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World Health Organization.
Many people loose life in our society, and they need help from people who can really get down to their problems and help them lead a normal life, some of the issues affecting people in society include over weight, obesity and lack of good nutrition and physical fitness. I seek your financial support to help me reach out to the people and help prevent obesity.
Obesity is an issue affecting so many people in society and many people go through cases of stigma, in places of work and even in families. For that matter this people's self-esteem is affected, they suffer a lot of socio-economic problems and we really need to help them overcome this problem, by running awareness program that will enable obese people understand their problems and get a way of dealing with it, either by treatment or prevention. We can only achieve this by…
Anup Shah. (2010). Global issues. Retrieved November 21, 2010 from http://www.globalissues.org/article/558/obesity .
Benjamin Caballero, (2011). Epidemiologic Reviews. Retrieved November 21, 2010 from http://www.epirev.oxfordjournal.org/content/29/1/11.full
Kids Health, (2011). Overweight and obesity. Retrieved November 21, 2010 from http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/general/body/overweight-obesity.html
Pub med Health, (2011). Obesity: U.S. National Library of medicine. Retrieved November 21,
Health Organisation's Dietary Goals
Diet is acknowledged to contribute in a significant manner as a risk factor for chronic diseases. The perceptible fact is that at the international level massive changes in dietary patterns has engulfed the globe since the second part of the twentieth century which started in the industrialized nations has of late spilled over to the developing nations. Conventional, mostly plant-based diets have been switched by high-fact, energy-dense diets having a greater percentage of animal-based foods. (WHO, 2003)
Critical Evaluation of WHO's Dietary Goals
As per WHO report, nutrition related factors comprise majority of the contributory factors of the overall burden of disease in Europe due to which lifestyle improvements play a larger role in treatment as well as prevention of these diseases. In cases where nations have attained target changes in eating patterns, the health enhancements are felt at a considerable and population-wide level. For instance…
Harper, A.E. 1978. Dietary goals -- skeptical view. The American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition, vol. 31, pp. 310-321.
Roodenburg, Annet J.C; Feunekes, Gerda I.J; Leenen, Rianne; Ramsay, Guy. 2008. Food
Products and Dietary guidelines: how to align. Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 19, pp: 165-170.
Similarly, developing countries are far less likely to be interested in regulation on industries. egulating major polluters is a primary objective of any public health campaign designed to target respiratory illnesses in particular. Because primary, secondary, and tertiary elements are complex and related to the regulatory environment, a public health campaign will be difficult to engage. There needs to be significant financial incentives for a public health campaign to work, making it important to work with local and federal officials on the basis of cost savings in worker productivity and health care. If such incentives can be quantified, it may be possible to get the cooperation of both government and the private sector.
With regards to smoking culture and creating a public health awareness related to respiratory illness, it will also require a thorough cultural transformation that is difficult to effect due to the complex primary, secondary, and tertiary forces…
Kent, M.M. (2008). Preventing chronic respiratory diseases in developing countries PRB. Retrieved online: http://www.prb.org/Articles/2008/dcpfactsheetcopd.aspx
World Health Organization (2011). WHO Global Infobase. Retrieved online: https://apps.who.int/infobase/Comparisons.aspx
According to the World Health Organization, hand hygiene is an essential measure for preventing nosocomical infections. This organization has prioritized the improvement of hand hygiene as a means of lessening these infections. The consideration is mainly attributed to the fact that the hands of healthcare practitioners represent the major channel of transmission of nosocomical infections. However, while hand hygiene is crucial in preventing nosocomical infections, compliance with this need is usually low in clinical practice. Consequently, the development and establishment of effective ways of enhancing hand hygiene is one of the major goals in the existing patient safety initiatives in the healthcare sector. One of these measures that have been adopted in the recent past is the development of hand disinfection as an important quality measure that is firmly embedded in clinical practice.
As a basic component of any infection control, hand hygiene is usually considered synonymous with hand…
Kampf, G., Loffler, H. & Gastmeier, P. (2009). Hand Hygiene for the Prevention of Nosocomical Infections. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 106(40), 649-55. Retrieved from http://www.rki.de/DE/Content/Infekt/Krankenhaushygiene/Haendehygiene/Artikel_Hyg.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
Widmer, A.F. (2000). Replace Hand Washing with Use of a Waterless Alcohol Hand Rub?
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 31(1), 136-43. Retrieved from http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/1/136.full
The incubation period ranges from six months to forty years or longer, with the average period being two to three years (Harrop pp). Leprosy is probably spread primarily by airborne droplets from the nasal mucosa and upper airways, and may also be transmitted by insects, skin contact, breast milk and the placenta of infected mothers (Style pp). The communicability of leprosy is very low; perhaps 90% or more of humans are not susceptible to it, and established cases become non-communicable within one week of starting treatment (Style pp).
There are two classifications used to determine treatment strategies:
multibacillary, when acid-fast bacilli are present in skin biopsies or smears, and paucibacillary, when no bacteria are seen in biopsies or smears. The second classification of leprosy is based on the clinical features of the disease and includes three major types: tuberculoid, lepromatous and borderline" (Style pp). Tuberculoid type develops in individuals with…
Arora, Bhawna; Jaiwant, Shailja. "Use of Partial Hand Prosthesis/Orthosis by Leprosy Patients with Mutilated Hand." http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:8ZUxxPKb-g4J:medind.nic.in/iba/t03/i2/ibat03i2p3.pdf+required+adaptations+due+to+leprosy&hl=en
Harrop, Elyse. "Leprosy." http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic223.htm
Leprosy1." Diseases and Conditions. http://health.allrefer.com/health/leprosy-prevention.html
Leprosy Today." World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/lep/
On the other hand, child malnutrition is becoming worse, due to staff cutbacks from health sector reform. Healthcare workers are in the best position to develop innovative and quality improvements. hey also can guide the effective or wasteful application of resources such as drugs, vaccines and supplies.
his summer, I had the opportunity to attend the National Youth Leadership Conference in Washington, D.C., where youth from all over the country discussed pertinent issues including the need for an improved healthcare system. I was able to talk with students across the nation, and some originally from other countries, about the inequalities in the provision of healthcare. he United States is a very rich country, but ranks very high in the disparity of healthcare services due to factors such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and geography. he gap between those who are rich and poor in the United States is the widest…
This summer, I had the opportunity to attend the National Youth Leadership Conference in Washington, D.C., where youth from all over the country discussed pertinent issues including the need for an improved healthcare system. I was able to talk with students across the nation, and some originally from other countries, about the inequalities in the provision of healthcare. The United States is a very rich country, but ranks very high in the disparity of healthcare services due to factors such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and geography. The gap between those who are rich and poor in the United States is the widest in 70 years, and there is a close connection between poverty and poor healthcare.
