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For many people, the diversity of world religions is a reminder of the vast differences between the different people of the world and their various cultural experiences. However, while many people focus on the differences between the world's religious traditions, what is more fascinating is the incredible overlap between the various world religions and the moral and ethical traditions that have developed under the auspices of those religions. Despite the various differences, there are certain moral and ethical norms that seem consistent across cultures and religious traditions. Furthermore the major world religions, particularly the Abrahamic religions, share similar approaches to the idea of the divine and to the nature of the relationship between man and God. In this paper, the author will look at how religion guides and shapes judgment on several modern issues, in an attempt to explain those different religious perspectives, not in the historical context…
Anonymous. (2010). Other religions. The Humanist, 70 A (1), 16-19.
Ciomos, V. (2010). The deterritorialization of human rights. Journal for the Study of Religions
and Ideologies, 9 (25), 17-27.
Graafland, J. (2008). Christian perspectives on the market. Zeitschrift fur Wirtschafts- und
Taoism is another ancient religion practiced within Eastern Asia. It shares beliefs and practices with Confucianism and is mainly practiced in various parts of China. It is a polytheistic religion that has a wide variety of gods within its spiritual arsenal. Like Hinduism, Taoism is a name that covers a wide variety of smaller religious sects that can be found in various parts of China and its neighboring countries, although the basic principles are the same (Hansen 1). Also known as Daoism, it is derived from the phrase "the path," or "the way." Its philosophy depends on three major conceits, or the "Three Jewels of the Tao," which are practicing elements of compassion, moderation, and humility (Hansen 1). Part of the principle of compassion is the idea of non-violence within everyday life. This means following a peaceful existence no matter what life throws at you. Human behavior is then guided…
Aiken, Charles Francis. "Jainism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 21 Oct. 2009. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08269b.htm
Brar, Sandeep Singh. "Sikh Religious Philosophy." The Sikhism Home Page. Retrieved 20 Oct 2009 at http://www.sikhs.org/philos.htm
Dahmmika, Ven S. "A Basic Buddhism Guide: 5-Minute Introduction." Buddha Net. Retrieved 20 Oct 2009 at http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/5minbud.htm
Glaser, Ida. The Bible and Other Truths. IVP Academic Press. 2006.
World eligions eport
Judaism (Introduction, Worship Site eview, Interview, Comparison/Contrast with Christianity)
This report explores one of the most important Abrahamic religions, Judaism.
In this report, a detailed introduction of Judaism has been given in the first part. Judaism is one of the oldest religions with distinct and unique holy texts. Despite the less number of followers, it has been divided into several branches. This report also contains a description of its branches; eform, Orthodox, Conservative and econstructionist.
The next section contains the summary of an interview of our community priest. Later, I have included the site review of a famous Jewish temple in Hawaii, Temple Emanu-El.
The last section contains the comparison and contrast of Judaism and Christianity.
Judaism is one of the top 10 most famous religions of the world. It is followed and practiced by Jews scattered all over the world. They are present in…
, . (). Judaism. Retrieved (2011, April 11) from http://www.world-faiths.com/Judaism/judaism.htm
, . (2011, April 12). Welcome to TEMPLE EMANU-EL. Retrieved from http://shaloha.com/index.cfm ?.
De lange, Nicholas. 2000. An introduction to Judaism ., Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105530282 .
M. Wise, Dr. Isaac. 1883. Judaism and Christianity, their agreements and disagreements ., Retrieved from http://americanjewisharchives.org/wise/attachment/5194/judaismAndChristianity.pdf .
This also contrasts sharply with idealistic notions within strict doctrines of the Orthodox faith suggesting that faith and God are defined and not subject to interpretation. One may look into themselves to find compassion and strength, but those qualities must come from God if one views themselves as having what Chirban (1996) refers to as a "vertical relationship with God" (p. 3).
It seems agreed on "universally" among Unitarians that all are one and all human beings are interrelated with each other; whereas within the Orthodox faith all human beings are linked less by spiritual consciousness than they are by their relationship with God. Orthodox services thus focus more on worshipping and giving recognition to all that God has done and can do for humankind. This contrasts with a typical Unitarian view and Universalist service, which would encourage one to tap into their spiritual consciousness by engaging others and identifying…
Chirban, J.T. (1996). Orthodox Christianity and the connection between the body, mind, and soul. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.
Foothills Unitarian Universalist Church. (2006). (online). Retrieved 15, May, 2007, from Foothills Unitarian Church: http://www.foothillsuu.org/
Unitarian Universalist belief structure. (S.K. Maroney, personal email and interview. 13, (May, 2007).
Christians believe at increasing the followers of their faith such that everyone in the world would have one religion. Buddhists on the other hand follow the rule of impermanence which would lead to Buddhism fading out like every other worldly object. They are however anticipating the reappearance of an individual who can achieve enlightenment similar to the Buddha and reignite a religion with the same belief system. ("Comparison of")
Christianity and Buddhism share some basic similarities in the way they treat others, their general rules of behavior and in the themes of justice. Both religions explore beyond the mortal life. They teach its followers how to demonstrate selfless love which is not limited to the friends or family but spreads to the enemies as well, regardless of what they might have done. The state of being selfless is supposed to have the power to change the mind and can even…
Fisher, M.P (2005) Living Religions (pp. 130-175) Prentice-Hall.
