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She not only became a model for young people into what sporting is about, but also took a stance and a leadership role in issues that she believed in.
Over the years, tennis has been the main promoter of women in sports as team sports have not been up to the pace with single sports. Although the number of women participating in Olympics has grown substantially in the last 20 years and public becomes more and more interested in women's sports, the level of media consumption is still very low, as pointed before. Team sports, especially soccer and basketball have not raised to the performance that was predicted by feminist movements in the 1990s at a global level. The popularity of women team sports in sports like basketball and soccer has had an asymmetric growth in the last 20 years. Although dominated at the beginning by the U.S., Norway and…
Cassel, J. (2011) Gender Discrimination in Sports. Available at http://www.livestrong.com/article/247625-gender-discrimination-in-sports/#ixzz1Xlv48Y9L
Huggins A. And Randell S. (2007) The Contribution of Sports to Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment, Paper presented at the International Conference on Gender Equity on Sports for Social Change (Kigali)
Government of Western Australia (2010) Federal Minister speaks out about women's sport coverage. Available at http://www.dsr.wa.gov.au/federal-minister-speaks-out-about-womens-sport-coverage
Messner, M. And Cooky, C. (2010) Gender in Televised Sports. Center for Feminist Research, University of Southern California. Available at http://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/home/research/articles-and-reports/media-issues/women-play-sports-but-not-on-tv
One area of sports that is worth concern is the influences of men and masculinities on women in sports. Many women may look up to male sports celebrities and want to be like them. However, male players may have at least some influences and tendencies that are not so socially acceptable. Another author has studied male sports and the link between aggression and some types of assertive sports, such as football. Her findings suggest than these aggressive sports can be dangerous to women. The researcher writes, "In an observational study of male athletes in college bars, Curry found that the masculine ideology enforced in the locker room often carried over into aggressive and risky behavior in social settings" (Gage, 2008, p. 1016). These athletes may become violent or aggressive toward women, especially their dates, and they may carry this violence into their relationships later in life, with their families and…
Author not Available. (2006). Five game-changers women's sports. Coach & Athletic Director; Vol. 75 Issue 8, 83-84.
Carty, V. (2005). Textual portrayals of female athletes. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. Vol. 26 Issue 2, 132-155.
Editors. (2008). History of women in sports timeline. Retrieved 15 Sept. 2008 from the St. Lawrence County Branch American Association of University Women Web site: http://www.northnet.org/stlawrenceaauw/timeline.htm
Gage, E.A. (2008). Gender attitudes and sexual behaviors: Comparing center and marginal athletes and nonathletes in a collegiate setting. Violence Against Women. Vol. 14: pp. 1014-1032.
Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.
The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…
American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved
June 28, 2009, from http://www.aauw.org . (2004).
Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-
Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
Sports & Nbsp;(general)
Fund raising Critque
Info: • the format will be according to APA style (typed double spaced) and in four
• parts. Written out as a paper.
is the identification of the article. What is important here is that you provide the reader with enough information about your article so that they will be able to locate the article.
• A Summary. List the main points that the author has tried to establish, i.e. 1, 2, 3 or first, second, third. There normally will be 3 to 5 main points. If you are summarizing a court case you should discuss: What provision of the law was at issue? Briefly state the facts of the case. What legal tests were applied? Were there any unusual elements in the case? Include all major key points of the author. If the author addressed any major concepts or methodology this should be…
Staurowsky, Ellen J. (1996). Women and Athletic Fund Raising: Exploring the Connection
Between Gender and Giving. Journal of Sport Management,10, 401-416.
omen in American History
The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.
omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth
One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…
Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.
Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .
Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
Tom Brown's Schooldays," by Thomas Hughes. Specifically, it will look at how this work describes sports in 19th century England, and compare it with other historical descriptions of English sports.
TOM BOWN'S SCHOOLDAYS
Tom Brown's School Days," written in 1857, is the story of young Tom Brown, a student at the public school called ugby School. The schoolboys at ugby, as might be expected, play ugby football, which is quite different from American football. The winner is the one who gets the "best of three goals; whichever side kicks two goals wins: and it won't do, you see, just to kick the ball through these posts -- it must go over the cross-bar; any height'll do, so long as it's between the posts" (Hughes), Tom's new friend tells him.
ugby also uses far more people than our game, with 50-60 players on each side. Goals are kicked like American field…
Baker, William J. Sports in the Western World. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1982.
Guttmann, Allen. Women's Sports: A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.
Holt, Richard. Sport and the British: A Modern History. Oxford: Oxford University, 1993.
Hughes, Thomas. "Tom Brown's School Days." Project Gutenberg. October 1998. 23 Oct. 2002. http://digital.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=1480
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…
Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html
Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm
Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm
Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.
Sports and Sexual Stereotypes
Anger and the WNA
Whatever women do they must do twice as well as men to be thought half as good. Luckily this is not difficult.
P.E. -- to me there was nothing closer to my seventh-grade conception of hell than that infernal class. There, wearing the requisite blue short-shorts and pulled up tube socks, facing forty-five long minutes of humiliating (to my adolescent sensibilities) sweat-inducing activities, I learned it would be better to be a lousy jump-roper, dodge-ball player, or atrocious relay racer, than to actually attempt excellence at these endeavors.
Even at such a young age, I already knew that it simply "isn't attractive," to exert oneself physically in front of the opposite sex, unless, that is, the exertion does not detract from culturally-accepted ideals of beauty -- after all, cheerleaders, gymnasts, and figure skaters could be pretty (perhaps because…
Cahn, S.K. (1993). From the 'Muscle Moll' to the 'Butch' Ballplayer: Mannishness, and homophobia in U.S. Women's Sports. Feminist Studies. 19, (343-368).
Martin, Chris. (2000). Arizona Daily Wildcat. "WNBA, what a joke!" Web site: http://www.wildcat.arizona.edu/papers/94/6/02_7_m.html .
Schlussel, Debbie. The Jewish World Reviewjewishworldreview.com taken at http://www.dadi.org/ds_wnba.htm .
Steinem, Gloria. The Revolution Within. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, (1992)
Women Participation in Marine Industry
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Women represent a considerable portion of the world's labor force. However they face the hurdles of wage discrimination, harassment, and occupational segregation which ultimately limit their economic advancement. Historically, marine industry does not tend to be a successful career path for women. However, with the passage of time women have penetrated quite deeply in this marine industry. This essay highlights the participation of women in marine industry and the role played by policy making organizations like International Transport Federation (ITF), Seafarers International Research Center (SIRC), International Labor Organization (ILO), and International Maritime Organization (IMO). It explains the extent to which these various marine bodies are addressing the issue of gender.