It is vitally essential for policymakers and healthcare workers to seriously look at these inequities and provide high-quality health and safety for all people despite their socioeconomic status. American activities to eliminate disparities need to be part of a broader organization to alter healthcare. It will take the efforts and dedication of my generation, including myself, to work on resolving this pressing issue. If I am fortunate enough to go into the medical field, either as a practitioner or in a business area, I will be able to contribute my abilities and personal commitment to resolve this disparity of healthcare in the United States.
Resource: WHO at website http://www.who.int/en
The text identifies one practical reason that this is the case, indicating that "One of the particularly threatening aspects of this compression of time is that people can now cross continents in periods of time shorter than the incubation periods of most diseases. This means that, in some cases, travelers can depart from their point of origin, arrive at their destination, and begin infecting people without even knowing that they are sick." (3) This means that an epidemic can be spread from multiple "ground zero" locations before it is even clear that the condition in question has come to reflect so significant a threat of proliferation. To the practical interests of preventing the disease's further spread, this denotes a real and substantial challenge to public health and safety administrators in the developed world. Quite to this point, the text reveals that the United States has experienced a greater level of…
One such barrier is the pattern of supply-driven care that has proven extremely costly on the average consumer and patient. Essentially, this method of healthcare has created a multi-billion dollar industry, where patients' needs are put to the side in order for healthcare organizations to make the largest profit margin possible through a system that resembles a production line more so than a hospital facility. Unfortunately, "producers control demand" (O'Toole, 2009, p 48). With so many major companies profiting from this style of healthcare, they will undoubtedly put up a fight for reform initiatives like the Triple Aim Initiative, which is hoping to rework the system in order to save consumers the burden of costs, without reducing the quality of the care they receive. Moreover, the physician-centric model of most of today's healthcare systems also proves a barrier to the aims of the Triple Aim Initiative. Essentially, under this model,…
O'Toole. Eileen. (2009) Healthcare in the 21st century. The Nurse Practitioner, 34(7), 46-50.
World Health Organization. (2013).World Health Statistics 2013: Indicator Compendium. Web. http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/WHS2013_IndicatorCompendium.pdf
Nurses, who have first hand knowledge and understanding of how to live healthy and how to take proper care of themselves, are far better equipped to teach others about these concepts. Certain populations can benefit greatly from prevention, especially those who are prone to specific types of diseases or conditions.
One of the most common behaviors that leads to many chronic and often very damaging health conditions is smoking. Smoking can cause a multitude of diseases and conditions from emphysema to heart disease to lung cancer (Chapman, 2007). The list goes on and on. But smoking is 100% preventable and nurses need to understand not only how to treat these smoking-related diseases but how to more importantly discourage and prevent people from smoking in the first place. Many nurses agree that this behavior leads to many of the worst case scenarios for people with pre-existing chronic conditions. It is therefore…
Chapman, Simon. (2007). Public Health Advocacy and Tobacco Control: Making Smoking
History. Blackwell Publishing, New York, NY. Pp. 55-56.
Chung, Daniel C. (2008). "Stool DNA Testing and Colon Cancer Prevention: Another Step
Forward." Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 149, No. 7. pp. 509-510.
Health Structures in Government Levels
Health at different Government Levels
Health Structures at Government Levels
Health at Government Levels
A national government has a task in ensuring quality health assurance standards across its region are up-to-date. Similarly, increased rates of unexpected epidemics have put governments under the surge of dealing accordingly with factors that can affect the nation directly and indirectly. Different governmental levels of health are identified and objectified in various agency websites. In this context, I have identified with a state level website; Illinois Public Health Institute website. Information presented to the website articles prioritizes in reducing and preventive, curative diseases, complementing health policies and championing for environmental changes.
Website Article eview
The Illinois Public Health institute articulates its review and implication to health quality through partnership programs. The website has supported state-oriented health involvement in ameliorating health levels, in Illinois. The institution has show-cased partnering programs with…
Baum, F and Kahssay, H.M. Health development structures: an untapped resource. World Health Organization. Vol 1 Issue 1. Pg 96-114.
Ladeia, M.L., Jacob, P., Borges, M.C., Rogero, M. M and Ferreira, S.R.G. (2011). Studies of Gene variants related to Inflammation, Oxidative, Stress, Dyslipidemia and Obesity: Implications for a nutrigenetic approach. Journal of Obesity. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-31.
5th March 2012. Illinois Public Health Institute. Retrieved from URL http://www.iphionline.org / Accessed on 27th March, 2012.
As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.
Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…
Bureau of Labor Education (BLE). (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The University of Maine.
Childress, M. (2010). Poverty is on the Upswing, but Metric is Out of Date. The Washington Independent.
Cockerham, W.C. (2004). Medical Sociology and Sociological Theory. The Backwell Companion to Medical Sociology.
Consumer Reports (CR). (2008). High Health Care Costs. Consumer Reports Health.org.
Since being healthy includes a sound mind, less worrying over financial problems leads to a stronger, sounder mind.
Drinking a lot of water throughout the day is another health-promoting behavior. Drinking a lot of water adds natural moisture to your skin, giving a fresh glow today and helping the aging process tomorrow. It also helps when I exercise to drink more water because being properly hydrated during exercise allows me to have a better, more productive workout. Drinking water also improves my energy and increases both my mental and physical performance. Additionally it allows for proper digestion and relieves headaches and dizziness. For those reasons I believe that not smoking and drinking water regularly are two of my important health-promoting behaviors.
My Detrimental Health ehaviors
As improvements in health become more necessary and evident, the medical industry will continue to work to improve the overall health of all individuals. However,…
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. (2005).
Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.
Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.
It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…
Financing National Health Insurance." (2003, February 4). Available:
http://www.pnhp.org/nhibill/nhi_financing.html (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Health Care Policy Issues. Sept. 2004. Available:
http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
WHO rates France as having the best healthcare ("World Health," 2000). In addition to universal healthcare, France also has non-profit supplementary providers, which means that the government subsidizes 70% of regular expenses but pays 100% of more expensive or long-term treatment plans (Sandier, Paris, & Polton, 2004). Money for subsidies comes from mandatory earnings contributions such as 5.25% salary, capital income, and gambling winnings (Sandier, 2004).
An argument that often arises is that people say they don't want the government deciding what medical procedures they can have. However, decisions regarding what procedures are covered by a particular health plan are made by the healthcare insurance companies, which are for-profit ("Insurance Verification," n.d.). Many people are denied treatment regardless of the illness. As already mentioned, some of the other nations with universal healthcare have supplementary plans in addition to the government plans that allow the patient more choice.
There are many…
Carrasquillo, O., Himmelstein, DU.,Woodhandler, S., Bor, DH. (1999). A Reappraisal of Private Employers' Role in Providing Health Insurance. NEJM, 340(1), 109-114.
"Insurance Verification & Eligibility Services." (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globaledgeusa.com/insurance_verification_eligibility_services/
Mahon, Mary. (2010, June 23). U.S. ranks last among 7 countries on health system performance. EurkAlert. Retrieved from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-06/cf-url062210.php
Reid, T.R. (Producer). (2008, April 15). Frontline: Sick around the world [Television broadcast]. New York: Central Broadcasting Service.