Basics of Buddhism. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/edens/thailand/buddhism.htm
Grow. G (1996) Buddhism -- a Brief Introduction for Westerners . Retrieved from http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow/Buddhism.html
An introduction to Buddhism .Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html
eligion in the Modern World
eligion Modern World
eligion is something that is as old as man. It means "almost everything because religions deal with the whole of human life -- and death" (Bowker 2006). Since the beginning of mankind, individuals have searched themselves and others, contemplated the universe and all its elements, and religions are what were formed through these personal and public explorations. But what exactly are religions? What does it mean to be a religious person? Bowker (2006) states that the most modern term today for religions is "communities of people who share practices and beliefs (often in God or gods), who gather in special buildings for worship and meditation, and who live in special ways in the world." It is estimated that over three-quarters of the world's population consider themselves to belong to a religion, whether or not they decide to practice or not (2006). Judaism,…
Bowker, John. (2006). World religions: the great faiths explored and explained. DK
Breuilly, Elizabeth., O'Brien, Joanne., & Palmer, Martin. (2005). Religions of the world:
the illustrated guide to origins, beliefs, traditions & festivals. Checkmark Books;
I was too proud to heed my wife's warning. But I dared not go against the opinion of my mother and my eldest brother. Nevertheless I pleaded with them saying, 'I know he has the weaknesses you attribute to him, but you do not know his virtues. He cannot lead me astray, as my association with him is meant to reform him. For I am sure that if he reforms his ways, he will be a splendid man. I beg you not to be anxious on my account. 'I do not think this satisfied them, but they accepted my explanation and let me go my way. I have seen since that I had calculated wrongly. A reformer cannot afford to have close intimacy with him whom he seeks to reform.
Through this simple example Gandhi expresses his own humility, for accepting a friendship that he was warned against, accepting his…
Gandhi, M.K. Gandhi's Autobiography the Story of My Experiments with Truth. Trans. Mahadev Desai. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press, 1948.
Neihardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska press, 1988.
Ten Boom, Corrie. The Hiding Place. New York: Barbour Publishing, 2000.
M.K. Gandhi, Gandhi's Autobiography the Story of My Experiments with Truth, trans. Mahadev Desai (Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press, 1948) 18.
Another facet of the Buddhist doctrine that is often attacked is the opposing elements of helping others come to Buddhism while the rest of the religion preaches a strong support for evading society. Doing both is quite difficult, as one cannot help other people come to Buddhism and cultivate their minds if they are not even a part of society where there are people to support (Confucian esponses to Buddhism throughout Chinese History, 2010).
The escapist, anti-social, and nihilistic attitude was at the forefront of the Confucian response to Buddhist predominance in Chinese society. Confucians found that many Buddhist clergymen were preaching that the mind must be free of all secular commitment and influence in order to become free from the sanctions of civilization and exemplify the ultimate Buddhist form, nirvana. This is in direct contrast with Confucian ideas that urge that people should learn from the world, react with…
Ancient Eastern Philosophy on the Ancient Wisdom of Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism & Confucianism. (2010). Retrieved August 20, 2010, from Web site:
Confucian Responses to Buddhism Throughout Chinese History. (2010). Retrieved from Web
As always throughout his book, whenever analyzing the past and the events of the past, the focus quickly transfers to the future. When discussing the interaction between the Neanderthal and the Homo Sapiens, the transition immediately goes to looking into the past and in understanding that the human individual is sometimes unlikely to make any compromises in his search for progress. One can also better understand the ruthlessness of the human specie and understand the risk to which other species can be subjected to.
The look in the past also gives very obvious and interesting aspects of civilizations that disappeared because of reasons we may encounter in the future for our own civilization. The Sumerians, for example, disappeared because they had consumed all the resources that were supporting their civilization. One can obviously wonder whether this is not something that could also occur in our own times. With progress, often…
1. Wright, Ronald. A Short History of Progress. Toronto: Anansi. 2004
Wright, Ronald. A Short History of Progress. Toronto: Anansi. 2004
Take as an example the philosophy behind the religions Hinduism and Buddhism. Hinduism, which originated from this period in India, subsists to the belief that harmony should be achieved between humanity and nature and human beings with other human beings. Similarly, a collectivist approach towards achieving spiritual meaning in life is adopted by Buddhists, who believe that a life of compassionate giving is better than satisfying the worldly needs of the self. Philosophical thinking in the West, on the other hand, mostly deals with the pursuit of self-satisfaction and happiness. Epicureanism teaches individuals to achieve happiness by eliminating the fears and limits that people put into their lives; skepticism, meanwhile, posits that knowledge and truth cannot be truly achieved in the 'material world' that we live in -- it is only in achieving a higher state of understanding that an individual can truly achieve satisfaction, truth and knowledge in life.…
Byzantine and the Islamic Empires
The decline of the oman Empire gave birth to new political formations that had a tremendous impact upon the world at large. Out of this disintegration emerged three new political formations, such as the Eastern oman Empire, the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic empires. These different regimes had steady economic and intellectual contact with one another and both the Byzantine and Islamic empires impacted the west and western culture.
The Byzantine Empire bore its name from the surviving eastern half of the oman Empire and the people among it considered themselves oman. However, Greek remained an incredibly strong influence on the Byzantine Empire as did Christianity. Christianity continued to wage a massive influence on this empire, one which was readily apparent in the artwork of the period (Cunningham & eich, 166). eligion had a massive influence on Byzantine life as all Byzantine holidays were religious…
Cunningham, L.S. And J.J. Reich. Culture And Values: A Survey of the Humanities. New York: Wadsworth, 2005.
Metmuseum.org. Byzantium and Islam: An Age of Transition. 14 March 2012. 2014
NYTimes.com. 'Byzantium and Islam'. 2012. July 2014
Christian Attitude to Other World Religions -- a Five-Paragraph Essay of the Paradoxes of Tolerance and Intolerance
Christianity is, in many ways, a peculiar religion. Its early history is a series of paradoxes and its attitude towards other religions of the world continues to be paradoxical to this day. Christianity began as a subsidiary sect of Judaism. Eventually, Christianity became a religion predominantly composed of gentiles. The Christian religion began as a Messianic response to the institutions of Roman control and the Roman Empire. Later, the Christian religion was taken up as the official religion of Rome, after the revelation of the cross to the Emperor Constantine. Christianity began as a sect of a national religion, the Hebraic Israeli-based Judaism of Jesus. It eventually evolved into a portable (particularly in its Protestant incarnation) religion 'of the book,' a religion of many nations, and catholic in spirit (in the sense of…
Self in orld Religions
Although religion is primarily a social activity -- even the most solitary and mystical of religious practitioners require an existing creed subscribed to by other people -- to a certain degree religion is required to define the self. In practice, the religious conception of selfhood can work in a number of ways -- either by setting limits to acceptable thought and behavior by the self by establishing doctrine or taboo, or else by defining the nature of that self in terms of those essential characteristics which relate specifically to religious practice (as in religions which hold to concepts of the soul or of an afterlife). From this standpoint it is worth surveying the concept of self in the various non-estern religions -- Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Shintoism -- to examine how they contribute to, or define, the self.
