World Civilization Essays (Examples)

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World During First Century CE

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82327653

political, social and economical processes of the first century AD, it's important to distinguish main superpower, which dictated its values and spread its influence on other nations and ethnic groups. If to look on the problem from these perspective the problems that arose from such interaction will become obvious and clear. That's why we have to describe the processes that took place in the oman Empire, the only super state on the world's map of that epoch.

At the beginning of the first century the power of oman empire had expended over the territories of Mediterranean region: omans had conquered Britain, Spain in the West and reached eastern borders of their possessions on the territories of modern Armenia, Northern Mesopotamia in the East, omania in the North and Sarah in the South. oman emperors starting from Julius Caesar expanded and empowered oman Empire, its territories, increased army and turned into…… [Read More]

Reference:

Craig, Albert M. Heritage of World Civilizations, Combined Volume (6th Edition) Prentice Hall; 6th edition 2002
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WWI When World War I

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12021802

..the spirit of ruthless brutality will enter itn every fiber of our national life" (Johnson 643).

Staying out, states Tindall & Shi 948), was "more easily said than done, not least for Wilson himself. Americans might want to stay out of the war, but most of them cared which side won. Ironically, because there were so many first- or second-generation immigrants from Germany and Ireland, the leaning was toward the Central Powers. However, "old-line Americans" mostly of ritish descent were sympathetic to the Allies.

Yet actions were to occur that made the final decision. In 1915, the Germans sank the ritish Cunard liner Lusitania with 128 Americans on board. The Americans were outraged and sent letters to no avail. Then U-boats sank a number of American ships and finally, the press published a secret telegram from the German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to the Mexican government proposing a German-Mexican offensive…… [Read More]

Books Cited

Johnson, Paul. History of the American People. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.

Tindall, George Brown and Shi, David. America. A Narrative History. New York:

Norton, 1984.

Zinn, Hoard. People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins, 1999.
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World Mythology

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79560831

Mythology Through the Eyes of Joseph Campbell

This essay discusses a little part of world mythology as perceived through the eyes of Joseph Campbell. It also relates to his conceptualization of the myths associated with different geographical regions of the world. This uses 1 source in MLA form.

Long has existed the phenomenon of myths and religions. Mythology is defined as the study of myths, which is a strong belief that is associated with someone or ancient figures. If it is brought under proper observation its exact era from where it all started is difficult to find as even the existence of the first man on the universe has been associated with mythological happening. As there exist different explanations and myths with the existence of the world these explanations also tend to vary when concerning different geographical areas. There is a lot of text available even belonging to ancient times…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Leeming, David "Mythology: The Voyage of the Hero" 1981
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Islam and the Clash of Civilizations

Words: 2254 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11951287

Islam and the Clash of Civilizations

orld civilization has known in the last decades some of the most important political, economic, and in particular cultural developments of the 20th century. The era after the end of the Cold ar determined a series of events that triggered numerous conflicts around the world, from the war in Kuwait in the early 1990s, to the genocide in Rwanda, human rights abuses and apartheid in South Africa, to the escalation of the terrorist phenomenon to dimensions never attained before.

The peak of the terrorist threat was reached on September 11, 2001 when the attacks on the orld Trade Center in New York fully demonstrated the power, influence, and capacity terrorist groups can master. Along with the terrorist phenomenon, the other regional conflicts still ongoing in parts of the Middle East and Africa, point out the increased differences that exist throughout the world between different…… [Read More]

Works cited

Baxter, Kylie; Akbarzadeh, Shahram. 2008. "U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East." Routledge.

Huntington. S. 1993."The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs, Summer.

Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. "The True Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Policy, Mar/Apr2003, Issue 135

Krishna, S. 2008. Globalization and post colonialism. Hegemony and resistance in the twenty first century. Rowman, Littlefield Publishers, New York.
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Aztecs the Great Aztec Civilization

Words: 1924 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61994646

Consequently, the social distinctions were not as static as their European counterparts.

Religion was also a major aspect of Aztec life and it has become, perhaps, what they are best known for:

The Great Temple was a place for human sacrifice. Prisoners captured in battle were led up the steps to the platform on top. Here, the prisoners were stretched on their backs over a stone block. That an Aztec priest cut out their hearts with a stone knife. The hearts were burned as offerings to Huitzilopochtli, god of war and the sun, and the bodies were thrown down the steps (Chrisp 2000:16).

This practice was clearly what the conquistadores found most deplorable, most barbaric, and the most incongruous with the rest of Aztec society. The obvious monuments to Aztec achievement -- the towering temples of the sun and the moon -- were used for bloody and horrific shows on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berdan, Frances. Indians of North America: The Aztecs. New York: Chelsea House, 1989.

Chrisp, Peter. The Aztecs. Austin: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2000.

Fagan, Brian M. The Aztecs. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1984.

Hicks, Peter. Look into the Past: The Aztecs. New York: Thomson Learning, 1993.
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Clash of Civilizations Samuel P

Words: 2233 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23271805

Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.

Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…… [Read More]

References

Cleveland, W.L. (1999). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Gelvin, J.L. (2008). The Modern Middle East: A History. New York, (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press.

Gumley, F. & Redhead, B. (1992). The Pillars of Islam. London: BBC Books.

Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 22-49.
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Changes Brought About by World

Words: 1334 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69814484

hat we learn from this is that no mistake can be erased from history just as no reparations can completely repair damage done. Germany's inability to carry her own weight during this time of trouble only prolonged the world economy, which was badly bruised and desperately needing to be healed.

2. Democracy became the word that was whispered across the globe during the twenties and thirties. The promise of democracy proved to be easier than the act of democracy. "Democracy seemed divisive and ineffective, so one country after another adopted a more authoritarian alternative during the twenties and early thirties" (Noble 1034). However, it is impossible to squash the human sprit that longs to be free. Noble asserts, "Democracy proved hard to manage in east-central Europe party because of special economic difficulties resulting from the breakup of the Habsberg system" (Noble 1035). In addition, he notes, "The countries of east-central…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chamber, Mortimer, et al. The Western Experience. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 1979.

