic information network (South Korea). Therefore, women in South Korea have become very strong and determined without the help with men which only means they are growing more powerful every day.
In that case, women in most societies were denied some of the legal and political rights accorded to men. Although women in much of the world have gained significant legal rights, many people believe that women still do not have complete political, economic, and social equality with men. In South Korea, through AWORC, the KWDI hopes to share its resource and library holdings to women outside of South Korea, and to make resource and information generated by women's organizations and institutes accessible to the communities it serves. Throughout each countrywomen are becoming more self-made and the only people that they rely on themselves.
Women and Acts of Violent Crimes in the Year Of
The increased involvement of women involved in violent crimes in the year of 2013 has led to the development of more equitable services in a system primarily created from research based on male adolescent offenders (Sondheimer, 2001). Studying women and violent crimes has been crucial to understanding their acts compared to men. Statistics show that there is a growing amount of violence coming from women in the past two years when compared to women. Since 2012 the amount of female defendants convicted of felonies in State courts has grown at more than 2 times the rate of rise in male defendants. In 2013 an estimated 960,000 women were under the care, control, or custody of correctional agencies & probation or parole organizations verseeing 75% of these offenders in the community. The entire equals a rate of around 1 woman involved…
Creswell, J.W. (2011). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Her we see resentment emerge even in death. Love was an "unsolved mystery" (636) for Louise and she had no problem giving up the "possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being" (636). Louise appreciates a life without love because love is nothing but a hindrance. Contemporary women simply cannot relate to marriage being so much like an ownership deal. omen enjoy marriage and love and men have learned to recognize the potential of women outside the home. omen look forward to marriage because they know they are not sacrificing anything when they do it. Marriage is more like a sharing of two persons rather than a husband lording his power over his wife. In short, something is wrong when the death of a spouse brings joy instead of sorrow. Through this observation, we see how important a sense of self is for every…
Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lauter,
Paul, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990. Print.
omen in Abusive Relationships
According to a report in the Public Broadcasting Service, the home is one of the "most dangerous places for a woman" (PBS). That is because of the legacy of domestic abuse that many women have had to go through, and are going through today. Indeed, the U.S. Department of Justice reports that two-thirds of violent attacks against women are perpetrated by someone that woman knows. Every year about 1,500 women are actually killed by boyfriends or husbands, the Justice Department explains. And every year nearly 2 million men "beat their partners," according to the FBI. This paper reviews the statistics, the reasons that women decide to stay in those relationships, and what alternatives there are for her.
The Abuse of omen -- Background Information
The Public Broadcasting Service story indicates that 95% of victims of domestic violence are women, and that women are "7 to 10…
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (2011). Antoine Robert Three Fingers Sentenced in U.S. District Court. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://saltlakecity.fbi.gov .
Mayo Clinic. (2010). Domestic Violence Against Women: Recognize Patterns, Seek Help.
Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/domestic-violence/WO00044/method=print .
Morris, Carrie A. Wachter, Shoffner, Marie F., and Newsome, Deborah W. (2009). Career
omen and Gender Studies
Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.
Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female
Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):
omen's Rights Movement In The 1970s
In A People's History of the United States, Zinn begins his narrative of the liberation of women with the women's suffrage movement of the early twentieth century. However, according to Zinn, even after women were granted their vote, their identity was still largely measured by their success in living up to the idealized role models of wife and mother till the overt feminist movement of the late 1960s. Till then, the only time that women were allowed to break the traditional stereotype mold of femininity and domesticity was during periods such as war, civil strife or extreme economic conditions (Zinn, 503-6).
Zinn, in his account, gives a detailed description of the events that occurred in the 1960s. omen of all ages took active part in the civil rights movement of the sixties, which in a sense laid the ground for women collectively voicing their…
Friedan, Betty. "The Feminine Mystique." New York: Dell, 1974.
Rossi, Alice. "The Feminist Papers." New York: Columbia University Press,
Zinn, Howard. "Surprises." A People's History of the United States.
Women and children are facing abuse all over the world, astonishingly, in countries where rights against abuse are more pronounced than in any other country. We are going to take the case of the abuse of immigrant women and children, mainly those who struggle to get into the United States of America through the Mexican border.
It's only in the 21st century that we have to come to notice the rapid increase of women and children immigrants moving out for job opportunities.
Men, usually get work as laborers in industries of some kind while the women or children have to do odd and low jobs just to make ends meet and earn enough money to send or take back to their family. They usually find work as hired help in places like Grande valley, El Paso, San Diego, and everly Hills. (Jane Juffer, 1988)
Furthermore, women face daily harassments by…
AP Worldstream. Female illegal immigrants reporting sexual assaults, abuse. TUCSON, Arizona; 2004
Jane Juffer. Abuse at the border: Women face a Perilous crossing. The progressive; 1988.
Tony Kennedy. Help for abused immigrants; The federal money will help women who are victims of domestic and sexual abuse. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN); 2003.
Jane Juffer. Indentured Servitude. The Progressive; 1988.
The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.
The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's
Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…
Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,
2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
hen their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.
The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).
ith all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…
Child Abuse Prevention Network. http://child-abuse.com/ . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Jones, a. (2009) Women Who Kill. New York: The Feminist Press of the City College of New York.
