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World Wars and Their Relationships
The relationship between World War I and World War II is based on several factors. First, Germany actually helped start the first war and did start the second war. The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria by a Serbian national triggered the war. Germany was allied with Austria-Hungary, and then Italy. When the assassination occurred, several allied countries denounced Serbia and offered it ultimatums. Finally, Austria-Hungary demanded ten things that they knew Serbia could not accomplish, directly leading to the war. Austria-Hungary actually declared war when the demands were not met, and Germany declared war on Russia the next day, bringing the allies of Russia, such as France and Great Britain into the war. In the Second World War, Germany began taking over territory around the country, and they invaded Poland in 1939, which actually set off the war.
Another relationship to both wars is…
Notably, the treaty that ended World War I significantly shrank Germany's military, which wounded their pride.
Economic hardships followed World War I but hit Germany particularly hard because its colonies were given to victorious nations. Inflation was devastating, throwing even people who had been well-to-do into poverty. All of this made Germans an easy target for someone like Adolph Hitler, who promised to return German to its deserved glory.
The "Cold War" that followed World War II resulted because the United tates and the U...R. were uneasy allies during World War II. They united for a negative reason -- they were both opposed to Hitler's Germany.
After the war, however, the U...R. showed the same desire that Germany had prior to both world wars: they wanted to dominate Europe. They imposed Communist regimes on a number of weaker countries including Czechoslovakia, Romania and Bulgaria. The United tates was adamantly opposed…
Author not given. 2003. "The Great War Effects," in IB History Pages. Accessed via the Internet 12/5/04. http://www.pvhs.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/great_war/effects.htm
Author not given. 2004. "The Causes and Effects of World War I," in World History. Studyworld Studynotes. Accessed via the Internet 12/5/04. http://www.studyworld.com/newsite/ReportEssay/History/WorldWars%5CThe_Causes_and_Effects_of_World_War_I-82.htm
On July 20, 1969, astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin stepped onto the moon.
he American success gave the "entire free world a huge and badly needed boost."
President Kennedy used the space race to boost the idea of the "free world" over Communism, commenting that we would govern space "by a banner of freedom and peace."
Space technology was not the only form of competition taking place in the 20th century. he Wright brothers and Samuel Langley, the secretary for the Smithsonian Institution, were competing to put the first aircraft flown by a human into flight. hey both were attempting to build a powered aircraft and on December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers sent their aircraft into flight for 12 seconds.
hus with the invention of the powered aircraft, transportation was forever changed and would cause a tremendous impact on the events of the 20th century. he aerial age…
The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Aerial Age, Smithsonian, April 5, 2011, http://www.nasm.si.edu/wrightbrothers/index_full.cfm .
Kedem, C., the Social Impact of the Internet on Our Society, April 6, 2011, http://www-users.math.umd.edu/~bnk/CAR/project.htm .
submarines were instrumental during both World Wars. What is less well-known is the role that submarines played as tools during the Cold War. In Blind Man's Bluff, Sontag and Drew reveal with stunning detail the accounts of American Naval officers who manned submarines during the Cold War. Their mission was unequivocal: gathering intelligence. On espionage missions, Cold War Naval submarines were on extremely dangerous missions that could have threatened not only to end the lives of the officers but also could have escalated Cold War tensions. Blind Man's Bluff is written in a narrative style accessible by all readers, as engaging as fiction but with all the intensity of history.
Blind Man's Bluff is based on the first person accounts of the Navy officers involved in the top-secret intelligence missions. According to the authors in their preface to the body of the book, the officers frequently declined the invitation…
Sontag, Sherry and Christopher Drew. 2011. Blind Man's Bluff. Public Affairs/Perseus.
History Of American Warfare
The end of the American warfare marked the beginning of the way women were treated in the public and the domestic sphere. Women movements largely lobbied for equal rights, new women organizations, and the emergence of a new era of women photographers, artists and professionals, modified the traditional patriarchal social framework across the world. These social changes, which had been set in motion at the dawn of the century, developed further as females were propelled into the labor force. As such, they were subjected to the previously male-dominated professional and political situations. y the mid of the 20th century, female's activities and issues were identified as a significant factor of the scientific, literary and cultural scenery of several nations, indicating a revolutionary change in the domestic and cultural positions.
As the warfare ended, various changes concerning various women's positions in the society had appeared. Typically,…
Kiernan, D. (2014). The Girls of Atomic City: Untold Story of the Women Who Helped Win
World War II. New York: Simon and Schuster
Kiernan (2004) book provides insights on the roles and the challenges the women who took part in the Second World War faced. The author conducts his research and interviews the women survivors who took part in the World War II. The book unfolds the challenges the women faced in the battlefield alongside the harsh living conditions and mistreatment they faced during the war. The book provides theoretical basis for establishing the analysis on the challenges the women faced in the World War II. This book is important for the study because, it provides detailed insights on the historical events and injustices the women faced in the Second World War. The strength of the book lies on the fact that it uses live interviews and fieldwork research to unearth the challenges the women faced in the World War II.
Authors Note: Kiernan is a famous journalist and producer who have written several history books including this book and Signing Their Rights Away.
