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Again, his initial attempt in forming this belief was to limit the role that man would play in determining the salvation of believers. It was important for him that the Sacrament only be received in faith of God and not through the grace of man, as it were. This is a chief distinction between Lutherans and Methodists; the latter regard the Holy Communion as symbolic of God's grace. Therefore, they perform this sacrament with a significant amount of regularity and frequency that far exceeds that of Lutherans. Lutherans perform the eucharist much more sparingly in order to circumscribe the direct effect that humans have on the chances of salvation and god's divine grace they can bestow upon them.
The specific type of worship that both churches adhere to serves as a key point of commonality and of difference. The Lutheran church is liturgical, and generally follows an established tradition, conservative…
White, James. Protestant Worship: Traditions in Transition. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press. 1989. Print.
White, John. "A Protestant Worship Manifesto." Christian Century. 1982. Web. http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1278
" Owen maintains that it is not important that people engage in the particular actions Jesus engaged in, like washing another's feet, but instead that people strive to express their moral duty of brotherly love, in condescension and mutual helpfulness.
The fourteenth question posed by Owen is, "May not the church find out, and appoint to be observed, such religious rites as being adjoined unto the celebration of God's instituted worship, may further the devotion of the worshippers, and render the worship itself in its performance more decent, beautiful, and orderly, as the appointing of images, and the like?" Owen's answer is, "All acceptable devotion in them that worship God is the effect of faith, which respects the precepts and promises of God alone. And the comeliness and beauty of gospel worship consisteth in its relation unto God by Jesus Christ, as the merciful high priest over his house, with…
Rick Cole of Capital Christian believes that the door cannot stay closed forever, and feels that by offering different services based on music preference is an opportunity for the entire congregation to unite (Garza).
Contemporary worship music began with the Jesus movement of the early 1970's and the rise of charismatic churches, and although it paralleled the growth in contemporary Christian rock and pop music, it remained separate until a few years ago (Levy). It now has become a mix of Christian pop, rock and praise choruses, and a blending of styles that has opened up contemporary worship music to a wider variety of instruments and sounds, such as the Christian bands Sonicflood and Delirious (Levy).
According to John Styll, president of the Gospel Music Association, roughly half of the top twenty Christian and gospel albums sold in 2003 were modern praise and worship music (Levy). Says Styll, "People want…
Eveld, Edward M. "Rock 'n' soul: People across U.S. flocking to Christian music." Knight
Ridder/Tribune News Service. November 14, 2001. Retrieved May 25, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Fitzhugh-Craig, Michelle. "Christian Music Sings Sweetly to Young Souls Fans Multiply As Diversity, Quality Grows." Oakland Tribune. May 05, 2006. Retrieved May 25, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Garza, Jennifer. "The heart of worship: Traditional hymns to today's praise music: Churches are changing their tune to suit different tastes." The Sacramento Bee. February 11, 2006.
Worship is universal. It allows people of various races and ethnicities, backgrounds to come together and pray. However every church and every religion have their key differences. Even in the Christian religion, there are variations existent all throughout Christianity. Some differences are small, while others are fundamental. While attending an African-American Pentecostal Assemblies of the World Church, I was able to see fundamental differences in practice. For instance, the Church is also recognized as Apostolic or as "Oneness" in that they reject the Trinitarian conception of the Godhead in lieu of a concept of God as one person who is expressed in three modes (the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit). As I believe in the Holy Trinity, here in lies the main and fundamental difference in the belief shared by the people of the church and my religious beliefs. As their baptism rights exclude all other modes of…
Costen, M. (2010). African-American Christian worship (2nd Ed.). Nashville: Abingdon.
Cox, H. (2001). Fire from Heaven. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.
Jenkins, P. (2011). The next Christendom (3rd Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Corporate Worship vs. Private Worship
Today, some Christians may be confused about their personal style of worshiping or will question the need for formal worship in an age where everyone's time is valuable and busy schedules are packed. To gain some fresh insights into these issues, this paper sought to answer the question, "Is worshipping together with other believers in formal worship services necessary to a healthy spiritual life?" In this context, formal worshipping means regular and planned church attendance rather than the style of the services that are provided. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly and biblical literature to support the need for corporate worship. This type of worship is not to the exclusion of private worship, but the scriptures show that God wants his followers to have a corporate church to facilitate fellowship among Christians. A summary of the research and…
Arterbury, A.E. (2005, July). Between text & sermon: Psalm 86:11-17. Interpretation, 59(3),
Bailey, B. (2009, September). Bulletin notes. The American Organist, 43(9), 39.
Bailey, K.E. (1983). Poet and Peasant; and, through peasant eyes: A literary-cultural approach to the parables in Luke. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans.
Commission to Worship by Wheeler and Whaley
As a North American Mission oard national missionary and associate director of the Center for Church Planting at Liberty aptist Theological Seminary, David Wheeler is eminently qualified to speak on matters of spiritual study, and his jointly authored book The Great Commission to Worship: iblical Principles for Worship-ased Evangelism demonstrates an extreme aptitude for biblical interpretation and modern empirical inquiry. His co-author Vernon M. Whaley serves as Director of the Center for Worship and Chairman of the Department of Music and Worship Studies at Liberty University, both positions which require a true commitment to evangelical teaching on a societal level. Together, this pair of highly educated religious instructors combine to create a lasting contribution to one of Christianity's most ofte-repeated debates; between the Great Commission given to the Church as an institution and the Great Commandment given to every human being on an…
Wheeler, David, and Vernon M. Whaley. The Great Commission to Worship: Biblical Principles
for Worship-Based Evangelism. (Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing Group, 2011).
Though the idea encompasses any personal relationship with and worship of the divine, it is not nearly that inclusive when examined from a holistic viewpoint. Instead, there are divisions in bhakti worship. "The major forms of bhakti are described by Hindus themselves, not only by their special relation to particular forms of deity, but also according to the various moods of the devotee" (Carman 1987, p. 587). In fact, being a bhakta is an experience that can differ tremendously depending on the individual. Some bhaktas are very similar to monks or priests in other religious traditions, in that their entire existence and living is devoted to the expression of religious devotion. Interestingly enough, those bhaktas may be the most outside of the traditional Hindu experience, which focuses on major life events that have very secular elements, such as marriage and childbirth.
"Each combination of bhava and rasa uses a particular…
Carman, J 1987, Bhakti, Encylopedia of Religion,2nd ed., pp. 856-860.
Gonda, J 1987, Indian Religions, Encylopedia of Religion,2nd ed., pp. 4426-4432.
Hiltebeitel, a 1987, Hinduism, Encylopedia of Religion,2nd ed., pp. 3988-4009.