Meyer, C., Oberman, M. And White, K. (2001). Mothers Who Kill Their Children. New York: NYU Press.
National Council for the Prosecution of Child Abuse. http://www.ndaa.org/ncpca_home.html . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Women in the Book Of Judges
The Book of Judges talks about ancient Israel, and how they extended their territory by acquiring lands from the non-Israelites. The book narrates how Israelites conquered and reclaimed their lost land from non-Israelites and how they used to turn from God whenever they are satisfied. But it is written in the Bible that, the guilty are by no means cleared, as Exodus (34:7) says this is the reason why the Lord used several Kings and Judges like Deborah to help the people of Israel find their way back to Him. As the book reveals, it is evident that most of the judges were men (as they were most of the times referred to as Judges). The book talks about a great woman Deborah, also referred to as the "bee," as a key judge in the entire book. This book unveils the importance…
Elazar, Daniel J. "The Isralite Tribal Federation and Its Discontents."Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 16 October 2015. < http://www.jcpa.org/dje/articles/judges.htm
Keathley, H. IV. (n.d.). The Role of Women in the Book of Judges. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from https://bible.org/article/role-women-book-judges
Murphy, K. J. (n.d.). Women in Judges [Resource]. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordbiblicalstudies.com/resource/lessonplan_8.xhtml
O'Connor, M. "Northwest Semitic Designations for Elective Social Affinities." Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society. 1-8, 67-80, 1987.
Criminalization occurs when women are treated like offenders rather than victims when they defend themselves against abusive males. Criminalized women are made to feel like they are the ones responsible for situations such as damage to property, child exposure to violence, immigration status issues, reputational damage, homelessness, and poverty occurring as a direct result of male violence. We have heard of numerous cases -- for instance, where women living with abusive partners are accused of failing to protect their children, and are held responsible in the unfortunate event that the children fall victim to, or witness disturbing episodes of domestic violence. The situation is no different in the prison system, where these women are incarcerated upon conviction. ather than strive to address the social injustices such as poverty, sexual and domestic abuse, and psychological issues that drive such women to commit crime, we dedicate our attention to making their lives…
Balfour, G. (2006). Introduction to Part III. In E. Comack & G. Balfour (Eds.), Criminalizing Women: Gender and (In)Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (pp. 157-76). Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing
Canadian Prostitution Related Laws as of December, 2014 ( URL Link XXX)
Casavant, L. & Valiquet, D. (2014). Bill C-36: An Act to Amend the Criminal Code in Response to the Supreme Court of Canada Decision in Attorney General of Canada vs. Benford and to make Consequential Amendments to Other Acts. Library of Parliament. (URL Link XXX)
Dell, C.A., Gardipy, J., Kirlin, N., Naytowhow, V. & Nicol, J.J. (2006). Enhancing the Well-Being of Criminalized, Indigenous Women. In E. Comack & G. Balfour (Eds.), Criminalizing Women: Gender and (In)Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (pp. 314 -329). Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing
Pocatello, Idaho New Women's Prisons
ISSUES, COST, ENEFITS
New Women's Prisons in Pocatello, Idaho
Approximately 8 years ago, former State Corrections Director Tom eauclair defended the need for three new prisons at the Pocatello Women's Correctional Center before the Joint-Finance Appropriations Committee (Russell, 2005). If lawmakers would approve the proposal, the additional 300 beds to the existing privately-run prison near oise, a new 400-bed prison for female inmates and a 1,500-bed new prison for male inmates. These additional structures would cost almost $160 million Director eauclair emphasized that these structures were needed in the five succeeding years in order to manage prisoners safely. He said that every State prison is overbooked, with the corrections department then having 360 more inmates than beds. At that time, the State had 6,502 inmates, which was an increase from 2,900 in 1994. Director eauclair said they expected the population to increase by 30 every…
Boone, R. (20100. Auditing agency: replace Pocatello Women's Correction Center.
Idaho State Journal: The Associated Press. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.idahostatejournal.com/news/local/article_dd40c684-0aec-11df-b882-001cc4c002e0.html?
Russell, B.Z. (2005). Idaho wants new prisons. The Spokesman-Review: The
Spokesman. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2005/jun/16/idaho-wants-new-prisons
The number of people incarcerated in the United States has been on the rise and women have greatly contributed to this trend. Through their increased numbers in jail it is estimated that their numbers grow annually by about 8%. Women from minority groups form the major part of this population. These are the women who come from low economic backgrounds and areas neglected politically. The women of color are the majority of those incarcerated. They come from neighborhoods that are typically poor, have little access to mental health facilities and receive little or minimal help from social services. These women make up the larger proportion of inmates at jails, prisons, and detention centers. Irwin (2009) and Jenness (2010) states that these women are in jail for committing non-violent offences related to poverty, drug abuse and being abused domestically.
This paper will focus on the ethnography of…
Castellano, Ursula. (2007). Becoming a Nonexpert and Other Strategies for Managing Fieldwork Dilemmas in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 36:704-730.
Comfort, Megan. (2008). Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Comfort, Megan. (2008). Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Crewe, Ben. (2009). The Prisoner Society: Power, Adaptation and Social Life in an English Prison. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000
Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.
4. Theoretical aspects
There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…
Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html [Accessed 2 April, 2010].