It is worth noting at the outset…
"Confucius." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. Accessed at: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/
Hsu, Sung-Peng. "Lao Tzu's Conception of Evil." Philosophy East and West 26:3 (July 1976). Print.
Soccio, Douglas. Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009. Print.
Strong, Dawson Melanchthon (translator). The Udana. London: 1902. Web. Accessed 14 April 2012 at: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/udn/udn5.htm
Moreover the 'diyya' or blood money stipulated for killing or mutilating of a man was stopped. However, whipping as a punishment for theft and added offences remained in its applicability in local courts. (Pitaszewicz, 87)
Hence till 1960, the Alkali Courts applied the Sharia also in penal cases fulfilling the changes and bans launched by the British. Prior to the declaration of independence, the British signed a negotiation with Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Prime Minister of Northern Nigeria that resulted in approving of the Penal Code that continues to be valid today also. A catalogue of 20 criminal actions and its corresponding sanctions were created. It covered actions recognized by the Sharia as penalties imposed with particularly serious punishments. Punishments that lack humanitarian aspects such as limb amputation for theft, stoning to death for adultery, decapitation for killings and others have been changed with the sanctions from the British Penal…
Arlandson, James. Top ten reasons why Sharia is bad for all societies. November, 2007. http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/08/top_ten_reasons_why_sharia_is.html
Banville, Lee. Sharia Law and Nigeria. 5 April, 2007. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/africa/nigeria/sharia.html
Din, Stella. Nigerian Women speak out. January, 2003. http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/nigeria/voice04.html
Feldner, Yotam. Honor Murders -why the Perps get off easy. Middle East Quarterly, vol. 7, no. 4, Dec, 2000. pp: 26-30.
There is no world religion that doesn't speak of and teach love, but each has its own approach to love. Christianity, for instance, distinguishes itself from all other religions as the one most emphasizing love. The foremost symbol of Christianity is Christ on the cross, Christ as the incarnation of God, who loved us so much that He 'died for our sins.' The God who revealed himself on the Cross as the God of love demands love of God, of every neighbor, and of God's whole creation -- even our enemies. This God descended into our world in order to save us: "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life." (John 3, 16). Jesus Christ is "the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world" (John 1,29).
Confucius. The Analects of Confucius: A New Millennium Translation. David Lee, Ed. Premier Pub Co (1999)
Easwaran, Eknath. The Upanishads. Nilgiri Press (1987)
Elman, Benjamin A; Duncan, John B.; Oorns, Herman. Rethinking Confucianism: Past and Present in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. UCLA Asian Pacific Monograph Series (2002)
Lewis, C.S. Mere Christianity. Harper San Francisco (2001).
religion is challenging because religion has psychological, sociological, historical, and political dimensions. Moreover, the great diversity of the world's religions warrants an expansive and flexible definition. Features that religions generally share in common include the presence of a cogent belief system that may or may not be codified in written scripture, and which usually includes an oral dimension as well. A sense of community and culture usually develops around a religion, creating shared norms, values, and worldviews that are tangentially or directly related to the core tenets of the religion itself. The presence of myths, allegories, and other stories are considered integral to the concept of religion. Myths may be cosmological in nature, explain the creation or purpose of life, or may be instructional as for instilling moral values and ethical behaviors in community members. By extension, ethical guidelines tend to be keynotes of religions worldwide. Other aspects that can…
Buswell, R.E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Gacl.
Molloy, M. (2012). Experiencing the World's Religions. McGraw-Hill.
Swatos, W.H. (n.d.). Pilgrimage. Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Retrieved online: http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/Pilgrigmage.htm
An Eclectic Path
Although Manly P. Hall is hardly a household word, nor the Philosophical Research Society he helped to found, he was clearly instrumental in showcasing the value of comparative religions. Now that the entire world is interconnected via new media, aware of the vast array of beliefs and religions that characterize human societies, it is more important than ever to recognize the value of people like Manly P. Hall.
Hall cultivated deep respect for a multitude of world religions, albeit within the normative prejudices of his cultural and historical milieu. Hall and his colleagues in the early twentieth century laid the foundation for the New Age spiritual movement that flourished several decades later. At the time, Hall’s beliefs incorporated almost every religious tradition under the sun, including those that would not have even qualified as religion but more as occult such as using Tarot cards for their symbolic…
Hall, Manly P. The Lost Keys of Freemasonry. Fourth Revised Edition. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2012.
Hall, Manly P. The Secret Teachings of All Ages. Perennial Press, 2015.
Horowitz, Mitch. “Secret Teachings Reborn: The Mysterious Life of Manly P. Hall.” New Dawn, Vol. 96, https://www.newdawnmagazine.com/articles/secret-teachings-reborn-the-mysterious-life-of-manly-p-hall
The Manly P. Hall Archive. “Manly P. Hall.” http://www.manlyphall.org/
Philosophical Research Society. “Manly P. Hall,” 2015. https://www.uprs.edu/manly-p-hall.html
Sahagun, Louis. Master of the Mysteries. Port Townshend, WA: Process Media, 2008.
Rodney L. Taylor, 'The Religious Character of the Confucian Traditions'
• Confucianism calls into question the definition of religion.
• Confucianism is commonly treated differently from other religious traditions, because it is more about social harmony, ethics, and comportment than about theology.
• All religions address ethics, morality, and social codes, and so does Confucianism. Then why is Confucianism not called a religion?
• The main reason is that Confucianism "lacks a concept of the transcendent," (p. 80)
• Is a concept of the transcendent a necessary part of the definition of a religion? No.
• It is a "western" assumption that a religion is defined by an overt reference to the transcendent.
• Buddhism and Taoism lack formal concepts of deities like those in Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity but are nevertheless relatively indisputably considered religious traditions.