Chodorow, Stanley. A History of the World. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers. 1986.

Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2000.

Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.
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Civilizations Have Often Resulted in Dramatic Changes

Words: 854 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79303708

civilizations have often resulted in dramatic changes to both sides. Peaceful encounters bring transfers to new goods, new technologies and new ideas, while encounters built on conflict can change outlooks, governments and ways of life. A violent culture clash occurred with the Crusades, while a more peaceful meeting of the cultures occurred with traders from Europe (especially Venetians) heading eastward to Asia. These two encounters between civilizations would lead to much of what we see in the geopolitical world today. We have conflict in the Middle East between the Arab world and the Western world. We also see global trade as a major driving force in the world. This trade also would eventually lead to the age of exploration and mass colonization.

The rise of Islam and the response of Christian Europe during the Crusades not only characterized its era, being one of the most important events of the time,…… [Read More]

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Civilizations the Topic Is Religious and Social

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83889752

Civilizations

The topic is religious and social life in the Achaemenid Empire. The purpose of the project is to learn more about this subject and dispel some of the myths in today's media. I will use books on the subject to learn about what this empire was like, and what their religion was like. I expect that I will be able to come to some conclusions about the Achaemenid Empire. Furthermore, I believe that I will demonstrate that the rulers of this empire were enlightened and had a high level of tolerance for the customs of those over whom they ruled.

Purpose Statement

The subject of this report will be the Achaemenid Empire that flourished in ancient Persia, from 550-330 BCE. This empire is interesting for several reasons, not the least of which was its Zoroastrian religion and general religious tolerance. This empire has been cast as villain in popular…… [Read More]

References

Armayor, O. (1979). Herodotus' catalogues of the Persian Empire in the light of the monuments and the Greek literary tradition. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 108 (1979) 1-9.

Choksy, J. (1989). Purity and pollution in Zoroastrianism: Triumph over evil. University of Texas Press.

Dandamaev, M. (1989). A political history of the Achaemenid Empire. EJ Brill: New York.

Dusinberre, E. (2003). Aspects of Empire in Achaemenid Sardis. University of Michigan: Ann Arbor.
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world history

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35178739

Jerry H. Bentley, the word "world history" has different meanings for different societies. While some may define it as a broad analysis of the whole world's history, others believe it implies foreign history. But, this word doesn't actually correspond to either definition. It denotes historical learning which undertakes an overt comparison of experiences beyond individual societal boundaries or studies interactions among individuals hailing from diverse communities or studies broad historical processes and trends which extend beyond discrete communities. Besides highlighting cross-cultural dealings in a historical context, one chief concern of the major part of modern world history deals with constructing alternative approaches to the established Eurocentric perspectives of history.[footnoteRef:1] [1:. Jerry H. Bentley, A Companion to Western Historical Thought, ed. Lloyd Kramer and Sarah Maza (Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2002), 393.]

Ever since historical events began to be documented, the element of world history was apparent. The ancient world lacked access…… [Read More]

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World Regional Geography

Words: 2680 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29821841

Regional Geography

hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.

The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Chen-Young, et al. Transnationals of tourism in the Caribbean. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001.

2. Richard Wiffin, William Phettipace, Anas Todkill; Imagining Distance: Spanish Explorers in America. Early American Literature, Vol. 25, 1990.

3. Stephen Zunes; The United States and the Western Sahara Peace Process. Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, 1998.
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World History Cultural Globalization

Words: 1361 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50378981

Globalization and Middle Eastern Culture

The term globalization has positive connotations in that it implies interaction and sharing through technology and suggests the improvement and development of less developed countries through connections with countries that are more economically wealthy. However, this is not always the way in which the term is interpreted by some countries and cultures. There has been a negative reaction throughout the world in recent years to the concept of globalization which is increasingly viewed as a means of domination and assimilation -- especially with regard to cultural aspects. A more formal definition of globalization is as follows:

Globalization can be conceived as a process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions, expressed in transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and power (see Held and McGrew, et al., 1999).

In essence globalization is characterized…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Cheruiyot K. Our Languages Are Dying [article online] Available from http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0224language.htm; Internet: accessed December 1, 2004.

Held D. And McGrew A. Globalization. (article online); available from; Internet: available from http://www.polity.co.uk/global/globocp.htm; Internet: accessed 6 December, 2004

Maisami Mona, Islam and Globalization. [essay online] Available from The foundation Magazine (August 2003) http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=5a952d9bae& k=33& 1677948306& show=part1; Internet: Accessed 1 December, 2004.

Moussalli Mohammed, Impact of Globalization ( Article online) Available form Daily Star ( August 25, 2003) http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0826islam.htm; Internet: accessed 5 December, 2004
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Classical Civilization Citizens the Death

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 144783

We will look to the representatives of the middle class for advice and help in our good governance.

We will promote a peaceful and non-conflicting approach towards all other empires and countries and will try to sort out the differences we have with some of our enemies. One of the first things in terms of foreign policy is meetings with our enemies and discussion of current problems. We don't believe in wars: wars cost money and we want to spend money doing more useful things, such as building the infrastructure and developing new public use projects. Negotiations will be undertaken, but remain assured that we will not give up on anything that is fundamentally vital for the survival of our great nation.

The competition for resources is a challenge we must all face, but finding alternatives such as wind power can help us become more independent in terms of our…… [Read More]

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Non-Western World by Western Powers In the

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77943346

Non-estern orld by estern Powers:

In the period between 1870 and 1914, estern powers took over the main portions of the non-estern world when there was considerable discussion and debate regarding the cause of this takeover. Despite the controversies surrounding this decision, the estern powers were motivated by various factors behind the takeover. The takeover of the non-estern world by estern powers is commonly known as imperialism or European imperialism. The term imperialism is used to refer to the process of expanding one state's control over another through various forms. Some of the major forms that characterize the takeover include direct rule and indirect rule with the former involving annexing territories outright and subjugating people who lived in these territories. In contrast, indirect rule is a process where estern powers reached agreements with local leaders and governed through these agreements. Regardless of the form of imperialism, the takeover by estern…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM." Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 8 May 2013. .