World War Analysis
WWI analysis examining the significance and impact of WWI on U.S. history
In the early 20th Century, a general fear existed that a huge war would break out due to the circumstances existing at that time and therefore every small incident was considered deadly. However the triggering factor was the assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in June 1914 resulting in World War I (WWI) or the Great War. WWI took place from 1914 to 1918 and major countries took part in it; war resulting in drastic consequences such as collapse of economies and death of millions of people. The two main groups fighting against each other were Triple Alliance and Triple Entente (also known as the Western Powers). The U.S. did not participate in the war in the beginning and tried its best to remain neutral. However, it was forced to join the Triple Entente when German…
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
Gradually, though, the war effort eroded the practical and theoretical underpinnings of racism in the United States. The war stimulated the domestic economy, particularly in the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Jobs were opening up rapidly, and because so many white men were fighting the war, many black men were available to work. "For black workers orld ar II opened up opportunities that had never before existed," (O'Neil 1). The same was true for women, as the war left gaping holes in the labor market that needed to be filled in untraditional ways. At the same time as the war exposed American prejudice, "orld ar II gave many minority Americans -- and women of all races -- an economic and psychological boost." (Harris 1). The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded, and overall, the war "jump-started the civil rights movement" in the United States (Harris 1; "Identify the impact of…
Harris, Michael. "How WWII Affected America's Minorities." Los Angeles Times. 13 June, 2000. Retrieved online: http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/13/news/cl-40272
"Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America." (U.S. History)." Retrieved online: http://share.ehs.uen.org/node/6217
O'Neil, William L. "Minorities and Women During World War II." Retrieved online: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/RA/NCraig/Minorities.html
Takaki, Ronald. Double Victory. New York: Time Warner/Little Brown.
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino
History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to win the war in the holy land. The problems stem from their not being able to directly attack certain Muslim holy locations or shrines even though Iraqi insurgents are constantly utilizing these positions as sanctuaries and initiation points for waging battles against the allied forces or the new Iraqi government. During World War II, the Axis powers with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi army also attempted to use similar tactics to fend off attacks by Allied forces.
This report discusses the Battle of Monte Cassino and the pros and cons of the Allied Forces' actions during World War II. A historic shrine was completely destroyed by the events of the Allied forces during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian…
Colvin, David, & Hodges, Richard (1994). Tempting providence: the bombing of Monte Cassino. History Today, Vol. 44.
Eagle19. (n.d.). The Battles for Monte Cassino and the Defense of the Gustav Line. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.eagle19.freeserve.co.uk/cassino.htm
Griess, Thomas E. (2002). The Second World War Europe and the Mediterranean. The West Point Military History Series.
Hapgood, David, & Richardson, David (1984). Monte Cassino: The Story of the Most Controversial Battle of World War II. Add City: Add Publisher.
Without a doubt, the expansionist policies of Germany, Italy and Japan and a direct attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor necessitated the need for America to enter World War II. However, the real question is not whether America should have entered World War II, but could it have prevented it from happening. As the world's new super power following World War I, America should have done more to restore stability to Western Europe, particularly Germany, a country saddled with huge reparation payments. And, the United States could have taken a more active role in the League of Nations to discourage aggression. Instead, America enjoyed the spoils of World War I and became isolationist in response to the Great Depression. Economic and political instability caused by World War I led the rise of fascism. The Nazi goals of reversing the Versailles Treaty and the establishment of a German Empire by…
'World War II." Wikipedia. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II#Home_front (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II.," Available: http://web.uccs.edu/history/student%20presentations/heidi/world_war_two.htm (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II." Wikipedia. Available:
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-
3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…
Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)
Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)
World War Turning Point Europe, Significant Change Occurred Emergence Legitimate evolutionary egimes
Self-Determination in Cuba
There are few who would dispute the fact that following the conclusion of World War II and prior to its revolution (which began in 1953 and concluded on January 1 of 1959) Cuba was a prosperous region of the world that was certainly worth fighting for. The country's leader prior to the ascendancy of Fidel Castro, Fulgencio Batista, had cleverly manipulated the assistance of a number of external forces, primarily that of the United States, to assist the country in achieving a degree of economic gain and modernity the likes of which were comparable to, if not surpassing, those of other parts of the world.
Its economic prowess may be demonstrated from the following quotation. "Cuba in 1958, prior to the government of the Communist Fidel Castro, paid its employees an average of $3.00 per…
Epperson, R.A. (1985). The Unseen Hand. Arizona: Publius.
Guevara, C. (2005). Cuba: Historical Exception or Vanguard in the Colonial Struggle? Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/guevara/1961/04/09.htm
Kapur, T., Smith, A. (2002). "Housing Policy In Castro's Cuba." Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/education/oustanding_student_papers/kapur_smith_cuba_02.pdf
Jones, L. (1966). Home. New York: William Morrow and Co.
World War II
The Use of Atomic Weapons on Japan in WWII
The Second World War officially began in 1939 with the evasion of Poland by Germany. The United States of America did not officially enter this international conflict of epic scale until the Japanese attacked American and European territories in the Pacific in 1941. The war persisted until 1945, culminating with the surrender of Japan and Germany to the U.S. & Allied Forces. During World War II, the world saw the first demonstrations of nuclear weapons -- atomic bombs. There were two infamous attacks on Japan by the U.S. On Nagasaki and Hiroshima, where the atomic bombs were dropped and caused unparalleled damage. The paper will provide a historical and political context within which to consider why the United States of America resorted to the use of atomic bombs upon Japan.