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Traditionally marine industry has been…
Belcher, P. Sampson, H., Thomas, M., Veiga, J. & Zhao, M. (2003). Women Seafarers: Global
Employment Practices and Policies, Geneva: International Labor Organization.
Dcomm (2003). Women seafarers: Fighting against the tide? As on land, so by sea: Women join
the ranks of seafarers, World of Work Magazine, 49, Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/magazines-and-journals/world-of-work-magazine/articles/WCMS_081322/lang -- en/index.htm
Despite representing half of the human population, until very recently women were not afforded the same rights and freedoms as men. Furthermore, in much of the world today women remain marginalized, disenfranchised, and disempowered, and even women in the United States continue to face undue discrimination, whether in the workplace, at home, or in popular culture. However, this should not be taken as a disregarding of the hard-fought accomplishments of women since 1865, because over the course of intervening years, women have managed to gain a number of important rights and advantages. In particular, after spending the nineteenth century largely isolated within the domestic sphere, over the course of the twentieth century women won the right to vote, the right to equal pay and housing, and freedom over their own bodies in the form of birth control. By examining the history of these important developments, one is able…
Adams, C. (2003). Women's suffrage: A primary source history of the women's rights movement in america. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.
Chen, L.Y., & Kleiner, B.H. (1998). New developments concerning the equal pay act.
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 17(1), 13-20.
Gordon, L. (2002). The moral property of women: A history of birth control politics in america.
Women in the Workforce
Training Plan: Breaking the Glass Ceiling at Intuit
Intuit revolutionized the accounting industry with innovative applications that assist with financial analysis and tax preparation. Since 1983 Intuit has been a proud leader providing our most famous products: Quicken and TurboTax to a wide variety of customers from individuals to small businesses and corporations. We have prided ourselves on providing an excellent workplace that sparks creativity and builds long-term relationships. Our atmosphere is one of continual learning and growth.
However, this focus on growth always means that there is room for improvement. The following examines a new training plan to help take advantage of one area that could be improved. Intuit attracts young movers and shakers. However, women have recently complained that their needs are being ignored. The following will examine a plan to include women in the Intuit mix in a way that allows them truly…
Intuit Inc., (2008, August 13). Intuit Unveils Small Business Connected Strategy. Intuit.
Retrieved from http://about.Intuit.com/about_Intuit/press_room/press_release/2008/0813.jsp li, M., Metz, I., & Kulik, C. (2007, December 4-7) Workforce gender diversity: Is it a source of competitive advantage? Paper presented at the 21st ANZAM conference, Sydney,
Australia Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/40898/1/40898.pdf
Griffiths, M. & Moore, K. (2010). 'Disappearing Women': A Study of Women Who Left the UK
Women have, for a long time, been expected to fulfill certain roles. These roles varied through the ages but have remained rooted in their main objective, to have women raise children and assist and serve their husbands (Vishwanathan, 1994, p. 34). Women are seen as the ones who stay home, tend the hearth, and raise the young while men are the ones that earn the money, own the property, and control the household. In literature, women are depicted often as fulfilling these stereotypical roles and also rebelling against them. Karen Van Der Zee's "A Secret Sorrow" and Gail Godwin's "A Sorrowful Woman" are two works of literature that demonstrate the lives of women who belonged to a society that required them to conform to their selected role. Both narratives establish the anticipated place of women in society, but do so from dissimilar perspectives. "A Secret Sorrow" has a female character…
Foster, C.D., Siegel, M.A., & Jacobs, N.R. (1988). Women's changing role (1988 ed.). Wylie, Tex.: Information Aids.
Meyer, M. (2002). The Bedford introduction to literature: reading, thinking, writing (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Vishwanathan, M. (1994). Women & society. Jaipur: Printwell.
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…
Dewey, Susan. "Dear Dr. Kothari': Sexuality, Violence Against Women, and the Parallel Public Sphere in India." American Ethnologist, 36/1 (2009): 124-139.
Duggal, Ravi. "The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns." Reproductive Health Matters, 12/24 (Nov. 2004): 130-137.
Grewal, Indu and Kishore, J. "Female Foeticide in India." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 1 May 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Gupta, Nidhi. "Women's Human Rights and the Practice of Dowry in India." Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48 (2003): 85-123. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Sports Center is a production of ESPN on cable television. It is a mixture of scores, game highlights, commentary, interviews and human interest feature stories. All of the people who are part of the ESPN broadcast team are, of course, intelligent, well-spoken, and attractive.
A lady by the name of Dana Jacobson was one of the primary anchors doing two of the three shows. She worked with one man named Mike Greenberg and another by the name of Dave Revasine. There were other females involved in the broadcasting, mostly as interviewers who also did a small amount of commentary related to what ever interview they did. There is, besides the gender mix, also an ethnic mix that is actually more diverse for women than men. There are Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic peoples represented by the women and Caucasian and African-American by the men. The gender ratio is approximately 3:1 males…
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108011402 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
Bellerose, S.B., & Binik, Y.M. (1993). Body Image and Sexuality in Oophorectomized Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22(5), 435+. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
DeFries, Z., Friedman, R.C., & Corn, R. (Eds.). (1985). Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=51035002 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105657669
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…
Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.
Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.
Oxford University Press. 1935.
Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
This brings us to the idea of ideal femininity. What is the ideal woman? What should we expect of the female gender in the new millennium? When comparing the two views above, I would say that Chan's ideal of the woman as one who is worthy of recognition for her efforts in any context is far more valid than that forwarded by Campbell, who creates an emotional victimhood for women. When combining these views, I would say the ideal woman is indeed emotional, but she is also capable of using her emotion to energize her efforts towards the life she desires. Emotion can translate into passion, and I believe that women have a possible advantage here. A woman's emotion for her family can create a passion for creating the perfect home. Her passion to contribute economically to her relationship with her partner or her family can lead to great excellence…
Campbell, S. (1994, Summer). Being Dismissed: The Politics of Emotional Expression. Hypatia, Vo. 9, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810188
Chan, Z. (2002, Nov.) Cooking Soup to Writing Papers: A Journey Through Gender, Society and Self. Journal of International Women's Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://vc.bridgew.edu
omen in Higher Education
Describe ways in which female college students in the era from 1920 to 1945 influence the present generation of female college students.