A 2006 study that examined the rates of depression and other mental health disorders following the December 2004 tsunami found that large numbers of people still faced significant health impairment from the event, and that treatment had been negligible when compared to relief and rebuilding efforts in other areas (CDC 2006). These efforts would likely be made far more effective and efficient, however, if mental health issues were dealt with. Addressing the depression and other mental health maladies that the people suffered from following the tsunami would have led to a better adjusted and more productive (as well as healthier) population.
There was an effective degree of trauma care provided immediately after the tsunami struck, but preventative care measures could have been stepped up during this time to forestall and mitigate the spread of infectious diseases that often comes after a major disaster event (WHO 2005). Obviously, trauma care was…
CDC (2006). "204 South Asia tsunamis." Center for disease control. Accessed 14 November 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/tsunamis/
WHO (2005). "South Asia earthquake and tsunamis: Inter-agency rapid health assessment." World health organization. Accessed 14 November 2009. http://www.who.int/hac/crises/international/asia_tsunami/final_report/en/index.html
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…
Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research
Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.
Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.
Health and Social Sciences
Health, Well Being and Social Care in UK
Sociological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psychological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psycho-Social Needs of Service Users in UK
Health and Social Sciences
This report casts light upon the various aspects of physical and mental health of people living in United Kingdom. The selected sample chosen for this study belongs to the settings of people who do not belong to UK from their old generations and they are spending the lives of homelessness there. In other words, the paper is about physical and mental health of people who belong to other areas of the world but are settled in UK for education of job purpose. Since they are outsiders, they do not have permanent place to live in, they make temporal arrangements depending upon their requirements. Their priorities are different…
BBC News, 2011. Archbishop calls for NHS bill to cover spiritual health. [Online] Available at: < http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15570290 > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Department of Health, 2012. Public Health, adult social care and the NHS. [online] Available at: < http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/index.htm > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
International Health Insurance, 2012. 3 Easy Steps to Health Insurance. [Online] Available at: < http://www.international-health-insurance.com / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Men's Health News, 2012. The Hardest Workout You're not Doing. [online] Available at: < http://news.menshealth.com/the-hardest-workout-youre-not-doing/2012/02/10 / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…
Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,
The absence of illness does not thoroughly explain "Health", it can as well be described as wellness of the body and mind. More technically, health can be defined from two perspectives -- bodily and psychological health. A state of well-being due to regular exercises, adequate nutrition, sufficient rest, sensitivity to signs of sickness and when to seek help is referred to as Physical health. A person's fitness is showcased by his/her body make-up, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular stability, and adaptability. Mental wellness refers to psychological and emotional welfare.
As defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), mental health is "a state of wellness in which an individual discovers and harnesses his abilities, make headways regardless of stress encountered in life, can complete tasks adequately and profitably with substantial end product, and also contributes immensely to the uplift of his or her locality." (Nordqvist, 2015). A means of enabling people…
Boundless, 2016. Research Methods for Evaluating Treatment Efficacy - Boundless Open Textbook. Boundless. Available at: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/treating-psychological-disorders-19/introduction-to-the-treatment-of-psychological-disorders-99/research-methods-for-evaluating-treatment-efficacy-382-12917/ [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Brassai, L, Piko, B, & Steger, M 2011, 'Meaning in Life: Is It a Protective Factor for Adolescents' Psychological Health?', International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 1, p. 44, Advanced Placement Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Cuijpers, P. et al., 2014. EU-Compass for Action on Mental Health and Well-being. PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION AND PROMOTION OF RESILIENCE. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/mental_health/docs/ev_20161006_co03_en.pdf [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Gillham, J.E. et al., 2012. Preventing Depression in Early Adolescent Girls: The Penn Resiliency and Girls in Transition Programs. Handbook of Prevention and Intervention Programs for Adolescent Girls, pp.124 -- 161.
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…
Controlling the global obesity epidemic. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from WHO. Web site: http://www.who.int/nut/obs.htm
How to Pick a Nutritional Plan. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from PDR Health. Web site: http://www.pdrhealth.com/content/nutrition_health/chapters/fgnt04.shtml
Koop, C. (2000) Retrieved from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2. Web site: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/72/2/503S
Preventing Childhood Obesity. RWJF President and CEO Reflects on Institute of Medicine Action Plan. Retrieved November 22, 2004 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/news/special/risaObesityInterview.jhtml
Health and Socio-Cultual Factors
Health and Socio-Cultural Factors
Health and Socio cultural Factors
Health and Socio-Cultural Factors
Health and Socio-Cultural Factors
The value of health being wealth is as old as the history of mankind. People of all times have their philosophies related to healthcare and they developed the precautions and treatment according to their specified theories. As the changes take place in every aspect of life, the theories of healthcare and causes of diseases were also developed and the new concepts were promoted to replace the old concepts and practices.
This paper casts light upon causes of disease and illness with regard to classical and modern concepts. The paper explains the differences between the two concepts and elaborates how the new concepts are better than the classical ones.
Classical Concepts about Health
The classical statement about health was 'Illness is simply a matter of bad luck, bad judgment, or…
International Vegetarian Union. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ivu.org/history/northam20a/einstein.html
Natural News. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.naturalnews.com/023237_minerals_health_soil.html
World Health Organisation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/en/index.html
Health and Community
Nola Pender states that the most important challenge in modern nursing is the understanding of global health issues. It is not enough to merely be aware of international disease patterns but to utilize western technologies to both inform and help bring about change to these epidemic situations. Several diseases have transcended the original locale to become worldwide issues. Most prevalent of these is the epidemic of HIV which has infected people all over the world. The orld Health Organization (HO) has officially labeled the virus as a "pandemic," meaning that there is no place in the populated world that is not in some way impacted by HIV. The HIV and Aids epidemics are not new information. People have been suffering and dying with this disease for more than twenty years now. However, knowledge of the illness does not mean that people should give up and stop providing…
"Aids" (2009). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2009/JC1700_Epi_Update_2009_en.pdf
Shi, Leiyu (2010). Vulnerable Populations in the United States. John Wiley: San Francisco, CA.
Healthcare: Social Vulnerability to Disease
Health care has as its immediate concern the welfare of clients and patients. However this pressing concern is often influenced by multiple factors many of which have a distinct social dimension. Consequently, care of individuals and the delivery of quality care is not only a medical problem but also a social problem. Vulnerable populations generally require direct external interventions to assist in the reduction of the levels of risk the group experiences.