War campaigns waged by Germany and Japan were…
Aviation History. (2006) World War II -- Second Atomic Bomb that Ended the War. Available from http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii-second-atomic-bomb-that-ended-the-war.htm . 2012 June 25.
Henretta. (2009) Chapters 23 -- 26. Provided.
From the beginning of the war, there had been some variation in the Canadian attitude toward the conflict. Canada never questioned the legitimacy of the war and did not question the need for Canadian participation. There were differences of opinion, though, concerning how extensive the Canadian contribution should be. These variations affected the response to calls for enlistment and divided the country as the towns were more willing than the countryside, the prairies more willing than the Atlantic seaboard, and "it was observed that the proportion of enlistments achieved by any social group appeared to vary almost inversely to the length of its connection with Canada. On the one hand, the ritish-born -- the new arrivals with a large proportion of unattached males of military age -- gave the highest percentage of their numbers to the armed services, and, on the other hand, the French Canadians unquestionably gave the…
Ameringer, Charles D. Political Parties of the Americas, 1980s to 1990s: Canada, Latin America, and the West Indie.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Bothwell, Robert. History of Canada since 1867. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.
Boudreau, Joseph a. "Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert "Canada and Worlod War I," the History of Canada (2007), http://www.linksnorth.com/canada-history/canadaandworldwar1.html .
National debt and veterans benefits for example drove a permanent increase in taxes, although these were not as high as during the war. The country's international economic position was also permanently affected. Its pre-war status as a debtor country was permanently changed to a net creditor, in the order of $6.4billion. Also, the power as financial world leader shifted from London and the Bank of England to New York, with an enhancement of the Federal Reserve's role (World War I History). In general, it appears as if the war effort had a favorable impact on the U.. economy. The devastating human and resource losses were offset by favorable economic factors. In this way, World War I changed the economic position of the United tates both permanently and favorably.
Duffy, Michael. "The Causes of World War I." FirstWorldWar.com feature articles. March 27, 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/origins/causes.htm
U.. Declaration of War with Germany,…
Duffy, Michael. "The Causes of World War I." FirstWorldWar.com feature articles. March 27, 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/origins/causes.htm
U.S. Declaration of War with Germany, 2 April 1917" FirstWolrdWar.com primary documents. April 14, 2002. URL: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usneutrality.htm
Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. Involvement in World War I." U.S. History Resources. March 31, 1998. URL: http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Bunker/3017/
Rockoff, Hugh. "U.S. Economy in World War I." EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. September 30, 2005. URL:
It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.
Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
Sonar esearch and Naval Warfare: 1914-1954
During both World War I and World War II, there were a number of informational tactics used by the Navy in order to gain ground on enemy troops. One of those was sonar research, because it provided them with knowledge they would not have otherwise had (Hackmann, 1984). Sonar is not perfect, but a great deal of work has gone into it since its creation, and that has helped it to become a more valuable tool for Naval operations. Sonar is used for navigation, but also for communication and the detection of objects, primarily underwater (Urick, 1983). There are two types of sonar: passive and active. In active sonar, pings are sent out to search for other objects (Hackmann, 1984). Passive sonar does not send out a signal, but only listens for the pings and signals of others (Hackmann, 1984). Both have their place,…
Abbatiello, J. (2005). Anti-submarine warfare in World War I: British Naval aviation and the defeat of the U-boats. NY: Routledge.
Adamthwaite, A.P. (1992). The making of the Second World War. New York: Routledge.
Barber, J., & Harrison, M. (2006). Patriotic war, 1941 -- 1945. In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed. The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III: The Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hackmann, W. (1984). Seek & Strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy 1914-54. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Today, the Americans fight different insurgent factions, who have limited weaponry, no air force, and no real large scale fighting tactics. Instead, they create havoc with roadside bombs and suicide bombers. Vietnam was fought on the scale of a world war, while Iraq is being fought on a much smaller scale. In addition, there was a draft in place during Vietnam, and no draft in place today, so our forces are stretched much thinner in Iraq and at home.
In contrast, many experts believe there are similarities between the two wars, but there are far more differences that keep the two wars very far apart in perspective. For example, there is no real Communist influence in Iraq; rather the country suffers from domestic unrest and insurgency, rather than large-scale intervention from other countries (except perhaps Iran). Thus, Americans are not fighting a "cold" war but rather a war supposedly based…
Kagan, Frederick W. "Iraq Is Not Vietnam." Policy Review (2005): 3+.
Letters from Iwo Jima. Dir. Clint Eastwood. Perf. Ken Watanabe, Kazunari Ninomiya, Tsuyoshi Ihara, and Ryo Kase. Warner Brothers, 2006.
Lopez, George a. "A Quagmire? Vietnam, Iraq & Other Analogies." Commonweal 16 Jan. 2004: 11+.
May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. Revised ed. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
World War II (WWII) Transformed the United States Domestically
World War II was a global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most tragic war in human history. It started in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French coalition but eventually grew to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in 1945, leaving a new world that was dominated by the United States and the U.S.S.R.
When the United States became involved with World War II, there were immediate and long-term changes in virtually every aspect of American life. Millions of men and women joined the military and saw areas of the world they would likely never have seen on their own. The labor demands of war industries caused millions more Americans to relocate, mainly to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts, where most defense plants were located.…
Encarta. World War. Encyclopedia Article. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563737/World_War_II.html.