It would not be unreasonable to refer to women in the 1920 -- 1930 window of time in American history as pathfinders. Professor Mary McComb explains that in 1930 women workers and students "were perceived as larger threats" than in previous era; indeed, the "new women" in the 1930s received "a fair share of scorn" by pursuing higher education and entering the workforce in substantial numbers (McComb, 2006). But women did not back down. By competing with men for jobs, the female college student of the 1930s was "more suspect…" then her predecessors, and yet she marched forward with dreams and goals that were part of the "American Dream" (McComb, 2006).
In the 1930s women made up about 50% of the American workforce, McComb…
Bank, B.J. (2003). Contradictions in Women's Education: Traditionalism, Careerism, and Community at a Single-sex College. New York: Teachers College Press.
Carreon, S., Cassedy, A., Borman, K., and Dubeck, P.J. (2013). Women and Work: A
Handbook. Florence, KY: Routledge Publishing.
McComb, M.C. (2006). Great Depression and the Middle Class: Experts, Collegiate Youth
For instance, Sylvy could have decided to go with the man and leave her rural life. She could have left the life of poverty and gone back to the city. Had she made this choice she knew that she would never have to worry about money again. However, having come from the city originally, she also knew the personal freedom that she would be giving up. She felt that if she went away with the guest, she could learn to serve, follow, and love him, "as a dog loves" (Jewett, a White Heron, Harper Series, p. 1646). This line summarizes the oppression of the urban woman in the late 1880s.
Jewett tells her readers much about her feelings about social class and the political position of women during her time. She portrays women as "followers" of men. She alludes to the position of women as "servants" of man. She compares…
McQuade, D., Atwan, R., Banta, M., Kaplan, J., Minter, D., Stepto, R., Tichi, C., & Vendler, H. (Eds.). (1999). The Harper single volume of American literature (3rd ed.).Sarah Orney Jewett, a White Heron, (pp. 1639-1646. New York: Longman.
It is possible that early American history would be taught very differently today if based on history books such as this. To play devil's advocate, there perhaps would have been women historians who agreed with the men's decisions, women historians who did not believe in the actions of their fellow females. Those histories, too, would have had an impact on today's perspective of that period.
Similarly, what would have happened if the topic of women's equality had been covered by a famous female historian who did not support the suffragist cause? The early 1900s saw some women, called the anti-suffragists, who were strongly opposed to giving the vote to their gender. These women were afraid of change and believed the family would fall apart if women could vote. They also feared suffrage would overload women already burdened by their own many responsibilities. They called the suffragists communists, among other things,…
Des Jardins, Julie. Women and the Historical Enterprise in America: Gender, Race, and the Politics of Memory, 1880 -- 1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
Sherr, Lynn. Failure is Impossible. New York: Random House, 1995.
Weatherford, Doris. A History of the American Suffragist Movement. Santa Barbara, CA:
Islamic women are now restricted from most activities, and their rights have been steadily decreasing. Her social and political as well as economic rights are all being violated everyday by unscrupulous men who have corrupted the very religion to their own advantage, and today, especially in most Arab countries, woman has become 'Awarah', or the very subject of concealment, wherein her public presence is banned; where even her very voice, must not be heard in public. (Women's Position, ole, and ights in Islam)
In India, there are only 960 women to 1000 men, a figure that when compared to the rest of the world, especially developed countries, which shows 105 women to 100 men, due to better health care for women, is quite miserable. It is in India that women are often considered to be burdens on their families, and the main reason for this is the 'dowry system', wherein…
Agarwal, Sita. Hindu Scriptural Sanction for the Crushing of Women. Retrieved at http://www.dalitstan.org/books/gowh/gowh6.html . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/Ethics/genderequality.htm. Accessed on 16 March, 2005
John, MacArthur Jr., Women's Roles. 20 March, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.believersweb.org/view.cfm?ID=205Accessed on 15 March, 2005
Mbiti, John. The Role of women in African traditional religion. Retrieved at http://www.afrikaworld.net/afrel/atr-women.htm . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…
Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.
Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
, 1994)." (Salazar, 253) This is not just troubling as a statistical illustrator of the problem's prevalence but it is indicative of a much larger cultural condition predisposing us to violence toward women. ith ties to the patriarchal machinations of the country's monarchical origins and a dependency upon the fortification of such leanings in modern legal, social and even familial structure, the issue of domestic violence is very much a result of a long-standing and still present heritage of sexism. As we contend with the apparent root causes of domestic violence by helping women find ways out of negative relationships, we are yet contending with a more deep-seeded impulse toward misogyny and violence.
The rationale for further study on this subject will be to provide those in social services, outreach programs and other positions of counsel with the understanding of this problem to address and navigate the correlation and cycle…
An Abuse, Rape and Domestic Violence Aid and Resource Collection (AARDVARC). (2008). Long-Term Effects of Domestic Violence. Aardvarc.org.
Belmonte, J. (2007). Domestic Violence and Abuse. Helpguide.org.
Butter, V. (2006). The Physical and Psychological Effects of Domestic Violence on Women. Inver Hills Community College. Online at http://faculty.inverhills.edu/vbutter/domesticviolenceweb.htm
Goelman, Deborah M. (2004). Shelter from the Storm: Using Jurisdictional Statutes to Protect Victims of Domestic Violence after the Violence against Women Act of 2000. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law.
She argues that the evasiveness and incongruites in the narrative exist since Spenser is facing issues that are not easily answered.
From the start, Britomart represents an authority figure, a power not found in any other knight in the Faerie Queene. Spenser says that Britomart literally cannot be beaten, since she carries a powerful magic spear, or phallic symbol (depending on the interpretation) that refers back to the theme of woman's chastity. Britomart easily knocks Sir Guyon off his horse at the beginning of Book 3. She then comes to a castle and once again pushes her authority, characterized as "masculine" with her armor and spear, and confronts six of Malecasta's knights at the Castle Joyous at the end of the first canto.
At last as nigh out of the wood she came,
A stately Castle farre away she spyde,
To which her steps directly she did frame.
Abate, Corinne S. Spenser's 'The Faerie Queen. The Explicator 55.1 (1996): 6+.
Heale, Elizabeth. The faerie queene: a reader's guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Spencer, Edmund. The Faerie Queene. Gutenberg. 29 April 2010. http://www.gutenberg.org
Pretention was key because the women knew that the men's focus stayed on preventing race mixing between blacks and whites. To distract the men from the issues that the WKKK were fighting for, they would cleverly get the men to focus on black men trying to flirt or what have you with them. This was just a ploy for them so that they could fully pursue their interests with little or no interference from the men.