• Moreover, Confucian writings are not typically referred to as "scripture," even though…
Both faiths ascribe to a heaven and a hell, belief in angels and the devil. Moreover, Islam and Christianity teach against crimes against humanity to include violence, gambling, adultery, lying, theft and murder. Both teach that children are to respect their parents and husbands and wives are to be respected. Both Islam and Christianity teach against same sex marriage, homosexuality, fornication, and vulgarism. Both teach of modesty in presentation to the rest of the world. Observation of societal laws is also important to believers in Islam and Christianity (Asad 60).
Islam and Christianity both believe in zakat or charity; extending one's self to those less fortunate. Both traditions teach fasting as a way of getting closer to God as well as enhancing each individual's God like qualities. Despite recent extremist practices by some Muslims, both Islam and Christianity are faiths based on a tradition of peace (Asad 103). Although…
Asad, Talal. Formations of the secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity.2003. Web.
Games, Alex & Victoria Coren. Balderdash and Piffie. One Sandwich short of a dog's dinner. (2007): 143-144.
Goddard, Hugh. Christian-Muslim Relations: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. International Journal for the study of the Christian church, 3.2 (2003): 1-14.
Lowenthal, Kate. The psychology of religion: a short introduction. 2000. Web
I agreed with Paul's perspective that the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual and cannot be fully understood by the human mind. I also believe that following death, Christians will not experience a physical rebirth, but expect to live an immortal, spiritual life in heaven. Paul's perspective encourages rebirth as a spiritual phenomenon. I think this belief closely ties with the second view of the resurrection, which is the resurrection occurred only in the imagination or faith of those closest to Jesus. Paul believes the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual, and liberates Christians from death by promising an immortal life in the likeness of Jesus. I feel there is a strong psychological element to this belief that can be explained as faith and the hope for death to not be the end of existence. Paul's point-of-view explains death is not an ending, but the beginning of immortal life. I agree with…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 169-179. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 139-152. Print.
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
Religions and Development
It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.
The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…
Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa
Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:
Probe Ministries International
Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
(40) The foundation of the story demonstrates the social pull of religion as a way of life, that is inclusive, despite its obvious contradictions to the modern world, belief systems and economy. In a sense the social desire to fit in and be seen as different are met by the acceptance of the church as a lifestyle. According to Durkheim, "Deep down, no religion is false.... Each in its own way is true, for each answers given conditions of human life."
Blend et al. 30)
Max eber also committed a great deal of his life and scholarship to the sociology of religion, affirming repeatedly that religion must exist to transform society into a moral society, rather than one that meets the conditions of the natural instincts of man, being amoral in the sense that they are often simply self serving, yet he also reiterated the importance of studying the ways…
Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.
Sharlet, Jeff, "Through a Glass, Darkly: How the Christian Right is Reimagining U.S. History" 33-43.
Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
Wood, Richard L. Introduction to Politics and Religion
Religions of the Far East are often clumped into a monolithic entity, perceived as essentially alike by those not familiar with the complexity and individuality of these traditions. Closer examination, however, shows that the major religions with roots in the Far East demonstrate a wide variety of beliefs. The tendency to group them under the heading of "Eastern religion" alone does not allow for the different histories, beliefs, and practices of these traditions. This tendency, however, has some validity in that Eastern belief systems do share many characteristics. In this essay, I will explain the basic precepts, including similarities of, differences in, and the relationship between three major Eastern traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.
First, I will give a basic overview of the three belief systems, exploring their histories and general precepts . Then, I will explore the specific beliefs which these faiths share, as well as the beliefs which…
Edwards, L., 2001. A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Esposito, J., Fasching, D., and Lewis, T., 2002. World Religions Today. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hopfe, L. And Woodward, M., 2001. Religions of the World, 8th ed.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Sharma, A., 1993. Our Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers.
This book, written from a scholarly viewpoint by professors of religion, looks at the dynamics of seven major religious traditions and how those traditions are adapting to the world of globalization.
Rifkin, I. Spiritual Perspectives on Globalization: Making Sense of Economic and Cultural Upheaval. Woodstock, VT: Skylight Paths Publishing. Print.
For author, speaker and journalist Ira Rifkin, globalization is changing how humans live at a very rapid, and sometimes unpredictable, rate. Some of this change revolves around the shift in values from individual cultures and the anger and uncomfortability humans are left with when faced with change. The book, written in lay terms without undue citations, examines Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Baha'i, tribal religions and Protestantism to explain how each view the economic, social and religious aspects of globalism. The major point focuses on how the social constructs that tend to arise out of spirituality can not only enhance…
The work of Chidester explores different types of death, and symbolizes three patterns describing the transcendence of death: ancestral, experiential, and cultural (12). Types of death, and the way death is imagined, can help human beings die in a meaningful way, give life ultimate meaning, and significance (Chidester: 12). The ancestral transcendence represents a type of biological death, meaning this form of transcendence provides a way for the individual to connect with a continuous biological chain of parents and offspring (Chidester: 12). This is significant as the family line is not broken by death; death provides an ongoing continuity of family. The psychological type of death is considered experiential transcendence, and represents "profound and often intense psychological experiences that embrace death in acceptance or ecstasy" (Chidester: 14). Accepting and embracing death signifies death as a psychologically peaceful experience. A third type of death is social, referred to as cultural transcendence,…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-36. Print.
The song "Eleanor Rigby" by The Beatles is a song about loneliness, wanting, and hopelessness. The song begins with the lyric, "Ah, look at all the lonely people." The line is repeated twice and gives an obvious nod to the song's theme of loneliness. The song details Eleanor Rigby's life to embellish her loneliness and her longing for a better life. The first line about Eleanor is, "Eleanor Rigby picks up the rice in the church where a wedding has been/Lives in a dream." This lyric explains Eleanor throwing rice after a wedding ceremony, and dreams of having her own wedding and belonging. She is alone, and wishes for something more from her life. Eleanor Rigby lives her life in isolation, and this is signified by the lyric, "Waits at the window, wearing the face that she keeps in a jar by the door/Who is it for?" Eleanor puts on a mask, "wearing a face," so that no one will be able to tell how lonely and empty she feels. The line, "Who is it for?" suggests, "What's the point? Why bother?" There is a sense of hopelessness. The song departs from The Beatles "pop-rock" sound, and has no drums, guitar, or piano accompaniment. The song only uses string instruments, adding to feeling of loneliness. The absence of other instruments allows for the desperation of the strings to be heard, and the isolation of the strings mimics Eleanor Rigby's isolation. A wish that people might have when they die, as suggested by the song, is to not die alone. The lyric, "All the lonely people/Where do they all belong?" suggests, "Where do the lonely people go?" And if no one is witness to their life, how does one know where the lonely people go? According to the song, Eleanor Rigby did not get this common wish. The lyrics states, "Eleanor Rigby died in the church and was buried along with her name/Nobody came." Eleanor Rigby died alone, and no one attended her funeral. The phrase, "was buried along with her name" refers to her being buried with her memory. She was alone in the world, and there is no one left behind to remember her; there is no memory by which she can continue to live.