Sage, Henry. (March 23, 2004). The Postwar United States. The Library of Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist122/topics/PostWorldWarIIDom.htm.
Stravelli, Gloria. (March, 2004). In unexpected ways WWII changed women's lives: Role in war effort helped shift societal perceptions and expectations. New Jersey: The Hub.
The New Georgia Encyclopedia. (2004). Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/ArticlePrintable.jsp?id=h-2716 .
World War II. World War II was a turning point in world history, and brought together many allies to fight strong opponents for world domination. The War was supposed to be the "last" world war fought, but other conflicts since that time show the world is still a volatile and unsettled place, and it seems there will always be wars fought in this world.
World War II was fought on two major fronts -- Europe and Asia. There was also fighting in North Africa, and many Pacific Islands. The initial war began in 1939 when German dictator Adolph Hitler invaded Poland. England and France had pledged to support Poland as Hitler continued to take over countries in Europe, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia in the late 1930s. When Hitler invaded Poland,
France and England issued ultimatums to Germany which were ignored, and the war had officially begun, even though actual…
Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996.
Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
Kitchen, Martin. A World in Flames: A Short History of the Second World War in Europe and Asia, 1939-1945. London: Longman, 1990.
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack of industrialization, the defeat by Japan in 1905, and a lack of support by the people for involvement in this new war. hat seems clear is that Russia was not prepared when the war began and had to work to muster its army, provide war materials, and protect its own territory against the German advance. The fact that Germany was indeed stopped cold in Russia shows how well the Russians did their job, but the issue is why they did not do what they could before the war started given that the whole world could see war coming long before it reached Russia. More recently, though, the question of unpreparedness has been given a new look, and a new theory of…
McTaggart, Pat. "Winter Tempest in Stalingrad." World War II 12(4)(November 1997), 30-36.
Raack, R.C. "Stalin's Role in the Coming of World War II: Opening the Closet Door on a Key Chapter of Recent History." World Affairs 158(4)(1996), 198-211.
Taylor, a.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Athenaeum, 1985.
Tucker, Robert C. Stalin in Power. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
In this sense, Stalin decided to extend his influence and to impose certain types of government in countries such as Poland, Hungry, or omania. The same fate would have had Greece and Turkey as well, should the U.S. not have outlined the Truman Doctrine. It can be said that the doctrine itself was a reaction to the tendency of the soviets to extend their influence.
The Marshall Plan can be seen as the economic component of the Truman Doctrine. It was in fact a set of principles pointed out in 1947 at Harvard by Secretary of State George Marshall (American hetoric, 2008). This economic plan too was designed for cater for the economic needs of eastern countries as well, but seeing that the ussian side considered it to be the mere economic arm of the Truman Doctrine, it forced countries under its occupation to reject this reconstruction aid. In fact…
American Rhetoric. "The Marshall Plan 1947." American Rhetoric website. 2008. 30 Jan. 2008 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/georgecmarshall.html
The Avalon Project. "The Truman Doctrine." Yale University. 2008. 30 Jan. 2008 http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/trudoc.htm
The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew Rockwell.com. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William R. (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
This is when they would go after some highest officials in the German and Japanese governments that knew about the atrocities. Under this approach they were publically making an example of these individuals and their involvement with these activities. This created the impression that the Allies were doing everything possible to hold ex-Nazis and Japanese officials accountable. (Plesch 101 -- 118)
However, beneath the surface is when the U.S. And Soviet Union, were cherry picking individuals that could help develop new weapons programs (most notably: rocket scientists). At the end of the war, the Germans had developed the V-1 and the V-2 rockets. These were loaded with a simple warhead and fired at England. Moreover, the Germans had been able to create the first jet aircraft. (Ward 34 -- 52)
After the war was over, the Allies were rounding up these scientists and were learning everything about these secret programs.…
Plesch, Dan. America, Hitler and the UN. New York: IB Tarius, 2011. Print.
Ward, Bob. Dr. Space. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2005. Print.
Nazi Propaganda and the Spread of Fascism
orld ar II was precipitated by the rise of fascism throughout Europe. As the mores of socialism began to take root in many parts of the continent, fascism emerged as a powerful counterpoint. For nations like Italy, Spain and Germany, the consequences of a sustained and devastating recession would be a coalescing of support behind strong, self-proclaimed and authoritarian leaders. Certainly, most notorious among them would be Adolph Hitler, whose Nazi party would first occupy Austria and Germany before ultimately pursuing a more global agenda. However, for our discussion, the primary interest is the degree of success that the Nazi party had in ultimately penetrating Germany with its values, ideals and policies. As the discussion here will show, propaganda would play a central role in the ability of the Nazi party to garner support and generate the impassioned loyalty of the…
German Propaganda Archive. (2013). Es Lebe Deutschland. Bytwerk.com.
History Learning Site (HLS). (2012). Propaganda in Nazi Germany. Historylearningsite.co.uk.
Welch, D. (2011). Nazi Propaganda. BBC History.
All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile.
Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…
"German Revolution." Spartacus Schoolnet. April 14, 2010.
"Wars and Battles, World War I." U.S. History. April 14, 2010.