Auxiliary or Organization
Clearly, the intent of the KKK was for the women to establish an auxiliary in order to support them. The women had other ideas. The men were used to further the women's cause unknowingly. "Klanswomen embraced the mixture of individualism and deference to authority that characterized the male Klan." (p. 36). The women did not and would not be a support group for the men. They did feel that other races…
Blee, K.M. (2008). Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s (2 ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Others, however, saw things differently.
Perhaps the clearest way to come to an understanding of the status of the WKK as either an independent or an auxiliary organization is to examine the central philosophies of the two groups. While the leadership of the WKKK by and large supported the racial and religious policies of the larger Ku Klux Klan -- i.e. A mistrust or outright hatred of blacks, Catholics, and Jews -- there were fears that even "Protestant men…were likely to be 'unyielding' in opposition to gender equality since they benefited directly from the current situation" (Blee 1991, pp. 76). Given this level of mistrust and irreconcilable difference, it seems unlikely that the most vocal, staunch, and long-standing members of the WKKK considered themselves a part of the same organization as the man they viewed as their oppressors. Though working in tandem with the Ku Klux Klan and using many…
Blee, K. (1991). Women of the Klan. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Yet, one should take into account a cetain pat of the statement, egading the status of the victims. The expession "low net woth people" must not, by any chance and even if it's the case of citing an authoity, appea in an aticle. No matte the status and the position of a peson in the society's hieachy, life is the most valuable good one has and has the same impotance fo all pees.
In geneal, the aticle can eceive a positive eview. It is objective and the case is clealy exposed, it does not contain ielevant pieces of infomation and it does not insist on mino details. The lack of desciption fo potagonists leads to ceating no peconceptions. Futhemoe, media does not oughly exploit the stoy. One can not assume thee is sensitiveness in naating the case, but as mentioned befoe, the aticle elies on objectiveness. Howeve, the only aspect…
references for including some details and avoiding others is what leads to misperceptions and created social attitudes towards a case or a category of people.
Moreover, this type of approach emphasizes not the violent act that has occurred and whose victim was a helpless, undefended woman, but the image of a woman offering sex in exchange of a home. One should ask, first of all, what were the reasons of the respective woman that made her resort to such a solution. The same case, with the same protagonists can be analyzed from different perspectives and the guilty person would appear differently, in accord to what is mentioned about her and what is avoided.
In terms of cited source, the article uses statements from people involved in the community and local service, which one can consider a positive aspect, as people who can share from their day-to-day experience from a community are not only interested in talking, but can offer important information both for the media and for the local inhabitants.
As a conclusion, the article offers the exact model of a case which emphasizes not the offence itself, but the character's background, managing to place the responsibility almost exclusively on the victim. Moreover, details about the aggressor are not even mentioned. The only statement regarding consists in reminding the existence of a precedent in these type of cases, a robber and a killer who used to find his victims through advertisements.
What one must know is that, in contrast to this article, crimes that occur must be analyzed from all points-of-view and one must look for the context as a whole. Not the fact the above-mentioned woman rejoined the advertisement is relevant for the case, but the reasons which stood behind her choice. Only by finding correlations among all factors, one can contribute to the improvement of crimes' statistics, as he can learn how to prevent.
It also sought to stop the Atlantic slave trade between those three continents. It has also been referred to as the anti-slavery movement. As a result of the abolitionist movement, slavery was abolished in Europe and America by the last half of the 19th century. Africa finally stopped the practice of slavery by the first quarter of the 20th century.
Women, both white and black, made enormous contributions to the abolitionist movement.
Ann Yearsley, Hannah More, Susan . Anthony, Julia Ward Howe, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances Ellen Watkins, and many others worked against the enslavement of other human beings. While the white women used their status, money and freedom to work against slavery and help the black women to "find their voices," the black women could tell eye-opening stories of their own experiences to elicit sympathy and support.
In the early years of the…
Blashfield, Jean. "A Day on the Trail." Blashfield, Jean. Oregon Tail. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books, 2000. 11.
Levy, JoAnn. "The Crucible Women on Overland Journey." 1998. Oakland Museum of California. 29 March 2009 .
Perkins, Kathryn. "Real women' who defied stereotype." Sacramento Bee 18 January 1998: Part Three.
In colonial America, formal education for girls historically has been secondary to that for boys. In colonial America girls learned to read and write at dame schools. They could attend the master's schools for boys when there was room, usually during the summer when most of the boys were working. (Women's International Center)
During the latter half of the Republic Era, rapid economic growth presented new opportunities for northern white women. Previously limited to homework or to household-related jobs like cleaning and cooking, some young women now became school teachers or mill workers. One destination for young farm women was the Lowell mills in Massachusetts, at the falls of the Merrimac River. An unnamed rural crossroads in 1823, Lowell by 1830 boasted ten mills and three thousand operatives, nearly all of them female. (oyer)
eginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased.…
Boyer, Paul S. "Early Republic, Era of the." 2001. encyclopedia.com. 20 February 2009 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html .
Do History. "Who Was Martha Ballard?" n.d. Do History. 19 February 2009 http://dohistory.org/martha/index.html .
Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Women and Work in Early America." n.d. about.com. 20 February 2009 http://womenshistory.about.com /od/worklaborunions/a/early_america.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The problems that these women have encountered have ranged from domestic issues to career issues to stereotypes. To solve these problems, the United Status must view them in the light of immigrant women.
Anderson, M.J. (1993, April). A License to Abuse: The Impact of Conditional Status on Female Immigrants. The Yale Law Journal 102(6). etrieved January 28, 2008, from No Status Quo. Web Site: http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/anderson/brides/pg2.html
Grieco, E. (2002, May). Immigrant Women. etrieved January 28, 2008, from Migration Information Source. Web Site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=2
Jewish Women's Archive. (2009, January 27). Exhibit: Women of Valor, Emma Lazarus
Introduction. etrieved January 27, 2009, from the Jewish Women's Archive. Web site: http://jwa.org/exhibits/wov/lazarus/
Lee, a. (2008, March 10). Justice Denied for Battered Immigrant Women.
etrieved January 28, 2009, from the American Prospect. Web Site: http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?