The History and Development of Contemporary Worship
Biblical Foundations of Christian Worship
The New Testament is, in many ways, the ultimate expression of Christian worship because the Gospels detail the life and teachings of Jesus Christ within the context and community of individuals who believed in Christ even in the midst of persecution. However, to understand the biblical foundations of Christian worship, it is important to first examine the Old Testament. The Hebrew Bible contains the most fundamental "norms of worship," for Christians, even if different churches develop unique patterns of worship consistent with their interpretations of scripture (Segler and Bradley 2006,11).[footnoteef:1] [1: Segler, Franklin M. And C. andall Bradley. 2006. Christian Worship: Its Theology and Practice. B&H Publishing Group, p. 11]
Old Testament worship was primarily concerned with differentiating Jewish worship from pagan and polytheistic worship (Segler and Bradley).[footnoteef:2] Worship is the primary way believers assert and…
Bible: New International Version
Bradshaw, Paul F. And Lawrence A. Hoffman. 1996. Life Cycles in Jewish and Christian Worship. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press.
Cherry, Constance M. 2010. The Worship Architect. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker.
Costen, Melva Wilson. 1993. African-American Christian Worship. 2nd Edition. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
It evolved into a major part of the very fabric of society. Ambassadors from these provinces would report their sacral worship and elaborate religious practices when visiting Rome. Often, these rites and practices were woven into the religious system. The religious system in Rome and in the provinces in the time of Augustus, or Rex Gestae, was steeped in his achievements. He ordered the inscription of these achievements on bronze tablets and in front of his mausoleum. Rome was a functional state, which idealized men as gods who possessed or pursued faith, reason, wealth, salvation, liberty or victory. Cicero wrote that the common custom was for those who brought such great benefits to be deified out of gratitude. Divine honors promoted these virtues and made their possessors more willing to face hardships and dangers in the service of the state. Cicero further wrote that the state could be set into…
Costs, Charles 2003. Emperor Worship. Webberville: Church of Christ. http://webbervillechurchofchrist.org/Study%200Downloads/EMPEROR%20%WORSHIP.pdf (October 30, 2007)
Drew, Ray 2007. Sacral Kingship and Divine Election. All Images. http://www.dear-animals.com/index.htm .(October 30, 2007)
Imber, Margaret 2000. Roman Civilization. CMS 206/History 206. Abacus: Bates College. http://www.abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Rciv/public_relig.htm
UNRV Team 2007. Roman Religion. United Nations of Roman Victrix: UNRV.com. http://www.unrv.com/culture/Roman-religion.php.(October 30, 2007)
In fact, the non-Christ centered religiosity of the Middle Ages helped contribute to the division between the Catholic Church and Protestant churches. "This religiosity was expressed in the cult of the saints, particularly in images and sacred objects, and in the veneration of the eucharist" (James, Protestant, p.26). These practices actually led to the feeling among some Christians of that time period that they had somehow been fooled or tricked into a non-Christ focused type of worship. Moreover, this disagreement continues to mark a major division between Catholicism and Protestant belief; the modern Protestant belief is that worship is based upon the individual's personal relationship with God and is not dependent upon the intervention of a third party.
The final component of Christian worship is that it not dependent on time, place, or manner restrictions. The traditional place for worship is in a church on Sunday morning surrounded by one's…
The United Methodist Book of Worship. Nashville: United Methodist Pub. House, 1992.
White, James F. Introduction to Christian Worship, 3rd Ed. Revised and Expanded.
Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2000.
White, James F. Protestant Worship: Traditions in Transition, 1st Ed. Louisville: Westminster/
Hindu Worship Service on Mahashivratri
India, one of the world's oldest civilizations, is known for its long and rich tradition of religion dating back to the 1028 hymns of the Rig Veda (the world's oldest religious text), probably composed between .C. 1500 and 900. In fact, modern Hinduism can trace its roots back to the Rig Vedas though Hinduism itself changed and evolved, from the earliest icons of worship of Mother Goddesses and 'elements' of nature, to the modern day Hindu belief that life is controlled by a triad of Gods: "rahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer."
Orthodox Hindus offer prayers and perform 'puja' (worship service) religiously and regularly, both in the temple and at home. Sometime ago, I had the opportunity to observe a typical Hindu worship service at a friend's home. My friend belongs to a Tamil rahmin family, which observes all the traditional…
Bahadur, Om Lata. "The Book of Hindu Festivals and Ceremonies." UBS Publishers, 1999
Basham A.L. "The Wonder that was India." Macmillan, 1995
Srinivasan Dr. "How to conduct Mahashivratri Puja." URL:
It was on a Friday night, and the room was mainly made up of older individuals, although there were a few single men and some families with children. Many of them seemed to know one another well, and laughed and talked. hen they approached me as a stranger, I explained what my purpose was -- to observe the use of music during services on a typical Shabbat. They told me that the synagogue was more crowded during the holidays. They said the cantor was well-liked, although they felt that the previous cantor had a better voice. Men and women sat together. The entire sung prayer aspect of the service was in Hebrew. The people seemed comfortable and familiar with the prayers, as they seemed to know when to stand and sit, occasionally rocking with devotion. Their responses to the words of the prayers seemed unforced and confident, again underlining their…
Kolatch, Arthur. The Jewish Book of Why. Jonathan David Publishers, 1981.
Nettl, Bruno. The Study of Ethnomusicology: Twenty-nine Issues and Concepts.
Urbana-Champagne: University of Illinois Press, 1983
" (13) It is thus that Costen poetically paints a picture of an inherently spiritual and devout people channeling their faith in the diaspora. Costen more than adequately achieves the goal of defining a unique, beautiful and empowering culture encapsulated in the intercession of Christianity and African-American heritage.
One of the reasons that the text seemed to be so effective in achieving its aims was in its close emotional connection to the source material. The author writes both with a scholarship and a passion that denote a very clear sense of faith and racial identity, with pride and understanding permeating both. The appeal to biblical scripture for instance is uniquely interwoven with a lucid discussion on the history of the African-American people, from slavery through to the post-Civil Rights Era.
It is in this approach, in fact, that Costen offers the greatest comfort to the devout among this text's readers,…
Costen, M.W. (1993). African-American Christian Worship. Abingdon Press.
This was not the case in Pakistan.