World War I and its Effect on the Middle East
The Europeans who had already colonized much of the area with post-World War I now spread further into the Middle East claiming further portions such as Arabia, Iraq, yria, Libya, and Palestine. The Constantinople Agreement followed by many more including the ykes Picot agreement over and again implemented covert agreements regarding lands that would go to each of the Allies. After the war, France received Lebanon and yria (
) even though yria herself preferred an American mandate (2), and Britain received land that included Palestine, Israel, Transjordan, and Iraq (3). The indigenous people themselves were never consulted regarding whom they wished to control them, and colonization, consequently, prompted Arabic nationalism.
Nationalism was, furthermore, created by the fact that the peace settlements imposed by the Allies after World War I broke up nation states and created others, confusing many who,…
Bloomberg.com. "U.S., U.K. Waged War on Iraq Because of Oil, Blair Adviser Says" Bloomberg.com, May 1, 2003
CBS.com. "Poll: Talk First, Fight Later." CBS.com, Jan. 24, 2003. Retrieved 1/17/2011.
DeNovo, J. American Interests and Policies in the Middle East (University of Minnesota Press, 1963)
Gelvin, J. History of the Modern Middle East (Oxford University Press, 2005)
..the spirit of ruthless brutality will enter itn every fiber of our national life" (Johnson 643).
Staying out, states Tindall & Shi 948), was "more easily said than done, not least for Wilson himself. Americans might want to stay out of the war, but most of them cared which side won. Ironically, because there were so many first- or second-generation immigrants from Germany and Ireland, the leaning was toward the Central Powers. However, "old-line Americans" mostly of ritish descent were sympathetic to the Allies.
Yet actions were to occur that made the final decision. In 1915, the Germans sank the ritish Cunard liner Lusitania with 128 Americans on board. The Americans were outraged and sent letters to no avail. Then U-boats sank a number of American ships and finally, the press published a secret telegram from the German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to the Mexican government proposing a German-Mexican offensive…
Johnson, Paul. History of the American People. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Tindall, George Brown and Shi, David. America. A Narrative History. New York:
Zinn, Hoard. People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins, 1999.
World War II was carried out on the home front, how it was presented to the American people and conducted in America. World War II never really touched American shored, but it certainly made a difference in American lives.
On December 8, 1941, President Franklin D. oosevelt addressed congress and asked them to declare war on Japan after their unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7. He called December 7 "a date which will live in infamy," and it brought Americans directly into the war, and their lives changed. As soon as oosevelt declared war, thousands of patriotic and emotional Americans hurried to enlist and help fight the war. These young people were angry about the Japanese attacks, and they wanted to defend their country. Young men enlisted in the Armed Forces, and young women signed up as nurses, and even pilots, helping to ferry airplanes from one…
Daniels, Roger. "10 Bad News from the Good War: Democracy at Home During World War II." The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Eds. O'Brien, Kenneth Paul and Lynn Hudson Parsons. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. 157-167.
O'Brien, Kenneth Paul and Lynn Hudson Parsons, eds. The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
World War II called out the American troops, the country's economy could have been in grave danger had it not been for the untapped reservoir of human resources. Wives, mothers and sisters picked up where their husbands, sons and brothers left off. Not only were these women brave in their efforts to take on something as foreign as factory work, they also directly affected the outcome of the war. Conversely, without that call to action, women's roles in our society today would also be quite different.
Initially there was broad-based concern about women taking men's jobs, what would happen to the family structure and how society would deal with such a drastic change. However, it was a better solution than putting children to work as in the past.
There was no time to analyze or try and come up with a better solution. Women jump into industry with both feet…
U.S. Economy Since orld ar II
economy is the largest in the world but has the most unequal distribution of wealth among all the developed countries of the world. The major reason for this inequality is that since the Second orld ar most U.S. governments have tended to favor the wealthy and the corporate sector while formulating their economic policies. Such "rich friendly" policies have become more pronounced since the early 1980s and continue to this day to the detriment of the society and the economy. This essay gives an overview of the post-orld ar II U.S. economy and outlines the ways in which various U.S. administrations have enacted policies favoring the corporate sector and the wealthy.
The 18th century British economist Adam Smith advocated the benefits of a Laissez faire economy in his The ealth of Nations (1776) by proclaiming that a "free economy" in which every individual…
'Eisenhower, Dwight David." Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2004. December 17, 2004.
"Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)" American President.org. 8/26/2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.americanpresident.org/history/harrytruman/
"How Unequal Are We, Anyway?." A Statistical Briefing Book. Inequality.org. July, 2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.inequality.org/facts.html
World War II drew to a close, and the planet was forced to recalibrate in unprecedented proportions, the United States began its long emergence as the most expansive super-power that had yet been known. Its influence that would compete virulently with the post-war Soviet influence for half a century, has since disseminated into every facet of the geopolitical theatre. As such, American support can operate as the determining factor in the success of a national agenda. Likewise, American dissent can be the stifling roadblock that sets nations adrift in failure and, consequently, resentment. So it's important to acknowledge that a nation's complaint of American neglect is more than just the bitter rhetoric of the disenfranchised. The emphasis placed on American approval and volition is fairly justified when one considers the weight and implication of the U.S. stance on any given topic. And it's certainly fair to say that American intervention…