Female Prisoners [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
Holloway [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0 [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.
The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)
Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…
Bilchik, Shay, Cyntha Seymour, and Kristen Kreisher. "Parents in Prison." Corrections Today Dec. 2001: 108+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com /.
Bjorhus, Jennifer. "Getting into Prison." Columbia Journalism Review July-Aug. 1994: 14+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005
Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check out the publications from Deputy Director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn -- especially, "Drugs in Prison, Another Quick Fix (2005)." Also, consider the 2002 Corrections Today article by Jeff Goodale. I trust that both of these writers will present my point quite will.
In short, I urge you to consider my opinion regarding an alternative sentencing option for offenders like Mr. Smith. In my opinion one of the states in-patient, minimum security rehabilitation centers may be more appropriate. Please let me know what you think.
Thank you very much for your time.
Officer Betty Rumble
Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August.…
Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August. Retrieved from Web site on October 18, 2005, from, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1850/is_200208/ai_n7187734
Flynn, Nick. (2005). Drugs in Prison: Another Quick Fix. Web page. DrugText.org. Retrieved on October 18, 2005, from, http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/four1.html
She is the daughter of Alice Walker, who wrote the Color Purple. She took her mother's maiden name at the age of 18. Rebecca graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1993, and moved on to co-found the Third Wave Foundation. She is considered to be one of the founding leaders of third-wave feminism. In addition to her contributing editorship for Ms. Magazine, Walker's work has also been published by Harper's, Essence, Glamour, Interview, Buddhadharma, Vibe, Child, and Mademoiselle magazines. Her relationship with her mother has been strained because of various public indictments the younger Walker made against her. Nevertheless, some believe that Rebecca might not have been as famous or powerful today without her ties to the illustrious Alice Walker.
Jennifer Baumgardner is a prominent voice for women and girls. She works as a writer, speaker and activist. During 1993-1997, she worked as the youngest editor at Ms. Magazine,…
Under eno's direction, on April 22, 2000, under the scrutiny of national and international media and news cameras:
"Armed INS officers entered the home (where the child had been living with close relatives) before dawn and within three minutes carried Elian out to a waiting government van. Hours later, the boy was reunited with his father at Andrews Air Force Base near Washington, D.C., and eventually they returned to Cuba (Emert 2005 p. 144)."
eno's role in handling the case of Gonzalez was highly controversial and politically provocative. eno withstood with the assault of the Hispanic and Cuban communities around the country, but held firm in her position on handling the matter. It was not, however the first time that eno came under attack for handling a controversial matter. She likewise was responsible for the attack on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, where David Koresh was the spiritual…
Blumenthal, K., 2005. Let Me Play: The Story of Title IX: The Law that Changed the Future of Women, Simon and Schuster, New York, New York.
Emert, P.R., 2005. Attorney General: Enforcing the Law, The Oliver Press, Inc.,
Estrich, S., 2005. The Case for Hillary Clinton, HarperCollins Publishing, New York,
Room of One's Own," the author discussed how men continuously perpetuated the idea that men are superior than women. Woolf asserted this position through the "looking-glass vision," in which she posits that, "[w]omen have served all these centuries as looking-glasses possessing the magic and delicious power of reflecting the figure of man at twice its natural size." Thus, acting as looking-glasses of the society, women are then relegated to a lower status while men, having witnessed their superiority through their "perceived" 'frailty' of women, takes up a higher status superior than women. Audre Lorde in her work, "Age, Race, Class, and Sex," illustrates how different view their stratification in the society. Lorde shows how a difference of perspectives of people with different ages, classes, races, and sexes manifest the degree of his/her outlook about his/her standing or status in the society. Thus, just like what Lorde exemplifies in her essay,…
oman Loves her Father, Every oman Loves a Fascist:
The Politics and Poetics of Despair in Plath's "Daddy"
Sylvia Plath is one of the most famous poets to emerge in the late 20th century. Partially due to the success of her autobiographical novel The Bell Jar, which details her partial recovery from suicidal depression, Plath's poetry has been frequently analyzed through the lens of her clinical mental problems. "Dying is An Art," the critic George Steiner titles of his essay on Plath, referring not only to a line from her poem "Lady Lazarus" but the critical elision of the poet's personal suicidal depression with the source of her confessional poetic gift. For instance, Plath's masterpiece, "Daddy," is a dramatic monologue in the voice of a German woman whose father was a Nazi. Yet despite the 'assumed' nature of "Daddy's" voice and the apparent divergence of poet from the speaker, the…
Plath, Sylvia. "Daddy." From The Norton Introduction to Literature Edited by Jerome
Beaty, et. al. Eighth Edition.
Plath, Sylvia. The Bell Jar. Harper & Row, 1971.
Howe, Irving. "The Plath Celebration: a Partial Dissent." From The Norton Introduction to Literature Edited by Jerome Beaty, et. al. Eighth Edition.
Department of Corrections for the state of California, there are approximately 160,000 individuals in jail in the state of California. (California Prison Growth 2003) The census shows that 9,797 of these individuals are women and 150,000 are men. (California Prison Growth 2003)There are several issues that make prison life in California particularly difficult for women. These issues concern vocational services, educational services, healthcare, and rehabilitation services. The purpose of this discussion is to review previous studies that have examined the disparity in the treatment of men and women in California's prisons.