McDonnell, J. And de Lourenco, C.I., 2005-08-12 "Women's Stories: Brazilian
Immigrant Women as "Transnational" Migrants" Paper presented at…
Anderson, M.J. (1993, April). A License to Abuse: The Impact of Conditional Status on Female Immigrants. The Yale Law Journal 102(6). Retrieved January 28, 2008, from No Status Quo. Web Site: http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/anderson/brides/pg2.html
Grieco, E. (2002, May). Immigrant Women. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Migration Information Source. Web Site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=2
Jewish Women's Archive. (2009, January 27). Exhibit: Women of Valor, Emma Lazarus
Introduction. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from the Jewish Women's Archive. Web site: http://jwa.org/exhibits/wov/lazarus/
The women's work, therefore, continues to be arduous and tedious, potential productivity, unrealized and quality of life is substandard. According to Jehan, for example, solutions to bettering this situation include enhancing data on women's economic participation and increasing the proportion of women in education, rural incomes and productivity.
In India, for instance, a number of economic initiatives have been undertaken in regard to the role and status of women. These include the economic exposure and access to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), an entrepreneurship program that allows women to engage in home-based work. This allows them to continue to fulfill their domestic responsibilities at the same time as helping to financially support their family. Financial institutions, companies, and NGOs are discovering the impact that can be made by extending different forms of entrepreneurial assistance to women startup businesses, such as micro-credit, or small loans, Meerut Seva Samaj demonstrates the way that…
Jehan, Qamar "Role of women in economic development in Pakistan." PhD thesis, 2000
University of Balochistan, Quetta. 10/25/08 http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/442/
Nanu-Fabu, Stella. "An analysis of economic status of women in Cameroon." Journal of International Women's Studies 8.1(2006):148-162.
Roy, K.C., Tisdell, C.A., Blomqvist, H.C. Economic Development and Women in the World Community, Praeger, London, 1996
Women winning the right to vote, far too long after the founding of America, was of course an important 'first step' in ensuring that women become full participants in the American experiment. But understanding the subtle cultural discrimination, as manifest in John Adams' treatment of his wife, and the subsidiary complaints of Stanton, Wollstonecraft, and Woolf also demonstrate that simply passing a law is not enough to change the rights of women. Women have been treated as children, and also viewed as incapable of truly realizing their dreams because of their capacity to be mothers. This has remained unchanged in the cultural discourse and memory in a way that affects all of our perceptions, male and female, and unless we remember this, we may be too easily seduced by the achievements, however remarkable, of a few talented women who have been able to chip away at the 'glass ceiling.'
Robinson's daughter. She has no dialogue of any depth...She agrees to marry a tall, blond jock...mostly because her parents will be furious with her if she doesn't. She is so witless that she misunderstands everything Benjamin says to her. hen she discovers Benjamin has slept with her mother, she is horrified, but before they have ever had a substantial conversation about the subject, she has forgiven him -- apparently because Mrs. Robinson is so hateful that it couldn't have been Benjamin's fault. She then escapes from the altar at her own wedding to flee with Benjamin on a bus, where they look at each other nervously, perhaps because they are still to have a meaningful conversation" (Ebert 1997). This seems unfair to Elaine to some degree, but it underlines the film's lack of interest in her character, as Elaine quickly switches alliances from parents to Benjamin, from one man to…
Ebert, Roger. "The Graduate." The Chicago Sun-Times. 1997. 8 Apr 2008. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19970328/REVIEWS/703280304/1023
The Graduate." Directed by Mike Nichols. 1967
As it pertains to the physical differences women have to miss some time at work after having a child to allow their bodies to heal. Missing this time from work can be detrimental to pursuing certain management positions. However men who become fathers do not have this same type of barrier. In addition, although many fathers are more involved with the daily care of their children, mothers are still the primary caregivers (Sumer, 2006). With this being understood, women often have a harder time balancing work and family life (Sumer, 2006).
In some cases it may be difficult for women to find childcare and as a result they may not have the luxury of being able to work the long hours that male counterparts can work. Some corporations have attempted to assist working mothers as it relates to childcare by offering childcare facilities in the workplace (Sumer, 2006). It appears…
Mitra, a. (2003). Access to Supervisory Jobs and the Gender Wage Gap among Professionals. Journal of Economic Issues, 37(4), 1023+.
Nelson, T., & Levesque, L.L. (2007). The Status of Women in Corporate Governance in High-Growth, High-Potential Firms. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(2), 209+.
Sumer, H.C. (2006). Women in Management: Still Waiting to Be Full Members of the Club. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 55, 63+.
Many women took up the cause of temperance. omen like Jane Adams, worked to expose political corruption and economic exploitation and established philanthropic programs for the poor.
By 1900 over one-third of the wage-earning women in this country were employed as domestics or waitresses." As business grew, the privileged class grew. Domestics were in demand and were expected to do every kind of household chore in addition to cooking, serving, laundry, sewing, and anything else required by her mistress.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1865 joined in their work to equalize the rights of men and women. They declared that women had a natural right to happiness, and the opportunities and advantages, and denied that women were made simply for men and that her best interests must be "sacrificed to his will" (Kerber, pg. 225).
In 1923, a feminist conference in Seneca Falls, New York developed a…
Modern Feminism and American Society, 1965 to the Present, Publisher, city, date?
Kerber, Linda K. And Jane Sherron DeHart Women's America, Refocusing the Past, Oxford University Press, New York: 1995.
From the start, social welfare policy has been shaped by the work ethic and the belief that the provision of benefits to able-bodied persons will weaken their motivation to work. As a result, the cash assistance programs including Social Security benefits, Unemployment Insurance, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) enforce the work ethic either by rewarding higher paid workers over those who earn less or by encouraging able-bodied persons to choose paid labor (no matter what the wage levels or working conditions) over government aid. (Abramovitz, 1988, p. 1)
The desperation that is associated with seeking public assistance, even when the opt out option does not exist, and private pension plans have declined in popularity as other forms of retirement compensation have taken their place, and more and more people are required to simply save for their old age, no matter what. The social security system does not…
Abramovitz, M. (1988). Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press.
Adler, M., Bell, C., Clasen, J., & Sinfield, a. (Eds.). (1991). The Sociology of Social Security. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Berrick, J.D. (1997). Faces of Poverty: Portraits of Women and Children on Welfare. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chafe, W.H. (1978). Changing Patterns in American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
The glass ceiling that women bump up against in many workplaces and cannot move past exists because of fear, and partly because of misunderstanding. Many men fear or are hostile to competition by women in the workforce, and others simply do not feel women are qualified to manage or oversee a company. Yes, the glass ceiling exists, and statistics prove it.