Then I heard the call of prayer. The imam was calling everyone for prayers by reciting the Iqama (which is basically a shorter form of the azaan). An azaan is a call for prayers. People started gathering around in the prayer hall. As a mark of respect I walked towards the courtyard so I could get a better view and not interfere in the prayers. The imam asked all the worshippers to switch off their cellular phones. I guess it's considered rude for the prayers to be interrupted by the ringing of the phone. I could see all the men lining up in formation. They all stood in a straight line and made sure that there was no gap in between. I could see that there was a lot of unity amongst everyone as they made sure that all the gaps were filled…
It was in Sanskrit and Tamil and most people had a piece of paper to read from. There was a tune to it though it was more of chanting than singing.
Showing fire lamps to the Gods
Once the chanting was done, the priest lit a huge lamp with oil and camphor. This is then waved in front of the God in a circular motion and during this time, there is more chanting and prayer. Flowers are also thrown on the deity by another priest who is standing next to the one showing the lamp. Every worshiper stands on either side of the shrine and prays with folded hands. During this process, the bells are going off constantly and loudly.
Bringing the lamp to the worshipers
After the lamp is showed to the God in a circular fashion, it is kept on a plate and is brought to the worshipers.…
Jesus tells his listeners not to worry about what they eat and drink, given that God is infinitely bounteous, despite the fact that the kosher laws are part of the commandments of Mosaic tradition. This shift in emphasis to the importance of poverty and charity required by Mosaic Law, away from specific rituals and concepts of ritual purity indicates that while Jesus respected the teachings of his predecessors, the Law meant something different to him. Jesus did not believe that his interpretation of the Law was new, rather that he thought he offered a more correct and fitting interpretation of Moses' original intention. Jesus preached that righteousness came through a private relationship with God, humility and goodness, not with correctness to dogma and doctrine.
Many of the controversies addressed by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount have been settled. Judaism and Christianity are now separate religions, with distinct views…
The Black gospel music is an efficient tool that can be used in order to explore the roots of the Black religious culture, social as well as political concerns. This makes it an effective tool for passing messages from the scriptures too.
Miller (2007) explores the debate surrounding the contemporary Christian music. His book presents a look at the contemporary music in the Christian churches with a view of aiding in the understanding:
Why it is best to choose the optimum worship style in the process of helping the public in worshiping truly and in a better way
The ways of evaluating the various music styles to be used by various ministries
The ways of dealing with controversy surrounding the use of music in church should it erupt
A view of how the bible as well as scientific studies, church history and missions can be used in the choosing of…
Abbington, J (2001).Readings in African-American church music and worship
Costen, M.W (2004), In Spirit and in Truth -- the Music of African-American Worship .London:
Westminster John Knox Press
Du Bois, W.E.B (1903).Historical Perspective' starts with extracts of the essay The Souls of Black
Duly do ye worship the goddess, ye Latin mothers and brides, and ye, too, who wear not the fillets and long robe.13 Take off the golden necklaces from the marble neck of the goddess14; take off her gauds; the goddess must be washed from top to toe." (Ovid and Fantham)
OVID, a Latin poet, who gained fame and success in 1st Century BC and early 1st Century AD in ome is best known for his works during the reign of the Emperor Augustus. His works include Heroides, Metamorphoses, and Fasti. Fasti is an unfinished series of six books of poems that depict the initial six months of the oman calendar. The month of April which is in book 4, will be analyzed for its beautiful use of language and style. Book IV or 4, covers the telling of stories of the three daughter of Minyas which include forbidden love, godly…
Maguire, Matthew. Phaedra. Los Angeles: Sun & Moon Press, 1995. Print.
Ovid, and Elaine Fantham. Fasti. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
Pinsent, John. Greek Mythology. New York: P. Bedrick Books, 1983. Print.
Theoi.com,. 'Classical E-Text: OVID, FASTI 4'. N.p., 2014. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.
On March 20, 1994, two Skinheads shot several rounds from a high-powered semi-automatic rifle into the stained glass windows of a Eugene, Oregon, synagogue. The shooters were sentenced to terms of 54 and 57 months imprisonment. (The Skinhead International: The United States)
At least in some ways keeping synagogues (and other institutions) safe from neo-Nazi attacks is easier than keeping them safe from Muslim terrorists. hile nearly all Muslims are good people, neo-Nazis are, by definition bad people. They are easier to identify and keeping surveillance on them does not have the same civil rights problems that keeping track of those who affiliate with gangs or other violent groups.
Not all threats to synagogues are violent, of course. Synagogues, like other houses of worship -- and other buildings of course -- are subject to theft and other forms of non-violent "assault" like tagging. hile these are serious, they are less…
Congregation Gesher Shalom Jewish Community Center
Four Arrested in New York for Terrorist Plot against Synagogues http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/ny_synagogue_plot_arrests.htm
Harwood, Matthew. NYC Rabbi Teaches Synagogue Self-Defense.
On one hand, much of the prayers and the Torah reading have a musical component much the same as in Catholic churches. On the other hand, there are no hymns in Jewish services at all, only actual prayers. In Catholic (and other Christian) services, there are hymns that are sung by the choir and by the congregation in addition to the actual prayers. It seemed to me that something in that respect was "missing" in the Jewish services and it seemed that it was less of a communal feeling once the actual services started than I am accustomed to with Catholic Services.
From my understanding, Jews do not believe in Heaven and Hell per se, although they do believe that their actions on earth are judged by God. I was surprised to learn that some Jews do believe in Heaven and Hell while others do not. Their teachings…
" (James, 2006) The strength and force of this ruthless creator of the sun became a justification of Aztec conquest of neighboring persons, in the name of his spirit. As the Aztecs were generated from the space where time began, and as the sun demanded violence and sacrifice and death to come into being, so did the maintenance of their agricultural way of life and society. Sacrifices of inhabitants and conquered people were made to the god recreating the cycle of destruction and rebirth that gave final rise to the final, great fifth sun. These sacrifices were administered by the priests, and recreated the cycle of birth and death, particularly the giving birth of the final generation of humanity from the bones of the dead persons killed in the wars over the first four suns. Sacrifices performed before altars of fire that symbolized the fiery creation of the world.
Four Functions of Mythology." 2006. [27 Jul 2006] http://webzoom.freewebs.com/lanzbom/mythology.doc
James, R. "Quetzalcoatl: The Myth." [27 Jul 2006]
Pacheco, Roxanne V. " Myths of Mesoamerican Cultures Reflect a Knowledge and Practice of Astronomy." Archeology. January 8, 1999. [27 Jul 2006]
Syncretism refers to the blending of religious and cultural traditions, and is a term most commonly applied to the Americas. Although there are more famous syncretic traditions, the ones Nash focuses on blend Mayan with Christian religion. Within the overall context of syncretism, Nash presents the different types of passion plays that have emerged in disparate Mayan communities. With each of these examples, Nash shows how syncretic traditions evolve at once organically but also deliberately as each community chooses which symbols or elements to stress and which to leave by the wayside. In the Amatenango del Valle, Chiapas version, Judas Iscariot becomes closely identified with the devil who prevents the corn plants from growing, while Mary distracts him with liquor so that Jesus can save the fields of corn (Nash 319). In Santiago Matatlan in Guatemala, on the other hand, Judas becomes Maximon, one of the Mayan animal spirits, a…
It is not intended for the contemplation of the reserved sacrament. Under this new principle, Roman Catholic tabernacles are now set in separate chapels or other more appropriate places (ELCA).