In fact the aims of theosophy when it was founded was to "form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color," and also "to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature, religions, and sciences," and also "to investigate the hidden mysteries of nature." (Prothero 197). New Human Potential Movement members have written books but none have penned a book that is recognized as a sacred text or as a key piece of religious dogma.
As an eclectic faith, the New Human Potential Movement has a less rigid code of ethics than most other religions do. Like ceremonial magickal traditions, moral relativism and ambiguity is tolerated. However, there are a few beliefs that are cohesive enough for scholars to define the New Human Potential Movement as a religion rather than as a cult or a simple offshoot of New Ageism. One of…
Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In Religion, Science, and Magic: In Concert and Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In World Religions in America. 4th Edition. Westminster John Knox, 2009.
Prothero, Stephen. "From Spiritualism to Theosophy: 'Uplifting a Democratic Tradition." Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation
Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 197-216.
Identify prejudices and biases in traditional Christian approaches to non-Christian religions, both in general and specifically.
Identify possible objections to Christianity, in terms of theology, ethics, and missiology.
esolve the challenges associated with new era missiology and new era ministry, by developing a comprehensive plan for the future.
Materials: Today's materials will be the same as the previous days.
9:00-9:10: Opening prayer
9:10-11:00: Crash course/review of world religions based on credible source material written from each faith's point-of-view or from a non-biased, scholarly source.
11:00-12:00: Each participant uses his or her personal electronic device or notebook to write down specific areas of concern and possible roadblocks to interfaith dialogue.
1:00-2:00: Share the concerns addressed by each participant openly, engaging in a dialogue of our own. Understanding that our participants are from diverse backgrounds, each will have unique perspectives on multiple faiths. Some will have had first-hand experiences…
Kenneth Cracknell, In Good and Generous Faith: Christian Responses to Religious Pluralism (Pilgrim Press, 2006).
Thus, the adoption of Christianity by these and other European nations created new forms of government and new ways of living a just and moral life.
In contrast, those that practice Judaism, as compared to Christians, tend to be socially and economically liberal and strongly support individual liberties with regard to many societal issues. However, Judaism also reflects "Enlightenment beliefs about the value and sanctity of each individual conscience," meaning that semi-Christian beliefs and practices were adopted by many Jews in Europe as a result of the spread of Enlightenment ideals during the middle years of the 18th century (Parratt, 212).
As compared to Christianity, Islam has played practically no role in the development of Western civilization (except perhaps for the many religious wars between Christianized nations and Islamic nations in the past one thousand years or so), yet in today's modern world, Islam has taken a foothold in many…
Baker, Liva. World Faiths: A Story of Religion. Israel: Abelard & Schuman, 1965.
Eliade, Mircea. The HarperCollins Concise Guide to World Religions. San Francisco:
Gilsenan, Michael. Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Arab World.
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
In both cases, He "is an impersonal force; an indefinable, all-pervading deity. Hinduism recognizes hundreds, even thousands, of lesser gods." (Evangelical.us) the same is true in uddhism, "God is an abstract. In essence, uddhism is an atheistic philosophy." (Evangelical.us) in both Hinduism and uddhism, there are stories of how the divine interacts with humans, but there is no historical proof. Only Christianity has historical proof. Since I am not Asian, I naturally want historical evidence, and I naturally want to follow a religion with a real God who cares about me as a person. Hinduists and uddhists have no sense of self-worth in the scope of the universe. "Humans, as with all living things, are just manifestations of rahman. We have no individual self, or self-worth. The world and everything on it are manifestations of rahman. Sin is committed against oneself, not against God." (Contender Ministries) This idea is opposite…
Christian Response to Hinduism." Apologetics. Contender Ministries. http://www.contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php
Comparitive Religions & Christianity." Bibleone.net. 2004. http://www.bibleone.net/print_SF3.html brief comparison of Mohammed to the founders and leading figures of other major religions."
Support the Fight to Acheive Freedom, Secularism, Human Rights and Democracy in Iran. http://www.pcpages.com/ani/pages/isl/moh-comp.htm
How do we know Christianity is the one true way? http://www.evangelical.us/is-christianity-true.html
Most of the world's religions have many common thoughts and underlying beliefs, including commonalities in beliefs about developing good character and the importance of love and compassion. This essay will attempt to create a new religion (called the Harmony) that is inspired by the commonalities seen in many world religions. Rituals, commandments and beliefs will all be examined, and where applicable, outlined for this new religion.
Stand up comedian George Carlin's comedy routine "Complaints and Grievances" reflects a great many North American's attitudes about faith and sex. The premise of his discussion of the Ten Commandments is that Ten Commandments are an artificially inflated number designed to invoke authority, and that the commandments should be revised down to a minimalist number that are more logical and workable. At the end of his discussion, Carlin gives his list of two commandments. They are, 1) "Thou shalt always be honest and…
Carlin, George. 2001. Complaints and Grievances. Atlantic.
Shreve, Mike. Celebrating Commonalities. The True Light Project. "In Search of the True Light" ©2002 copyright by Mike Shreve. 28 March 2004. http://www.thetruelight.net/commonalities.htm
The Humanistic Faith proposes neither a concept of deity nor a concept of Evil. We allow each individual practitioner to conceive of God in whatever way best suits their personality or cultural environment with the one caveat: that God never suggests that one person or group of people are superior or inferior to any other. Sexism and other social biases will not be tolerated by the Humanistic Faith.