5. Maisel, David, The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1998.
6. Rabinovich, Itamar, Waging Peace, New York, NY, Farrer, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
7. Smith, Charles D., Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, New York, NY, St. Martin's Press, 2001
Propaganda is an important tool for shaping public opinion during wartime. The United States initially resisted using propaganda, but later established two official government propaganda agencies: the Writers War Board and the United States Office of War Information (Riddle, 2016). The latter became the primary propaganda engine during World War Two. The Office of War Information used multiple media for propaganda dissemination, including the relatively new media like comic books and movies. Posters were a primary means of influencing public opinion, too. Through these different propaganda techniques, the United States government reduced the potential for anti-war sentiments, minimized dissent, and created a normative cultural environment of patriotism. The “loose lips sink ships” message is an example of how the government established norms of behavior, and also used fear as a driving emotive force behind its propaganda (Little, 2016). Propaganda posters were also designed to create a sense of community-driven war…
With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves, but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the Government and people of the United States....America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other." (Woodrow Wilson's war message)
United States' entry bolstered the Allied forces and gave them extraordinary power over the German Imperial army. With America's entry into the war, things suddenly changed as we were was no longer spectators. The response from the public was however not overwhelming since it had been…
President Woodrow Wilson's War message" accessed online 14th April 2005:
John Bach McMaster. The United States in the World War: D. Appleton & Company. New York. 1918
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
David Fromkin's "A Peace to End All Peace." From the beginning, the review provides intriguing information, including the fact that the title relates to the ideal of "a war to end all wars." The ironic nature of this phrase has been the subject of discussion and occasional mirth for all the years after the war. I was delighted to find out the name of the originator of the term, British commander Archibald Wavell, since this is not something I knew before.
The review provides several pieces of interesting information, including the fact that the British, and particularly Kitchener, were largely ignorant about the social and cultural nature of the Middle East, making the British policy for this region largely ineffective at best and explosive at worst. Another piece of interesting information is the mistaken belief that a conspiracy was underway to undermine the position of the British in the Middle…
Chinese American Women Defense Workers in World War II: Article Review
In the article entitled “Chinese American Women Defense Workers in World War II” by Xiaojian Zhao, the author examines that role that Chinese American women played during WWII when they went to work for the Defense Industry and essentially acted as Chinese American versions of the famous Rosie the Riveter who was popularized during the Women’s Movement of 1970s as a throwback to the wartime era and the empowering position that women assumed on the home front as the men went off to war. Overall the works is very fascinating and provides a lot of details about the lives of many of the Chinese American women who helped make the planes and claim their piece of history in the 1940s. The author’s main purpose in writing the article was to show how Chinese American women were not left out…
discrimination in U.S.
There are people still alive today who remember Jim Crow laws. Half a century ago, segregation of drinking fountains, public restrooms, public buses, and public schools was still legal. Fifty years ago blacks in many states could not make a living except to work in jobs that resembled slavery in their wages and work conditions. The Civil Rights movement ostensibly changed everything. Yet decades of political correctness and affirmative action have all but glossed over the deeply rooted problems of racism and other forms of injustice evident in the daily lives of many Americans. African-Americans are also not the only minority group to suffer from systematic discrimination. Half of all Americans -- black, white, rich poor -- experience daily discrimination at home and in the workplace. Less than a hundred years ago, women could not even vote. Suffrage created twice as many voters and like the Civil…
leadership is crucial to successful political military campaigns. Close scrutiny of the military and political leaders of the First World War demonstrate how political leaders use methods like propaganda and ideology to forge their victories in the psyches of the people, helping military leaders achieve their goals by engendering trust, courage, and conviction in spite of tremendous hardships and even death. Similarly, the victories of military leaders become critical for effective political campaigns. Military leadership requires a different set of tools and tactics than political leadership but both are crucial for desirable outcomes.
One of the most successful political leaders during World War One ended up being Vladimir Lenin, who spearheaded the Bolshevik evolution and ensured the enduring success of Soviet policies. Lenin's leadership skills far exceeded those of Czar Nicholas II, who failed to inspire the people of ussia in the way Lenin had, thus leading to the demise…
Lenin, Vladimir. Appeal for Revolt Issued by Lenin, 19 October 1917. Retrieved online: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lenin_19oct1917.htm
Lenin, Vladimir. Lenin's Proclamation of 7 November 1917. Retrieved online: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lenin_25oct1917.htm
Sir Douglas Haig's 2nd Despatch (Somme), 23 December 1916. Retrieved online: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/haigsommedespatch.htm
Sir Douglas Haig's Final Despatch, 21 March 1919. Retrieved online: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/haiglastdespatch.htm
The soldier is simply unable to live with this corruption. Instead, the narrator continues as his voice by proxy, indicting the society that caused the war and created the atrocity the killed the solder. Likewise, Graves is forever changed by his experience, losing the respect he used to hold for the values and norms of the society that caused the war and failed to understand the effect of the war upon all that was beautiful and young.
In concussion, assoon's and Graves's work compare well as commentaries and criticisms upon what both authors appear to regard as the atrocity of war. assoon's very brief work has its impact in this very brevity, while Graves's detail and individual focus achieves the same effect. Both protagonists are severely traumatized by their experiences. In both works, this trauma does not remain unaddressed. Both authors provide their central characters with a mouthpiece to denote…
Buzzle.com. Siegfried Sassoon -- War Poet. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/7-27-2006-103706.asp
Graves, Robert. Good-bye to All That. Providence: Berghan Books, 1995.