Methodology-Secondary Data Analysis
One of the most significant issues facing female inmates in California and throughout the country is the issue of healthcare. The first study that we examined discussed the challenge of providing healthcare to California's female inmate population.
The report was published by the California Policy Research Center, University of California. The author of the article…
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling
Vol. 23, Issue 1. pg.41+
Stoller, Nancy. (2000) Improving Access to Health Care for California's Women Prisoners. California Policy Research Center. Retrieved July 19, 2003 at http://www.ucop.edu/cprc .
Prison Life for Inmates
Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The ritish constructed the historic cell at Port lair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the…
Bradford, Andrew Ryan. "An Examination of The Prison Environment: An Analysis of Inmate Concerns Eight Environmental Dimensions." School of Graduate Studies (2006).
Burlington County. "Prison Museum." A National Historic Landmark Located in The Heart of Holly 2013.
Covert, H. "Ministry to The Incarcerated." Chicago: Loyopla Books, 1995.
Department of Corrections. Victims Services Programs. 2015. .
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
Sensibility omen's Identities Are Determined and Limited by the Expectations of Their Societies
Literature written by and about women lends itself very well to feminist interpretative approaches of various kinds. Such approaches often examine the literature of earlier centuries for signs of discontent with or subversive suggestions against aspects of a society in which men have exclusive control of power. Such an approach is especially fruitful to use when examining Jane Austen's novels since she was writing in a cultural climate that did not accept direct opposition to the status quo. Only through an indirect critique could she publish views critical of the prevailing laws and conditions under which women of her time were forced to live.
By 1811, when Sense and Sensibility was published, an intense backlash against the women's rights fiction of the 1790s had made the publication of blatantly feminist works impossible in England. Yet the women's…
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Cosslett, Tess. Woman to Woman: Female Friendships in Victorian Fiction. Atlantic Heights: Humanities P, 1988.
Chodorow, Nancy. The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley: U. Of California P, 1978.
Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders. Ed. And Introduction by David Blewett. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989.
Her involvement finally earned her the Medal of Honor, and enduring gratitude for her contribution as a physician to the war effort.
Probably one of the most famous women who worked during the Civil War was Clara Harlowe Barton. Barton was a nurse during the war, who at first simply stockpiled medical supplies and food that she knew the soldiers would need, and later took her supplies into the field where they were most needed. One historian wrote of her right after the war ended, "Her devotion to her work has been remarkable, and her organizing abilities are unsurpassed among her own sex and equaled by very few among the other" (Brockett and Bellows 132). Later, her work in the field and her stockpiling of supplies in warehouses became known as the "Sanitary Commission," which eventually evolved into the worldwide humanitarian organization known as the ed Cross. Clara Barton worked…
Brockett, L.P., and Henry W. Bellows. Woman's Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Ed. Mary C. Vaughan. Philadelphia: Zeigler, McCurdy, 1867.
Dumene, Joanne E. "A Woman's Military Service as 'Albert Cashier'." The Washington Times 7 Dec. 2002: B03.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Johnson, Kellie. "Mary Edwards Walker, Pauline Cushman, Emeline Pigott, and Elizabeth Van Lew." University of San Diego. 20 Nov. 2002. 20 Dec. 2004. http://www.sandiego.edu/~kelliej/women.html
This implies that the jealousy trait is in fact not evolutionary, since it is not always the same reaction (DeSteno, et al., 2002).
In addition, DeSteno also found that, while women showed a slight tendency to rate emotional infidelity as worse than sexual infidelity, they did not differ from men on sexual infidelity ratings alone. When asked to rate the level of distress due to sexually infidelity, without comparing it to emotional infidelity, men and women rated the distress the same (DeSteno, et al., 2002). This implies that while women may be more distressed then men at emotional infidelity, there is no difference between the sexes in levels of distress for sexual infidelity alone.
In fact, even studies which purport to support the theory that men are more jealous than women show similar results to those of DeSteno. Buss and his colleagues' study in 1992 reported a difference in male…
Brehm, S.S. (1985). Intimate relationships. New York: Random House, Inc.
Buss, D.M., Larsen, R.J., Westen, D., & Semmelroth, J. (1992). Sex differences in jealousy: Evolution, physiology, and psychology. Psychological Science, 3: 251-255.
Buss, D.M. (1996). The evolutionary psychology of human social strategies. In E.T. Higgins & a.W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 3-38). New York: Guilford Press.
Connell, R. (2001, Sept. 24). Opening statement: men taking action to end gender-based violence. INSTRAW Online Seminar to end gender-based violence. Retrieved Dec 4, 2004 from Michael Kaufman. Web site: http://www.michaelkaufman.com/articles/pdf/mentakingaction.pdf#search= 'men%20violence%20by%20robert%20connell'.