Our rituals are simple but are constructed from a variety of worldwide sources. Influenced by Buddhism, we suggest that our practitioners examine the concept of the Four Noble Truths: the life is suffering, and that all suffering is caused by desire. To understand that pain is an integral part of life is, we believe, the doorway to genuine religious understanding. All living creatures suffer at some point and going through suffering with open eyes and a willing heart can help eliminate many…
Alper, Matthew. The 'God' Part of the Brain. Rogue, 2001.
While the similarities in ethical and theological concepts are great, some differences emerge. For instance, Islam seems to be the more fundamental or faith-based of the two religions, as obinson (2008-1) points often to a liberal branch of Christianity that questions even the very fundamentals of the faith. For instance, while Muslims believe that Jesus was born of a Virgin, even though they do not accept him as the Son of God, liberal Christians do not accept the idea of the virgin birth (obinson, 2008-1). While Christianity has gained its share of criticism, many critics have targeted Islam in the wake of the September 11, 2009 attacks. Many criticize Islam for the concept of Jihad, a term that obinson (2008A) argues is one of the most misunderstood in the religion. Some interpret this term as war against non-believers. Ellian (2008) also criticizes Islam for its inability to accept criticism and…
Ellian, A. (2009). "Criticism and Islam." Retrieved June 10, 2009, from The Wall Street
Journal. Web Site: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120692614173175795.html
Robinson, B.A. (2007). "Comparison of Buddhism and Christianity." Retrieved June 10,
2009, from Religious Tolerance.org. Web Site: http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless.
The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…
Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
Bowker, John Westerdale. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Easwaran, Eknath. The Dhammapada. Petaluma, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1986.
Meeks, Wayne a. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
eligion on Planet Earth
Based on careful observation of the beliefs and practices of people on earth, I can state that human beings are mostly religious people. There are five characteristics that define their religiosity. First, religious people function in groups. They share the same beliefs and perform the same activities as part of their religious activities. Within each group, there is a hierarchy of ranks and people but all people generally identify with the group as a whole.
The second religious characteristic of humans is faith. I have encountered people with different religions. But all of them have faith. Faith involves beliefs in a deity or deities and the existence of supernatural beings called angels and demons. Each religious group believes in it and the group generally agrees upon the fundamentals of faith. The fundamentals are believed to be sacred and are very important for the adherents. The fundamentals…
Johnstone, R.L. (2007) Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion, 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
eligions of ome
Throughout history, religion has been having a major impact on the societies around the world. In the case of the omans, they had numerous religions that were practiced throughout the reign of the empire. To fully understand these ideas requires looking at the chapter titled Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome. This will be accomplished by summarizing the various points and discussing a broad theme from the chapter. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how specific practices from other cultures affected various oman religions.
In Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome, it is talking about the worship of the sun god name Sol. He was a mythological figure that was considered to have the most power among the various oman pagan gods. This is because the omans believed that the sun was a vital…
Sol in the Roman Empire, 1 -- 30.
Beard Mary. Religions of Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Goldhill Simon. Being Greek Under Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2006.
Mary Beard, Religions of Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 167 -- 363.
Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…
Cline, Austin. "Hinduism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/Hinduism_2.htm
"Basics of Buddhism." Retrieved online: http://www.letusreason.org/Buddh1.htm
Freeman, Richard. Interview data received February 21, 2013.
The Heart Sutra. Translated by Kumarajiva and Pevahouse. Retrieved online: http://www4.bayarea.net/~mtlee/heart.txt
And maybe mass suicides are the old way's means of presenting their final argument. "Whether this is truly the case or not, suicides both individual and collective are only going to increase as frenetic technological changes tear apart tradition and destabilize cultures throughout the world."
Mass suicides are a form of protesting against the changing systems of beliefs; a means of escaping the unsatisfactory world around or pathways to heaven, conducted by weak and sometimes ill minds, led by a diabolic genius who has the capability of playing with others' minds. They exploit religious beliefs in order to make a less or more well founded statement.
And religious exploitation towards the advantage of an individual or group of individuals is not a procedure we are strange from. We should however bear in mind that we are beginning to demolish universal values. And after all, what will happen to…
Joost Abraham Maurits Meerloo, Suicide and Mass Suicide, 1962
Mass Suicides in Recent Years, CNN News, March, 1997, http://www.cnn.com/U.S./9703/27/suicide.list/index.html, last accessed on November 15, 2007
Mass Suicides Raise the Question: Why?, CNN News, March 1997, http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9703/27/nfm/suicide.psychology/index.html , last accessed on November 15, 2007
Mass Suicide, Holology Department of Research, http://www.holology.com/suicide.html, last accessed on November 15, 2007
Pilgrimage is a central element in religion. Ancient polytheistic religions like those in Greece and Rome used pilgrimage at certain times of year, often creating massive festivals. hile many pilgrimages have a social dimension, others can be profoundly personal and mystical too. Pilgrimage is inherently difficult, and the travails of the journey are part of the process. It is necessary to undertake pilgrimage as a rite of passage. This is especially true in Islam, in which hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars. There are several elements of religious pilgrimage, including the personal, political, and the spiritual.
Motivations for pilgrimage range from a need to prove one's spiritual strength and merit to a need to conform to the dictums of society. In some cases, the pilgrimage serves as an act of communion, prayer, or meditation. Buddhist approaches to pilgrimage, such as those described in Journey…
From the Diary of Ennin, 838-847.
From Journey to the West, or The Monkey-King, 17th century.
Modern Portrait of Xuanzang.
From Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
Religion does not necessarily need to be considered to be something spiritual, as it can also teach people in relation to moral values and about how they can distinguish between good and bad.
A modern school system needs to be fair towards everyone and this can only be made possible by school authorities allowing children to express themselves without restraint. Parents should have the right to decide what their children will learn in school. Religion is generally beneficial for opening people's minds and for preparing them to behave properly in the contemporary society.
1. lanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Perry lanzer's article presents readers with solid arguments regarding to why the teaching of religion in schools must not be regarded as something immoral. Also, the paper brings support to religion and reveals the reasons for which it…
Glanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Wright, Elliot a. (1999). "Religion in American Education." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 81.