"FC122: European Imperial Expansion in Africa (c.1870-1914)." The Flow of History - A Dynamic and Graphic Approach to Teaching History. The Flow of History, n.d. Web. 08 May 2013. .

Mills, Wallace G. "European Motivations in the Scramble." The Scramble and Motivations. Saint Mary's University, n.d. Web. 08 May 2013. .
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Olmec Ancient Civilization

Words: 6598 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83782582

"

4. Social and Political Life

There is a general paucity of information about the actual societal and political structure of the Olmec. While there is not much evidence to build a comprehensive picture of the daily and social life of these people, there is enough available data from certain archeological sites to provide some reasonable speculations.

One of the assumptions that is derived from the excavation of sites at San Lorenzo and then at La Venta is that the society was very centralized. This in turn has led to the view that the society was highly structured, with a hierarchical basis of order and class stratification. This also implies the existence of a ruling elite and a system of power and control, which was possibly based on religious beliefs. This view of the structure of the society is summarized as follows: "Olmec society was & #8230;highly centralized, with a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Griffin Gillett G., the Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership,

http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/olmec / (accessed 8 November, 2010).

Jones, David M. Mythology of the Aztecs and Maya, New York: Lorenz, 2007.

Lemonick M.D., Mystery of the Olmec,( Time Magazine, July 1, 1996, Volume 148, No.
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Huntington's Clash of Civilization Confirm or Refute

Words: 2005 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35623839

Huntington's Clash Of Civilization

confirm or refute Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis

Huntington's clash of civilization

Scholars, journalists, and policy makers have adopted and popularized the ideas of Samuel P. Huntington, who was a professor of government at Harvard University, to explain the emerging post-cold war world. According to Huntington, the world is divided into a number of distinct civilizations that are irreconcilable because they hold to entirely different value systems (Huntington, 1993, 22-49).

This essay in tends to refute the Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis by first of all looking at the summation of this thesis, before the researcher gives his own perspective of Huntington's theory. In the third section of this study, supporting evidence that draws from the readings from this essay and other accredited outside sources are discussed before the essay concludes.

Summation of Huntington's clash of civilization thesis

Born Samuel P. Huntington in 1927; a political…… [Read More]

Work cited

Ankerl, Guy. (2008) Global communication without universal civilization Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. pp 74-89

Blankley, Tony, (2005) The West's Last Chance: Will We Win the Clash of Civilizations?, Washington, D.C., Regnery Publishing, Inc., p 56-88

Djilas, Aleksa: (2006) "Democracy, Destiny, and the Clash of Civilizations": Transitions, the journal on post-communist society's pp 49

Fox, Jonathon, (1994) Ethnic minorities and the clash of civilizations: A quantitative analysis of Huntington's thesis. British Journal of Political Science, pp 415-435.
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Clash of Civilizations and the

Words: 1525 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42095630



Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Affairs (Summer 1993): 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 23.

Anatol Lieven, "Analysis: roots of the conflict between Georgia, South Ossetia and Russia." The UK Times Online. (August 11, 2008). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article4498709.ece (accessed September 2, 2009).

Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 23-24.

Anatole Lieven, "Analysis."

Anatole Lieven, "Analysis."

Natalia Antelava. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." C (January 12, 2004). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3406941.stm (accessed September 2, 2009).

Robyn Dixon, "Putin acks U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times (March 2, 2002). http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).

ibliography

Antelava, Natalia. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." C, January 12, 2004,

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3406941.stm

Dixon, Robyn. "Putin acks U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times, March 2,

2002, http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).

Lieven, Anatol. "Analysis: roots of the conflict between Georgia, South Ossetia and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Antelava, Natalia. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." BBC, January 12, 2004,

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3406941.stm 

Dixon, Robyn. "Putin Backs U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times, March 2,

2002,  http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748  (accessed September 2, 2009).
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Clash of Civilizations and the Clash Over Modernity

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25323770

Cold ar has brought renewed interest in civilizations as a source of identity and conflict. The Cold ar had allowed the world to be divided into two distinct camps: one directed by Communist philosophy and the other directed by democratic ideals. This division often resulted in considerable conflict but at least everyone occupied a definable position. All this changed, however, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

The collapse of Communism presented the possibility of a more peaceful world. Gone was the constant state of tension between the two ideologies. Democracy was now the prevailing political ideology and the door was open for the growing trend toward globalization to progress in earnest. This feeling of euphoria, however, was short-lived and new barriers soon emerged to construct new walls and barriers between the various worlds' nation-states.

In some cases actual walls have been constructed such as the proposed wall between the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989.

Huntington, Samuel. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Lewis, Bernard. What Went Wrong?: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. New York:

Oxford University Press, 2001.
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Sumerian Civilization Approximately 4000 B C

Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45192160

Although they still remain a mystery as to their origin, the Sumerians seem to have appeared as a fully developed society with technology and organizational skills far superior to any other societies of that era. The Sumerians evolved from hunters and gathers to communities of farmers who faced an unpredictable and hostile environment, yet their innovations in writing and recordkeeping influenced future civilizations. Not only are they credited with inventing the wheel, the plow, and timekeeping, but the earliest known literature, the epic of Gilgamesh, is attributed to the Sumerian civilization. Thus, modern civilizations owe much to this mysterious ancient peoples.

orks Cited

Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

atkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.

Retrieved December 09,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Watkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.

Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.  http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/sumer.htm 

Waymire, Gregory B. "Recordkeeping and human evolution." Accounting
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Alexander the Great Western Civilization Has Wide

Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59934789

Alexander the Great

Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.

Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.

Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…… [Read More]

He was considered an excellent king, general, and conqueror. His innovative empire assisted and improved the way of life in his kingdom in many ways. Victorious conquest of vast area of land stretched Greek traditions and language far and wide and immensely affected western civilization.

Apart from the given source, following site was consulted:

Popovic, J.J. Alexander the Great Macedon. Accessed from World Wide Web:  http://1stmuse.com/frames/index.html
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Egyptian Civilizations Classical Greek or

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90859767

As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.

The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting

Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…… [Read More]

References

American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm

Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/

Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1

Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
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History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution

Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52464720

history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…… [Read More]

References

Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com.
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Greek Artifacts the Civilization of

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27467730

Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).

Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.

Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp.

Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.

New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
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History Western Civilization a Book Called the

Words: 1874 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16137744

history western civilization a book called THE MAKING OF THE WEST.

Joan of Arc

Prior to becoming made into a saint in the early part of the 20th century, Joan of Arc was one of the primary causes of France's many victories in the Hundred Years War. The woman, who only lived to be 19 before she was eventually burned to death after being captured by the British, helped liberate many parts of France from British occupation during a relatively brief period of time, all of which took place during the 1420's prior to her death. Joan told several members of the French population that she was divinely inspired by visions from God to help her defeat the British and reclaim France's territory. With some dissent from France's military leaders, she was able to play an influential role in the Siege at Orleans, which was largely proceeded by several months'…… [Read More]

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Greek on Mediterranean World Sparta

Words: 2198 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88891091

Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.

Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.

John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world

Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.

Rousseau JJ (1755) Economie ou Oeconomie (Morale et Politique). in: Diderot Det d' Alembert J, Le R (eds.) Encyclopedie au Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers, vol V, Paris, pp 337 -- 349. Quoted from the French-German edition entitled, Rousseau JJ (1977) Politische Okonomie. Edit. And transl by Schneider HP, Schneider-Pachaly B. Klostermann, Frankfurt, pp 22 -- 113. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a.
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Duiker and Speilvogel's Book World History Since

Words: 1038 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15971492

Duiker and peilvogel's book, World History ince 1865, Volume II examines the emergence of imperialism promoted by Europeans and the resulting affects of their determination to expand, far surpassing imperial Rome.

Great Britain, France, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, pain, Portugal and even Russia intruded forcefully into Africa, Asia, the Middle East and the outh Pacific and finally sought out the North and outh Poles. Today, there is common agreement that European overseas expansion was a constant factor of the nineteenth century, with British commercial activities the most obvious.

But the key aspect of this mobile expansion and what dominated world history from 1500 to the present is the gradual integration of the world into a European-dominated global system. One of the more interesting aspects of this "globalization" is to understand that countries outside of Europe were not victims of this movement. Historical, social, economic and political dynamics contributed to European…… [Read More]

Sources

World History Since 1865. Volume II. William Dukier. Jackson J. Spielvogel.. Wadsworth Publishing.

Europe in Retrospect. Raymond F. Betts. 2000. www.britannia.com/history/euro. http://mars.wnce.edu/courses/worldlectures/imperialism.
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Protestant Ref Imperialism and WWI

Words: 1290 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34222582

92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.

Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.

The new Imperialism of America (and…… [Read More]

Reference List

Elliot, J.H. (2009). Spain, Europe and the Wider World: 1500-1800. Yale Universtiy

Press.

Haaren, J. (1904). Famous Men of the Middle Ages. New York, NY: American Book

Company.
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Clash of Civilizations - Samuel

Words: 4147 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97080962

" The book argues that the reality of history is a "ludicrously compressed and constricted warfare," Said continues; but indeed Huntington cannot grasp the notion that there are no strictly defined Muslim cultures but to make his book work he has to build a case that there is such a stereotypical, predictable Muslim culture.

Said goes so far as to say that Huntington's book attempted to give his original article a bit more "subtlety" along with "many, many more footnotes." But alas, Said believes that all Huntington did by putting out a whole book on the topic was to "confuse himself and demonstrate what a clumsy writer and inelegant thinker he was." Said has plenty more to say, albeit there is not space in this paper for all of his views; but several more of his themes will be presented. For example, Said compares the likes of Osama bin Laden…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barder, Christopher. (1999). Professor Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations" and its Bearing on Israel's Security. NATIV, Retrieved March 31, 2008, at  http://www.acpr.org.il/nativ/1999-6/barderxs.htm .

Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order.

New York: Simon & Schuster.

Said, Edward W. (2001). The Clash of Ignorance. The Nation. Retrieved March 31, 2008, at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20011022/said.
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Western Civilization Define Its Major

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8471789

What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wikipedia. (December 27, 2007) Western Culture. Retrieved on December 30, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_culture
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Olmec Civilization Long Before the Maya Aztec

Words: 3378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40152055

Olmec Civilization

Long before the Maya, Aztec or Toltec flourished in Central America, there lived the Olmecs, a civilization that has come to continue to intrigue and amaze the world. They were the most prevalent group in Mesoamerica and a highly developed and well organized society with a complex calendar and hieroglyphic writing system. The Olmecs were the mother civilization in Mesoamerica.

The Olmec lived around the areas of La Venta in Tabasco, San Lorenza Tenochtitlan, and Laguna de los Cerros in Veracruz during the pre-classic period. They built their cities around a central raised mound. These mounds, used for religious ceremonies, were replaced with pyramid-shaped structures around 900 B.C. The Olmecs used basalt, found in the Tuxtla Mountains, to construct plazas and religious pyramid structures. Houses were made of wooden walls with clay and palm roof tops, and a hierarchical society separated the elite from the common groups in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Indian Empires." http://www.american-indians.net/empires.htm.(accessed 11-24-2003).

Lemonick, Michael D. "Mystery of the Olmec: Ancient Culture of Mesoamerica."

Time. July 01, 1996. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1G1:18419168&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=Time&author=Lemonick%2C+Michael+D%2E&title=Mystery+of+the+Olmec%2E+%28ancient+culture+of+Mesoamerica%29&date=07%2F01%2F1996&query=Olmecs&maxdoc=30&idx=1&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 11-24-2003).