Yellow oman Story: Linda Hogan's
"Aunt Moon's Young Man"
Native American literature recounts legends which have meaning for the people for thousands of years. Like stories told around the campfires of any early culture, the telling of tales kept the culture relevant through their maintenance of the group's shared history. Among those tales are the "Yellow oman" stories of "the Keres of Laguna and the Acoma Pueblos in New Mexico" (Allen 226). These stories were about unconventional women who often did not accept traditional roles. Sometimes "she lives with her grandmother at the edge of the village, for example, or she is in some way atypical, maybe a woman who refuses to marry, one who is known for some particular special talent, or one who is very quick-witted and resourceful" (Allen 226). The tales continue in the writings of modern authors such as Linda Hogan whose short story "Aunt Moon's…
Allen, Paula Gunn. " Kochinnenako: The Figure of 'Yellow Woman.'" The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the feminine in American Indian Traditions. Boston: Beacon, 1992.
Hogan, Linda. "Aunt Moon's Young Man." 1991. Rpt. In Purdy and Rupert, eds. 266-81.
During the early 19th century, advocacy for equal suffrage was conducted by few people. Frances Wright first publicly advocated womens suffrage in an extensive series of lectures. In 1836, Ernestine ose carried out a similar lecture series, which eventually resulted in a personal hearing before the New York Legislature. However, the petition contained only five signatures and was subsequently denied. The first true women's movement marks July 13, 1848 as its beginning. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and four female friends had a discussion regarding the limitations imposed upon them by society because of their gender. Several days later, this group picked a date to hold a convention to discuss the "social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman." The gathering took place at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 and 20, 1848 (Stodart, 1993).
Elizabeth Cady Stanton constructed a document entitled "Declaration of…
Hektor, L.M. (1994). Florence Nightingale and the women's movement: friend or foe? Nurs Inq, 1(1), 38-45.
Morgan, T.M. (2003). The education and medical practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), first black American to hold a medical degree. J Natl Med Assoc, 95(7), 603-614.
Ramirez, F.O., & McEneaney, E.H. (1997). From women's suffrage to reproduction rights? Cross-national considerations. Int J. Comp Sociol, 38(1-2), 6-24.
Stodart, K. (1993). Suffrage. A pioneer for nursing. Nurs NZ, 1(6), 28-29.
Women in Prison
Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates
Problems in corrections:
Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system
The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…
Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.
Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,
D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.
Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
born, but rather becomes, a woman.
Simone de Beauvoir
In her famous quotation from The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir challenges the notion that biology is destiny, and one's sex determines one's character. Although males and females may possess different physical characteristics, the interpretation of those characteristics is cultural in nature. For example, women menstruate -- this is a biological fact. However, the social interpretation of this fact, that women are somehow inferior to men because they menstruate, is a product of culture. Different cultural notions are imposed upon the sexes from a very early age, in both explicit and subtle ways. A boy may be told not to cry when he falls down playing soccer; a girl may be praised for loving pink. However, over time, these messages come to shape the human personality and because human beings are social animals, such gender-related pressures are difficult to resist. This…
For centuries women have entered into political struggle in order to secure the livelihoods of their families and communities." What is new is the advent of women in leadership positions and political office who have incorporated women issues into their programs which offers new hope and presents new possibilities. Just as British women felt their country was full of freedom even though they did not have the right to vote there are cultures in the world that freedom within that specific society would be prison within another in the view of women.
In order for feminism to become transnational the elite women in the richer countries must be able to consider and conceive the plight of the rural women in a third world country and as well all within the feminist movement must be able within their own consciousness to cross a deep chasm in order to comprehend women of…
Brenner, Johanna (2003) Transnational Feminism and The Struggle for Global Justice [from New Politics, vol.9 no.2 whole 34, winter 2003) Online available at http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue34/brenne34.htm .
Grewal, Inderpal & Kaplan, Caren (2000) Postcolonial Studies and Transnational Feminist Practices San Franciso State University and University of California Berkley Online available at http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v5i1/grewal.htm.
Moghadam, Val (2005) Transnational Feminism and Afghan Women's Rights Rubrique: Femmes & Mondalisation Online available at http://www.peuplesmonde.com/article.php3?id_article=269 .
Moghadam, Val (2004) From International to Transnational Organization: A Century's Feminist Journey- Against the Current Online available at http://www.solidarity-us.org/atc/109moghadam.html .
"y the end of the 1980s many departments had set up detailed procedures to ensure equality and had employed full-time and specialist staff to promote and pursue such policies." (Heidensohn, 1995, p. 60)
The number of females in law enforcement was to increase rapidly and in 1986 about 9 per cent of U.S. officers were female. (Adler 1990) One of the key issues that had to be overcome was the concern about women policemen on patrol. In 1968 "Indianapolis sent two women out on patrol... ut the decision of Washington, DC to deploy eighty-six women on patrol in 1972, and to evaluate their performance, is perhaps the best-known example." LOCH P, and ANDERSON D., et al. 1973)
With these advances of women's rights and the continual evidence of female ability and accomplishment in the field of law enforcement, women were able to apply for all specialist posts in the Unites…
ADLER Z. (1990), a Fairer Cop, U.S. Police Record on Equal Opportunities, Wainwright Trust Study Tour Report No. 1 (Wainwright Trust: London).
BLOCH P., and ANDERSON D., et al. (1973), Policewomen on Patrol: Major Findings: First Report, (Police Foundation: Washington, DC)
Baksys G. Montrose names first woman as police chief. Retrieved 16 December from Daily Gate City. http://www.dailygate.com/articles/2004/11/17/news/news2.txt
FEINMAN C. (1986), Women in the Criminal Justice system (2nd edn., Praeger: New York).