Tannen notes that it is common for women not to receive all the credit they deserve for projects and for their positions in general. Some women never are promoted, while others make it to a certain level of management and no further. For example, Tannen notes, "A woman who headed a major division of her company, and who did work comparable to that of six men who headed the other six divisions, had the title 'director" while the men were vice-presidents" (Tannen 134). There seems little reason for disparities…
Tannen, Deborah. Talking from 9 to 5: Women and Men at Work. New York, Harper Paperbacks, 1995.
Judy, Richard W. And Carol D'Aminco. Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, in: Hudson Institute, 1997.
It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).
Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).
In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…
Barish, Jonas. Ben Jonson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963.
Braun, Lily, and Meyer, Alfred. Selected Writings on Feminism and Socialism. Gary: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Castiglione, Baldassare. "The Courtier." In Three Renaissance Classics. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 242-624
De Vroom, Theresia. Female Heroism in Thomas Heywood's Tragic Farce of Adultery. NY: Palgrave, 2002.
Yet women with similar or comparable education and experience or achievement still earn less than men in work organizations. A missing link or the absent ingredient, between performance and a just payoff, was identified as women's own ability to comfortably and consistently draw the attention they deserve to the contributions they made or gave. Findings of a study conducted on 322 male and female executives showed that women were less comfortable in promoting themselves than men. Many of them still believed that self-promotion by women was still unacceptable and that hard work alone would not put them in the same level as men. Women were also found to be "over-preparers" who wanted their work to be technically correct but who did not bring this sense of accuracy and care to the attention or notice of influential individuals in the organization. Goodson found that even women who understood the importance of…
1. Auster, Ellen R. professional Women's Mid-career Satisfaction. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research, June 2001
2. Hultin, Mia. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: an Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination. Administrative Science Quarterly: Connell University Johnson Graduate School
3. Lemons. Mary A. Contextual and Cognitive Determinants of Procedural Justice: Perceptions in Promotion Barriers for Women. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation
4. Moya, Miguel. Close Relationships, Gender and Career Salience. Sex Roles: a Journal of Reserch: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2000
Nonetheless, Lu sees some hope for transgressive representations of Asian women in media, particularly in those films which actively seek to explode stereotypes regarding Asian women not simply by fulfilling the desires of a white, patriarchal society but rather by demonstrating full-fledged, unique characters whose Asian and female identity is only one constituent part of their personality and whose expression is not limited to the roles prescribed for Asian women in American media (24-26).
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian omen." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American omen:
Decolonization, Empowerment, Activism. 1st ed. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska
Press, 2003. 115-123. Print.
Smith, Andrea. "Sexual Violence as a Tool of Genocide." Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End Press,…
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian Women." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American Women:
The women whose husbands did serve the pro-Union cause (often Republicans) did not necessarily take over the farm work and other "male tasks" on the farm. Instead, the work was done with the "same kind of neighborhood and extended-kin support" that was in use prior to the Civil ar (Rodgers, 112).
Also, many soldiers wrote letters home "…virtually micromanaging their farms from the front," Rodgers continues (113). ives received a "steady flow of letters" with specific advice not only on how to run the farm, but on "how their children were to behave and be taught," Rodgers explained (113). And moreover, male farm laborers were available to harvest crops, and the women either paid them to harvest the wheat, or she gave them "a percentage of the crop" (Rodgers, 113). As for urban women in Indiana during the Civil ar, Rodgers explains that letters between wives and soldiers showed "gossip…
Brown, Alexis Girardin. "The Women Left Behind: Transformation of the Southern Belle,
1840-1880." The Historian. 62.4 (2000): 759-779.
Rodgers, Thomas E. "Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front." Indiana Magazine of History, 97.2 (2001): 105-128.
Walker, Henry. "Power, Sex, and Gender Roles: The Transformation of an Alabama Planter
Aside from familial obligations -- since the vast majority of expatriate roles assume that such positions would require managers to live their spouses and progeny in their native countries while they worked abroad -- another particularly interesting facet revealed in this article was the fact that initially, women were just as eager to pursue international careers in management positions as men were. This notion was confirmed by a survey performed by Adler (1993) that surveyed over a thousand MBAs who were graduating from seven highly esteemed business schools in throughout Europe, Canada, and the United States, and revealed that both men and women had equal aspirations for international careers.
Perhaps the most valuable result gained from the survey conducted in "Women in Global Business -- Female Expatriation" is the worth of including women in the decision making process endemic in upper management positions. Due to the variety of thought-process…
Adler, N.J. 1984. Women in International Management: Where Are They? California Management Review, 26 (4), 78-89.
Adler, N.J. 1993. Competitive Frontiers: Women Managers in the Triad. International Studies of Management & Organization, 23 (2), 3-24.
Kooskora, M and Bekker E. 2007. Women in Global Business -- Female Expatriation. EBS Review, 23 (3) 70-84.
Linehan, M and Scullion, H. 2001. Selecting, Training, and Development for Female International Management. Career Development International, 6 (6), 318-323.
omen and Commodities
In both Jonathan Swift's "The Lady's Dressing Room" and Christina Rossetti's "Goblin Market," women are presented both in a world of commerce and as commodities themselves, but only Rossetti's text is critical of this formulation. In both poems, the value of a woman is dictated by her physical appearance, but whereas Swift seems to be arguing that the value produced by a beautiful woman outweighs any of the undesirable or otherwise unattractive elements which go into maintaining that beauty, Rossetti suggests that the woman who allows herself to be tricked into believing that a woman's value comes from her physical appearance will ultimately be doomed to waste away and die. By examining the conclusion of Swift's poem in conjunction with certain relevant scenes from "Goblin Market," one may see how the former serves to reinforce the notion that women are essentially semi-autonomous commodities, existing solely for visual…
Rosetti, Christina. "Goblin Market." Loudlit. Loudlit.org, n.d. Web. 24 Oct 2011.
Swift, Jonathan. "The Lad'ys Dressing Room." Rutgers University. Rutgers, n.d. Web. 24 Oct
omen struggles in EL
The rights of women in society have always been a topic shrouded in a great deal of discussion. In many ways women are still struggling for equality within society and will likely continue to struggle for some years to come. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on how this theme of women's rights has informed English Literature and the manner in which it has been expressed including those thing that have changed and those things that have remained constant. More specifically the research will focus on women's rights in English literature from the Romantic Age until the 21st century.