Olmec Civilization: 1200 B.C.- 600 A.D."  http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html .(accessed 11-24-2003).
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History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16341967

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
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Perceived Superiority of Modern Western Civilization Is

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28741881

perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.

Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…… [Read More]

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Early vs Later Aegean Civilization -- Minoan

Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33584419

Early vs. later Aegean Civilization -- Minoan and Mycenaean vs. Classical and Hellenic Ages

The early Minoan and Mycenaean cultures of the Aegean represent, respectively, a palace-ruled island-based culture and a more militaristic land-based culture, that were eventually to converge into the singular culture of the Classical Age of mainland ancient Greek civilization. At first, this development may seem surprising. The differences between the early and late artistic and political eras seem striking to the modern eye. hile Minoan and Mycenaean statues are static and almost Egyptian in their stylization, Classical and particularly Hellenic sculptures and depictions of the human form are 'realistic,' idealized, or highly emotional in their stance and expression. The earlier civilizations were either royal or military-run, and fairly enclosed. Athens was to form the cradle of democracy for later civilization, and even Sparta formed alliances with other city-states. Still later, Hellenic society became extremely porous, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hawkes, Jacquetta. (2002) "Cultural Explanations." PhpWiki. http://metamedia.stanford.edu/traumwerk/index.php/Knossos%2C%20the%20Pacifistic%20Mother%3F%3A%20Comparisons%20with%20Mainland%20Greece. [23 Feb 2002]
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Revolutions the History of Modern Human Civilization

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88844686

evolutions

The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.

The Scientific evolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French evolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial evolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.

The Scientific evolution

The Scientific…… [Read More]

References

Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th

Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.

Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.

Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.
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How Atilla the Hun Was a Game Changer Back in Western Civilization

Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99901016

Huns, nomadic people and barbarians (from the Roman point-of-view) coming from the East, may have given the final blow to an empire that was already crumbling. They conquered semi-nomadic nomadic peoples they found on their way moving westwards, settling in territories north and south of Danube, and incorporated them in a new empire.

Attila, the Hun leader, had the merit to unite his people who used to be scattered in different clans and tribes, giving them to opportunity to unite under the same flag and fight like a nation. He was born at the dawn of the fifth century AD, at a ripe time, suitable to question and greatly endanger the Roman supremacy in the Mediterranean world and beyond.

Like other barbarians, the Huns were parasitic people, living off the possessions of those they pillaged and of the tributes the latter agreed to pay in exchange for peace. What the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Kelly, Christopher. The End of Empire. Attila the Hun & The Fall of Rome. 2009, 2008. W.W. Norton & Company New York London.

Bury, J.B. The Cambridge Medieval History,

452 -- a year after his defeat in Gaul, Attila's army penetrated the Italian Peninsula: "a great many of the inhabitants of the terribly devastated country sought refuge on the unassailable islands of the lagoons along the Adriatic coast. Yet the real foundation of Venice which tradition has connected with the Hunnic invasion can only be traced back to the invasion of the Lombards"(568)(the Cambridge Medieval History, J.B. Bury).

Eastern Empire:
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Incan Civilization -- the Collapse of an

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Incan Civilization -- the collapse of an indigenous empire and the rise of a pre-Capitalist state

Although they can provide powerful social networks for the individuals whom are enmeshed within them, individuals who are part of communally-based societies often owe more loyalty to their immediate family groups and kin structures of religion, rather than to than their nation-state or leader. This social and ideological fragmentation, as was characteristic of the indigenous social and political systems of the early modern Incas, can make unity between peoples quite difficult, even when unity is required for self-preservation during such periods as military impingements from the outside through invasion, or in the case of the Incan empire, the 'exploration' or conquest by the Spaniards.

However, the conversion to new modalities of government and social relations can hardly be viewed as progress -- rather, the Spanish invasions of the Incan populations 1530s took pure advantage…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Patterson, Thomas. The Incan Empire: the Formation and Disintegration of a Pre-Capitalist State. New York and Oxford: Berg Publishers Ltd., New York, 1991.
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History of the World in

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9274352

111), a product that gathered both good and evil forces on its way, a drink that could not have become global without the use of the slaves on a mass scale.

long their existence, the spirited drinks were designated as medicine, recreational drinks for pastime, means of social control, and due to the high degree of addiction that set in as soon as they moderation went out of the way, a source of distress for those who became addictive and their families. Rum, the first to replace the ratios of beer of the British ships and the main ingredient in the first cocktail, became the favorite drink of the English settlers who came to Virginia hoping to find a new source of wealth for them and their country. The second cocktail based on rum came on the tables of the Englishmen in the New World, under the form of punch.…… [Read More]

After centuries of using the spirits as a trade currency and means of alleviating during hard time, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States came to a stage when a movement that started by the middle of the nineteenth century will spread and end in the Prohibition era, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Health and religious reasons had led more and more people to believe that the only answer to the loss of moderation was to ban the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages altogether. Today, the period of fourteen years when the Eighteen Amendment was in use, is regarded as e period of experimentation that proved once again that any interdiction attracts the rise of illegal activities meant to work around it.

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

Drink: The History of Alcohol 1690-1920. The National Archives. Retrieved: Oct. 20, 2009. Available at: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/events/calendar/drink.htm
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Western Civilization the 1947 Truman

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35727701

The 1956 Suez Canal Crisis caused an indirect confrontation when America's allies France, Britain, and Israel made an unsuccessful military attempt to take over the Suez Canal from the Soviet Union's ally Egypt. After the U.S.S.. threatened to become militarily involved in the crisis, the U.S. forced its allies to concede defeat.

The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis occurred after the U.S. discovered that the U.S.S.. had secretly supplied Cuba with nuclear-armed missiles. This discovery was especially alarming because now the U.S.S.. could militarily subdue its rival by easily launching missiles against it. After a naval blockade around Cuba and intense negotiations the U.S.S.. was finally made to remove the missiles in exchange for the U.S. pledge not to overthrow Cuba's Communist regime.

eferences

The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.… [Read More]

References

The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
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Individuals Take Over the World

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66974411

The more important someone's rank in society was, the bigger the obligations became and thus, the responsibility increased.