Finding no recourse or way to express her true feelings and thoughts, the Narrator began reflecting on her oppression through the yellow wallpaper patterns on the walls of her room: "The front pattern does move -- and no wonder! The woman behind shakes it! Sometimes I think there are a great many women behind, and sometimes only one, and she crawls around fast...and in the very shady spots she just takes hold of the bars and shakes them hard" (Roberts and Jacobs, 1998:550). This passage can be interpreted in two ways: seeing the woman within the wallpaper patterns may signify her dissociation from herself psychologically by succumbing to insanity. However, this process may also be construed as her way of breaking out of the prison that is her marriage, the oppression she felt being dominated by John and the limits that marriage had put on her as a woman. Though…
Jacobs, H. And E. Roberts. (1998). Literature: an introduction to reading and writing. NJ: Prentice Hall.
"Their activities emphasized the sensual, pleasure-seeking dimensions of the new century's culture and brought sexuality out from behind the euphemisms of the nineteenth century (1997). This was seen in the dances of the era (e.g., the slow rag, the bunny hug, etc.) as well as the dress styles of American women. Women's appearance changed. They no longer were buried under petticoats and big skirts, restricted by their corsets. The silhouette was now slender and smaller, allowing a greater freedom of movement as well as more exposure of arms and legs. Women who worked were now considered "bachelor girls" as opposed to "homeless women" or "spinsters" (1997). By 1920, the image of the flapper girl was everywhere; this can be viewed as an example of just how far women had come.
Unit III: 1921 -- 1945:
Zelda Fitzgerald, wife of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, said in 1924: "I like the jazz…
Collins, G. (2009). When everything changed: the amazing journey of American women
from 1960 to the present. Little, Brown & Company; 1st edition.
Evans, S. (1997). Born for liberty: a history of women in America. Free Press.
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
It is also important to note that Emma's actions affect more than Jefferson and Grant. Emma serves as a support for Tante Lou and she is the one that provides Grant with the compelling image of a hog when she declares that they want them to "kill a hog... I want a man to go to the chair" (Gaines 13). Emma is also significant because of her past. She has provided the Guidry's with years of service, which seems to be a motivating factor in Guidry's decision. Emma's influence cannot be overlooked because she is person that wants Grant to begin removing the racial oppression that has existed in the community.
In addition, Vivian's powerful influence over Grant also emerges in the novel as Grant tries to come to terms with what is happening. She tells Grant he should she Jefferson. She is also the one to force Grant to…
Gaines, Ernest. A Lesson Before Dying. New York: Vintage Contemporaries. 1993.
Harris, Trudier. Saints, Sinners, Saviors: Strong Black Women in African-American Literature. New York: Macmillan. 2001.
Folks, Nancy. The World is Our Home. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. 2000.
Nash, William R. '"You Think a Man Can't Kneel and Stand?': Ernest J. Gaines's Reassessment of Religion as Positive Communal Influence in "A Lesson before Dying." Callaloo. 24.1. 2001.
In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).
The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…
Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.
American Demographics. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Incarceration. (2005). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues_01.cfm
Gender oles and Marriage
The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"
James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…
Allen, J.A. (2004) The Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexuality, Histories, Progressivism. University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Chopin, K. (1997). "The Story of an Hour" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, pp. 158-159.
Davis, S. (1982). "Katherine Chopin." American Realists and Naturalists. D. Pizer and E.N. Harbert (eds). Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 12.
Gilman, C. (1997)."The Yellow Wallpaper" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997, pp. 230-242.
Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans
The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.
hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…
Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,
IL: University of Illinois Press.
Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American
Prisoners feign conformity with rehabilitation programs merely in an effort to get ahead. Prison stays involving the shedding of one's former self, and its replacement with a new prison self that conforms to all the expectations and behavioral patterns of inmate culture. This inmate culture is inherently hostile to the aims of corrections staff. Corrections staff must avoid doing anything that would tend to enhance the validity of inmate culture. They must resort to equal measures in reaction to prisoner provocations. Prisoners must not be stripped of their humanity. They must be maintained as independent men and women capable of surviving on their own, in a reasonably normal society. Notions of status, respect, and hope for the future, must be maintained as they would outside the prison walls. Corrections personnel must enable prisoners to continue to follow, and believe in, the rules of normal society, even if, in the beginning,…
Frase, R.S. (2004). 4 Limiting Retributivism. In The Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 83-112). New York: Oxford University Press.
(2003). Prisonization: Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Richards, S.C., & Ross, J.I. (2001). Introducing the New School of Convict Criminology. Social Justice, 28(1), 177.
Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in Prison: A History of the Correctional System with an Insider's View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
In fact, during the study, the guards became more sadistic when they thought no one was watching them. Zimbardo notes, "Their boredom had driven them to ever more pornographic and degrading abuse of the prisoners" (Zimbardo). This may be the same reason guards at Abu Ghraib tortured and humiliated their charges, and the study seems to indicate this could happen in just about any prison anywhere, if the guards have enough power. The world should pay more attention to this study and its implications. As another writer notes, "The young men who played prisoners and guards revealed how much circumstances can distort individual personalities -- and how anyone, when given complete control over others, can act like a monster" (Alexander). This is what happened at Abu Ghraib, and chances are it is happening all around the world as well. In an interview about Abu Ghraib, Zimbardo notes the prison environment…
Alexander, Meredith. "Thirty Years Later, Stanford Prison Experiment Lives On." Prisonexp.org. 22 Aug. 2001. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.prisonexp.org/30years.htm
Bronstein, Phyllis A., and Kathryn Quina, eds. Teaching a Psychology of People: Resources for Gender and Sociocultural Awareness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1988.
Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.
O'Toole, Kathleen. "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful After All These Years." Stanford University. 8 Jan. 1997. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html
The oyal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) was established in 1991 to investigate the issues faced by the Canadian First Nations in terms of both their social lives and justice issues. This entity also found that the Canadian First Nations have been disproportionally represented, and concluded that the justice system has "failed" these people (Office of the Correctional Investigator, 2010). CAP also found a particular overrepresentation of Aboriginal women in the criminal justice system, while the general federally incarcerated population in the country declined by 12.5% from 1996 to 2004. For the same period, First Nations representatives in the system increased by 21.7%.
Factors that influence this population include not only discrimination and racial or cultural prejudice, but also economic and social deprivation that tend to lead to substance abuse and violence across generations, as mentioned above.
Demographic information shows Aboriginal offenders to be among the younger age groups, who…
The History of Canada Online. (n.d.). First Nations and the Justice System. Northern Blue Publishing. Retrieved from: http://canadachannel.ca/HCO/index.php/6._First_Nations_and_the_Justice_System
Office of the Correctional Investigator. (2010). Backgrounder: Aboriginal Inmates. Retrieved from: http://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/rpt/annrpt/annrpt20052006info-eng.aspx
Transformational Women's Leadership
The website for Changing Minds.org describes transformational leadership in the standard way, as charismatic leaders with vision and imagination who inspire followers to achieve radical change in an organization or society. Transformational leaders are passionate and exciting and they care about their followers. They make people believe that their ideals can be achieved through their own commitment, enthusiasm and drive. In the process, their followers are also transformed and empowered to do things that they would never have believed possible. This website also points out some of the dangers of transformational leadership in that when such leaders are wrong they can lead "the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm." They may also "wear out" their followers with constant demands for high energy and commitment, especially if those at the lower levels really do not desire change (Transformational Leadership 2002-11)
Legacee.com has a very…
Goodman, D., ed. (2003). Marie Antoinette: Writings on the Body of a Queen. Routledge.
Lever, E. (2000). The Last Queen of France. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
Plain, N. (2002). Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the French Revolution. Marshall Cavendish.
Price, M. (2004). The Road from Versailles: Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the Fall of the French Monarchy. NY: St. Martin's.
lives of two women depicted in separate books. The writer explores the way they suffered as well the struggles they went through during their lives. The writer uses each book to show how much of a struggle life can be as one ages through their life. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
Authors of literature who want to become successful use their talents to show the reader a story. Many times the element that makes a book a classic is the fact that the human element become involved therefore the reader gets attached to the story and the characters that are in the story.
In the Time Of the Butterflies by Julia Alvarez and Searching for Life: The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared Children of Argentina by ita Arditti the authors draw the readers in until they become attached to the ladies of…
The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared Children of Argentina by Rita Arditti.
In the Time of the Butterflies by Julia Alvarez.Plume; Reprint edition (August 1995)
The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared Children of Argentina by Rita Arditti.
Nietzsche's oman is by turns simply a reflection of common attitudes of the time, although he occasionally sees her in a more sympathetic view. In a modern light, the understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy has often been tainted by the view of his writings as racist and misogynist. Indeed, a cursory look shows that Nietzsche's perception of women is largely negative and unflattering. Nonetheless, the great philosopher is sometimes clearly sympathetic to women. The end result is that his work seems largely inconsistent and poorly thought out on the subject of women. Many philosophers, including Simone De Bauviour and Mill, have had a much different conception of woman than Nietzsche. Ultimately, Nietzsche has little important insight to offer on the subject of women, a disappointing oversight from a philosopher who repeatedly offered such perceptive and daring views on many important subjects.
Modern interpretation and analysis of Nietzsche's works is often tainted…
In: Paul Patton ed. Nietzsche, Feminism and Political Theory. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1993.
Berkowitz, Peter. Nietzsche: The Ethics of an Immoralist. Oxford University Press, 1996.
Costa, Danielle. Mill and Nietzsche's Ideas about the Rightful and Natural Positions of Women in Society. Tufts University: Seminar: Liberty, Morality and Virtue, May 14, 1999.
Her physician husband, John, and those like him do "not believe" that she is "sick" or even, in her view, capable of understanding her sickness, so "what," she asks, "can one do?" (Hume).
How can one view this passage without seeing a total lack of communication in a marriage? The narrator even goes so far as to say, "It is so hard to talk to John about my case, because he is so wise, and because he loves me so" (Perkins Gilman). From a purely logical standpoint, John's wisdom and the fact that he loves her so would seem to naturally suggest that he would be the most receptive person to listen to the narrator's discussions, but other things that the narrator says reveal John's patronizing attitude towards her. Instead of caring for her, John absolutely ignores the narrator's suggestions about what she thinks may help heal her. Dismissing her…
Golden, Catherine. "The Writing of 'The Yellow Wallpaper': A Double Palimpsest." Studies in American Fiction. 17.2 (Autumn 1989): 193-201. Rpt. In Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Vol. 201. Detroit: Gale, Literature Resource Center.