Guidelines for Lutheran Churches
These Churches do not recommend the placement or use of eternal flame lamps in the worship area (ELCA 2011). Doing so will give the erroneous belief that God is present only because of the light or that He is absent if the light is off. Lutheran theology affirms the real presence of Christ in the sacrament and the maintenance of the elements for the sick and the homebound. Some Lutheran congregations keep a clear encased light near the elements to honor or indicate the area where these elements are kept but not to worship them (ELCA).
Symbols at the First Presbyterian Church
An acolyte carries a torch during a liturgical procession (FPCreidsville 2011). This light represents…
Anderson, Sherridan. The Use of Candles as a Symbol in Worship. Canadian Centre for Worship Studies: CCSW and Sherridan Anderson, 2003. Retrieved on May 19, 2011
Anderson, Todd D. The Lord be with You! Church of the Master United Methodist:
Otterbein University, 2011. Retrieved on May 19, 2011 from http://www.chmaster.org/education/articles/worship
One of the arguments made by atheists against the existence of God is that there is just no hard, empirical evidence for His existence. Everything ultimately comes down to faith. One believes because one wants to believe—one has faith in God. While it is true that faith is necessary to believe in God, it is false and foolish to say that there is no evidence for God’s existence (Psalm 14:1). Why is it foolish? The reason is simple: the evidence is all around us and all we have to do is admit our own smallness in order to better see the evidence. This is the point that Fulton Sheen makes in his commentaries: whenever we are full of ourselves, of pride, of our own sense of our greatness, we miss the evidence of God’s greatness.[footnoteRef:2] We diminish Him in order to build ourselves up. By seeing the true proportion of…
That is why Jesus says he dislikes the idea of praying, standing in street corners, or making a great show of fasting. The point worship is to be justified before God, not before humanity (Matthew 6). Being overly obsessed with being judged by the community and judging others was not righteousness.
Worship for Jesus is rooted in the cultivation of a personal relationship with God and righteousness of one's soul. Good actions flow naturally from such a relationship. If a Christian does not perform or wish to perform acts of charity there is likely something amiss with his or her relationship with God, but being more ostentatious about giving to the poor is not the answer to the failure of his or her connection to God. Spiritual practices stem from being humble and meek in spirit, not the other way around.
Jesus' expressed point-of-view in Matthew is a powerful rebuke…
Select a eligion
eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. This paper has selected Islam as the religion to be discussed.
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Islam
eligion plays an essential role in providing spiritual, moral and ethical guidelines to individuals in order to apply it into their daily lives (Fisher, 2005). eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. There are several religions in the world, which includes Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism.…
Fisher, M.P. (2005). Living religions (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
McInerney, W. (2003). Instructor's manual with tests: Living religions (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Religion of Islam.(2009). Minnesota State University. Retrieved from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/beliefs.html
Indira Gandhi (India), Empress Myeongseong (Korea), Queen Hatshepsut (Africa).
Indira Gandhi, Empress Myeongseong, and Queen Hatshepsut
Indira Gandhi, Empress Myeongseong, and Queen Hatshepsut represent three female iconic figures in different societies at unique historical times. Indira Gandhi, as one of the most influential women, through the role she played in her attempts to transform the political and social situation in the Indian society. Queen Hatshepsut is one of the female pharaohs who managed to rule the country of Egypt at the expense of male counterparts in the society. In the Egyptian history, she is the most remembered female pharaoh following her qualities during her era. Empress Myeongseong is an iconic figure in the history of Japan. She is considered an iron woman in the ancient Japan based on her tough moves whenever her rule was threatened.
ifferences in the way Indira, Myeongseong, and Hatshepsut ran their societies
The three iconic…
Das, Ratan. 2002. Gandhi in 21st century. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.
Das, Ratan. 2002. Gandhi in 21st century. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.
Yi, Pae-yong, and Ted Chan. 2008. Women in Korean history. Seoul, Korea: Ewha Womans University Press.
In addition, simply from observation, there were people from a vast array of lifestyles present. One way that was obvious was in the attire that people were wearing. Some were dressed in conservative clothing, while a few people were dressed in clothing that could almost be labeled "provocative." In addition, there was a couple who were clearly bikers. There were worshippers of all ages present, though the majority of people seemed to be middle-age or younger.
I can not even begin to estimate how many worshippers were present, but the former stadium was almost full to capacity, which means that there had to have been tens of thousands of worshippers there.
Like many worship services, the service began with music. However, there was no mere choir singing at Lakewood; although a choir did sing, the day also featured a performance by a Christian-music band and a singer whom appeared somewhat…
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Jewish religion also known as Judaism -- is the religion of the Torah, which begins with the "Five Books of Moses and encompasses the Old Testament" (Neusner, 1992, 8). Judaism honors its beginnings as part of the creation of the whole world, Neusner explains. Jews believe that God created the world "…and for ten generations, from Adam to Noah, despaired of creation." Following those ten generations, from Noah to Abraham, God was waiting for humans to finally "…acknowledge the sovereignty of one God," who was authentically the unseen power that created heaven and earth (Neusner, 9).
Most historians explain that Judaism is a "monotheistic faith" (there is but one God) and Jews in turn often find this God "…beyond [humans'] ability to comprehend" and nevertheless Jews believe God is present in everyone's life every day (Pelala, 2013). Moreover Jews believe that each person was created "b'tzelem Elohim" (meaning "in the…
Kol Emeth. (2012). About Us. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.kolemethskokie.org .
Neusner, Jacob. (1992). A Short History of Judaism: Three Meals, Three Epochs. Minneapolis,
MN: Fortress Press.