Mesopotamia was a region between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates where the swing of world's first civilization emerged. Various cultures occupied the region and were brought together solely by their customs and religion. Trade came in as the result of agriculture, it brought prosperity and urbanization. The rise of cities led to economic and political developments, one city being conquered by another until the establishment of the first Mesopotamian empire by Sargon that lasted about 150 years until outside powers such as the Hittites (who raided Babylon) gained control over some areas. During the Middle Bronze Age, the Assyrians conquered much of Mesopotamia and, with the rise of the Babylonian dynasty, trade was once again favoured and brought along warfare.

The Alexandrian Empire was favoured by a number of its king's…… [Read More]

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James Rarick Western Civilization II

Words: 3653 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18069719

The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.

6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire

People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…… [Read More]

Resources, 01.07.1997)

9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)

10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)

11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)

12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
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Byzantium and the Islamic World

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60605729

Islam and Byzantine

The interaction of the Byzantine empire with the Islamic world from the time of the later Iconoclast Emperors to the Crusades is largely characterized by a struggle for power and dominance. Prior to the later Iconoclast Emperors, Byzantine had gained a great deal of power from the Islamic world through the actions of Leo III. In the ninth century the weakening of centralized Islamic government saw the growth of the Byzantine Empire in Asia minor. This influence was short lived, as the Seljuk Turks began to regain Asia minor in the late 1000s. Ironically, it was the Christian Crusades, which were ostensibly aimed at the destruction of the Muslim empire that ultimately led to the destruction of the Byzantine empire.

The Islamic civilization arose largely out of the teachings of the prophet Mohammed (Emayzine). By the time of the later Iconoclast emperors, the Islamic world was a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emayzine. The Byzantine Empire, Early Russia, and Muslim Expansion. 09 May 2004. http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/byzmuslm.html

Hooker, Richard. The Byzantine Empire. Washington State University. 09 May 2004. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MA/BYZ.htm

Infoplease. The Crusades. 09 May 2004. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0814157.html

New Advent. Iconoclasm. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII. 09 May 2004.  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07620a.htm
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Pottery Making Art Islamic Civilization Please Illustrative

Words: 1579 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22094179

pottery making art islamic civilization. Please illustrative timeline. Please include outline beginning.

Islamic pottery is an essential part of the Islamic culture

Early beginnings of Islamic pottery

Historical and geographical challenges

Pottery as a necessity, not an art

Islamic pottery transformed from an activity to an art

The periods of the Islamic pottery

Middle period

Influences of Chinese pottery

Color

Materials

Graphics

Improvements of techniques and materials

ole of calligraphy and technical discoveries

Increase of the value of pottery for the Islamic culture

The Islamic art is one of the most significant parts of the Islamic culture and of the world heritage. Islamic pottery has in this sense an important place in the structure of the Middle Eastern art.

The history and development of Islamic pottery is representative for the development of Islamic art and reflects the influences of external cultures on the evolution of art in the region.

Given…… [Read More]

References

Atwood, R. (2005) "Basra's Inventive Potters" in Archaeology, Vol. 58, No 2, March / April, available at http://www.archaeology.org/0503/reviews/basra.html

Grube. E (n.d.) "The Art of Islamic Pottery." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Available at  http://www.metmuseum.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pdf/3258167.pdf.bannered.pdf 

Jenkins, O. (2000). "Emergence and Evolvement of the Islamic Tin-glazed Pottery," The 8th Research Seminar on the History of Middle Eastern Ceramics. Available at  http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/IAS/HP-e2/eventreports/44ceramics8IM.html 

Luter, J. (1974) "The Potters of Islam." Saudi Aramco World. Available at http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197404/the.potters.of.islam.htm
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Western Civilization Proposal I Would Like to

Words: 902 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50761283

Western Civilization proposal, I would like to research Golda Meir. Meir's life is interesting not only in and of itself, but is also remarkable altogether for its astonishing symbolic associations. Meir shows us (as we perhaps already knew) that the historical bias within Western Civilization that stereotypes women as "the weaker sex" has never really been accurate. There is a long history both mythographically and historically which does permit women a role in both warcraft and statecraft: the Classical tradition offers warrior goddesses such as the Greek Athene and the Roman Bellona, while the Old Testament includes enough vignettes of tough and bloodthirsty women, such as Jael, who assassinates the enemy general Sisera by hammering a tent-peg through his skull. Historically there have been a number of female war leaders as well: Boadicea in Roman-era Britain and Zenobia in the Roman-era Middle East both led successful military uprisings against a…… [Read More]

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History of the World in 6 Glasses Compare and Contrast 3 Drinks

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16705836

Histories of the orld in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)

The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage

'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'

The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Standage, Tom. The History of the World in Six Glasses. New York: Walker & Co., 2005.
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Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24559326

Civilization instills certain necessary checks to contain sexual and aggressive impulses, like feelings of guilt. The original, Oedipal anger of the boy against the father is turned inward, against himself, given that he is taught that it is 'wrong' to want to hurt his father and desire his mother.

Civilization and its Discontents is partially an argument against utopian philosophies like Marxism. Freud's concept is that society is inherently masochistic in nature, dependent upon feelings of guilt and sacrifice to function. A utopia is impossible. The innate impulses of desire and aggressiveness of the individual will always be in conflict with other individuals and the collective. To be truly 'happy' in an ecstatic sense would mean destroying the rights of others. If everyone lived by the law of the id, then only the strongest would survive. Society aims for moderation: a moderate satisfaction of the desires of all people through…… [Read More]

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New World Empires Aztec Empire

Words: 1744 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73663994

Aztec Empire

The Aztecs, who referred to themselves as Mexica, were a powerful tribe of people speaking the Nahuatl language. They founded one of the biggest empires in Central America which is believed to have lasted from the 1300s to the 1500s. One of the most renowned cities of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan; this city was located in the middle of a lake where the present-day capital of Mexico, Mexico City, now stands (Johnson, 2015).