The Romantic Age
In the real of English literature the Romantic age (1789-1830) was an extremely important time because it marked a new birth in the type literature that was written and the manner in which readers were exposed to the literature. As it pertains…
Bronte, Charlotte. (1847) Jane Eyre. London, England: Smith, Elder & Co
Rich, A. (1995) Of Woman Born - Motherhood As Experience And Institution
Showalter, E. (1982). A literature of their own. Princeton University Press
Woolf. V. (1989) A Room of Ones Own.
Women's Education 1840s
An Analysis of Women's Education in the 1840s
Women in both Britain and America were set to receive greater attention in the realm of academia in the 1840s than they had in decades prior. The Bronte sisters had both begun their writing careers that same decade and Elizabeth Gaskell's first novel was published at the end of it. Mary Shelley had been writing for nearly three decades already -- Frankenstein being published a year after the death of Jane Austen. Women of letters had obviously received an education -- but from where? This paper will look at women's education in the 1840s and show how it was changing.
Jane Sherzer (1916) notes that "in West Virginia, in Southern Indiana and Illinois there were no schools for the higher education of women up to 1840" (p. 1), however, she adds that "early in 1840, in Indiana there…
Sherzer, J. (1916). The Higher Education of Women in the Ohio Valley. Ohio Archeological and Historical Quarterly 25(1): 1-22.
Solomon, B.M. (1985). In the Company of Educated Women. Yale University Press.
Tennyson, A.L. (1847). The Princess: A Medley. Boston, MA: Ticknor and Fields.
Women Who Kill Their Abusive Spouses
In the last several decades, criminologists and social scientists have begun to pay a greater attention to cases of battered women who kill their abusive spouses. Many of these women who kill their husbands claim they do it to defend themselves. Nevertheless they are often convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to imprisonment. Until recently, battered women were viewed by the public as either "mad" or "bad" (Noh, Lee, & Feltey, 2010) who should be punished as murderers. But lately scholars have begun to argue that killing an abusive spouse must be justified in extreme cases and codified in the law (Ewing, 1990). This paper is of the opinion that women who kill their abusive spouses should have the right to defend themselves in the court before any verdict is issued.
According to legal systems of most civilized nations, self-defense is justified when one is…
Ewing, C. (1990). Psychological self-defense: A proposed justification for battered women who kill. Law And Human Behavior, 14(6), 579-594. doi:10.1007/BF01044883
Noh, M.S., Lee, M.T., & Feltey, K.M. (2010). Mad, Bad, or Reasonable? Newspaper Portrayals of the Battered Woman Who Kills. Gender Issues, 27(3/4), 110-130. doi:10.1007/s12147-010-9093-9
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…
A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." History.com. N.p. 2012.
Web. 16 May 2012.
The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights
Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.
Thus, women have skills that can bring new ideas and fresh prospective to break up the adverse effects of group thinking, which can cost companies consumers.
"hatever their gender, directors first and foremost must be individuals who possess the key skills required by a board, including integrity, sound judgment, financial knowledge and strategic thinking. But boards must also understand their customers, and Strandberg notes that "women represent a significant part of the consumer market. They have a lot of economic power in the marketplace" (Perkins).
However, having women on the board of directors does not bring a sustained improvement within the board room. Its argument of equality: everyone should be equally does not meet the BOD recruitment process. BOD should be elected based on their competencies that can actually provide value to their shareholders and not based on what a gender can bring to the table. Furthermore, the evironment is…
Marketing to Women. 2011. 16 May 2012. .
McMull, Greg Parsons and Kathryn. Trends in University Graduation, 1992 to 2007. 2009. 16 May 2012. .
Perkins, Tara. Women in the boardroom: are Canadian companies changing? 2011. 16 May 2012. .
oman Identified oman by Radicalesbians
In the essay entitled, "oman identified woman," the organization Radicalesbians discusses the crucial issue of identifying women as reinforces of the perpetuation of oppression in human society. This means that prejudice and oppression against women cannot be eliminated nor gradually lessened, primarily because women will always act against the interest of their own sector. However, it is important to bear in mind that what makes women reinforce this oppression upon themselves is the result of a long history of living under the social structure of patriarchy.
Addressing these important issues in the essay, the argument of the Radicalesbians involves a three-pronged analysis of the social condition of women's oppression in the contemporary society. First, they talk about the nature of lesbianism and its challenges in a male-dominated society; second, they go further in their critique of acceptance of lesbianism in the society to include on…
Radicalesbians. (1970). "The woman identified woman." Available at: http://carnap.umd.edu/queer/radicalesbian.htm.
S. Constitution, and Susan B. Anthony was very upset at that.
For one thing, the women's suffrage movement had vigorously supported the abolition of slavery well prior to (and, of course, during the Civil War); and now that blacks were free, and were given the right to vote (although many blacks in America didn't really get to vote until the Voting ights Act of 1965 guaranteed their right to cast votes) prior to the women in American having the right to vote.
For another thing, many women were already stretched to the maximum in terms of the patience over their lack of voting rights.
According to an article in www.About.com (Women's History: Susan B. Anthony), "Some of Susan B. Anthony's writings were...quite racist by today's standards." She made the point that "educated white women would be better voters than 'ignorant' black men or immigrant men." In the late 1860s, she…
About.com. "Women's History: Susan B. Anthony; Seneca Falls Convention;
Declaration of Sentiments." 2004. Available
History of the American Suffragist Movement (2004). "Timeline: 1861-1867,"
This report aims to present my views on the fact that wage work during the late 19th and early 20th centuries have more or less reinforced women's roles within their families or more accurately, have provided an extension to their familial roles. The objective of this work is to therefore present an argument that contradicts a belief held by many historians that wage work actually enabled women to develop a new sense of individualism as well as economic independence. These liberations are supposed to have liberated women from their roles in the traditional home. The report also attempts to incorporate how the effects of race and/or ethnicity come into play in this situation.
First and foremost, the idea of wage work and non-wage work must be explored to give credence to the topic at hand. Women have traditionally been unpaid for the bulk of their work while they…
This report discusses how most women who participated in the many reform movements during the late 19th and early 20th century did not intend to solely help their own kind of white middle to upper class women. There is no doubt that the period witnessed an abundance of female activism and this report will incorporate various reform movements of the time such as the Women's Club Movement and the Women's Trade Union League to demonstrate that the interests of these groups were for overall social improvement. The time period in question was dominated by whites so even in the sense of female rights and activism, privilege usually only allowed well to-to white women to rebel. But, since they tried to help underprivileged parts of the entire society, they were clearly thinking of more than just other white women with money.