Pelala, Ariela. (2013). What do Jews believe? Jewish Beliefs. About.com. Retrieved April 15,
Chrislam is not an official religion, but the beginning stages of what some people characterize as a synthesis between two of the major world religions, Christianity and Islam. As an official movement, Chrislam is relatively new, however as both religions are Abrahamic and non-fundamentalists of either religion have long conceded the possibilities of observing both religions simultaneously. However, within the last decade there has been a push for the observation of Chrislam as an actual religion, not simply an expression of tolerance in either religion.
hile Chrislam may be becoming more widely acknowledged in the world, Islam and Christianity have interacted together for thousands of years. Christians and Muslims may have a history of tension, but they also have a history of coexistence. Perhaps, then, it comes as no surprise that Chrislam has really developed in Africa, where Islam and Christianity are the two predominant religions, both having a tremendous…
Groening, Chad. "Chrislam'in Protestant Churches." Onenewsnow. N.p. 3 Feb. 2011. Web.
20 Apr. 2012.
Kerby, Rob. "What is 'Chrislam' and Who Preaches It?" Beliefnet. N.p., 2011. Web. 20 Apr.
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…
The collective power of communal worship cannot be underestimated. Anyone who has attended a religious service knows that being surrounded by like-minded individuals helps solidify and focus faith. Prayers for the ill and petitions to God seem more powerful when they are collective. Whether through song, chanting, repetition of prayers, or silent worship, communal worship is the key to communicating effectively with God.
Worshipping with a community enables honesty, humility, and self-awareness. A community of caring people creates social stigmas and other restraints on deviant behaviors. Those deviant behaviors may be sinful and therefore detrimental to spiritual attainment. Similarly, the act of collective worship creates opportunities for intimacy and honesty. Members of the spiritual group can help each other become better people and more valuable members of their community.
The Christian faith is especially conducive to and dependent on communal worship. In the Bible, Jesus played a primarily social role…
plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…
Episcopal Church "The Columbia Encyclopedia" sixth edition, Columbia University Press 2001.
Episcopal Church "Encyclopedia Britannica" Enclopedia Britannica. Inc. Retrieved. 2007
Steve Klein," The solution to Episcopal Church Problems" by Vista Church of Christ. 2007.
Sydnor William,"Looking at the Episcopal Church" USA. Morehouse Publishing.1980
idolatry: How some object or text discovered by archeologists, or some other type of cultural or literary parallel, enhances our understanding of something in Exodus
dolatry in the ancient Near East -- a non-Exodus Perspective
Over the course of the past several decades in modernity, numerous objects as well as the actual substances of texts discovered by archaeologists, have contributed to the modern understanding of the characterization of so-called 'idol worship' in Exodus as well as other Hebrew texts, texts that have come to have been canonized as 'The Hebrew Bible," as referred to by members of the Jewish religion, or 'The Old Testament,' as such books are frequently referred to by members of the Christian faith.
Up until this point in time, the way that ancient sraelites perceived idol worship held dominance how the people who worshipped idols saw idol worship. However, the Bible frequently mischaracterizes these other…
In Exodus 15:11, the song sung by the Israelites, asking who of "our Lord" is better" among the Gods" suggests a sense that there are other gods present in the world, albeit not superior to their own, liberating force. (Anderson, 273) "Although it does not rule out the theoretical possibility that other gods might exist, it asserts as a practical orientation the fact that only one god can be worshipped," (Anderson 276) and that god is to be worshipped in a special fashion. In stories of Baal, a storm-like God of the Canaanites who defeats the chaos of that eventually gives birth to humanity, some scholars believe that Psalm 29 was originally a hymn to that God that was later adapted by Israelites, changing the name of the god to their own. (Anderson, 274). This sense of closeness of other faiths and possible competition intensified the need to reject other religions of 'idolatry.'
At all times, "the study of Israelite religion should be distinguished from Biblical theology." (Anderson, 1993, 272). In other words, the history of Biblical Israel differs from the study of the Bible as a canonical text today. The intensity of the rejection of other religions should not be read as a condemnation of Israeli temple Judaism. Rather, it is an acknowledgement of the creative religious dynamic that existed at the time. The Israeli religion was to replace the sacred space of the idolized body with the body of the temple, and the ritual rhythms of investing the material substance of idols with the sacred space and temporal, seasonal rituals of sacrifice and the replacement of sacrifice with animal, rather than human offerings, is often taken to be the essential narrative of the Abraham myth.
Sacrifice has also provided, in a highly public manner, the ability to dramatize the service of a people to God. Perhaps, in contrast to such mouth-opening ceremonies, where the act of accessing the divine was willed, the sacrifice that the ancient Hebrews eventually adopted was a way of dramatizing subservience rather than dominance.
Shinto, the indigenous religion of Japan, emphasizes nature to a considerable degree, a distinguishing feature of the faith. Buddhism offers a far more cerebral and philosophical approach, as well as pathways for personal psychological development. Unlike Shinto, Buddhism is not indigenous to Japan and is in fact a foreign religion that simply became entrenched there. In Japan, the two religions often fuse and their temples are found in close proximity to one another. They are not considered mutually exclusive or conflicting; they are both integral to Japanese identity, social norms, and culture.
Shinto places of worship are often referred to as shrines, although that translation is weak in the sense that in English, a shrine can convey a ritualistic altar to a dead person. Although Shinto does include ancestral worship as part of its core features, a Shinto shrine is simply a specific place that is deemed sacred space. To…
They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to their religion. In the two religions, the people can worship in groups or individually. The religions have a leader of worship that is a monk in Buddhism and a Priest in Christianity. The two principles in the religion used parables to teach, and they are egalitarians. The teachings on respecting others and treating them as oneself are acceptable in both religions. They both emphasize on charity towards the poor and aspire for greater spiritual perfection.
The differences are irrefutable, as Buddhism does not talk of a Creator, God while Christianity believes in a divine creator of Universe (allace 26). In Buddhism, the emphasis is on mediation and mindfulness, whereas that of Christianity places stress on prayer. Additionally, Buddhism emphasizes on…
Netland, Harold a, and Keith E. Yandell. Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal.
Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2009. Print.
Wallace, BA. Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.
King, Sallie B. Socially Engaged Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai-i Press, 2009. Print.
Iconodules in Christianity
In history, the Christian religion has developed along various path ways. Currently, there are many different denominations and ideals relating to Christianity. While the basic belief in Christ unifies Christianity, Christians themselves are often faced with a somewhat bewildering choice relating to the sheer amount of differing churches they could attend. Even the early church faced serious disagreements relating to certain ideals of doctrine. One such serious controversy occurred around the seventh century, where believers began to disagree on the use and importance of icons in the church. Basically, the disagreement manifested itself in two basic groups of believers; the iconoclasts and the iconodules.