Brewster, Karin L. & Cooksey, Elizabeth C. & Guilkey, David K. & Rindfuss, Ronald R. (1998). "The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States." Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 60, No. 2.
Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust (and is filled with innumerable instances of evil), yet P. is solved through the belief that every condition (good, in this case) necessitates an equal and opposite condition (evil, as it were.) However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: "But the doctrine of an afterlife, in whatever form, says that this isn't the whole story" (47). However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.
The dialogue between Sam…
Anselm. Proslogium. Trans. S.N. Deane. Internet History Sourcebook. Fordham University, Aug. 1998. 10 Sep. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anselm-intro.asp .
Aquinas, T. Summa of Theology. Trans. B.P. Copenhaver. Publisher Unknown, 2005.
Hopkins, J. A New Interpretation of Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion. Minneapolis: Arthur J. Banning Press, 1986.
Hume, D. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Unknown Publisher, 1779.
Race factored in creates a shift in the view which can be correctly applied to that which affects voting and as well globalization has created its' own impact on voting choices made by the American individual.
Campbell, David E. (2004). Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement. Political ehavior, 26 (2), 155-180.
Clawson, Rosalee a. And Clark, John a. (2003). The Attitudinal Structure of African
American Women Party Activists: The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 211-221.
Clinton and Giuliani Seen as Not Highly Religious; Romney's Religion Raises Concerns (2007) the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 6 Sept. 2007. Online available at: http://people-press.org/report/353/clinton-and-giuliani-seen-as-not-highly-religious-romneys-religion-raises-concerns
Kelly, Nathan J. And Kelly, Jana Morgan. (2005). Religion and Latino Partisanship in the United States. Political Research Quarterly, 58 (1), 87-95.
McClurg, Scott D. (2006). The Electoral Relevance of Political Talk: Examining
Disagreement and Expertise Effects in…
Campbell, David E. (2004). Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement. Political Behavior, 26 (2), 155-180.
Clawson, Rosalee a. And Clark, John a. (2003). The Attitudinal Structure of African
American Women Party Activists: The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 211-221.
Clinton and Giuliani Seen as Not Highly Religious; Romney's Religion Raises Concerns (2007) the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 6 Sept. 2007. Online available at: http://people-press.org/report/353/clinton-and-giuliani-seen-as-not-highly-religious-romneys-religion-raises-concerns
It is because of this that Hinduism has become as powerful now as it has ever been (Hopfe and oodward 77-113).
Among the most powerful religions of the world, comes Buddhism. Its great history is one that makes this spiritual belief one that has withstood time. Not only is its origination in one of the most populated countries of the world, but the powerful influence that it has had on other religions and on the political institutions from which some nations base their governments, it has become clear that Buddhism, just as Christianity and Islam have become, is a great powerful influence on the insurgence of political atmospheres, and extremists views (Hopfe and oodward 134-155).
Buddhism is most closely associated with peaceful teachings and non-violent approaches to everyday issues. Because of this great belief in that everything can be resolved through peaceful means, governments have chosen to also adapt…
Hopfe, Lewis M. & Woodward, Mark R. Religions of the World. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
" (Leviathan, Chapter 12).
This passage speaks directly to man's relationship with God in Hobbes' eyes. The idea that God exists pre-logic erupts into an understanding that faith and fate play such an integral role in Man's life. Whatever we may do to secure our happiness we may do, but fate and faith play a larger role than we would generally care to admit to be the case.
In general, Hobbes philosophy on religion does satisfy a lot of philosophic ends. It points at one true course (Christianity) and also obviates the need to justify religion in the face of logic and philosophy. As in, we do not need to logically defend Christ's birth, the stories of his life and the prophets, and subsequently the parable of his cruxifiction. In fact, we do not even need to defend logically the basic premises of religion or specifically Christianity.
Instead, we can…
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
In spite of the conflicts between the world's great monotheistic faiths, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share much in common. Each of these religions was born in the Middle East, and each of these religions values sacred texts as being important ways for human beings to receive the word and knowledge of God. As monotheistic religions, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam eschew idol worship or the worship of Gods that are not their own. At the same time, these religions have very similar concepts of God. The Gods of each of these four religions in omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent: a concept of God that actually originated with Zoroastrianism ("God, Zoroaster, and Immortals," n.d.). Zoroastrianism is the oldest of these four faiths, followed by Judaism. The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are collectively referred to as "people of the Book" because all value the Hebrew Bible, which is known…
"Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an." Retrieved online: http://people.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO4_QuranBeliefs.html )
"God, Jesus, and the Saints." BBC Religions. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/beliefs/basics_1.shtml
"God, Zoroaster, and Immortals." BBC Religion. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian/beliefs/god.shtml#findoutmore
Huda. Allah (God) in Islam. Retrieved online: http://islam.about.com/od/godallah/a/god.htm
ith regard to strong network ties, religions like Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses will grow in communities with strong social connections that already exist. Thus, a few core members of the community become converted. Those core members are trusted in the community, and therefore community members are far more likely to embrace the faith through their trusted friends, neighbors, or family members than by total strangers. The growth of Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses may also have to do with deeper psychological issues in places where these sects have been growing. Just as consumer behavior is linked to psychological theories, including theories of personality, so too is behavior regarding choice of religion. Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses both demand a strict adherence to a set of rules related to personal conduct and social behavior. Proselytizing actively is also considered part of one's religious duty and social contract.
Therefore, what Stark and Iannacoone say…
Lippy, Charles. Introducing American Religion. Routledge, 2009.
Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.
4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.
Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…
1. Chopra, Anita. Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram. "HEALTH and HEALTH CARE of ASIAN INDIAN-American ELDERS." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/asianindian.html
2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm
4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.
The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…
Confucius. The Analects. Penguin Classics. New York. 1998.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge. The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others. The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…
Eliade, Mircea. Myth and Reality (Religious Traditions of the World).
Waveland Press; Reprint edition, 1998.
McGrath, Alister E. Science & Religion: An Introduction. New York: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.