Sassoon, Friedrich. Suicide in the Trenches. Retrieved from http://community.livejournal.com/afoxhuntingman/3587.html
Cornlius Ryan, one of the finest writers of the history of World War II, was born in Dublin in 192. He worked as a correspondent from 1941 to 1945 and covered stories of the battles in Europe for Reuters and the London Daily Telegraph and in the final months of the Pacific campaign.
The first book written, published in 1959, was The Longest Day, that sold four million copies in twenty -seven editions and later in 1962 a film was made on it. However, it is said that The Longest Day was originally published in 1959 and since then it ahs reprinted several times.
Furthermore, another book was published in 1966 The Last Battle, while in 1974, he finished his third book A Bridge Too Far, though at the same time he was undergoing treatment for cancer that killed him in 1976.
Moreover, he was the author was a native…
The WITE initiative was a collaborative approach that drew upon industry, state, local governments as well as the EPA's isk eduction Engineering Laboratory with the overall goal of developing more effective pollution prevention technologies that could assist the electronics manufacturing industry in developing a "crade to grave" approach to managing these products (appaport, 1999).
Besides these earlier efforts, in more recent years, increasingly rigorous laws and regulations have been implemented by the EPA with the goal of minimizing the impact of electronics and electrical device waste on the environment have began to make a major difference in recovering these toxic substances before they ever have a chance to become waste. For instance, pursuant to the above-mentioned esource Conservation and ecovery Act, it is now illegal for companies in the United States to simply discard hazardous waste, including electronics and electrical devices, in normal trash receptacles (The importance of recycling computers,…
Brown, V.J. (2004). Electronics, lead and landfills. Environmental Health Perspectives,
Gaba, J.M. (2008). Rethinking recycling. Environmental Law, 38(4), 1053-1054.
Gebrewold, F. (1999). Current hazardous waste management and disposal practices among small quantity generators. Journal of Environmental Health, 57(2), 11.
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
World War I
Causes and Consequences of World War I
World War 1
(Causes, America's Contribution to the War, ole of President Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles Failure)
The First World War (1914-1918) or the Great War was fought between the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies included 27 countries of which ussia, the United States of America, France, Japan and Britain are the most prominent. The Central Powers consisted of Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary as the chief combatants. It is the greatest and most atrocious war brawled till date.
There were a number of causes that initiated the brutality of World War I Major causes include imperialism, nationalism, materialism and alliance systems. However, the immediate cause of the beginning of the War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the oyal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. As he was killed by a Serbian nationalist in June…
America in the Great War. (2000). Retrieved from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/snpwwi1.htm
Wilson, Woodrow. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053275
World war one - causes. (2011, 01, 02). Retrieved from http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/causes.htm
World War I. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053630
WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944
One of the events that rocked the world and consequently shaped the world was the WWII that commenced effectively in 1939 and ended in 1945. It is however worth noting that some of the conflicts that eventually ended up in the culmination of the WWII started much earlier. The WWII parse involved majority of the nations, including the powerful nations at that time taking sides and aligning themselves and their military and diplomatic allegiance to either the Allies or the Axis, each side forming their combined forces. The commanding forces in the Allies were France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and to some little extent China (odye-Smith J., 2014). One the other side of the divide the Axis were Italy, Germany and Japan. This war was largely seen as a continuation of the WWI bearing the 20 years of unresolved disputes that emanated from…
Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II
Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE
Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp
World War II -- Techniques Adopted by American usinesses to Expand War Production
During World War II, American industry geared up with several highly effective techniques. These techniques included but were not limited to: absorbing factories and workers idled by the Great Depression, building new factories in new geographical areas, attracting workers from rural areas to industrial areas, using blacks and women in significantly greater numbers, and using/improving mass production. Through these methods, U.S. industry met the military demands of World War II and made America rich by the war's conclusion.
American businesses expanded World War II production in several ways, discussed here in no particular order of importance. First, America used existing factories and built many new ones while it also used idle workers and attracted new ones. Post-Depression American was saddled with a significant number of unemployed workers and idle factories; however, by the summer of 1941, more…
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
World War I
The First World War began in the summer of 1914 with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. The conflict lasted through late 1918, concluding with the treaty of Versailles. The war to end all wars, as it was commonly known, was dominated by trench warfare. Due to numerous advances in defense technology and a lack of tactical advances, both the Allied Nations and the Central Powers, were stymied by a lack of military advances. Early victories in France, by the German army, and in Serbia by the Austrian/Hungarian forces proved to be less than decisive, due to miscommunication between the two Central powers.
Not only was this the First war between so many great world powers, additionally this was the first war to be affected by, and ultimately fought, not only on the battle field but also in the press rooms. Due to expansion in…
WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism
The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…
Balfour Declaration. (1917). Knesset. Retrieved from https://www.knesset.gov.il/lexicon/eng/BalfourDeclaration_eng.htm
Bradberry, B. (2012). The Myth of German Villainy. IN: Authorhouse.
Gilbert, M. (1994). The First World War. NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Lloyd-George, D. (1939). Memoirs of the Peace Conference. CT: Yale University
World War I
The Causes and How America Joined the War
The events that led to the causes of the first world war had its roots in the Balkans in late July 1914 and there are causes including political, territorial, and economic conflicts among the great European powers in the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, a complex web of alliances, imperialism and nationalism were some of the other causes that led up to the First World War.