According to Orfanakos (2011), the Iconoclasts were a group of Christians who believed that the use of icons in the church was entirely improper. The reasoning behind this was the fact that Christ's divinity did not allow his portrayal as an earthly image.…
Icons and Iconoclasm. (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://individual.utoronto.ca/hayes/earlychurch/23icons.htm
Orfanakos, P.J. (2011). The Icon Controversy in the Early Church. Saint Barbara Greek Orthodox Church. Retrieved from: http://www.saintbarbara.org/faith/history/iconcontroversy.cfm
World History Center. (n.d.). The Iconoclastic Controversy. Retrieved from: http://history-world.org/byzantine2.htm
The Case for God's Existence
The Case Against the Existence of God
Many people go to churches, mosques, and synagogs each week to worship God and to pray. ut does God hear those prayers? Does he exist? The debate over God's existence has gone on for centuries and is alive and well in our time. Philosophers, theologians, scientists, and ordinary people have weighed in on the argument. Theologians such as Aquinas and Anselm argued for the existence of God in the Middle Ages, but even in that time, others disputed their contentions. Even some who believe in God argue that proving God's existence through logic, science, or reasoning is impossible because even hard evidence has nothing more than faith behind it. Are the people who worship God wasting their time then? Does God impact their lives? That question can be difficult…
Anselm of Canterbury." The Internet Encyclopedia of Knowledge. 1996. Retrieved 10 December 2002 from www.utm.edu/research/iep/a/anselm.htm.
Bradley, Walter. "The Real Issue: The Scientific evidence for the Existence of God." 14 July 2002 Retrieved 10 December 2002 from http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9403/evidence.html.
Burr, David. "Anselm on God's Existence." Medieval Source Book. 1996.
Retrieved 9 December 2002 from www.fordham.edu/halsall / source/anselm.html
The power of the Orisha guides the santero. Alex told me that the attitude of the priests is very humble, because they don't believe that they are doing anything. All their actions are guided by the Orisha and all the credit belongs with the Orisha too.
I asked Alex to expand on two aspects of Santeria that I was particularly interested in because of their uniqueness. First, I asked about spirit possession. Alex told me that spirit possession is a very important concept because it helps the individual communicate directly with the Orishas. An object as well as a person can become imbued with the spirit of an Orisha. When a person becomes possessed by the Orisha, he or she temporarily acts and even looks like that spirit.
Second, I asked about sacrifices. Alex admitted that animal sacrifices do take place but much less often than they used to because…
De La Torre, M.A. (2004). Santeria: The Beliefs and Rituals of a Growing Religion in America. Grand Rapids: Eerdman's.
Leonidas, C. (nd). Introduction to Santeria. Exploring the Culture of Little Havana. Retrieved online: http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/littlehavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/leonidas_1.html
Leonidas, C. (nd). Santeria and South Florida. Exploring the Culture of Little Havana. Retrieved online: http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/littlehavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/Leonidas_2/leonidas_2.html
Robinson, B.A. (2009). Christian meta-groups: The Pentecostal group of denominations. Religious Tolerance.org. Retrieved online: http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_pent.htm
ut religions aren't the most important in Montgomery county. There also are other things which are very important too. For example, the Montgomery County Archives which collects, preserves, and makes available for public use historical and evidential materials relating to Montgomery County. Its holdings consist of official records of county, and local governmental units, and copies of federal and foreign government materials. esides the official records, we can also mention "private collections, organization records, maps, pamphlets, sound recordings, photographs, motion picture film, and a small reference library" among other sources of information.
There also are a lot of interesting and beautiful places to visit in Montgomery County, a lot of places where one can find precious things to see. Some of them are: Trinity Music Academy, The Montgomery Community Theatre, Montgomery Arts and History Club. All these are important for the county because they kind of represent its pride.
1. Sweet, William Warren.(1952), Religion in the Development of American Culture 1765-1840, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons
2. Citro, Constance F.,(2004). The 2000 Census, Natl Academy Print
3. Smith, Joseph, (2004) The Book of Mormon, NuVision Publications
4." Presbyterianism," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2006
Temple Beth Am Site Visit
For people living in prior generations, the practice of one's religious beliefs was a private expression of faith to be shared only with fellow adherents. Christians worshipped alongside fellow Christians and seldom found either the opportunity or the desire to explore the religious beliefs of neighbors and friends who happened to be Jewish, Muslim, Hindu or any of the hundreds of creeds which are followed freely in the United States. Fortunately, this exclusionary attitude towards religion has been cast aside by today's youth, and people are now encouraged to visit places of worship with which they may not be familiar. As a practicing Roman Catholic, I have always been curious about Judaism, a faith which shares many of its influences with Christianity but has evolved throughout the ages to become the distinctly unique belief system we know today. In order to fully immerse…
Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands
The history of the Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands during the 18th century is as colorful and unique as the flowers that are grown in the region. On December 23, 1826, a treaty between the United States of America and the King of the Sandwich Islands was signed at Honolulu and entered into force. The people who inhabited the islands, took their livelihood out of the ocean waters, and thrived upon their religion and customs continue to romance and mystify the people of today's hurried society. This paper will discuss the people, region, homes, culture, religion and images that make up the interesting historical account of the Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands.
The Polynesians were the first people to live in what is now Hawaii. These people lived off of the sea, and sailed the Pacific Ocean in giant canoes. They arrived in the Hawaiian chain from…
Campbell, I.C. "Cook, James." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 15 Apr. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar132180 .
Goldberg, Jake. Hawaii. New York: Marshall Cavendish. 1998.
Kame'eleihiwa, Lilikala. Hawaiian Mythology. University of Hawaii. 15 Apr 2004. http://www.pbs.org /holomaipele/myth1.html#time
Westervelt, William. Hawaiian Historical Legends.
origin of angels? Can we become angels? What is the duty/purpose of angels? How have angels interacted with people from Genesis to Revelation? Should angels be worshipped or prayed to? How should we live in light of this doctrine? Angels are immensely popular today because people still need to feel close spiritually to each other, and to the Lord. Angels are a bridge between our world and the spiritual world, and they help guide us toward better lives. Angels are certainly among us, and they always will be.
Angels have always been unique and special beings, and their growing popularity today illustrates how we, as a nation, are still seeking spiritual fulfillment in our lives. Angels are wise beings who have many powers, and serve God, unless they have fallen, when they serve Satan. The ible discusses angels throughout its pages, but early on, the origin of angels is…
Bush, Trudy. "On the Tide of the Angels." The Christian Century.1 Mar. 1995: 236+.
Goode, Stephen. "Angels Look Homeward." Insight on the News. 7 June 1999: 18.
New American Standard Bible. La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation, 1995.
Radlach., T.O. "Angels." The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge: Embracing Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology and Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Biography from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Eds. Albert Hauck, and Samuel Macauley Jackson. Vol. 1. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1908. 1-389.
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…
Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.