The Aztec empire was begun in the Valley of Mexico. When the Aztecs came upon the valley, they found that other tribes were already there. These tribes had occupied the best land for agriculture in the region. The Aztecs moved on to the swampy and less attractive lands on the shores of Lake Texcoco. Despite not having much to begin with, the Aztec were not bothered. The Aztecs were not only a very ingenious…… [Read More]

References

ATWOOD, R. (2014). Under Mexico City. Archaeology, 67(4), 26.

Berdan, F.F. (1988). "Principals of Regional and Long-Distance Trade in the Aztec Empire," in J. Kathryn Josserand and Karen Dakin (Editors), Smoke and Mist: Mesoamerican Studies in Memory of Thelma D. Sullivan, part ii, pp. 639-656, British Archaeological Reports, International Series vol. 42, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.

Deal, T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Duran, D. (1967). Historia de Las lndias de Nueva Espana, 2 vols (ed A.M. Garibay K.). Mexico City: Pornia.
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Mediterranean Empires the World Has

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69990850



Around the year of 1200 B.C. all off the three important Mediterranean civilizations had stopped from their remarkable advance and collapsed with no actual information regarding to the reason for their ending. Archeological findings show that all three nations had been preparing for war during the period and that an enemy that is unknown to this day had defeated all Mediterranean empires.

Consequent to the collapse of some of the greatest empires in the world, the Greek empire had been surfacing as a nation of great potential and wisdom which gave birth to several of the world's philosophers.

The Roman Empire had appeared differently from the previous empires that surrounded the Mediterranean Sea. Rome had not began their society independently, but it had managed to defeat their superiors, the Etruscans, after more than two centuries in which the Etruscans ruled over Rome and other communities from within the Latin League.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sinopoli, Carla. "The Archeology of Empires." 159-180.

Smiley, Francis. "The Rise of Mediterranean Empires in the First Millennium B.C." 1-9.
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Homer's Life and Epics and Their Effect and Contribution to Western Civilization

Words: 2309 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16156867

Homer was a legendary Greek poet who is traditionally credited as the author of the major Greek epics the "Iliad and the Odyssey," as well as the comic mini-epic "Batracholmyomachia" (The Frog-Mouse ar), the corpus of Homeric Hymns, and various other lost or fragmentary workd such as "Margites" (Homer pp). Some ancient authors credited him with the entire Epic Cycle, which included other poems about the Trojan ar as well as the Theban poems concerning Oedipus and his sons (Homer pp). According to legend, Homer was blind, and aside from several Ionian cities claiming to be his birthplace, there is nothing else known about him (Homer pp). Aristotle and Pindar believed that Homer was born in Smyrna, on the coast of modern-day Turkey, and enjoyed years of fame on the Aegean island of Chios (Tolson pp). Although the great scholar-librarians of Alexandria scrutinized the epics for historical and geographic errors,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Tolson, Jay. "Was Homer a solo act or a bevy of bards?"

U.S. News & World Report; 7/24/2000; Tolson, Jay

Boorstin, Daniel J. "The reign of the spoken word; Homer spun epics that survived while marble temples fell to ruin." U.S. News & World Report; 8/31/1992; pp.

Due, Casey. "Homer and the Papyri: Center of Hellenic Studies."
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Aztecs Civilizations of the Past

Words: 3577 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86354412



The author points out that there were more commoners than nobles but the commoners were often at the mercy of nobles and were expected to serve them. Although this was the case, it was also true that commoners had a great deal of control over their lives and in most cases they had enough to meet their basic needs and the needs of their family.

eligion

One of the most interesting aspects of Aztec civilization is Aztec religious practices. According to an article found in the Journal of the Southwest, the Aztec religious system dominated the way of life for the Aztec people. The research indicates that the religious system of the Aztec people was very much associated with the Aztec Calendar. This calendar was based on the yearly agricultural cycle.

For instance when the winter solstice occurred the Aztec people would participate in fire festivals. The purpose of such…… [Read More]

References

Ancient Aztec Government. 16 April, 2008  http://www.aztec-history.com/ancient-aztec-government.html 

Aztec Society Family. 16 April, 2008  http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-society-family.html 

Hassig Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control-Book by. University of Oklahoma Press; 1988

James, Susan E. "Some Aspects of the Aztec Religion in the Hopi Kachina Cult." Journal of the Southwest 42.4 (2000): 897.
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Clash of Civilizations and the

Words: 3266 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38750801



The second case of cultural reaffirmation that Huntington discusses is that of Muslim societies which have followed a different path towards the reassertion of their cultural identity. In these societies, religion has been the main factor of cultural distinctiveness and influence. Huntington argues that religion is the main factor which distinguishes Muslim societies from the others, and that the resurgence of Islam "embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world" (Huntington 1998: 110). As far as the causes behind this resurgence, Huntington talks about the failure of state economies, the large and oftentimes rather young population of these countries, as well as the authoritarian political regimes of these nation states.

In light of these arguments, Huntington predicts great clashes will occur among civilizations. However he also identifies a possible cooperation between Islamic and inic cultures…… [Read More]

Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs 72.3 (1993): 22-49.

Kamrava, Mehran. "Political Culture." In Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East. New York: Chatham House Publishers, 1998: 201-223.
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Freud Civilization and Its Discontents Sigmund Freud's

Words: 2053 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46197453

Freud Civilization and Its Discontents

Sigmund Freud's volume, Civilization and its Discontents, he tackles no less than the broad and ambitious concept of man's place in the world. In this volume, he looks at culture from his unique psychoanalytical perspective, and touches upon a number of important concepts, including aggression, civilization and the individual, organized religion, the death drive and Eros, and the super-ego and conscience. Civilization and its Discontents was written a mere decade before the great psychoanalysts death, and is in many ways an important compilation of many of his most renowned theories on the mind, human nature, and the structure of human society.