Deneau, Daniel P. "Chopin's The Story of an Hour." The Explicator. (Vol. 61). .4 (Summer 2003): p210. Literature Resource Center.
Managing madness in Gilman's "The yellow wall-paper"
Hume, Beverly A.
This has often made it very difficult for black individuals to become high educational and social achievers. Racists then twist the reasons behind this lack of achievement and use it as evidence that members of the group are inferior (Gimlin, 2005). Racism and discrimination are both common threads in prejudiced activity toward black women, and this works to perpetuate the problems that they have faced in the past and that they are still facing in society today.
There is little that can be done to eliminate biological differences between the ethnic groups, but society can change differences that have been created by its own political and economic systems. Some psychologists even argue that racism should be treated like a mental health issue. Racism, therefore, becomes a double-edged sword and both the oppressors and the oppressed suffer from and for it. The oppressors have guilt, shame, and remorse, while the…
Collins, Patricia Hill (1998) "Mammies, matriarchs, and other controlling images, black feminist thought" New York: Routledge
Espiritu, Yen Le (2007) "Chapter five: Ideological racism and cultural resistance." In Asian-American women and men: Labor, laws, and love. New York: Rowman and Littlefield
Hook, Bell (1998) "Selling Hot Pussy: Representations of Black Female Sexuality in the Cultural Market" in: R. Weitz (ed) The Politics Of Women's Bodies: Sexuality Appearance and Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Gimlin, Debra. (2005). "Cosmetic Surgery: Paying for Your Beauty." In L. Richardson, V. Taylor and N. Whittier (ed), Feminist Frontiers, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill
Helpless omen in the Glass Menagerie
omen are often depicted as helpless creatures and when we look at women during the Depression era, we should not be surprised to see some women not only depicted as helpless but also see them left helpless and hopeless as the men in their lives cope with the struggling economy. The Glass Menagerie, by Tennessee illiams, reveals two female characters as helpless women, victims of the economy and the men in their lives. Amanda and Laura depend on Tom for not only their physical survival but they also depend on him for emotional support. As expected, Tom cannot support his mother and sister in either of these capacities and he ends up deserting them much like his father did. The Glass Menagerie provides a look at hopeless women and what allows them to stay that way in their world. The female characters in this…
Boxill, Roger. "The Glass Menagerie." Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations. Web. 29 April
2011. Facts On File Resource Database.
The "Highlander Center," a group advocating rights for African-Americans, "were labeled as subversive and subjected to investigation, and their members were harassed," which sounds a bit more like fascism than democracy.
But were the hearings fair? No, they were highly unfair; from the very beginning, the lack of fairness was obvious to any objective observer; they were called "Hearings egarding the Communist Infiltration of the Motion Picture Industry" (held October 20-30, 1947). The proof was in prior to any fair hearing of the issues or the accused, which is a denial of democratic justice to begin with.
And meantime, the witnesses were classified as "friendly" or "unfriendly." If you were "friendly," that meant you already had cooperated with the HUAC, and had indicated a willingness to point fingers, name names, of suspected "communists," so the members of the committee (which included Congressman ichard Nixon) would look like they were doing…
Wheels and Becker. "The Second Red Scare: HUAC vs. Hollywood, 1947."
McClellan, Jim R. "Women's Suffrage: The Nineteenth Amendment is Ratified." Historical
Moments: Changing Interpretations of America's Past, Vol. 2, the Civil War Through the 20th Century. Chapter 15. New York: Cushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000.
McClellan, Jim R. "Prohibition: The Eighteenth Amendment Takes Effect." Historical Moments:
Terrorism and Correctional Administrations
As if correctional administrators and other connected with prisons don't have enough problems on hand, when prisoners are also terrorists, or prisoners get radicalized in prison and attempt to conduct terrorist activities, prisons have a huge problem. This paper reviews the issues surrounding terrorism and prisons.
Ann Coppola, News Reporter for Corrections.com
This interview between counterterrorism planning expert, Bill Sturgeon, and reporter Ann Coppola, took place on the 12th of November, 2007, long before the more recent terrorism issues in the news (ISIS, and "lone wolves" doing terrible violent deeds). Sturgeon flatly said, "hile currently there is not a large number of terrorists in American prisons and jails, that could change quickly in corrections" (Coppola, p. 2).
Sturgeon said that throughout history prisons have been places where "disgruntled groups" such as terrorists, revolutionaries, and others have seen as "targets" for disruption and violence (Coppola, 2007). Coppola…
Coppola, A. (2007). Terrorism in corrections, a ticking time bomb. Corrections.com.
Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.corrections.com .
Hamm, M.S. (2010). Locking Up Terrorists: Three Models for Controlling Prisoner
Radicalization. Indiana State University. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.indstate.edu .
More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.
Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…
Carrigan, C., Connell, R.W., & Lee, J. (1985), Toward a new sociology of masculinity, Theory and Society, 14 (5), 551-604.
Cloward, Richard a. And Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: a theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Connell, RW. 1985. Masculinities. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Connell, R.W. And Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity, Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859