Tanner, N.P., ed. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. London: Sheed
" Therefore, the Second Coming and the Rapture are coincidental events, both of which have to do with Christ returning to Earth. The Rapture specifically refers to what happens to human beings. Once Christ returns, the "thousand-year reign" on Earth begins. According to the FFM website, "Jesus Christ will one day return to bring believers home to Heaven and will reign with them over the Earth for 1,000 years." The thousand-year reign has scriptural origin, and is also called the Millennial Reign of Jesus. A "new heaven and earth," ostensibly a holier and happier one, will result from the Second Coming.
Speaking in tongues is a phenomenon that occasionally accompanies the baptism rite. Many Protestant and evangelical groups encourage speaking in tongues as proof of one's salvation during baptism (Robinson 2005). More formally known as "glossolalia," speaking in tongues is considered to be a supernatural manifestation of the glory of…
'History." Faith Fellowship Ministries.org.< http://www.faithfellowshipministries.org/history.html>.
"Our Beliefs." < http://www.ffmwoc.org/FFM3/Beliefs.html>.
Robinson, B.A. (2005). "Comparing the Beliefs of Roman Catholics and Conservative Protestants." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: Religious Tolerance.org.< http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_capr.htm >.
However, this trait is magnified in Shintoism because the religion developed in close relationship to the rest of Japanese culture. While a person who, say, married a Japanese person could follow Shinto practice, it is unlikely that someone outside Japan or a Japanese family would do so (Japan-guide).
HOLIDAYS and TADITIONS
Unlike most other religions, celebrations are typically local festivals that focus on local shrines. This is because the festivals honor the kami living in those shrines (Author not given, 2004). Thus, use of festivals and ceremonies varies from location to location. Some festivals may take place over several days (Japan-guide). So, although Shinto is a unifying cultural trait throughout Japan, the expression of the religion can vary greatly from location to location.
However, some traditions are practiced nationwide, such as Kagura, or ritual dances performed to traditional music. Many people wear mamori, or charms intended to protect and heal.…
Author not given. Last updated July 2, 2004. Brief history of Shinto, in About Specific Religions, Faith Groups, Ethical Systems, Etc. Accessed via the Internet 7/12/05. http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm
Japan-guide.com. "Shinto." Accessed via the Internet July 12, 2005. http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2056.html
Kumagai, Fumie. 1995. "Families in Japan: Beliefs and Realities." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 26:1, pp. 135+.
Religious Service Reflection
My chosen observation was of the Jehovah's Witnesses, a fundamentalist Christian organization. I have never known very much about them other than the fact that they have a community ministry, offering their pamphlets from door to door. They are often ridiculed for their beliefs against traditional celebrations such as Christmas, Halloween and birthdays. I know people who believe that they are a cult; however, I do recall a boy from elementary school who was a Jehovah's Witnesses. He did not salute the flag or participate in holiday parties with the rest of the class. He was nice, stayed to himself a lot and was a very good student. I was always a bit curious about him and thought I'd try to learn more.
As a Christian, I have always been skeptical of the Witnesses because of what I viewed as their extreme and improper beliefs. By chatting…
In spite of the conflicts between the world's great monotheistic faiths, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share much in common. Each of these religions was born in the Middle East, and each of these religions values sacred texts as being important ways for human beings to receive the word and knowledge of God. As monotheistic religions, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam eschew idol worship or the worship of Gods that are not their own. At the same time, these religions have very similar concepts of God. The Gods of each of these four religions in omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent: a concept of God that actually originated with Zoroastrianism ("God, Zoroaster, and Immortals," n.d.). Zoroastrianism is the oldest of these four faiths, followed by Judaism. The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are collectively referred to as "people of the Book" because all value the Hebrew Bible, which is known…
"Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an." Retrieved online: http://people.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO4_QuranBeliefs.html )
"God, Jesus, and the Saints." BBC Religions. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/beliefs/basics_1.shtml
"God, Zoroaster, and Immortals." BBC Religion. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian/beliefs/god.shtml#findoutmore
Huda. Allah (God) in Islam. Retrieved online: http://islam.about.com/od/godallah/a/god.htm
As an example of the Chavin builder's keen attention to seemingly minor design details, the author's highlighted the monument's multifaceted use of structural columns throughout Chavin de Huantar's Old Temple and Circular Plaza, observing that "these structural columns ... are the only two architectural stages, illustrating possible ways in which builders at Chavin de Huantar may have adapted and continued architectural meaning across major architectural stages" (64). In the estimation of Conklin and Quilter, the Chavin people demonstrated an uncanny ability to evolve architecturally, imbuing the design of their civilization's greatest monument with a sense of continuity that expanded its influence across the span of generations.
One of the primary motivations for Chavin builders to design Chavin de Huantar with continuity as their goal was that the site served as the center of worship, celebration, and ceremony for many thousands of people across hundreds of miles of territory. Despite the…
Conklin, William J., and Jeffrey Quilter. Chavin: art, architecture, and culture. Vol. 61. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, 2008.
Jesus and Mohammed -- Their Lives & Legacies
Jesus Christ and Mohammed are thought of historically -- and today as well -- as the two individuals that have probably had the greatest impact on the world in a spiritual and religious context. hile other iconic spiritual and religious leaders have made their mark on history and society, Jesus (who founded Christianity; today there are an estimated 2.8 billion followers) and Mohammed (Islam's most holy figure; there are an estimated 2.2 billion Muslims), Jesus was believed to be the Son of God, who came to earth to offer humans an opportunity to have everlasting life. Mohammed, on the other hand, is believed to be the prophet who received the text of Islam from God and led the growth of Islam.
This paper traces the lives of Jesus and Mohammed, compares the impact that their deaths had on society, describes the way…
Biography. (2005). Jesus Christ Biography / Synopsis. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.biography.com .
Boff, Leonardo. (2011). Passion of Christ, Passion of the World. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books
History-Timelines. (2007). Timeline of Jesus. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.history-timelines.org.uk .
Public Broadcast Service. (2006). The Life of Mohammed. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org .
This will lead automatically and inevitably to the near-worship of certain personalities and entities in the civic realm.
Glenn Beck is not actually an office holder, nor is he truly likely to become one (at least on a national level), and he also includes religious (specifically Christian, and even more specifically a brand of evangelical Christian) thought in many of his messages. Yet his following is also evidence of the Orwellian replacement of religious figures with civic figures, and the manner in which the state itself is becoming the focus of worship. Beck and others like him -- on both sides of the political spectrum -- attempt to make the government a matter of morality and directly codified values rather than a matter of ethicality and democratic equality. That is, these personalities insist that there are clear "rights" and "wrongs" in matters of policy that are part of moral absolutes,…
" 1). The story also portrays the roles of women as incredibly passive. When Ghatotkacha dies, his mother is left vulnerable and is "rendered helpless at the unexpected death of the main pillar of her security," (Bandyopadyay "A Study in Folk 'Mahabharata:' How Balarama Became Abhimanu's Father-in-Law." 1). This was then adopted by Islamic tradition to show the nature of the woman's role within typical life.
The two versions of the Indonesian and Indian portrayals of Ghatotkacha's story have their similarities and differences. According to research, the Mahabharata entered into Indonesia through Java around the first century CE. As it traveled deeper into Indonesia, there were slight variations which were created out of adapting the tale to traditional Indonesian culture. The two are incredibly similar, "the Indonesian version of Mahabharata has great resemblance with the Indian folk-versions," (Bandyopadyay "A Study in Folk 'Mahabharata:' How Balarama Became Abhimanu's Father-in-Law." 1). Yet…
Bandyopadyay, Indrajit. "A Study in Folk 'Mahabharata:' How Balarama Became Abhimanu's Father-in-Law." Epic India. 17(28). 2008. Retrieved 14 Nov 2009 at http://www.epicindia.com/magazine/Culture/a-study-in-folk-mahabharata-how-balarama-became-abhimanyus-father-in-law
Bandyopadyay, Indrajit. "Variations in Indonesian Mahabharata." Boloji. 2009. Retrieved 14 Nov 2009 at http://www.boloji.com/hinduism/145.htm
Chaturvedi Badrinath, The Mahabharata: An Inquiry in the Human Condition, New Delhi, Orient Longman. 2006.
Chidambaram, Vijay. "Ke Sera." Word Press. 2007. Retrieved 15 Nov 2009 at http://thevc.wordpress.com/2007/12/01/ke-sera-sera/
This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).
A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…
CESA. The Xhosa. People Profile. Central Eastern Southern Africa, 2008. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 at http://cesa.imb.org/peoplegroups/xhosa.htm
Christian Action. The National Suicide of the Xhosa. Vol 2. The Christian Action
Cornwell, Jane. Sweet Sounds of Freedom. The (London) Independent: Independent
lives Jesus Mohammed relation respective religion. The paper formatted APA guidelines, include research sources. Be complete steps paper: 1. Trace lives Jesus Mohammed historically.
Jesus and Mohammed
Standing as the two principal religions on the planet, Christianity and Islam are most recognized for the individuals who made it possible for them to exist. Jesus is the major figure in the world of Christianity while Mohamed is the central figure in the Islamic world. Given religion is presently one of the most debated topics, one of the best methods of understanding each of the two religious faiths would be to analyze the characters that stand at the base of each of them.
Although there is no exact evidence to demonstrate when Jesus was born, most sources point toward the belief that the act occurred somewhere before the death of King Herod the Great. There are a series of scholarly accounts meant…
Rausch, Thomas P. "Who is Jesus?: an introduction to Christolog." (Liturgical Press, 2003).
Sarker, Abraham. "Understand My Muslim People." (Barclay Press, 2004).
Space and Things: Incarnating the Sacred
When faced with the term "religion," it is more common than not that a person would associate the word with some kind of symbol. Christianity, for example, is associated with the cross, Judaism with the Star of David, and so on. Festivals also play an important part in making religion real to its adherents. Many Christians, for example, celebrate Easter as the victory of Christ over death. There are also many, many Catholic festivals that celebrate various events in the Christian tradition. Buddhism also includes many different festivals, including the Plowing Festival and the Festival of the Tooth. These, as well as traditional ceremonies and festivals, are often extremely colorful. Symbols are also often made into material objects such as jewelry that the adherent can wear to demonstrate his or her affiliation to a certain religion. And example of this includes medallions, such as…
A Virtual Village (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://virtualvillage.wesleyan.edu/topics/religion.html
Buddhist Ceremonies (n.d.) Festivals and Special Days. Retrieved from: http://www.buddhanet.net/festival.htm
Copeland, M.A. (2011). The Epistle to the Hebrews: Marks of Spiritual Immaturity. Retrieved from: http://executableoutlines.com/he/he_12.htm
Kummar, D. (2008). Never a Moment When we are not in Touch with Spirit. Retrieved from: http://www.divyaakummar.com/test/Spiritual_vs_Material.php?main_Page=98&fileID=1711
As an adolescent, Mohamed managed to make use of his businessman nature and his remarkable communicational skills. At the age of twenty five he was entrusted with taking care of the caravans of a rich widow which he later married. Being very fond of religion, Mohamed paid a great interest to udaism and Christianity, but was quick to dispose of both of them as he didn't share the principles of the two. He often visited a temple in Mecca where people were worshiping three hundred and sixty Gods. Mohamed felt attracted by Allah, the moon God, and began to claim that the moon God had been the one true God people should worship. As a very religious man that he had been, Mohamed was known to dedicate several weeks to the divinity by praying in a cave near Mecca where he allegedly had numerous visions of God and of heaven.…
Jesus or Mohammed. Retrieved Aug. 29, 2008. Available at http://www.tftw2.org/Tracts/mohammed.html
Biography of Jesus Christ. Retrieved Aug. 29, 2008. Available at http://www.sacklunch.net/biography/J/JesusChrist.html
Religion Facts. Retrieved: Aug 29, 2008. Available at http://www.religionfacts.com
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…
Describe the object in detail. What is the medium? What is the color and size? If there are human figures what are they doing? How are they posed? What are they wearing? What are the expressions on their faces?
According to the website of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, The Hope Hygieia is a marble, life-sized statue of the ancient goddess of health that was originally discovered in the ancient Roman port of Ostia in 1797. It was originally owned by the British collector Sir Thomas Hope before being sold to William Randolph Hearst, who donated it to the city of Los Angeles in 1950. Over the years, the statue has been restored, de-restored to the condition in which it was originally found, the re-restored at the Getty Museum in 2006. This is a white marble statue with the clothing and hairstyle of a young Roman…
Supreme Court has ruled that soliciting money in a busy airport is something that the government can stop because it is so disruptive. What other activities do you think the government could prevent because they are too disruptive?
It's a little hard to justify how the Supreme Court found asking for solicitations in an airport to be "too disruptive," because the person being solicited simply has to say "No thanks," and go on his or her way." We see people soliciting for organizations in busy intersections. If the car in front of us has to fish for money, they can delay progress through the intersection, which could lead to accidents. That seems like far more of a disruption, and yet it seems to fall within the law. It would seem, based on the airport ruling, that if soliciting in an airport can be banned, then collecting money in intersections could…