There is a fundamental difference between at risk groups and vulnerable populations. The difference is as a result of the role of political, environmental and other social factors in amplifying an already existing risk. At risk groups are populations for whom the relative risk of acquiring a disease is increased beyond that of the general population. There are groups who have a higher probability of contracting malaria and dying from this disease. An…
Weiss, Helen A.; Quigley, Maria A.; Hayes, Richard J. Male circumcision and risk of HIV
infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 14(15):
World Health Organization: High Risk Groups (2002) Retrieved from http://www.who.int/malaria/high_risk_groups/en/
Prevention methods, combined with education have been shown to effectively prevent malaria and this is good because, the infrastructure of poor nations is often inadequate to care for those who do fall ill. Many malaria treatment medications are very expensive, where legitimate (non-counterfeit) remedies can be found. In many of these nations the problem is perpetuated by counterfeit drugs, which sap family resources and do little if anything to remediate symptoms. In fact the presence of these drugs may even worsen the problem by creating drug resistant strains, as many counterfeit medications have been shown to contain only minute amounts of the anti-malarial pharmaceuticals and therefore expose the parasites to amounts that simply allow them to adapt, rather than eradicating them in the human body.
According to the Kaiser foundation, researchers claim that the wave of counterfeit anti-malarial drugs has reached industrial levels, meaning that the drugs are being produced…
Centers for Disease Control "Malaria: FAQ" 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/faqs.html
Centers for Disease Control "Fight the Bite for Protection from Malaria
Guidelines for DEET Insect Repellent Use" 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/toolkit/DEET.pdf
Rowland, M. Downey, G. Rab, a. Freeman, T. Mohammad, N. Rehman, H. Durrani, N. Reyburn, H. Curtis, C. Lines, J. Fayaz, M. "DEET mosquito repellent provides personal protection against malaria: a household randomized trial in an Afghan refugee camp in Pakistan." Tropical Medicine and International Health March 2004, Vol. 9 Iss. 3, pgs 335- 342.
Health Care and Health for All:
In what the World Health Organization termed as Health for All, the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978 expressed the need for health workers, urgent government action, and the world community to safeguard and support health for all. In order to achieve health for all people across the globe, the Conference made various declarations including health being an essential human right and a significant world-wide social goal. One of the critical aspects towards the achievement of this Health for All initiative is primary healthcare.
Declarations on Primary Health Care:
As an essential health care service, primary health care can be made universally accessible to people and families through the full participation of the community and at a cost that the community can afford ("Declaration of Alma-Ata," n.d.). Primary health care acts as the initial level of contact of people, families, and communities…
Bassett, M.T. (2006, December). 'Health for All In the 21st Century.' American Journal of Public Health, 96(12), 2089. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/565796_2
"Declaration of Alma-Ata." (n.d.). International Conference on Primary Health Care -- World
Health Organization. Retrieved December 30, 2011, from http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf
"Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000." (n.d.). World Health Organization.
ased on the information currently available, the Canadian health care system is the more utilitarian and is, therefore, the better approach but those facing the need for advanced and expedient care would certainly argue otherwise. Therein lies the problem and therein lies the challenge for American society. Even the most ardent proponents of employer-based insurance plans would dare not argue that having great numbers of uninsured is the price that American society pays for having high-quality services but that is what has developed. Hopefully, a system can be devised that allows for more broad-based coverage while retaining the availability of quality care.
The United States health care system cannot continue as it has for the past several years. Costs are far too high and are escalating at a rate that is out of control. Relying on employer-based insurance plans must be abandoned and some form of public financing…
American Medical Association. (2010). Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S. Chicago: AMA Press.
Boychuk, T. (1999). The Making and Meaning of Hospital Policy in the United States and Canada. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2006, August 29). The Number of Uninsured Americans Is at an All-time High. Retrieved April 30, 2011, from Center on Budget and Policy Priorities: http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=628
Eve, S.B. (1995). The Canadian Health Care System. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
This, then, is a theory with a very wide extent, which seeks to move away from the biotechnical perspective, in direction of a more all-inclusive evaluation of health. Health is a right for all the people and it's an ideal state while nowadays it is been sold as a commodity by private insurance companies to increase their profits. This therefore is resulting in the loss of the people's lives and health.
At all stages in life, health is determined by compound interactions between communal and monetary factors, the corporal environment and individual behavior. And these factors which affect health are known as the determinants of health. Many other factors are there which combine together to affect the health of individuals and communities. Whether people are well or not, is determined by their conditions and surroundings. Factors such as the living standards, the state of environment, genetics, earnings and education level,…
http://www.rochesterunitarian.org/1999-2000/20000326.html www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en / http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/health/hsdu/homepage/health.htm
Health: The Foundations for Achievement by David Seedhouse June 2001
Ethics: The Heart of Health Care by David Seedhouse April 1998
Health Care Free
SHOULD HEALTH CAE BE FEE?
The following debate takes place between four individuals as follows: Dr. Barker, a public health sector physician with an experience of fifteen years; Ms. Gomez, a social activist working for improving opportunities and living conditions for immigrants to the United States; Mr. Walters, a journalist who writes on social and political issues in several newspapers and self-professed atheist; and Mr. Bucelli, a modern poet and novelist with strong humanist inclinations. All four are residents of the Green Springs Community and are recognized members of the community. The debate takes place at the community hall where the debaters are taking part in the annual debate challenge where they have been given the topic Should health care be free? Ms. Gomez and Mr. Bucelli support the proposition that health care should be free for all residents whereas Dr. Barker and Mr. Walters are against…
Abelson, Reed. "Health Insurance Costs Rising Sharply This Year, Study Shows." The New York Times. 27 September 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. < http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/business/health-insurance-costs-rise-sharply-this-year-study-shows.html?pagewanted=all&_moc.semityn.www >.
Ball, James, and Denis Campbell. "More Patients Waiting Too Long for NHS Treatment." The Guardian. 14 July 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
Bialik, Carl. "The unhealthy accounting of uninsured Americans." Wall Street Journal. 24 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
CBS News. "The debate Over Health Care." CBS News. 20 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
Aaron, H.J. 1994. Thinking About Medical Costs. Health Affairs, 13, 5 (winter): 8-13 in Hong, G-S and Kim, S.Y. (2000). Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Patterns and Financial Burden across the Life Cycle Stages. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 34. 2.
Acs, G. And John S. 1995. Trends in Out-of-Pocket Spending on Health Care, 1980-1992. Monthly Labor eview, 35-45 in Hong, G-S and Kim, S.Y. (2000). Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Patterns and Financial Burden across the Life Cycle Stages. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 34. 2.
Cote, J. And Latham, C. (2003). Exchanges between Healthcare Providers and Insurers: A Case Study. Journal of Managerial Issues. 15, 2.
Health, United States. (2003). Chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. HHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Health Statistics in Lesnik, J. (2006). Community Health Centers: Health Care as it Could Be. Journal of Law and Health. 19, 1..…
Aaron, H.J. 1994. Thinking About Medical Costs. Health Affairs, 13, 5 (winter): 8-13 in Hong, G-S and Kim, S.Y. (2000). Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Patterns and Financial Burden across the Life Cycle Stages. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 34. 2.
Acs, G. And John S. 1995. Trends in Out-of-Pocket Spending on Health Care, 1980-1992. Monthly Labor Review, 35-45 in Hong, G-S and Kim, S.Y. (2000). Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Patterns and Financial Burden across the Life Cycle Stages. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 34. 2.
Cote, J. And Latham, C. (2003). Exchanges between Healthcare Providers and Insurers: A Case Study. Journal of Managerial Issues. 15, 2.
Health, United States. (2003). Chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. HHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Health Statistics in Lesnik, J. (2006). Community Health Centers: Health Care as it Could Be. Journal of Law and Health. 19, 1..
isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) estimated that close to 1.4 million adults were overweight in 2008 and of these 500 million were obese. For adults over the age of 20 this implies that 35 and 11% of the global adult population were overweight and obese, respectively. The definition of overweight is a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. While obesity does not directly result in the death of anyone, it is the fifth leading mortality risk globally and is responsible for 2.8 million deaths annually. This is due to obesity representing a significant risk factor for serious comorbid conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, nearly…
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census officials, citing increasing diversity, say U.S. will be a 'plurality nation.' New York Times, p. A20.
Gaskin, D.J., Thorpe, R.J. Jr., McGinty, E.E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J.H. et al. (2013). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print 14 Nov. 2013.
Goldschmidt, A.B., Wilfley, D.E., Paluch, R.A., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2013). Indicated prevention of adult obesity: How much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children? Journal of the American Medical Association -- Pediatrics, 167(1), 21-6.
Hearst, M.O., Pasch, K.E., & Laska, M.N. (2012). Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing. Public Health Nutrition, 15(2), 299-306.
A Model Healthcare Delivery System
The healthcare delivery system also referred to in short as the HCDS is the most effective system that works for most healthcare organizations in all countries with fair, effective and efficient distribution of resources. It is a fast growing service that demands attention from various quarters and domains. At the optimal level, the service program presents relief and hope to the individual, and the general population. The system offers a balanced quality care service through efficiency and fairness. HCDS varies across the world but its focus is constantly on enhancing healthcare access, quality of service and coverage. The success of the program is dependent on the availability of certain basic resources (Kumar & Bano, 2017, p. 1).
HCDS is how the society has responded to the health determinants. The idea of a healthcare system contemplates involving the people that are likely to be served…
Message for Target Population: Health Education and Diet
The message for my target population—adults at a behavioral health clinic—is the following statement: It is important to maintain a healthy diet, low in sugar—especially high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), as the latter has been linked with the onset of heart disease, liver disease, obesity and diabetes (Bocarsely, Powell, Avena & Hoebel, 2010; Malik et al., 2010; Stanhope et al., 2015). This means, primarily, adults should take efforts to eliminate soft drinks and soda pop from their diets—as these are among the primary beverages high in HFCS.
The four domains of health literacy are: (1) Fundamental literacy, (2) Scientific literacy, (3) Civic literacy, (4) Cultural literacy (Zarcadoolas, Pleasant & Greer, 2005). In order for the health education message described above to have an effect on the target population, the target population has to possess knowledge in the four domains of health…
Standardization and Priorities of Healthcare Organizations
As Leotsakos et al. (2014) note, standardization of patient safety in healthcare organizations has not proceeded with a great deal of progress in recent years though monumental steps have been made to increase patient safety in the industry. For that reason the World Health Organization (2018) has made it a priority to address standardization by initiating the High 5s project “to facilitate the development, implementation and evaluation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) within to achieve measurable, significant and sustainable reductions in a number of challenging patient safety problems.” These developments are still needed and to improve safety, Gandalf and Merlino (n.d.) have discussed how transparency, healthcare reform, and critical issues such as market share play a role in the advancement of patient safety standardization in the industry. This paper will examine the points made by Gandalf and Merlino in their podcast “The State…
health cultures select a culture
The United States vs. France
American culture is extremely individualistic. The ideal of 'pulling yourself up by your own bootstraps' that is so popular in America is also manifested in the American attitude towards health. Americans believe in the ability of personal willpower to conquer illnesses such as obesity, and manifest a belief in complete self-transformation through diets and exercise. This can be seen in the continued fascination with fad diets in America, and the many success stories that are popular on television depicting celebrities and ordinary people who lose weight (and gain weight). The French, in contrast, view health as a social responsibility. Children receive guidance at home and school to learn to eat 'correctly.' Americans also view the ability to obtain healthcare at all as a personal choice. People can 'choose' to buy health insurance, or to make vocational choices that govern their…
The French lesson in health care. (2001). Business Week. Retrieved December 8, 2011
Peterson, Thane. (2001). Why so few French are fat. Business Week.
Retrieved December 8, 2011
Decisions in Health Care on Scarce esources
Decisions on the best way to allocate resources in clinical research are through an evaluation of the costs associated with the research and the likely benefits to result to the society. The cost of allocating resource to clinical research is pinned against the likely benefit to result from the research. The benefit will include the quality of life gained, life year saved and the productivity of human life that would result. The decision to undertake a particular research ignores the aspect of who is gaining more and who is incurring the higher cost. The core concern, in this case, is the overall benefit to the society (Stephen P. & James ., 1999).
In other cases decisions in allocating the scarce resource are undertaken through comparisons. The measures of comparisons assess the cost effectiveness of a decision to intervene or do nothing. The option…
Stephen P., & James R. (1999). Economics notes: Opportunity cost Health Economics, 318, 1551-1552.
World Health Organization. (2008). Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. . Geneva: WHO; Commission on Social Determinants of Health.
Health care reform is term used to refer to the creation of government health policy that impact the delivery of healthcare in the United States of America. Primarily, healthcare attempts to widen the population that gets healthcare through the two common insurance programs, public and private. It widens the horizon of care providers that the public can choose from. Healthcare also enhances the access to health care specialists, enhances quality of care as well as decreasing the cost of health care. Basically, Health care covers four basic functional components of the U.S. health care delivery system include financing, insurance, delivery, and quality care
Legislation for Health Care Finance
The name of the bill name is Medicaid evenue Act 2012 and number of legislation is IL S. 159. This bill was proposed by the Illinois Democratic Senator Antonio Munoz previously of General Assembly (93rd) and currently of the 1st District (…
Legislative Information System. (2012). Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from www.ilga.gov.
Michigan House Republicans. (2012). Michigan House Representative. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from http://www.gophouse.com/welcome.asp?District=088
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2012, September 25). Federal Health Reform: State Legislative Tracking Database. Retrieved October 2012, from www.ncsl.org.
Turner, G.-M. (2012, June 13 ). If ObamaCare Is Judged Unconstitutional, Here's How To Reform Healthcare. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from www.forbes.com.
Healthcare in the United States and India
The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…
Arora, N., Banerjee, A.K., (2010) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Prospects in Healthcare in India. Electronic Journal of Biology, 6(2), 24-25
Berman, P., Ahuja, R., Bhandari, L. (2010) The Impoverishing Effect of Healthcare Payments in India: New Methodology and Findings. Economic & Political Weekly, 45(16), 65-71.
Ma, S., & Neeraj, S. (2008) A Comparison of the Health Systems of China and India. RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2008/RAND_OP212.pdf
Manchikanti, L., Caraway, D.L., Parr, A.T., Fellows, B., Hirsch, J.A. (2011) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade. Pain Physician, 14(1), 35-67.
The Concept HEALTH Summarizing knowledge concept health identifying gaps knowledge. Based readings, literature find helpful, prepare a paper describes evaluates current level knowledge, approaches concept health significant discipline nursing
The Concept of Health
Many efforts have been put across towards achieving a common understanding on the concept of health (oden & Jarvis, 2012). Despite these efforts, more profound controversies loom over achieving a desirable universal understanding on the concept of health (Nordenfelt, 1984). In the field of medicine, society's ethical concern and the public policy matters, the concept of health in indispensable (Jeffrey & Jennifer, 2000).
In the contemporary philosophical world, the concept of health focuses on the challenges of establishing the nature of an individual's condition from a scientific perspective (Irvine, 2007). The perspective omits the much desirable assessment of the basic state of affairs being desirable or undesirable. Other philosophical assessments dig dipper to describe not…
Irvine, F. (2007). Examining the correspondence of theoretical and real interpretations of health promotion. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 16(3), 593-602.
Jeffrey, D.M., & Jennifer, M.M. (2000). "Is Inequality Bad for Our Health?." Critical Review, 13(4), 359-372.
Nordenfelt, L. (1984). "Introduction," in Lennart Nordenfelt and B. Ingemar B. Lindahl (eds), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine (Dordrecht, 1984), p. xii.
Roden, J., & Jarvis, L. (2012). Evaluation of the health promotion activities of paediatric nurses: Is the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion a useful framework?. Contemporary Nurse:. A Journal For The Australian Nursing Profession, 41(2), 271-284.
Health Care Practices in Honduras
In order to understand healthcare in Honduras, it is important to understand that Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western hemisphere (ennert & Koop, 2009).
"The economic situation is accompanied by a shortage of health professionals throughout the country. There are 57 physicians and 129 nurses per 100,000 people. In the United States, the corresponding ratios are 256 and 937 per 100,000 respectively" (ennert & Koop, 2009). This scenario means that many people in Honduras lack access to formal healthcare and must rely upon home or folk remedies for diagnosis and treatment of disease. The dire economic conditions in Honduras help create an atmosphere of chronic disease and health conditions that promote disease. Some of these problems include: diarrheal diseases, respiratory infections, lack of access to clean drinking water, waste disposal issues, muscle pain, and tuberculosis (ennert & Koop, 2009). In fact,…
Marson, M., Prohaska, A., Burris, S., Richardson, C. Crigger, N. (2006). Rural Hodurans perceptions about health and healthcare practices. Retrieved September 30, 2012 from Journal of Undergraduate Nursing Scholarship website: http://www.juns.nursing.arizona.edu/articles/Fall%202006/marson.htm
Massachusetts General Hospital. (2012). Honduras: Bits of culture. Retrieved September 30,
2012 from http://www2.massgeneral.org/interpreters/b_hon.asp
Rennert, W., & Koop, E. (2009). Primary health care for remote village communities in Honduras: A model for training and support of community health workers. Family Medicine, 41(9), 646-51.
Health Hazard/isk Communication
The term "risk communication" denotes any purposeful avoidance of risk-related information exchange between concerned parties. In this context, it (avoiding risk/hazard communication) may be defined as an act of transmitting or conveying information to parties in various areas including: environmental or health risk levels, meaning/significance of environmental or health risks, and actions, policies or decisions endeavoring to manage or control environmental or health risks. Concerned parties include scientists, government, industry groups, agencies, corporations, unions, professional organizations, scientists, the media, individual citizens, and interested groups (Florini, 2007).
Justification for Lying or Withholding isk/Hazard Information
In the past, one could adopt an 'experts know best' stance and merely inform citizens that, while one has identified a risk, they need not worry, and simply state how authorities are planning to deal with it. Today's public is not automatically acquiescent to authority figures, and demands to be more closely involved when…
Florini, A. (Ed.) (2007). The right to know: transparency for an open world. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Huang Y. (2004). The Sars Epidemic and Its Aftermath in China: A Political Perspective. In: Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Forum on Microbial Threats; Knobler S, Mahmoud A, Lemon S, et al., editors. Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (U.S.). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92479 / on 7 March 2016
O'Malley, P., Rainford, J. & Thompson, A. (2009). Transparency during public health emergencies: from rhetoric to reality. Bulletin of the World Health Organization; 87:614-618. doi: 10.2471/BLT.08.056689
Sandman, P.M. (2003). "Dilemmas in Emergency Communication Policy," In CDCynergy Emergency Risk Communication. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from www.psandman.com/articles/dilemmas.pdf on 7 March 2016
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
While this is an important first step, the overall bureaucracy of the hospital could pose problem over the long-term. To mitigate this situation, the hospital could implement a program of randomly monitoring the various departments that score poorly on different surveys. Where, the administration is seeking out ways to quickly identify when the overall levels of care will decrease. This is important, because as a part of the Department of Defense, it easy for the staff to fall into an attitude of complacence. Once this occurs, is when the obvious weaknesses in the various departments become more severe and could require years, to effectively correct the various problems. As a result, the surveys are good first start, but must have an effective mechanism of identifying the problem early. When you have random spot checks of those departments that are scoring poorly on the survey, you are making the organization more…
About Fort Jackson. (n.d.). Retrieved June 15, 2010 from U.S. Army website: http://www.jackson.army.mil/Area/aboutFtJ.htm
Barido, G. (2008). The Effects of Customer Service Initiative. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from Storming Media website: http://www.stormingmedia.us/42/4263/A426394.html
Bonn, K. (2005). Social and Family Matters. Army Officers Guide, (pg. 423). Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole.
Gaal, J. (1995). Improving Access to Primary Care. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from U.S. Army Baylor University Graduate Program in Health Care website: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA313797&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
orld Health Care Systems
Taking into account that this PBS Frontline production is several years old, and was produced before the Affordable Care Act was signed into law, some of the details shown in the video are certainly not current. Still, the comparison between the German healthcare system and the U.S. healthcare system shows a wide gap in service, in cost, in consumer satisfaction and in results. Meantime, the positive parts of the German healthcare system are far better and far fairer for the consumer than the system in the United States.
The German Healthcare System vs. The U.S. System
The PBS reporter states that the philosophy in Germany since the time of Otto von Bismarck (Prussian leader in the late 1800s) has been that "A government has to provide mechanism so all its people can get medical care when they need it (PBS). "The Bismarck model is used all…
Frontline. "Sick Around the World." Public Broadcast System. Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org . 2007.