The women's movements of the late 19th and…
They argued that women would not have any reforming effect on the country because they would vote with their husbands (opposite of what they argued earlier). In states where they already had the vote, they had made no difference. Finally, they argued that women didn't really want the vote, anyway. This last charge had some truth to it. Susan . Anthony observed that the apathy of most women about the vote was the biggest obstacle for the movement. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 said that women would get the vote when "women as a whole show any special interest in the matter" (Woloch 242).
Terborg-Penn (113) points out that between 1910 and 1920 middle-class black women became active in the cause. She states that black feminists could never overlook the issue of racism; for them, it wasn't just a matter of being women; their color was a major cause of…
Women and the American Economy
The American workforce has been composed of men and women for many decades now. Despite history shows that the American workforce used to be made up of only the male gender, the women gender had shown that they have the power and capability to perform what men can do. However, although the female gender was able to prove themselves, gender discrimination and inequality that were found in the early years of labor force still exists these days. This can be proven by how the wages of the male and female gender differs and how occupations between them are distributed.
"Women earn less than men." This is a fact that has been found by several statistics on the wage gap between men and women in the American workforce. Robert Longley indicates the following findings of the U.S. Census ureau.
Women make only 75.5 cents for every…
Longley, Robert. Gender Gap Widening, Census Data Show.
Women organized themselves into small teams formed along friendship and interest lines, and split the chores among them" (p. 69).
Fatima describes the women's gardens. The men's garden was quiet and formal. But in the women's garden, "each co-wife claimed her own little plot of land which she declared to be her garden, where she raised vegetables, hens, ducks, and peacocks" (p. 50). The women's gardens bustled with activity. Gardening was the favorite work of Fatima's grandmother, Yasmina, whose apartment was simple because she didn't "care about all that, as long as she could...have enough space to experiment with trees and flowers, and raise all kinds of ducks and peacocks" (p. 50) Yasmina also "took care of Tamou when she was sick..." Tamou had a nervous breakdown (actually, post-stress disorder) after her family was killed in the war. Yasmina "cared for her for months until she recovered" (p. 52).
According to Enstad, historians did not cover the earlier years of the labor movement at the beginning of the 20th century any better. She says that the information was actually incorrect. Many women at this time were into popular culture, reading cheap dime novels and wearing stylish clothes. Historians say that the women were therefore distracted from the serious issues that were taking place in the labor movement. The situation was the opposite says Enstad.5 She researched how working-class women used these books and clothes to identity themselves as workers, Americans, and ladies.
Foreign-born working women proudly read books in English to show off their Americanization. Sometimes working-class women felt like ladies when they wore middle-class stylish dress, such as silk underwear. More often, though, they invented their own styles of large hats and piled pompadours, brightly colored clothes, and French heels. Enstad says that this incorrect idea about the…
Kleeck studied New York City's female factory workers and child laborers. For decades she served as director of the Russell Sage Foundation's department of industrial studies, where her work helped bring about legislative reform by providing valuable information on the conditions in various trades. After her retirement from Russell Sage in 1948, she ran unsuccessfully for the New York State Senate on the American Labor Party ticket.
Salmon earned an M.A. In history in 1883. After three years of teaching at the Indiana University in Terre Haute, she was awarded a fellowship for a year's graduate study in American history at Bryn Mawr College. From there she went to Vassar in 1887 and became that college's first history teacher. Her pioneering use of statistical reports helped make her study Domestic Service, a major contribution to both history and historiography.
Unfortunately, U.S. history is still primarily seen through
Women in Monasticism
Famous women in monasticism
In monasticism, the participation of women started very early and apart from the hermits who lived in the desert, there were women in ome who were living like in a monastic manner. One of the first such instances was Paula who founded with Jerome a double monastery in Bethlehem, as also Macrina in Cappadocia at nearly the same time. Even in recorded history, there are the records from Palladius from the 5th century saying that in the desert he encountered women in monastic lives. He had met a convent of 400 women led by a remarkable individual, Amma Talis which had been going on for 80 years. His records clearly state the freedom that these women seemed to have as also their generous hospitality. Another famous personality, Pachomius, who has founded the cenobitic monastery, had written down rules in the 3rd century BC,…
"Catholic Online Saints: St. Scholastica" Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=240 Accessed 26 September, 2005
"Christina of Markyate" Retrieved from http://womenshistory.about.com /cs/religion/p/c_markyate.htm
Accessed 26 September, 2005
"Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)" (18 August, 2005) Retrieved from http://home.infionline.net/~ddisse/hildegar.html Accessed 26 September, 2005
Seeing that he was miserable, she told him he could either have her loyal but ugly or beautiful and unfaithful (Chaucer pp). The knight leaves the decision up to her thus, giving the old hag exactly what she wanted, to be in control of her husband. This decision resulted in the old hag becoming beautiful and loyal (Chaucer pp).
omen are central to this tale from the beginning to the end. The knight is saved by the queen, then is sent on a quest to find what appeared to be an impossible answer to a riddle concerning women, and then is saved again at the last minute by another woman who, although wise, was ugly and undesirable. However, he proved true, loyal and obedient, and granted the hag the one thing she wished, control over her man. And in doing so, he received what he truly wanted which was a…
Beowulf. Retrieved September 25, 2005 at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/AnoBeow.html
Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Miller's Prologue and Tale; The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale."
Retrieved September 25, 2005 at http://www.librarius.com/cantales.htm
Dockray-Miller, Mary. "The masculine queen of 'Beowulf.'" Women and Language. September 22, 1998. Retrieved September 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
This gave her husband the right to sell any of her property and she was not in a position to object in any way. Religious women with their vows of obedience and poverty really had no reason to get involved in legal matters and were untouched in any way by the legal structure.
idows were the only women who held in legal position in the society. "She (a widow) regained her legal personality, was entitled to a certain share of her husband's holdings and, for the first time in her life, could make independent decisions." Legally, this was the best position for women. It was not without problems especially for wealthy women. These women were frequently intimidated into a second marriage or into relinquishing parts of their holdings. They had no legal recourse against this kind of intimidation in the same way that married women could not object to domestic…
Barber, Richard. The Penguin Guide to Medieval Europe. New York: Penguin
Conway, Stephen. "Silent Voices: Women in the Middle Ages." 1991. http://www.subverbis.com/essays/medievalwomen.rtf .
Delort, Robert. Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Robert Allen. New York: