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Since the modern era of international cooperation began, there have been efforts to eradicate poverty in this world. Ultimately, these efforts have run into roadblocks. Poor governance in many parts of the world is highly correlated with poverty. While wealth in the world has increased, rapid population increases have made it difficult to spread that wealth around. Thus, while there have been some successes in terms of reducing poverty, especially with economic liberalization, there remains a lot of work to be done. The statistics can be staggering. Over three billion people live on less than $2.50 per day and 80% of people live on less than $10 per day. According to UNICEF, 22,000 children die each day because of poverty and over one-quarter of children in the developing world suffer from malnourishment and stunted physical development. Not only is there a high level of poverty, but in many…
Antrobus, P. (2000). Transformational leadership: Advancing the agenda for gender justice. Gender and Development. Vol. 8 (3) 50-56.
Bass, B. & Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Deaton, A. (2001). Counting the world's poor: Problems and possible solutions. The World Bank Research Observer. Vol. 16 (2) 125-147.
Porter, D. & Craig, D. (2004). The third way and the third world: Poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of inclusive liberalism. Review of International Political Economy. Vol. 11 (2) 387-423.
Moral Obligation to Help Reduce orld Poverty
There is little doubt that global poverty is a significant issue, creating hardship and suffering for many people. The statistics are astounding; every day 34,000 children under the age of five years die due to poverty, this equates to 11 million children a year (Eskelinen 11). Furthermore, 1,000 million people lack access to clean drinking water (Ord 178), and 2,000 million people lack access to essential drugs.(Pogge 1). The statistics are not in question, and clearly demonstrate the harm of poverty, but the reactions of those who have resources that could be used to help is a more controversial; what moral obligations should exist. It is the argument of this paper that there should be, and is, a moral obligation on the rich to help the poor.
Philosophers such as Peter Singer and Thomas Pogge have written on this issue. Singer argues that…
Eskelinen, Teppo. Putting Global Poverty in Context: A Philosophical Essay on Power, Justice and Economy. N.p., 2009. Web. .
Ord, T. "Global Poverty and the Demands of Morality." God, The Good, and Utilitarianism: Perspectives on Peter Singer. Ed. J Perry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. 177 -- 191. Print.
Pogge, T. "Poverty and Human Rights." N.p., 2014. Web. .
Singer, P. "Famine, Affluence, and Morality." Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (1972): 229 -- 243. Print.
Peter Singer's "The Singer Solution World Poverty"
Peter Albert David Singer, an Australian philosopher is serving as a professor of Bioethics at Princeton University and laureate Professor at the Center for applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at the University of Melbourne. His specialization is in applied ethics and his approach on ethical issues is based on secular, preference utilitarian perspective. Singer is considered as the most controversial ethicist. In his book "Singer's Solution to World Poverty," he has tried to present hypothetical situations each of which displaying a moral stature and inhuman side of the human nature. These hypothetical situations were, however very close to the practical life experience and a symbolic representation of moral dilemmas which society member's goes through. Nevertheless, I don't hold all these hypothetical situations to represent inhumane element of man's nature. Morality, ethical perspective and social responsibility are all considered as man's duty when living…
World War Analysis
WWI analysis examining the significance and impact of WWI on U.S. history
In the early 20th Century, a general fear existed that a huge war would break out due to the circumstances existing at that time and therefore every small incident was considered deadly. However the triggering factor was the assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in June 1914 resulting in World War I (WWI) or the Great War. WWI took place from 1914 to 1918 and major countries took part in it; war resulting in drastic consequences such as collapse of economies and death of millions of people. The two main groups fighting against each other were Triple Alliance and Triple Entente (also known as the Western Powers). The U.S. did not participate in the war in the beginning and tried its best to remain neutral. However, it was forced to join the Triple Entente when German…
.. when every citizen is given the full chance to reach his or her potential." (Celimene and riys)
This understanding of equality remains true "... As long as we do not remain unequal in residual (unwanted) risks. That is as long as inequality is not rooted in pure random events. Otherwise this inequality is bad, a true divide indeed!" (Celimene and riys).
What Dornbusch is saying in effect is that inequality is a positive aspect that flows from the different talents, motivational elements and market forces that normally occur in a free market economy. He does not view inequality that is a result of outside factors that are imposed, such as discrimination and oppression, in a positive light. Only inequality that results from natural differences and different degrees of individual effort and motivation is considered to be "good." In this regard I would tend to agree with his views.
Dornbusch R. (1999) a CENTURY of UNRIVALLED PROSPERITY. Retrieved August 4, 2007, at http://www.esi2.us.es/~mbilbao/pdffiles/dornbus2.pdf .
Celimene F. And Briys E. Globalisation and Risk Sharing: Debunking Some
Common Pitfalls. Retrieved August 3, 2007 at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:tgVua2zoKeEJ:cyberlibris.typepad.com/blog/files/Haiti2.doc+DORNBUSCH+STATES+POVERTY+IS+BAD,+but+INEQUALITY+IS+NOT%22&l=en&t=clnk&d=2&l=u
As they are interested in increasing economic growth at all costs, while ignoring the short- and long-term impacts that their actions could have on the population. This is evidence, of the validity of the criticisms leveled against: the World ank, it policies and its role. Where, they would play a part in helping to support, various activities that are contradictory to their intended purpose. In this aspect the various criticisms are accurate, as they highlight a hypocrisy that exists between: World ank policy and its long-term effects upon a country.
About Us, 2009, World ank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
China Overtakes Japan as World's Second Largest Economy, 2010, loomberg. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Fighting Poverty, 2010, World ank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Global Monitoring Report 2009, 2009, World ank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Summit on Millennium Development Goals, 2010, UN. Available from: [5 October 2010].…
About Us, 2009, World Bank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
China Overtakes Japan as World's Second Largest Economy, 2010, Bloomberg. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Fighting Poverty, 2010, World Bank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Global Monitoring Report 2009, 2009, World Bank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
The short-term should mainly include goals to repair Michael's emotional wounds. Academic goals should be the focus of long-term therapy.
Michael and those like him should be provided with programs to support them on both an emotional and academic basis. Professional psychological assistance should be used to ensure the emotional health and continued well-being of these children. This can then be used as a basis to implement academic programs to help children flourish in their schooling and careers later in life.
Local, state and national programs need to be implemented to address the problem of homeless families. May of these families are the victims of abuse and other factors beyond their control. The stigma surrounding homelessness should also be removed. Only when fundamental changes occur on a widely social level can children like Michael…
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
Friedman considers insourcing to be flattener number eight, because it allows small companies to compete like major supply-chain companies. Insourcing refers to hiring another company to handle a company's supply chain. UPS is the major supplier for insourcing services in the United States. Friedman believes that insourcing flattens in three ways: by letting little companies compete in the global market; by dissolving barriers between companies; and by standardizing business practices across companies.
Finally, Friedman looks at a group of flatteners that he refers to as the steroids. These are small flatteners that have the effect of amplifying the other flatteners. Mobile steroids are those technologies allowing people to work in non-traditional environments and include cellular phones, laptops, and wireless internet access. Personal steroids are those things that give power to the individual, and include personal computers, search engines, and peer-to-peer file sharing. While these flatteners are not powerful enough to…
Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York:
On the other hand, child malnutrition is becoming worse, due to staff cutbacks from health sector reform. Healthcare workers are in the best position to develop innovative and quality improvements. hey also can guide the effective or wasteful application of resources such as drugs, vaccines and supplies.
his summer, I had the opportunity to attend the National Youth Leadership Conference in Washington, D.C., where youth from all over the country discussed pertinent issues including the need for an improved healthcare system. I was able to talk with students across the nation, and some originally from other countries, about the inequalities in the provision of healthcare. he United States is a very rich country, but ranks very high in the disparity of healthcare services due to factors such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and geography. he gap between those who are rich and poor in the United States is the widest…
This summer, I had the opportunity to attend the National Youth Leadership Conference in Washington, D.C., where youth from all over the country discussed pertinent issues including the need for an improved healthcare system. I was able to talk with students across the nation, and some originally from other countries, about the inequalities in the provision of healthcare. The United States is a very rich country, but ranks very high in the disparity of healthcare services due to factors such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and geography. The gap between those who are rich and poor in the United States is the widest in 70 years, and there is a close connection between poverty and poor healthcare.
It is vitally essential for policymakers and healthcare workers to seriously look at these inequities and provide high-quality health and safety for all people despite their socioeconomic status. American activities to eliminate disparities need to be part of a broader organization to alter healthcare. It will take the efforts and dedication of my generation, including myself, to work on resolving this pressing issue. If I am fortunate enough to go into the medical field, either as a practitioner or in a business area, I will be able to contribute my abilities and personal commitment to resolve this disparity of healthcare in the United States.
Resource: WHO at website http://www.who.int/en
World War Turning Point Europe, Significant Change Occurred Emergence Legitimate evolutionary egimes
Self-Determination in Cuba
There are few who would dispute the fact that following the conclusion of World War II and prior to its revolution (which began in 1953 and concluded on January 1 of 1959) Cuba was a prosperous region of the world that was certainly worth fighting for. The country's leader prior to the ascendancy of Fidel Castro, Fulgencio Batista, had cleverly manipulated the assistance of a number of external forces, primarily that of the United States, to assist the country in achieving a degree of economic gain and modernity the likes of which were comparable to, if not surpassing, those of other parts of the world.
Its economic prowess may be demonstrated from the following quotation. "Cuba in 1958, prior to the government of the Communist Fidel Castro, paid its employees an average of $3.00 per…
Epperson, R.A. (1985). The Unseen Hand. Arizona: Publius.
Guevara, C. (2005). Cuba: Historical Exception or Vanguard in the Colonial Struggle? Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/guevara/1961/04/09.htm
Kapur, T., Smith, A. (2002). "Housing Policy In Castro's Cuba." Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/education/oustanding_student_papers/kapur_smith_cuba_02.pdf
Jones, L. (1966). Home. New York: William Morrow and Co.
" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:
Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)
Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:
The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.
Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…
There are 346 cars per 1000 population in the country (The Economist, 2011).
Andorra has an adult literacy rate of 100%. Life expectancy at birth is 82.43 years and the infant mortality rate 3.8 deaths per 1000 live births. The unemployment rate is 2.9%. The country has 64,500 cellular phones for 84,825 people, a rate of 0.76. The rate of landlines is 44.6%. There are 67,100 Internet users, or 79.1% of the population. There are no figures given by the Economist of the number of cars in Andorra.
These figures confirm the hypothesis that Andorra, despite having a lower GDP per capita, enjoys a higher quality of life. It has fewer cell phones, for example, in part because it has better landline connectivity. ith respect to human measures, however, Andorra's superior literacy rate, life expectancy and infant mortality rates point to a higher degree of success in developing human successes.…
CIA World Factbook, various pages. (2011). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook
Poverty & Economic Development
The link between poverty and economic development
The financial services sector and poverty alleviation
Trade and Investment
Trade and investment
In this paper, we explore the importance of the poverty and economic development dimensions such as infrastructure, private sector development, entrepreneurship, trade and investment and human capital. This is done while keeping in mind the ethical and governance issues like accountability and fairness and their influence on economic development. The content is discussed within the context of a financial services institution operating within African countries. In this paper, we also discuss the steps that the board and senior management of a company can take to address these issues, and describe which steps you would regard as the most effective.
The link between poverty and economic development has often been a subject of several discussions and studies (oemer & Gugerty,1997;Hull,2009; Loayza &…
Coxhead, I. And P. Warr (1995), "Does Technical Progress in Agriculture Alleviate Poverty? A Philippine Case Study," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 39(1):25-54.
Ford, R. And P.Poret (1991), 'Infrastructure and private sector productivity', OECD Economics Department working papers No 91
Hull, K (2009).Understanding the Relationship between Economic Growth, Employment and Poverty Reduction* .OECD.
Yahie, AM (2000). Poverty Reduction in sub-Saharan Africa:
Poverty and Public Policy
Charles Blow discusses in hits NYT op-ed column the issue of child poverty. He notes up front that his belief is that poverty can never really be ended, highlighting that the man has a realistic outlook on the issue. There are many different causes of poverty, not the least of which is that poverty is, ultimately, relative. What we call poverty today in America would be considered wealthy in half the other countries in the world. His point, however, is that even if you accept that there will always be some poverty, there is a societal obligation to keep the poverty rate as low as possible. He argues in particular against children living in poverty.
This is where public policy comes into play. The United States, simply put, performs poorly on the issues of overall poverty and child poverty, and that is the direct result of…
Blow, C. (2015). Reducing our obscene level of child poverty. New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/28/opinion/charles-blow-reducing-our-obscene-level-of-child-poverty.html
Borjas, G. (2011). Poverty and program participation among immigrant children. The Future of Children. Vol. 21 (1) 247-266.
Hall, D. & Cooper. D. (2012). How raising the federal minimum wage would help working families and give the economy a boost. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.jobsnowcoalition.org/reports/2012/federal-minimum-wage-9-80-boost_epi2012-08.pdf
The Gap in America's Distribution of ealth and the Socioeconomic Consequences
The United States often characterizes itself in the context of political rhetoric and public displays of patriotrism as the wealthiest and greatest nation in the world. Unfortunately, the wide variance of living standards represented in this plurality suggests that this is an experience reserved only for those with the means. Quite to the point, the poverty that a substantial percentage of Americans live with everyday indicates that this apparent enormity of wealth is not accessible to all. Indeed, the discussion here centers on the understanding that 50% of all of America's vast wealth is possessed by no more than 1% of Americans. This means that the wealthiest individuals in America on their own control more wealth than entire communities and regions. And as the discussion hereafter will show, this is a trend with serious and negative consequences…
Cutter, W.B. IV; Federman, M.; Garner, T.I. Kiely, J. & Levine, D et al. (1996). What Does It
Mean to Be Poor in America? Monthly Labor Review, 119.
Galbraith, J.K. (1998). The Affluent Society. 40th Anniversary Edition. Mariner Books.
Rodrik, D. (2000). Growth and Poverty Reduction: What are the Real Questions? Finance & Development.
The paper looked at other possible explanations, such as teacher experience, but found little correlation (Mitchell, 2001).
In the weakest schools, 81% of the students qualified for free or reduced-price lunches. In the schools rated highest, only 3 1/2% of students qualified for such programs. In addition, school ratings dropped in direct proportion to the rise in number of students receiving subsidized lunches. The paper used subsidized lunches as one indication of the economic status of the students' families (Mitchell, 2001). Overall, among schools where 75% or more of the students were part of the subsidized lunch program, only four schools were rated "average." All others scored "low," or "unsatisfactory," and none were considered to be doing a better-than-average job of educating students (Mitchell, 2001). These schools also had largely minority student populations: about 20% were black, 68% were Hispanic, while 1% were Asian and 8% white, thus tying both…
Bush, Rod. 2003. "The Civil Rights Movement and the continuing struggle for the redemption of America." Social Justice, Mar. 22.
Furdell, Phyllis. 1993. "Survey finds solutions to addressing poverty in local economic development initiatives." Nation's Cities Weekly, Sept. 13.
Mitchell, Nancy. 2001. "30 'Worst' Schools Named." Denver Rocky Mountain News, Sept. 14.
Petrie, Laurie. 1997. "Infant Death Rate Soars in Poor Areas." The Cincinnati Post, Oct. 28.
This is undoubtedly a necessary component, especially in those societies where most transactions are facilitated by transfers of cash for desired goods or services (Dixon and Macarov, 2)."
The dysfunction that arises from poverty involves self-esteem, domestic violence, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and child abuse (Dixon and Macarov, 130). It is a harsh reality, and one that, ultimately, costs the rest of society on a large scale. There are global initiatives to eliminate poverty, but the condition of poverty is one that is so widespread that the idea of eliminating poverty far exceeds the actual philanthropy necessary to do that.
Dixon, John, and David Macarov, eds. Poverty: A Persistent Global Reality. London: Routledge, 1998. Questia. 12 Oct. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108886533.
United States Census Bureau, found online at http://www.census.gov/,2008. Retrieved 12 Oct. 2008
According to the pure mathematics of utilitarianism, then, there is very little debate regarding this issue. No matter what the circumstance, a person who is experiencing true biologically-driven hunger due to a lack of enough food to eat will get far more utility out of the most basic morsel of nutrition and substance that could be achieved by the most magnificent meal for those who are used to plenty (and this comparison is even unfair, as the magnificent meal could be traded to feed that many more hungry people). It is an ethical duty, then, for those of us privileged enough to have plenty to share it with those who do not have enough.
Extending this logic further allows us to answer the question of whether this duty is greater amongst our neighbors, or if there is a global mandate for all mankind. The answer would be very different two…
The World Bank (2012) points out that "…nearly 1.3 billion people remain below the extreme poverty line with an income of U.S. $1.25 or less a day." The global financial institution further points out that "another 2.6 billion live on less than U.S. $2 a day, another common measurement of deep deprivation"(World Bank, 2012). It is important to note that although inequalities in terms of wealth exist regardless of which country one comes from, developing countries have been hit worst by the same.
In general terms, unemployment levels in Australia are relatively low. The levels of education in this case remain relatively high. Further, given the high average incomes of a vast majority of Australians, most citizens do not encounter many of the problems faced by millions of people from other nations. In a way, some of the most common problems the word's poorest people face are occasioned…
Deen, T. (2004). Development: Tied Aid Strangling Nations, Says U.N. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from the Inter-Press Service website: http://www.ipsnews.net/2004/07/development-tied-aid-strangling-nations-says-un/
Galston, W.A. & Hoffenberg, P.H. (Eds.). (2010). Poverty and Morality: Religious and Secular Perspectives. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Joseph, S. (2011). Blame it on the WTO? A Human Rights Critique. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mizzoni, J. (2009). Ethics: The Basics. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
From a very young age, I came to understand what it means to be poor and underprivileged. I recognize so much more regarding the manner in which paucity touches numerous Canadians as well as the tussles they endure. As I am from a tiny out port municipality that earns their livelihood from fishing, I have seen numerous people with tiniest pay occupations, getting communal help, or Employment Insurance (EI) benefits. It was clear to me that my blood relations are engaged within the Fishing industry as well as claiming EI benefits throughout the winter season, I was aware just how difficult it often was to not have sufficient money on hand. Although we have always remained above the scarcity line and me along with my brothers and sisters have got used to receiving all that we ever needed, to some degree, we are aware about what happens when a…
Bowles, S., Durlauf, S.N. & Hoff, K.R. (2006). Poverty Traps. Russell Sage Foundation and Princeton University Press, New York.
Levitas, R. (2005). The Inclusive Society? Social Exclusion and New Labor, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
MacKinnon, S. (2011). The Effectiveness of Neo-Liberal Labor Market Policy as a Response to the Poverty and Social Exclusion of Aboriginal Second-Chance Learners, PhD Dissertation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
Osberg, L. (2008) A Quarter Century of Economic Inequality in Canada: 1981-2006, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Ottawa.
This adds to the understanding of development of the Third World- which is shown in reality as a result of a combination of factors and not just climate changes or other 'natural' causes.
Central to the argument in the article by Davis is the view the ritish colonial empire in the 1800s, as the dominant economic power, influenced and affected other less-developed countries negatively and resulted ion the creation of the Third World. As the author states, the logic of Capitalism and the susceptibility of colonized nations led to the origins of the present division between the developed and less-developed countries. There is a certain moral criticism of these events in the Davis' article. "The route to this "new world order" is thus paved with the bodies of the poor" (Davis 29).
While there are of course many other aspects and answers to the question of the origins of the…
Davis M. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso: London and New York. 2001.
Poverty Reduction occur on a Local Scale or must it be in a roader Scope to be Meaningful? Discuss with Reference to Specific Examples.
One of the biggest issues that a host of governments and international organizations are wrestling with (i.e. The UN) is how to effectively eliminate poverty. This is because, a number of different programs have been implemented in the past that were suppose to have a dramatic impact on reducing levels. Yet, in reality they are having limited effects at addressing the underlying causes. Instead, most of the money that is intended to tackle these challenges is squandered through: government bureaucracy and corrupt leaders.
A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tanzania. After gaining independence in the 1961, the country began to experience 6% economic growth. This caused many international aid organizations and donors to provide increased amounts of funding for…
2011 World Hunger and Property Facts, 2011, World Hunger. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Aid and Fairer Trade, 2010, UN. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Macro Economic Development, 2011, Aid Indonesia. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Microfinance in Cambodia, 2011, CMA. Available from: [31 May 2011].
poverty on children. There is one reference used for this paper.
There are a number of factors which can influence children in the world today. It is important to look at the role poverty plays in the lives of many children.
Effects of Poverty
According to an article by Brooks-Gunn, poverty has a number of ill effects of children. These children have a greater incidence of lead poisoning due to insufficient housing, are more likely to have low birth weights which may contribute to higher infant mortality, and decreased cognitive levels, leading these children to drop out of school thus continuing the cycle of living in poverty.
There are pathways which can improve a child's chance for a better life including "health and nutrition, home environment, parental interactions with children, parental mental health and neighborhood conditions (Brooks-Gunn)." It has been shown if these pathways are implemented at an early age,…
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan. The Effects of Poverty on Children. The Future of Children. (accessed 04 January, 2004). http://www.futureofchildren.org/information2826/information_show.htm?doc_id=72165 ).
The hypothesis to be tested is to what extent children and their families are influenced by the marketing techniques of food companies. This hypothesis will be tested through qualitative methods including primarily ethnographic observation and open-ended interviews.
Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.
Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.
Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.
Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.
Morland K. et al. 2002 "The Contextual Effect of the Local Food Environment on esidents' Diets: The Atherosclerosis isk…
Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.
Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.
Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.
Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.
Sociologists explain it as the tendency for the poor to remain poor as they have already become accustomed to it, its problems and its limitations (Goode and Eames, 1996). In other words, they have resigned to their status and do not show any interest or real desire to change it. This situation could easily become the most difficult challenge for the social worker as his efforts would continually meet closed doors. Just like in the previous scenario, the state employee could renounce, or he could intensify his efforts.
Poverty as structure
Poverty as structure can be best exemplified in the poor neighborhoods, from where few individuals manage to get access to education and become professionally successful. These individuals encounter serious problems in socially adjusting and the increased crime rates, due to deprivation, the culture of poverty and survival in a poor environment, have become the pillars of the respective structure.…
Danziger, S., Sandefur, G.D., Weinberg, 1994, Confronting Poverty: Prescriptions for Change, Harvard University Press
Goode, J., Eames, E., 1996, an Anthropological Critique of the Culture of Poverty, Waveland Press
Nolan, B., Christopher, W., 1996, Resources, Deprivation and Poverty, Oxford University Press
2008, the World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook /geos/us.htmllast accessed on July 23, 2008
beliefs or values about poverty, homelessness, addictions or mental disorders? What has been one of your personal or professional experiences with poverty, homelessness, addiction or mental disorders?
Over the course of my personal and professional education in the field of healthcare, I have come to realize that poor heath and a patient's socio-economic status are inexorably interlinked. Poorer people have less money for healthier food and less access to such foods. They lack the time and access to places where they can engage in effective exercise. It is easy to look dismissively upon someone who is poor and say "why can't they change their lifestyle?" But looking at the price of produce in the grocery store and considering the fact that even a pair of running shoes can average around $100, it is easy to see how difficult it can be for someone who is under extreme economic pressures to…
U.S. Economy Since orld ar II
economy is the largest in the world but has the most unequal distribution of wealth among all the developed countries of the world. The major reason for this inequality is that since the Second orld ar most U.S. governments have tended to favor the wealthy and the corporate sector while formulating their economic policies. Such "rich friendly" policies have become more pronounced since the early 1980s and continue to this day to the detriment of the society and the economy. This essay gives an overview of the post-orld ar II U.S. economy and outlines the ways in which various U.S. administrations have enacted policies favoring the corporate sector and the wealthy.
The 18th century British economist Adam Smith advocated the benefits of a Laissez faire economy in his The ealth of Nations (1776) by proclaiming that a "free economy" in which every individual…
'Eisenhower, Dwight David." Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2004. December 17, 2004.
"Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)" American President.org. 8/26/2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.americanpresident.org/history/harrytruman/
"How Unequal Are We, Anyway?." A Statistical Briefing Book. Inequality.org. July, 2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.inequality.org/facts.html
population of the world, the scarcity of resources, and a threat to the ecosystem, it has become the responsibility of all institutes in society to play an effective role in protecting the environment. It is no more a concern of the government alone but needs the inclusion of businesses to take responsibility as well- and so they have with many major corporations initiating campaigns for corporate social responsibility. usinesses are liable to function in a way that not only fulfills their motive to maximize profit; but, they should also serve the interests of consumers and the environment. It is the responsibility of companies to foster consumer trust, provide safe products, and ensure affordability. These can be attained by providing consumers with absolute information about the kind and location of the business. Advertisements should be honest and free from any misleading claims. usinesses also bear the responsibility of informing customers about…
(n.d.). Retrieved February Monday, 2014, from American Express: http://about.americanexpress.com/csr/docs/cresp_employees.pdf
(2001, January Monday). Retrieved February Sunday, 2014, from Catalyst: http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/american-express-company%E2%80%94building-winning-culture-accountability-counts
(2010, September Tuesday). Retrieved February Sunday, 2014, from Mother Nature Network: http://www.mnn.com/money/sustainable-business-practices/stories/american-express-and-the-environment#
(2011, August Thursday). Retrieved February Sunday, 2014, from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.questia.com /library/1P2-32555662/credit-cards-how-high-does-your-card-rank#articleDetails
Throughout my life, there have been those moments where I am apt to say "a-ha" or "that makes sense". Indeed, we all go through those moments where something dawns on us that wasn't obvious or apparent before, for whatever reason. Sometimes, the realization made is something basic or fairly inconsequential. However, there are other times where the revelation if profound and extensive. I had just such a moment when I was in high school and it is something that I have never forgot. While I was fortunate enough to grow up in a fairly affluent and well-off household, I did not truly know just how fortunate I have been as compared to other people in other parts of the world until I travelled to Mexico.
The fact that The Money is written by a person with an Hispanic name and was, as is obvious, money correlates nicely to…
discrimination in U.S.
There are people still alive today who remember Jim Crow laws. Half a century ago, segregation of drinking fountains, public restrooms, public buses, and public schools was still legal. Fifty years ago blacks in many states could not make a living except to work in jobs that resembled slavery in their wages and work conditions. The Civil Rights movement ostensibly changed everything. Yet decades of political correctness and affirmative action have all but glossed over the deeply rooted problems of racism and other forms of injustice evident in the daily lives of many Americans. African-Americans are also not the only minority group to suffer from systematic discrimination. Half of all Americans -- black, white, rich poor -- experience daily discrimination at home and in the workplace. Less than a hundred years ago, women could not even vote. Suffrage created twice as many voters and like the Civil…
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…
1. Chen-Young, et al. Transnationals of tourism in the Caribbean. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001.
2. Richard Wiffin, William Phettipace, Anas Todkill; Imagining Distance: Spanish Explorers in America. Early American Literature, Vol. 25, 1990.
3. Stephen Zunes; The United States and the Western Sahara Peace Process. Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, 1998.
Food and dietary habits vary from region to region; mostly guided by cultural preferences, access to resources and income levels. It has often found that western countries rarely ever complain of malnutrition problem, while it persists in third world countries. The reason for this is grounded in income levels and access to resources. Most developing countries heavily rely on pulses and beans for calories while most western-nations exhibit a greater taste for meat and poultry. This demonstrates on the one hand, cultural tastes while on the other it also says a great deal about income and poverty. In a report and survey revealed in 1980s, it was found that there existed noticeable differences in per capital supply of calories and protein in different regions of the world (see Table 1). It was observed that developing countries had calories intake 9% lower than the world average. The developed countries on…
1. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996a The sixth world food survey. Rome: FAO.
2. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996b. Food balance sheets 1961-1994. Rome: FAO.
3. Grigg, D. 1995 The nutritional transition in Western Europe. Jl Hist. Geogr. 21: 247-61.
4. Grigg, D. 1996 The starchy staples in world food consumption. Ann. Ass. Am. Geogr. 86: 412-31.
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
postindustrial transformation of the United States and Canada? What are its impact on the human geography of this realm?
The term "postindustrial transformation" can be thought of as the alteration of an area in response to an ending of the age of industry. This postindustrial age is dominated by the production and manipulation of information, technology, and highly skilled workers. This age indicates that the area manufactures and operates on a global scale, rather than retaining a framework of regional business interactions. The transformation that occurs in this postindustrial age is one in which new business and regions emerge, while older businesses and regions attempt to reinvent their concepts and ideas to appeal to the new global market. These alterations to human geography are accompanied by an alteration of the use of space, since technology advancements create the possibility of new ways to create and sustain space.
In terms of…
Girhard, S. (2005). Chapter 2: Europe. Retrieved October 8, 2005 from Alamo Community College database. Web site: http://www.accd.edu/sac/earthsci/sgirhard/1303.090/chap2.htm.
Lehner, B. (2003). Europe's Hydropower Potential Today and in the Future. Retrieved October 8, 2005 from the Institute for Applied Technologies database. Web site: http://www.iset.uni-kassel.de/abt/w3-w/projekte/europes_hydropower_bernhard.pdf.
Rodriguez, F. (2005). North America: The Post Industrial Transformation. Retrieved October 8, 2005 from Delmar College. Web site: http://www.delmar.edu/socsci/Faculty/Rodriguez/pptlecture/PPTLECNAM.htm .
Vershbow, A. (2003). The Reflections of the U.S. Ambassador to Moscow on the U.S.-Russian Partnership. Retrieved October 8, 2005 from Center for Defense Information. Web site:
Poverty Income Inequality and Female Labor Market Participation
1.1. Problem Statement
Today's global inequality and poverty is an outcome of two successive centuries of unequal progress, and eradication remains one of the greatest global challenges. The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) identified that 22 percent of the world population (1.3 billion people) live with multi-dimensional poverty, with 42 percent living in Sub Saharan Africa and 41 percent living in South Asia. Every multidimensionally poor person is deprived of multiple poverty indicators which include health, education, and standards of living indicators, which include cooking fuel, drinking water, sanitation, electricity, housing, and asset ownership (UNDP, 2020). The different levels of poverty and income inequality are a manifestation of differences in gender labor participation. According to the International Labor Organization estimates, the women labor force participation rate of 49% is disproportionately lower than the men labor force participation rate of 75% and…
Cipollone, A., Patacchini, E., & Vallanti, G. (2014). Female labor market participation in Europe: novel evidence on trends and shaping factors. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-9012-3-18
ILO. (2016). Global Gender Gap Report. In Encyclopedia of Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119085621.wbefs350
ILO. (2017). World Employment Social Outlook. In Report. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_579893.pdf
Ntuli, M. (2014). Determinants of South African Women\\\\' s Labour Force Participation, 1995- IZA DP No . 3119 Determinants of South African Women\\\\' s Labour Force Participation, 1995 – 2004 Miracle Ntuli October 2007 Forschungsinstitut Institute for the Study of Labor. November 2007, 1995–2004.
OECD. (2019). Measuring the impact of social protection on inclusive growth. In Can Social Protection Be an Engine to Inclusive Growth (pp. 21–37). OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/a43dc9c3-en
Raihan, S., & Jahan, I. (2018). How Does Social Protection Affect Labor Force Participation in Bangladesh? South Asia Economic and Policy Studies. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2071-2_8
UNDP. (2020). Charting pathways out of multi-dimensional poverty?: Achieving the SDGs. 1–52. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2020_mpi_report_en.pdf
Jews Without Money and the Mumbai Slums
Michael Gold's 1930 "Jews without Money" is a clear example that history does not only repeat itself but creates a certain pattern out of which human kind cannot be taken out and redirected to another path. Taking the topic from Gold's book and comparing it to current cases of other slums throughout the globe, it can be said that the conditions of the poor people have not changed throughout the decades and even more, despite the international development, the discrepancies between the rich and the poor are constantly increasing.
The present research takes into account the way in which the living conditions of people in the slums of Mumbai (Dharavi) can be compared to the situations to those in "Jews Without Money" by Michael Gold. It is argued that the living conditions are similar, yet for the people living in the slums of…
BBC. Life in a slum. 2014. 23 March 2014 .
Bertaud, Alain. "Mumbai FSI conundrum: The perfect storm: the four factors restricting the construction of new floor space in Mumbai." July 2004. 23 March 2014 .
Gold, Michael. Jews without money. New York: International Publishers, 1930.
Lauter, Paul. Michael Gold. 2014. 23 March 2014 .
Commerce and Its Demographics
The diffusion of ideas and technological impacts that have taken place globally.
Globalization as a phenomenon of economic and cultural connectivity has been growing for centuries, but the current form is of a fundamentally different order (Smith and Doyle 2002). The speed of communication, the complexity and size of the networks involved and the huge volume of trade, interaction and risks involved make up the current and peculiar form. The diffusion of ideas, practices and technologies that occurs within is more than internationalization, universalization, modernization and westernization. Anthony Giddens (1990 as qtd in Smith and Doyle) described today's globalization as "the intensification of worldwide social relations, which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." It has changed the way geography has been traditionally understood and how localness has been experienced. The new…
1. Diao X and Somwaru A. (1996). Dynamic Gains and Losses from Trade Reform: an Intertemporal General Equilibrium Model of the United States and MERCOSUR. University of Minnesota Economic Development Center Bulletin. St. Paul Minneapolis Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics: University of Minnesota.
2. Electric Communities (1995). Commerce and Society in Cyberspace. http://www.crockford.com/ec/commerce_society.html
3. Held, D et al. (1999). Global Transformations. http://www.polity.co.uk/global/executiv.htm
4. Killon, MU. (2005). Chinese Regionalism and the 2004 ASEAN -- China Accord: the WTO and Legalized Trade Distortion. http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/it/papers/0501/0501003.pdf
Poverty and Inequality Among Children
Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).
In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…
1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309307
2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. http://links.jstor.org/sici=0360-0572%281997%2923%3C121%APAIAC%E2.0.C )%3B2-L
3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995. http://pangaea.org/street_children/nameri/poor.htm
4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003. http://www.migrationinformation.com/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=188
Poverty and Homelessness in Children
Poverty is the deficiency in the amount of money or material possessions considered to be acceptable for individuals in a particular country. Among families who are homeless with children 42% of homeless children are under the age of six years old. The majority of homeless families with children cited poverty as the third most common reason for their being homeless. A child is born into poverty every 33 seconds in the United States.
Key professional and community organizations addressing this issue/population: There are several organizations addressing this issue including the U.S. Department of Agriculture with programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Program, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) seeking to provide affordable housing to everyone, the Children's Defense Fund, Voices for America's Children, the National Urban League, and the National Coalition for the Homeless. Local and community-based organizations such as The Salvation Army,…
Poverty & Unemployment
Poverty and unemployment are unquestionably two of the primary scourges that afflict the United States as well as other countries around the world. There are strong ways in which they correlate but they do run the gamut from recessions, offshoring of jobs, industry and employment shifts in the country and so forth. This brief report will explore the links that exist, what is being done about them, what is working and what is not. Even though a sliver of the population will always be unemployed and/or impoverished, it is no less painful to notice and watch when it happens.
The first point to be made about both poverty and unemployment is that there is always going to be at least some of both in the United States. However, the hope is that it is always temporary rather than ongoing and perpetual. Even so, there is a reason…
CBS. (2013). 80% of U.S. adults face near-poverty, unemployment, survey finds. Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 28 July 2016, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/80-percent-of-us-adults-face-near-poverty-unemployment-survey-finds/
Clemens, J. & Wither, M. (2014). The Minimum Wage and the Great Recession: Evidence of Effects on the Employment and Income Trajectories of Low-Skilled Workers. http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w20724
Investopedia. (2016). Full Employment Definition -- Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved 28 July 2016, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/fullemployment.asp
Le Tellier, A. (2013). The human side of poverty: Why poor people make bad decisions. latimes.com. Retrieved 28 July 2016, from http://www.latimes.com/opinion/opinion-la/la-ol-why-poor-people-make-bad-decisions-20131125-story.html
Poverty in the U.S.
Proponents of the "structural" view believe that the most reasons of poverty has innate linkages with economy and its interconnecting institutional practices, which have been bias towards certain segments of the people on the basis of gender, class or race. Work practices most institutions are inclined to maintain numerous hindrances to various segments of the people. Unemployment, median income and calculation of income inequality are considered as structural economic aspects. The impact of unemployment and escalation in median income are written-evidences and their link to poverty is obvious (Jordan, 2004).
As per 2003 statistics, 12.8% persons other than old age people and 17.6% children of the families with incomes lived below the poverty line. In 2003, the poverty rates of men and women were 11.7% and 13.9%, respectively; more probably women were poorer than men. This tiny difference is due to men and women living…
Bernstein, J. (2007, April 27). Is Education the Cure for Poverty? Retrieved from The American Prospect: http://prospect.org/article/education-cure-poverty
Golonka, S., & Hoffman, L. (2008). State Strategies to Reduce Child and Family Poverty. NGA Center for Best Practices.
Hoynes, H., Page, M., & Stevens, A. H. (2006). Poverty in America: Trends and Explanations. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 47-68.
ISFW. (2012, February 23). Poverty eradication and the role for social workers. Retrieved from isfw.org: http://ifsw.org/policies/poverty-eradication-and-the-role-for-social-workers/
Poverty in the U.S.
Poverty is a major variable in the lives of many people in the U.S. The median household income for families in the U.S. is $59,000 (Semega, Fontenot and Kollar)—yet 40.6 million people live in poverty in the U.S., or 12.7% of the population (Semega, Fontenot and Kollar). If poverty were a health issue it would be considered an epidemic. This paper will address the issue of poverty in the U.S. and explain how it is an injustice and how it affects higher education for young people.
Poverty is a socioeconomic issue that impacts everyone—not just the lives of families who directly suffer from it. When communities suffer from poverty, the rest of the world is impacted, too. Employers are impacted because the pool of educated individuals from which they will be able to select their talent shrinks, as most people who grow up in poverty suffer…
Benefits that the poor might gain from poverty tourism is that their situation becomes more understood and thus the possibility for change becomes real. If no one is paying any attention to them (i.e., no poverty tourism) then there is less exposure in the public's eye. Thus, impoverished nations gain the fruits of awareness. They gain the tourism of wealthier individuals and can benefit economically from that perspective. So in one sense, this practice could be seen as exploitive but in another sense, it is natural for one half of the world to want to see how the other half lives, and on a human level it is also natural to want to be noticed.
From the libertarian perspective, personal freedom should allow things like poverty tourism, if individuals choose to spend their time in such a manner. From the liberal perspective, it can seem an insensitive and…
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…
Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a .
John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world
Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from:
The more important someone's rank in society was, the bigger the obligations became and thus, the responsibility increased.
Mesopotamia was a region between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates where the swing of world's first civilization emerged. Various cultures occupied the region and were brought together solely by their customs and religion. Trade came in as the result of agriculture, it brought prosperity and urbanization. The rise of cities led to economic and political developments, one city being conquered by another until the establishment of the first Mesopotamian empire by Sargon that lasted about 150 years until outside powers such as the Hittites (who raided Babylon) gained control over some areas. During the Middle Bronze Age, the Assyrians conquered much of Mesopotamia and, with the rise of the Babylonian dynasty, trade was once again favoured and brought along warfare.
The Alexandrian Empire was favoured by a number of its king's…
CHUCH'S ESPONSIBILITY TO POVETY
The Church's esponsibility to Poverty
The Church's esponsibility to Poverty
The Christian church has a long history of involvement in social issues. The paper discusses what, if any, is the Christian church's responsibility regarding the elimination of poverty and the combating of unjust economic systems. There are many figures throughout Christian history who are known for their generosity and compassion for the poor, most namely Jesus Christ of Nazareth, as well as a number of saints and other notable figures. Therefore, a sense of responsibility toward the poor is a long tradition within Christian culture and in some ways, fundamental to the Christian spirit of giving, and assisting those less fortunate. The paper argues not necessarily that the Christian church has a special role in the combating of poverty, but that it is definitively has a role, which is closely linked to fundamental elements of…
Church Action on Poverty. What We Do. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.church-poverty.org.uk/what-we-do . 2012 October 08.
Christian Churches Together. Statement on Poverty. 2012, Web, Available from: http://christianchurchestogether.org/statement-on-poverty/. 2012 October 08.
Galli, Mark. The Best Ways to Fight Poverty -- Really. 2012, Christianity Today, Web, Available from: http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2012/february/best-ways-to-fight-poverty.html . 2012 October 08.
families are living in poverty. Many of these families are living in such extreme conditions that they cannot afford even such basic needs as food for every meal. Living and growing up in such conditions affects every area of life and ultimately the country as a whole. The escalation of poverty among families create tremendous challenges for children. It can negatively impact a growing child's mental and physical health, for example. Such conditions also affect education. A child suffering from chronic mental or physical conditions related to poverty cannot receive optimal educational opportunities. Ultimately, such a child will not be able to contribute to the economy of the country or arrange his or her own well-being in the world. This, in turn, creates further burdens for the country's welfare system. For this reason, it is important to study the contributing factors to poverty in the country in order to find…
Aratani, Y. (2009, Sep.) Homeless Children and Youth: Causes and Consequences. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from: http://nccp.org/publications/pub_888.html
Ascend (2011, March 29). Two Generations, One Future: A Roundtable. Aspen Institute. Retrieved from: http://ascend.aspeninstitute.org
The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. (2012, March). Supporting Homeless Young Children and Their Parents. Retrieved from: http://www.familyhomelessness.org/media/327.pdf
David, DH, Gelberg, L. And Suchman, N.E. (2012, Jan-Feb). Implications of Homelessness for Parenting Young Children: A Preliminary Review from a Developmental Attachment Perspective. Infant Mental Health Journal 33(1). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3370681/
Poverty among Afro Americans
America has always been at the top in the counting of developed countries all over the world. In the past 50 years, the rate of poverty has somehow declined but one can say that it is only for a specified circle of society (Carrillo, 2012). The poverty rate fluctuated around 22.4% to 15.11% in the past 50 years (Iceland, 2012). Although the ratio has decreased but it's a considerable rate for country like USA. Here the question which is under consideration is the poverty rate of those Africans who have been living there for a very long time but they are the most under privileged community of this society as depicted by the researches and reports every year.
The report of Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage stated that 27.4% of Africans are living even below poverty line (Iceland, 2012). Afro-Americans also named as…
Carrillo, K.J. (2012). African-American History Day by Day. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Ellis, C.M., & Carlson, J. (2012). Cross Cultural Awareness and Social Justice in Counseling. Newyork: Taylor & Francis.
Iceland, J. (2012). Poverty in America . Berkeley: University of California Press.
Polednak, A.P. (1997). Segregation, Poverty, and Mortality in Urban African-Americans. New York: Oxford University Press.
Abortion to Poverty
Poverty and Abortion
The elation of Poverty to Abortion
Advancements in globalization in the current century, and the technological advancements, the globe has experienced drastic changes in terms of the culture and social related issues. People in both developed and developing states are changing their conservativeness and embracing new ideas. Awareness is being realized and the levels of literacy are gradually increasing. Information on life and its importance are clearer compared to the past, where people where not exposed. Due to this, there are heated debates on the issues of abortion in the society. This paper will analyze the situation in which poverty is affecting abortion, and how poor women's lives are implicated. Policies that assist to counter these issues are also discussed critically.
Scientific researches and innovation has been highest in the 21st century. Scientists are aiming at bettering the human life. However, the proposals…
Djerassi, C. (1986). Abortion in the United States: Political or Policy? Bulleting of the Atomic Scientists, 42(4), 38-41.
Kimport, K., Foster, K. & Weitz, T.A. (2011). Social Sources of Women's Emotional Difficulty after Abortion: Lessons from Women's Abortion Narrative. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 43(2), 103-109.
Levine, B.P. (2004). Abortion Policies and the Economics of Fertility. Society, 41(4), 79-85.
MacNair, R. (2012 June 6). Poverty and Abortion. Retrieved from www.consistent-life.org/povertyabortion.pdf
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…
Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology
Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.
Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.
Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, eeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.
A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…
Jeanine B. et al. Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries Journal of Comparative
Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 188-189
Katsiaouni, O. & Gorniak, J. (2001). Globalization and rural poverty in transition economies.
Paper for Expert Group Meeting on Globalisation and Poverty Reduction: Can th Rural Poor Benefit from Globalisation? organised by Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations, 8-9 November 2001, New York.
As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.
Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…
Bureau of Labor Education (BLE). (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The University of Maine.
Childress, M. (2010). Poverty is on the Upswing, but Metric is Out of Date. The Washington Independent.
Cockerham, W.C. (2004). Medical Sociology and Sociological Theory. The Backwell Companion to Medical Sociology.
Consumer Reports (CR). (2008). High Health Care Costs. Consumer Reports Health.org.
Smith, Goldsmith Blakely observe ' burden poverty falls heavily women children disproportionately African-Americans Latinos/Hispanics' (pg.
The issue of poverty in the United States is not merely an issue of economic shortcomings of the system or a lack of coordination at the level of the state in terms of ensuring a proper social welfare protect system. Poverty in America, such as in any other democratic and complex state, depends on a multitude of factors that mix and provide an important shortcoming that in turn affects the lives of millions of people throughout the world and in the U.S. alike.
The combination of factors is varied and depending on the way in which these factors combine, they affect certain parts of the society. In the case of the United States there is a clear recognition of the fact that women, children, African-Americans and Latinos / Hispanics are more prone and vulnerable to…
Goldsmith, William W. And Edward J. Blakely. Separate Societies: Poverty and Inequality in U.S. Cities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010.
Smith, Anne Marie. Welfare Reform and Sexual Regulation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Cure" for Poverty?
With most unskilled labor jobs in America paying no more that six or seven dollars an hour, there will never be an end to poverty. In all actuality, it doesn't matter is someone researches the subject for ten years, goes to college for ten more years to receive degrees in psychology, sociology, marketing and business, the simple truth to the matter is that there will never be an end to poverty. In the book, "We the Poor People: Work, Poverty, and Welfare,"
Joel F. Handler explains that in the every changing world where rent, food, gas and groceries are constantly on the rise, and wages are relatively remaining the same, the possibility of ending poverty is, straight and to the point, nil. (Joel F. Handler "We the Poor People: Work, Poverty, and Welfare," 143)
One of the reason it is so hard for a family to remain…
Joel F. Handler (October 1997)We the Poor People: Work, Poverty, and Welfare, 143
Andrew Solomon, (June 2001), "The Noonday Demon," 187
Rebecca Blank, (February, 1997), "It Takes a Nation: A New Agenda for Fighting Poverty," Princeton University Press, 54
Kate Kahan and Leandra Lipson, (July 2000), WEEL Journal, "Working for Equality and Economic Liberation" Self Published. 14
American Mother's Living In Poverty
Welfare reform in the United States has been hailed as a great success, reducing the number of people on the welfare rolls from 4.4 million in 1996 to 2.1 million in 2001. But these figures hide the suffering of the multitude of American women who are living on or below the national poverty line. In this paper we will challenge the argument that the welfare reform initiative is 'working' and suggest instead that according to credible sources women are in fact penalized by the very system that has been put in place to 'help' them.
The United States Census bureau shows how the 'poverty threshold" is calculated each year. This figure is a dollar amount that the department has determined is what is required for a number of people living together. The two main characteristics of the threshold formula are the size of a family…
For Crying Out Loud: Women's Poverty in the United States. Eds. Diane Dujon and Ann Withorn. Boston: South End Press, 1996.
Hays, Sharon. Flat Broke with Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Katz, Michael. The Undeserving Poor: From the War on Poverty to the War on Welfare. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.
Children in poverty are "...behind the eight ball from the moment of conception. Fewer of the marginalized children will develop to the full measure of their potential or acquire advanced intellectual competencies and academic skills that are clearly ahead of the norm for their age." (Kitano, 2003, p.2)
The work of rooks-Gunn and Duncan (1997) stated conclusions that the "...negative effects of poverty on IQ and achievement tests are more pronounced for children who experience poverty during the preschool and early school years and, especially, for children who live in extreme poverty or for multiple years. However, the effects of poverty on school attainment (years of schooling completed), while statistically significant, are small. "It is not yet possible to make conclusive statements regarding the size of the effects of poverty on children's long-term cognitive development." (as cited in Kitano, 2003, p.3)
It is stated to be held by some researchers…
Ayoub, Catherine, et al. (2009) Cognitive Skill Performance Among Young Children Living in Poverty: Risk, Change, and the Promotive Effects of Early Head Start. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 1 Apr 2001.
B.J. Casey, Jay N. Giedd, and Kathleen M. Thomas, "Structural and Functional Brain Development and Its Relation to Cognitive Development," Biological Psychiatry 54, nos. 1-3 (2000).
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children: Children and Poverty, 7(2), 55-71.
Kitano, M.K. (2003) Gifted Potential and Poverty: A Call for Extraordinary Action. Journal for the Education of the Gifted. Vol. 26, No. 4, 2003, pp. 292-303. Online available at: http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/papers/Kitano.pdf
It is interesting to note that business and financial planners as well as insurance programs are beginning to address the financial problems the individual faces following a divorce of the death of their spouse. These are factors that any individual should receive truthful and candid counseling on from those in the position to relate this information such as attorneys, bankers, insurance agents, and other business and financial professionals in today's society.
With some good advice and proper planning it is very possible for many, if not all women who go through a divorce or who lose their spouse to death to make plans for their retirement and their lives following divorce to mitigate some of the difficulties presently being experienced by these individuals and ultimately to lay a firm financial foundation for their future and thereby avoiding a descent into a life of poverty.
lock, Sandra (2000) Golden Years…
Block, Sandra (2000) Golden Years Bleak for Divorcees. MONEY Magazine. Cover Story -- Smart Marriages. 8 Aug 2000. Online available at: http://lists101.his.com/pipermail/smartmarriages/2000-August/000277.html
Collie, Jan (1999) D.I.V.O.R.C.E? I.N.S.U.R.E! The Independent. 2 Oct 1999. Online available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/money/insurance/divorce-insure-743371.html
Gadalla, Tahany M. (2008) Gender Differences in Poverty Rates After Marital Dissolution: A Longitudinal Study. Sept 2008.
Cheal, David J. (1996) New Poverty: Families in Postmodern Society. Greenwood Publishing Group 1996.
psychological impact) of poverty and the solutions to the problem of poverty described in some of the stories covered in this course.
There is much controversy about poverty, given that it was, is, and most probably will be one of the most terrible things that ever existed. People are known to perform exceptional acts as a result of their low social status, especially when they acknowledge the fact that their condition is desperate and that they have to care for their families. Individuals who experience financial breakdowns experience great difficulties in trying to behave normally, given that poverty affects people both physically and mentally. Some actually come to perform desperate acts with the purpose of getting even the smallest amount of resources. There are numerous cases in which people abandoned their lifelong ideals and decided that it was essential for them to do whatever they could in order to…
Dun, Mao "Spring Silkworms"
Shia, Rou, "Slave Mother"
Shuli, Zhao "Lucky"
Zuxiang Wu "Let there be peace"