Klein, Ezra. "Ten Reasons Why American Health Care Is so Bad." The American Prospect.
Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://prospect.org . 2007.
The experiences of seniors within the healthcare delivery system will alter how all Americans view healthcare. The healthcare delivery systems and overall organizational structure in the United States has been slow to adjust but that rest of the world is currently in flux that will migrate into our system. Technological advances in communication have made telehealth and telemedicine vialbel solutions to our outdated healthcare industry orgainzational structre. While these types of advances are only in their infancy, "...there seemed to be broad acceptance that telehealth and telemedicine had provided positive benefits to the worlds healthcare delivery system." (Telehealth Applications) Our technoloically challenged seniors have actually discovered the trend within the healthcare system and telehealth and telemedicine seems to be an advance that will find worldwide support so we as a nation will be reqquired to jump on the bandwagon.
In conclusion, this article review focused on new Healthcare Delivery Systems…
Farnsworth, Chris. "The Truth About Fraud" Washington Monthly 01 May 1997.
Joshua-Amadi, Mabel. "Recommendations: A Study in Motivation: Recruitment and Retention in the NHS" Nursing Management. February (2003).
Soloye, Daniel J. "Privacy and Power: Computer Databases and Metaphors for Information Privacy" Stanford Law Review July (2001).
Telehealth Applications. (2004) "Current Telehealth Applications" Retrieved October 26, 2004, at http://www.startegis.com/epic/internet/inict-tic.nsf/PrintableE/it07545e.html
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
Employees handle a large amount of private documentation and must uphold the law of confidentiality legally and ethically.
Despite the stress on confidentiality of client information, communication flow is still important to the organization's ability to get work done. / Thus confidentiality in the service of customers, not in the service of secrecy is the organizational mantra. Additionally, communication is not simply fostered in the organizational culture's common professional dress. Because communication skills are so integral to the organization's work, when dealing with other nations over the phone, creating better communication styles in its employees' dealings with one another has become an integral part of the organization's standard operating procedures and mission statement. There are regular updates regarding company policy for employees and weekly staff meetings to foster a healthy and open communication flow between staff and management. No one need ever feel out of the loop. The organizational flow…
Organizational behavior refers to the psychological and sociological habits and patterns evident in specific groups of people. It is often defined formally as "the study of individuals and groups in organizations," ("Organizational Behavior Today," p.2). The study of organizational behavior includes elements such as leadership traits and behaviors; the use or abuse of power, and the politics that characterize people's behavior within the organization. Because each organization functions according to different goals and missions, organizational behavior varies widely from sector to sector. Organizations which have as their primary aim to make profit will for instance behave differently than non-profit organizations; the individuals that comprise those organizations will demonstrate certain character traits that make them valuable to the organization as a whole. On the other hand, all organizations will demonstrate certain similar characteristics that are essential for the smooth functioning of any group of people. For example, the leaders in most…
Clark, Donald. "Leadership: Organizational Behavior." Big Dog's Leadership Page. .
'Organizational Behavior Today."
Wertheim, Edward G. "Historical Background of Organizational Behavior." .
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.
Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Professionalism on the part of employees is also facilitated by management's demanding high standards of employees, in line with the stress of the necessity of improving world health care and helping students. Yet management is always committed to recognizing impressive employee performances with generous bonuses, providing a comprehensive benefits package for all workers, and showing respect for employee health and welfare, as well as customer health and welfare. Also, the tuition assistance program shows how the company respects the importance of education for workers as well as for customers
Globalization spawned the founding of this organization. Globalization continues to impact its structure and mission. As health care bureaucracies around the world grow more complex, and the policies regarding foreign nationals studying in the U.S. change in response to international political events, the ECFMG must remain flexible and abreast of world affairs.
Ethics in Marketing
Ethics of Marketing
Ethics in Marketing
In order to realize themselves as socially responsible corporate entities, business organizations have to maintain a sound ethical track record in every aspect of their business (Arnold 2009). They have to formulate their business policies and strategies in such a fashion that no societal values are exploited and no human being is harmed in any way (Crane & Matten 2007). It is essential for organizations to keep themselves on the safest ethical path in their marketing, promotional, and general operational activities (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel 2012). It cannot only save them from severe criticism by their stakeholders, but also contribute towards a sustainable future in their industry. especting the ethical values and social norms of a society helps an organization in standing on competitive grounds among its competitors and strengthening its public image (Abela & Murphy 2008).
Abela, A.V., & Murphy, P.E., 2008, Marketing with Integrity: Ethics and the Service-Dominant Logic for Marketing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (1): 39-53
Arnold, C., 2009, Ethical Marketing and the New Consumer. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Crane, A., & Matten, D. 2007, Business Ethics: Managing Corporate Citizenship and Sustainability in the Age of Globalization. 2nd Edition. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press
Kurtz, D.L., 2012, Boone & Kurtz Contemporary Marketing. 15th Edition. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning
The theory sees human organizational behaviors and conceptions culturally bound, rather than natural, unlike advocates of systems theory. Systems theory has been more influenced by sociology and linguistics than the natural sciences.
Analyzing symbolic interpretations may be more useful in organizations serving diverse populations: if a public health organization wants to alleviate the prevalence of diabetes in an area, it is not enough to more effectively disseminate information through the existing channels of communication (as systems theory might suggest) or even change the environment to create healthy options for consumption. Rather the people being served may require counseling to change what they consider good foods, a healthy diet, and a positive body image, if their culture tends to reinforce unhealthy practices. An ideological overhaul is necessary to change some behaviors, like the decreased social acceptability of smoking, for example. Organizations are social as well as formal, and cultural in nature…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (1997). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives.
Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.
They were rewarded excessively for high performance and punished excessively for poor performance. The management style fostered a tremendously competitive environment among employees through a "rank or yank" policy in which all employees were evaluated every six months and categorized into three performance ranges of whom everybody in the lowest ranking was subject to termination unless performance improved satisfactorily in the subsequent evaluation period
As in the case of cults, the Enron initiation phase was followed immediately by the indoctrination and conversion phase during which employees were simultaneously rewarded with excessive luxuries and also subjected to the intense pressure to surrender their psychological independence, conform to corporate values, and also to a highly competitive work environment. More specifically, the organizational culture at Enron continually promoted the notion that all of its employees were the best and most talented in the world. Yet, they were also subjected to a punitive culture…
Phillips, K. (2008). "Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis
of American Capitalism" New York: Viking.
Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House.
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…
About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical
Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.
INTENET'S IMPACT ON HEALTH CAE INFOMATION
The Internet's Impact on Health Care Information
The Internet's Impact on Health Care Information
This paper explores some of the best and well-known cites and sites around the world for information and health care. Early in the 21st century, the World Health Organization made its first attempt to rank the quality of health care in approximately 200 countries. (NYT, 2007) The WHO ranked the countries' health care based on factors such as fairness, quality, access, insurance coverage, patient satisfaction, and use of information technology among other factors. (NYT, 2007) According to this research, some of countries in the world that provide the best health care overall are France, Italy, Malta, Japan, and Monaco, among others. (NYT, 2007) As much as the United States of America boasts at being the best in the world at nearly everything, United States health care was not in…
Global Health Council. (2012). Health Linkages. Web, Available from: http://www.globalhealth.org/Health_Linkages.html . 2012 August 26.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Research and Education. (2012). Mayo Clinic. Web, Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/ . 2012 August 26.