The aim of Christian faith is not to reject the truth of the universe or our individual characteristics, like some religions give, but to gratify our genuine yearnings. Christian faith gives an extremely reasonable contentment, as it encompasses the most ideal manner and justifies our encounter of the world and our own feelings of being. Christian belief accords importance to reason and, of course has a justification for reason. Among the other religions, Christian faith is the most sensible, and thus it can be proposed as the most advanced.
A question might be posed that if God has the supreme power as per Christianity, then what is the reason behind the Almighty unable to resolve the evils of the universe completely. Christianity considers that the Almighty was not behind the making of this world in this collapsing state of affairs or with immorality and pain. He made it entirely good…
There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.
However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…
Heehs, Peter, ed. 2002. Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York.
Online Conference on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, April 2000, available online at http: / / jbe.gold.ac.uk.
Queen, Christopher, Charles Prebish and Damien Keown. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: Routledge Curzon.
Religion and Mysticism
Two of the world's major religions, Islam and Christianity seem to be very different belief systems. hen comprising a mental picture of a practitioner of one and then the other, they seem to have very different characteristics. However, when examined more closely, it becomes evident that the two religions are based on some of the same principles of kindness towards others, inherent goodness, and most specifically some sort of supernatural or spectacular being that is stronger than anything on earth. Sufism is the branch of Islam which is most comparable with Christian Mysticism, both of which look to some sort of spiritual power that has more strength than mere mortals.
Sufism stems from the Islamic religion. Muhammad is considered the prophet of both sects and this is why the two are so often linked, however Sufism teaches that the spirituality can be combined with any religion. "No…
"Sufism: The Mystical Side of Islam." Islamic Studies in Christian Perspective. Print.
"Sufism -- What is it?" All About Religion. 2002. Print.
Zuck, John. "What is Christian Mysticism?" Wild Things. 2008. Print.
here is a rather complex juxtaposition between the ideals of the founding of the United States and the presumption of religious conversion. he historical and sociological paradigm of religion in America actually spans the great migration of tribes from Asia over the Alaskan land bridge and evolved into various Native American cultures and the European contact between the early 1600s and even into the 20th century. Most of the Amerindian cultures worshiped a naturalistic religion that focused on harmony with nature, a group of Gods that represented spirits of parts of nature, and ways to explain all the natural phenomenon (weather, birth, death, etc.) that are common to human cultures. Religion was more all-encompassing and an approach to explain the universe. Since everything within the universe was part of the natural order, and therefore sacred, these cultures tended to revere all that was in nature and placed humans as…
This conundrum was not adequately addressed during the Constitutional Convention, and it was not until Thomas Jefferson became President that the issue became publically important. In 1802, for instance, members of the Danbury Baptist Association wrote to Jefferson with concerns about the Constitutional requirement for freedom of religion. Jefferson replied, assuring the coalition that there freedoms would be protected and cherished. He noted his previous work from 1777-79 under the Virginia Statute for religious freedom: "Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free… That even the forcing him to support [a state religion] or that teacher of his own religious persuasion is depriving him of the comfortable liberty of giving his contributions…That our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry…yet we are free to declare… the natural rights of mankind" Lippy). This, in essence, formed the basis of the notion that the State cannot make a law establishing a religion or force individual citizens to follow anything other than what they deem appropriate for their own individual belief and need.
Lippy, C. Introducing American Religion. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Religion has been a controversial, almost political matter since its invention. In fact, modern religion was considered as a form or means of civilization. This is clearly seen from many colonization stories where colonialists urged the natives to abandon their ways of worship and embrace the 'civilized ones'. Europe was one of the modern civilizations where it gave Christianity emerged. The clergy used to work closely with kings in passing of judgment and Popes crowned kings. The entire title of Europe being secular is ironic in a number of ways. Firstly, the article states that Europe does not place much attention to religion affecting public life. This is ironic because Europe itself used to execute civilians who did not conform to the ways of the church. Currently, we see a Europe with a diminishing trend in terms of religious practices. If such continues, the region is taking a direction of…
Pew Research Center. Secular Europe and Religious America: Implications for Transatlantic
Relations. Pew Research Center. Web. 2005. Accessed 19 February 2014
Without an understanding of the Arian crisis, it is difficult to understand why later theological debates ensued and tore apart people who essentially believe in the same basic religion. Some Christians might take for granted that Christ is divine, whereas others view Jesus more as a human messenger of God. The Romans were debating this very issue several thousand years ago.
Second, the story of Arius and Athanasius shows that Christianity was not founded by Jesus Christ. Christianity was founded by those who came after Jesus. Christianity was also formed over time, and as the result of crises as bloody and violent as the one that Rubenstein describes in When Jesus Became God. Jesus set in motion a chain of events that would lead to the formation of a new religion, even though Jesus himself might only have been trying to reform Judaism. Jesus may have preached of a new…
While art is certainly a part of culture, other cultural gifts to history mark religion as a positive force. Without the music, ceremony, poetry, and holy books of Muslim, Hindu, and Christian texts, the world would be without significant Beauty. In their own ways, each of these traditions shaped the cultures that would come after them in significant theological, intellectual, and cultural ways. Burhan writes that Islamic influence in the world has included charity, justice, and unity. Wade writes that even as Christianity is often vilified as a blight to mankind, it made great contributions to science, freedom, ethics and morality, medicine, etc. In conclusion, the ancient history of Eurasia would not have been the same without religion. While religious wars are certainly an important part of history, religion's contributions in the areas of art and culture suggest the positive role religion played in the shaping of contemporary society.
Burhan, R. "Islam's Contribution and Influence on the World." Institute of Islam and Arabic Studies.n.d. 26 July 2009.
Religion of the Spirits
In responding to adherents of the Religion of the Spirits, one might expect very different statements by St. Thomas Aquinas and the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Indeed, these two personalities are opposite ends of the religious scale, with the former believing without any doubt that God exists and Catholicism is the true religion, and the latter being a believer in nihilism, physical life as the only existence that can reasonably be expected, and the non-existence of God. One similarity between Aquinas and Nietzsche is that they both believe unshakably in their respective viewpoints. There is therefore not much likelihood that the Religion of the Spirits will be able to convince either of their "truth."
If believers in the Religion of the Spirits were therefore to try and convince Thomas Aquinas of the truth of their religion, I believe he would in turn explain to them that there…