The root for the Second World War lay in the peace accords and the punishments that were meted out to the Germans after the First World War and the sense of humiliation and economic debacle following the end of the First World War.
The animosity between the Americans and the Germans started with the sinking of the Lusitania as she made her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York in…
WWI and Literature
World War I was certainly one of the most productive periods in literature with millions of poets and authors emerging on the scene and each one contributing tremendously to the growth and progress of literature. It is quite strange that while WWI was a deeply disturbing and a largely horrifying experience for most countries, it inspired writers and poets around the globe and this resulted in significant growth of world literature.
In England alone, more than 2000 poets emerged during this period as Harvey (1993) elaborates: "From the very first week, the 1914-18 war inspired enormous quantities of poetry and fiction. The claim that three million war poems were written in Germany in the first six months of hostilities is difficult to substantiate, but Catherine W. eilly has counted 2,225 English poets of the First World War, of whom 1,808 were civilians. For example, William Watson (then…
A.D. Harvey, First World War literature. Magazine Title: History Today. Volume: 43. Publication Date: November 1993.
Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.
Hemingway, Ernest. Complete Poems. Lincoln: U. Of Nebraska, 1983.
Granville Hicks, The Great Tradition: An Interpretation of American Literature since the Civil War. Publisher: Biblo and Tannen. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1967.
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…
Keegan, John. The Second World War. Penguin Books, 1989.
Allen, Thomas. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945. Random House, Inc., 1996.
A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War. Atheneum, 1983.
John Keegan. The Face of Battle. Penguin Books, 1987.
In 1917 ussia suffered two revolutions, which resulted in a drastic change of leadership. Tsarist ussia became Lenin's Soviet ussia and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed shortly thereafter in March 1918 with Germany. The treaty gave Germany much: over a million square millions and 60 million people -- a third of ussia's population -- were annexed. ussia lost railroads, factories, the majority of its coal and iron -- but Germany was in no position to immediately profit from the treaty. The Western Front was calling. ussia gained some peace from the treaty, and could now focus on its internal problems resulting from the recent overthrow and the war effort. Leading up to the treaty, Imperial ussia had suffered devastating casualties and food shortages. The Bolsheviks called for an end to the war on the Eastern Front, and Germany supported this call, allowing Lenin himself to return to…
Grebler, L. (1940). The Cost of the World War to Germany and Austria-Hungary. Yale Keynes, J.M. (1920). The Economic Consequences of the Peace. NY: Harcourt Brace.
Stone, O., Kuznick, P. (2012). The Untold History of the United States. NY: Gallery
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
World War I and the Great Depression
World War I
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria. However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question (The Balkans), and the crises before 1914. The main powers of Europe before 1914 were: (i) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882) and (ii) the Triple Entente of Britain, ussia and France (1907). In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts. Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…
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orld ar I: "The Great ar"
The historical record shows that orld ar I, the "ar to End All ars," did not end war, but rather set the stage for an even greater global conflagration a generation later. This paper reviews the relevant literature to assess the relative importance of diplomacy, imperialism, and nationalism in causing the Great ar (1914-1918), as well as to identify the major players leading Europe to war. An analysis of why this "unwanted war" was greeted with such joy is followed by an assessment of whether this enthusiastic reaction to the outbreak of war was the consequence of domestic tension or simple patriotism and whether the victors' positions after the war reflect their wartime experiences. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the Great ar are presented in the conclusion.
Relative Importance of Diplomacy, Imperialism and Nationalism in Causing the Great ar…
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World War I: Dada
The literary and artistic movement known as Dada originated in the Swiss city of Zurich, at the time of the First World War, as a response to the War as well as the nationalism considered by many to have sparked the war. Inspired by Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism, Constructivism, and other innovative movements, Dadaism's output ranged from poetry, collage, and painting, to performance arts and sculptures (Jones, 2002; Hulsenbeck, 1988). The movement's aesthetic, characterized by contempt for nationalistic and materialistic attitudes, strongly influenced artists in major cities across the globe, such as Berlin, Paris, Cologne, Hanover, and New York, and all ended up creating their own separate groups. Surrealism led to Dadaism's degeneration.
Sickened by the nationalism that triggered WWI, Dadaists were constantly against the idea of authoritarianism, and all kinds of guiding ideologies or group leadership. Their main concern was revolting against the apparent middleclass…
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Hulsenbeck, R. (1988). "En avant Dada: A history of Dadaism." In R. Motherwell (Ed.), The Dada painters and poets (pp. 23-48). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1920)
Jones, A. (2002). Equivocal Masculinity: New York Dada in the context of World War I. Art History, 25(2), 162.
World War 2 Women
World War 2 offered unprecedented opportunities for American women to take up jobs that were previously reserved for men, especially in the defense industry. Before 1940, women were only allowed to work in traditionally female professions like typing or sewing, and they were expected to leave when they gave birth or got married (Anderson). However, World War 2 changed all this and women were allowed to enter into the labor force. Women were mainly taking up the positions that were left vacant by the departing soldiers. World War 2 resulted in many women taking jobs in factories and defense plants across the country.
Due to these jobs, the women had unprecedented opportunities to move into occupations that were exclusively reserved for men. For instance, in the aircraft industry, a majority of workers was women by 1943. There were approximately 350,000 women who joined the military during…