National Institutes of Health. (2012). Health Information. Web, Available from: http://health.nih.gov/ . 2012 August 26.
No listed author. (2007). Editorial -- World's best health care? The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/12/opinion/12sun1.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 August 26.
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
com). A certain amount of errors is to be expected, but there should not be so many that it demonstrates a certain level of skewedness about the model in its entirety. Thus, if the NHI model is the one which is selected, then it needs to be tested against a range of different scenarios. The following demonstrate some truly relevant what-ifs: what if the doctors only move half the projected volume; what if medicare slashes rates; what if competitors open a comparable program (dgapartners.com).
There are a range of factors which can change or adjust once a healthcare facility opens their doors for business. And as much as this facility is attempting to engage in a solid humanitarian effort, at the end of the day, it's still a business and people need to get paid. Thus, before engaging in further developmental activities, one needs to determine in what ways the…
Brakatu Ofori-Adjei, a. (2007). Microfinance: An Alternative Means of Healthcare Financing for the Poor. Ghana Medical Journal, 193-194.
Burnstein, L., Harris, R., & Love, L. (2012, August 30). Top Four Legal Issues to Consider When Opening an Urgent Care Center. Retrieved from Mondaq.com: http://www.mondaq.com/unitedstates/x/194082/Healthcare/Estate+planning+is+important+step
Burnstein, M., Harris, R.L., & Love, L. (2012, August 20). Top Four Legal Issues to Consider When Opening an Urgent Care Center. Retrieved from Mondaq.com:
Community development is concerned with tackling inequities, and with understanding the interconnections and pathways between the various determinants of health for particular communities.
The effectiveness of community development in health is enhanced by partnerships between health and other sectors such as education, housing, arts or sport, or in programs such as community building and neighborhood renewal. Community development approaches to health promotion are generally poorly identified in planning and practice. Concepts such as empowerment, community engagement and participation are commonly referred to as either processes or out- comes, but often given token effort and paid only lip service. Community development is not a single track in health promotion programs. Health promotion practice entails the planning and implementation of interventions which may take many forms. Evidence about the effectiveness of health promotion demonstrates that one-off programs at a single level of intervention have little value, and that multi-level approaches delivered intensively…
Bezrucha, S. (2001). Societal hierarchy and the health Olympics. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164(12), 1701-3.
Bunker, S., Colquhoun, D.M., Esler, M.D., Hickie, I., Hunt, D., Jelinek, VM., Oldenburg, B.E, Peach, H.G., Ruth, D., Tennant, C.C., and Tonkin, a. (2003). Stress and coronary heart disease, psychosocial risk factors, National Heart Foundation of Australia: Position statement update. Medical Journal of Australia, 178(6), 272-76.
Bush, R. (2002). Community engagement. VicHealth Letter. Melbourne: VicHealth.
Dixon, J. (1999). A national R&D collaboration on health and socio-economic status for Australia. Canberra: NECPH, Australian National University.
United States healthcare programs to citizens compare with the healthcare provided to residents in other countries? That question will be the focus of this paper, along with the background to the decision of major health insurance companies to support the candidacy of Republican Mitt Romney.
here does the U.S. stand in the world when it comes to healthcare?
According to a statement by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, John Boehner, the U.S. has "…the best health care delivery system in the world" (Politiface.com). Boehner, who was a guest on the CBS Sunday program "Face the Nation," was commenting on the candidacy of Mitt Romney. On the July 1, 2012 program, Boehner said he supports Romney for president because Romney "…understands that Obamacare will bankrupt our country and will ruin…" that healthcare system that the speaker believes is best in the world (politifact.com).
Meanwhile on Fox News Sunday (also…
Balanced Politics. (2009). Should the Government Provide Free Universal Health Care for All
Americans? Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://balancedpolitics.org .
Business Insider. (2012). Health Insurance Companies Are Worried About A Romney
Victory. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.businessinsider.com .
Human esource Issues in Health Field
The field of health human resources in the health field deals with issues such as planning, performance, management, development, information, retention, and research on human resources in the health sector Successful realization the mission and goals in this field is determined by the dedication and skills that the specialists possess. This study identifies various issues that often arise and bedevils this field. Current trends relating to technological advancements affecting the success and performance of employees in this field are also identified (Fried, & Johnson, 2002). Therefore, in order to improve service delivery in the health sector and consequently promote a healthy society, it is critical to identify and analyze the various challenges facing human resources in the health sector. This will provide a basis for developing various interventions aimed at dealing with the identified challenges and consequently improving the quality of service delivery in…
American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration. (2012). American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration ... membership directory. Gainesville FL: Naylor.
Fried, B., & Fottler, M.D. (2011). Fundamentals of human resources in healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
Fried, B., & Johnson, J.A. (2002). Human resources in healthcare: Managing for success. Washington, DC: AUPHA Press.
Kabene, S.M. (2011). Human resources in healthcare, health informatics and healthcare systems. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.
Measurements Health Care equired esources Media Course Media: Organizational Systems Leadership
The metrics used in the balanced scorecard and dashboard are both qualitative and quantitative, and can result in improvement in health care services (Frith et al., 2010, p. 10). As such, they play a significant influence in the nursing practice for different organizations, because they provide an objective means of measuring various aspects of health care services. Specifically, the balanced scorecard and dashboards stratifies health care into four primary components: training for health care workers, resources for facilities, provision of service and community satisfaction (Chan et al., 2010, p. 709). These metrics are principally used to inform health care practitioners about specific areas of improvement, or those in which they are providing excellent service and resources. In several instances, the metrics for the individual areas of analyses were developed by evaluating and comparing national standards (Chan et al., 2010,…
Chan, G.J., Parco, K.B., Sihombing, M.E., Tredwell, S.P., & O'Rourke, E.J. (2010). Improving health services to displaced persons in Aceh, Indonesia: A balanced scorecard. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 88(9), 709 -- 712.
Frith, K.H., Anderson, F., & Sewell, J.P. (2010). Assessing and selecting data for a nursing services dashboard. Journal of Nursing Administration, 40(1), 10 -- 16. doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181c47d45
Grossmeier, J., Terry, P.E., Cipriotti, A., & Burtaine, J.E. (2010). Best practices in evaluating worksite health promotion programs. American Journal of Health Promotion, 24(3), TAHP 1 -- 9.
Schalm, C. (2008). Implementing a balanced scorecard as a strategic management tool in a long-term care organization. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 13(Supp.1), 8-14.