First published in German in 1929, Civilization and its Discontents delves deeply into Freud's theories of aggression, the death drive, and its adversary, Eros. In the book, Freud seeks to look into the relationship between man's inner desires, and the establishment of modern civilization.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. 1989. Civilization and its Discontents. W.W. Norton & Company.
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Post World War I Era

Words: 2253 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55780798

Post orld ar I era: Freud and Ortega y Gasset

The outbreak of orld ar I was a traumatic and disillusioning event for many people in Europe, perhaps most of all for those who had committed themselves to a notion of progress and advancement in human affairs. The sheer scale of the destruction and death unleashed by the war, which "exceeded that of all other wars known to history," at the end of a century which had been largely seen as one of peace, progress and prosperity, was a profound shock - one from which, it could be argued, the nations of Europe never entirely recovered.

hen the Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud sat down to write an article on the war in early 1915, it was this sense of disillusionment, of a loss of faith in progress, that was uppermost in his mind. The resulting essay, "Thoughts for the Times…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund, "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death" (1915), in Collected Papers: Volume IV (London: Hogarth Press, 1924).

Gilbert, Martin, First World War (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1994).

Ortega y Gasset, Jose, The Revolt of the Masses (English translation, New York: Norton, 1932; 2nd edn., 1957).

Pick, Daniel, War Machine: the Rationalization of Slaughter in the Modern Age (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993).
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Organization the Empathic Civilization by

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3342694

" To determine the empathy / entropy paradox is the grave test of our species' aptitude to endure and flourish. At any time a new energy government has congregated with a new communications upheaval, society is pressed toward further difficulty. This time around is serious nevertheless, we may not have sufficient time to change. The Empathic Civilization is rising, but will it happen fast enough to ward off global catastrophe?

The author said, "It is increasing difficult to find anything in the world untouched by globalization" (169). This appears to be a reliable and authoritative theme as the author seems to give modest hope that we will ever come out from a consumerist mindset and way of life. itzer seems to demolish hope that globalization will dwindle and possibly give us glimpses of what once was and no longer will be. There emerges be a core fear of "nothing."

Globalism,…… [Read More]

References

Rifkin, Jeremy. 2009. The Empathic Civilization. The Penguin Group. ISBN: 9781585427659.

Ritzer, George. 2007. The Globalization of Nothing. Upper Saddle River, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN: 1412940222

Riggs, Frederick (2006). Global Forces and the Discipline of Public Administration. In Jean-Claude Garcia-Zamor and Renu Khator, eds., Public Administration in the Global Village. Westport, CT: Praeger, 17-44.

Said, Edward (2009). Culture and Imperialism. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.
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Clash of Civilizations There Is

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99971854

It is probable that Cameron inspired his film from the traditional conflict between Christianity and Islam. Some of the most influent forces in society have been devoted to impose their power over the rest of the world, similar to how humans did not hesitate to take up arms against the Na'vi when the latter did not want to comply with the former's requests.

In Avatar, the human race is apparently determined to demonstrate that it is unwilling to accept compromise and that it is determined to prove its superior strength despite the consequences. The masses are aware that the new world order is closing in and that they have to be among those who are more powerful in order for safety to be ensured. Cameron's film practically reflects feelings in society today and in the recent years in an apparent attempt to alert people about how it is essential for…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Dir. Cameron, James. Avatar. 20th Century Fox, 2009.

Huntington, Samuel P. (1997). "The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order." Simon and Schuste.
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Iraq The Cradle of Civilization Video Reaction

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33028732

Michael Wood’s “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” offers fascinating insight into human civilization, through a narrative of the story of Iraq. Tracing Iraq from the cradle of civilization to its current state of devastation, Wood warns viewers to learn from the mistakes of the past instead of continuing to repeat them. In addition to its overarching message, “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” includes some incredible details about the cultural diversity within Iraq and how current customs reveal cultural continuity with the past. Some of the most amazing examples of diversity include the Mandean people, who have cultural practices that are vestiges of Christian times such as a wedding ceremony that includes a full-immersion baptism in a river they refer to as the “Jordan,” even though it is the Euphrates. There is also the Yazidi people, who worship Satan but are not what a European or American would call a Satan…… [Read More]

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Michel Foucault's Madness and Civilization Mentioned on

Words: 2183 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89551274

Michel Foucault's Madness and Civilization (mentioned on page 5 of 11, "the reading list")

Michel Foucault's Madness and Civilization is a complex work with so many different themes that it requires strenuous and concentrated reading to understand and retain Foucault's argument. The material then needs a review in order to reflect and critically engage with the reading. This kind of book is no light reading nor can it be done within a few hours. It needs a pen in hand or a luminescent marker to wade through the lines. The reader, too, needs to know that best results demand that he absorb this book in small bites in order to read, reflect, and reread before continuing with other sectors of the book. Foucault, too, can disturb people with his revolutionary insights, but for those who are philosophically attuned and who are post-modernist by inclination and by cognitive tendency, Foucault's book…… [Read More]

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Triumph of Western Civilization in the Book

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22674882

Triumph of estern Civilization

In the book Guns, Germs, and Steel, the historian and New Guinea anthropologist Jared Diamond argues that the geography and the environment of the est played the major role in determining the dominance of estern civilization of the modern world. According to Diamond, although geography and the environment do not automatically lead to dominance over other civilizations, these two factors do make major contributions to the four factors that are responsible for all historical developments. The first of these factors is the widespread availability of potential crops and domestic animals as a sustainable food source. This first factor's importance is followed by the need for a nation's location near the a continental axis in a way that facilitates the sustenance of year-round agriculture and yields the seasonal and climatic advantages for a variety of foodstuffs. Third in importance to holding sway over other nations is an…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel W.W. Norton & Company.1999.

Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.93.

Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.321-323.