¶ … Byzantine and the Islamic Empires
The decline of the Roman Empire gave birth to new political formations that had a tremendous impact upon the world at large. Out of this disintegration emerged three new political formations, such as the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic empires. These different regimes had steady economic and intellectual contact with one another and both the Byzantine and Islamic empires impacted the west and western culture.
The Byzantine Empire bore its name from the surviving eastern half of the Roman Empire and the people among it considered themselves Roman. However, Greek remained an incredibly strong influence on the Byzantine Empire as did Christianity. Christianity continued to wage a massive influence on this empire, one which was readily apparent in the artwork of the period (Cunningham & Reich, 166). Religion had a massive influence on Byzantine life as all Byzantine holidays were religious festivals, many races began with the singing of hymns and all trade contracts could be marked with the sign of the cross (Cunningham & Reich, 166). Religious questions were often burning and pondered by all parts of society, not just the educated and the elite but also by the poor. Leaders in the church in the Byzantine empire were not distant figures but were friends and protectors to whom people confidently turned for help, demonstrating that Christianity really did have a massive influence on this empire (Cunningham & Reich, 188).. Thus, Christianity wasn't the only tradition which influenced this empire, but it was a major one which had a strong influence on the oriental culture of this essentially Persian Empire.
According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, there are both similarities and differences between Coptic Christianity, Orthodox Christianity and Syriac Christinaity. Coptic Christianity is a form of Egyptian Christianity and is different from all other forms of Christianity in that it rejects that Christ had two natures, embracing instead...
This arena of Christianity also accepted monasticism, which had an influence on both their liturgy and their visual culture.
On the other hand, Christians who identified themselves as Syriac were ones who traced their heritage back to Saint Peter. The Syriac bible is based on the Hebrew Bible, and this particular Church decided to more closely follow the teachings of Saint Cyril rather than the notion put forth by the council of Calcedon that Christ had two natures, one human and the other divine: thus, as a result, the Syriac Church became more and more autonomous from the authority of the Church of Constantinople (metmuseum.org).
While the official religion on the Byzantine Empire was Christianity, efforts to push a higher level of loyalty to the Orthodox faith was met with fierce debates: central to these debates was the issue of the "…acceptance or the rejection of the official definition of the person of Christ as having two natures -- human and divine -- as formulated at the Council of Chalcedon in 451" (metmuseum.org). All efforts to promote compromise only furthered these debates, making them more aggravated. Thus, one can see that among these various forms of Christianity, while there were some areas of overlap, there were also great differences in how the Christ figure was viewed and that this was a tremendous source of contention.
According to the Metropolitan Museum, one of the aspects which were notable about Judaism is the fact that the jewish communities were some of the religious groups which were actually indigenous to the Byzantine Empire. This was a religion that had a more diverse following, as the "Inscriptions from these sites and texts written for Jewish use in Latin, Greek, Jewish Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic provide evidence of the diversity of the region and its Jewish and Samaritan (another Abrahamic community) populations" (metmuseum.org). When Judaism was alive and well under Islamic authority there were less restrictions placed on Jewish communities, which made their lives more livable and flexible (metmuseum.org).
World Religions For many people, the diversity of world religions is a reminder of the vast differences between the different people of the world and their various cultural experiences. However, while many people focus on the differences between the world's religious traditions, what is more fascinating is the incredible overlap between the various world religions and the moral and ethical traditions that have developed under the auspices of those religions. Despite
Therefore, it is in charge of scripture. The Church of Scientology is the management body of the religion, and is in charge of planning and coordinating Scientology expansion. There are over 7,300 Scientology groups in 163 countries around the world, with 87,000 volunteer ministers. It is difficult to estimate the number of practicing Scientologists, but estimates range from several hundred thousand to several million. However, it is suggested that
World Religion in Homeland Security The relation between national security and religion has existed for quite some time now with a clear manifestation on how religious persecution and national security threats correlate. According to Inboden (2012), predicting what security threats the United States would face from the beginning of the 21st century would require consideration of a congressional testimony from a State Department official who could barely be understood. When we
World Religions Report JUDAISM Judaism (Introduction, Worship Site Review, Interview, Comparison/Contrast with Christianity) This report explores one of the most important Abrahamic religions, Judaism. In this report, a detailed introduction of Judaism has been given in the first part. Judaism is one of the oldest religions with distinct and unique holy texts. Despite the less number of followers, it has been divided into several branches. This report also contains a description of its branches;
Taoism is another ancient religion practiced within Eastern Asia. It shares beliefs and practices with Confucianism and is mainly practiced in various parts of China. It is a polytheistic religion that has a wide variety of gods within its spiritual arsenal. Like Hinduism, Taoism is a name that covers a wide variety of smaller religious sects that can be found in various parts of China and its neighboring countries, although
This also contrasts sharply with idealistic notions within strict doctrines of the Orthodox faith suggesting that faith and God are defined and not subject to interpretation. One may look into themselves to find compassion and strength, but those qualities must come from God if one views themselves as having what Chirban (1996) refers to as a "vertical relationship with God" (p. 3). It seems agreed on "universally" among Unitarians that