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Wounded Knee by Heather Cox ichardson
Heather Cox ichardson covers a number of salient aspects of the massacre at Wounded Knee in her work of non-fiction, Wounded Knee. Aside from detailing the events that directly led to this wanton waste of human life, the author spends a good deal of time explaining the zeitgeist prevalent at the end of the 19th century. As such, she keeps the reader fully informed of the events that substantially contributed to the deaths of approximately 300 Native Americans, many of who were unarmed and attempting to run for their lives. Her expertise is based on the fact that she has written three other historical non-fictions works, and is a professor of history at Amherst University.
The principle thesis of this work is that the massacre was the result of partisan politics of then-presidential incumbent Benjamin Harrison. The author propounds the notion that Harrison was…
McCaskey, J. (2010). Wounded Knee: Party politics and the road to an American massacre. http://origins.osu.edu / Retrieved from http://www.dreamscape.com/morgana/wkmiles.htm ;
Jenkins, Philip. A history of the United States. (New York: Palgrave. 1997)
During December 29, 1890, about five hundred American troops went out near Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota to meet hundred of unarmed Lakota Sioux men, women, and children. Apart from the Sioux seemed outnumbered and demoralized, they also posed no threat to the solders and indicated no sign of resistance. However, the American went a head to open fire causing the death of about three hundred Sioux; the tragic event gaining a title Wounded Knee Massacre. ased on this, Heather Cox Richardson who was a historian tries to indicate that the origin of this event does not lay in the west but in Washington, where could the lawmakers be, entangled in a desperate midterm election battle, trying to gain votes using an old age political tool known as fear.
The details in the Heather Cox Richardson book forms the history of the 1890 massacre, a story that many…
Both cases experience unfortunately Sioux to be in the way. Whatever was also being done by the politicians, which is forcefully argued by Richardson to mean trying to stay in power. For Harrison and the Republicans meaning increasing their Congressional majorities, to keep secret of keeping precedence in 1892, using the new Western state creation with voters sympathetic to the Republic party, within areas such as Dakotas. Indeed, that just confirms to use where Sioux lived as well as where their treaties with the government of U.S. And had given them assurance that they could continue to treaties that was to protect their lands. Richardson argues that these forces come together to imply government policies that facilitates progressive reduction of Sioux lands, which promoted conflict, in addition to massacre at Wounded Knee.
Richardson in rewriting this cautionary tale must have realized the commonalities with the politics of today and polemics. Generally this book reveals the relevant of history in identifying lessons that we had supposed to have learned far before, and which what we have not learn imperil us yet again.
Heather Cox Richardson's "Wounded Knee: Party Politics and the Road to an American Massacre"
The Wounded Knee Massacre took place on December 29, 1890, and it marked an important chapter in Native American -- U.S. relations. This event generated much controversy due to the high number of casualties involved and because American troops were believed to take advantage of their position with the purpose of murdering innocent natives. Heather Cox Richardson's book "Wounded Knee: Party Politics and the Road to an American Massacre" goes at providing readers with a whole new understanding of the episode. The writer emphasizes that the matter is much more complex and that American politicians played an important role in making the event possible.
While most people are familiarized with the Wounded Knee Massacre, very little actually know the event's background. The fact that it all seemed like a set of unfortunate circumstances coming together was…
Cox Richardson, Heather, "Wounded Knee: Party Politics and the Road to an American Massacre," (ReadHowYouWant.com, 2010)
Bury My Heart at ounded Knee
Dee Brown's "Bury My Heart at ounded Knee" is a fully documented account of the genocide and displacement by the United States government and military of an entire race of people, human beings, natives of the land that spanned from sea to shining sea. This unthinkable inhumane act was done in the name of Manifest Destiny, a name Congress gave to this movement. Brown documents battles and defeats of the Navaho, Nez Perces, Cheyenne, Apache, Utes, the Sioux and other tribes against a relentless and dishonorable government.
The Great Sioux Nation, once comprised of almost a quarter of the land mass of the continental United States, signed the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1868, establishing the Great Sioux Reservation. This treaty brought a halt to the Red Cloud ar of 1966-1868. Under the terms of the treaty, the United States military was to keep all…
Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee. Henry Holt & Company,
Incorporated. December 2000.
Wounded Knee Massacre really caused by the Ghost Dance eligion?
The Massacre termed as the Wounded Knee happened in 1890 was referred to have taken place by the army of the U.S. It was a terrific event that was really challenged by the American community, the Natives. It was popularly called as the last conflict of Indians with the Americans. During the year end, there came a full stop to all the conflicts between U.S. government and the armed Indians by the U.S. Army-Seventh Cavalry. (www.eyewitnesstohistory.com)
People who practice the Ghost Dance went to a spot named Pine idge located in southwestern Dakota in order to defend themselves. This happened on a cold forenoon on December 29 (Dewing P.35). The Miniconjou Sioux (Lakota) tribe people tried to escape the arrest by fleeing to the south rugged terrains that are located at the Badlands. They were led by the Chief Namely…
Brown, D. (1970). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York: Holt.
Knoedl, M. (2016, December). Ghost Dance at Wounded Knee: Definition & Ceremony. Retrieved from Study: http://study.com/academy/lesson/ghost-dance-at-wounded-knee-definition-ceremony-quiz.html
Leonard, A. (2016, December 4). The Wounded Knee Massacre. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/thewoundedkneemassacre/thesis
Lipps, E. (2016, December 4). The Wounded Knee Massacre. Retrieved from
Unfortunately, the Natives are still facing many social and economic barriers to success.
In conclusion, "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee" is a compelling and difficult book to read. It tells the graphic history of the Native Americans, and indicates that their way of life was paramount to their well being, their culture, and their very existence. So many of them attempted to hold on to their old ways even as they were ripped from their lands and moved to strange, uninhabitable places. Their character, their strength, and their dignity comes through in their history, and Brown's book makes them sympathetic, but never undermined their proud determination to survive and thrive. As ed Cloud says in the book, "When the white man comes to my country he leaves a trail of blood behind him" (Brown 103). That blood may have dried, but it will always be there in Native American…
Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. An Indian History of the American West. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2001.
Lyman, Stanley David. Wounded Knee 1973: A Personal Account. Eds. Floyd a. O'Neil, June K. Lyman, and Susan McKay. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
Mieder, Wolfgang. "The Only Good Indian is a Dead Indian: History and Meaning of a Proverbial Stereotype." Journal of American Folklore 106.419 (1993): 38-60.
Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…
American History since 1865: Wounded Knee
1988. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Amerman, Stephen Kent.
2003. Let's get in and fight!" American Indian political activism in an urban public school system, 1973. The American Indian Quarterly. June 22. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
Cheyenne Indians and the Ghost Dance
The Cheyenne people are Native Americans of the Algonquian language family. They are of the Great Plains culture area. The name Cheyenne means 'people of an alien speech,' and was given to them by the Sioux.
The Cheyenne call themselves Tsetschestahase or Tsistsistas, which means 'beautiful people' or 'our people.'
Originally farmers, hunters, and gatherers in the land that is now central Minnesota, however, during the late 17th century, the Cheyenne were driven out of the area by the Sioux and Ojibwa tribes.
Gradually they migrated westward and settled in the area that is now North Dakota, but were forced to move south when the Ojibwa destroyed their settlement in 1770.
When the Cheyenne reached the lack Hills of South Dakota, they changed from farming and hunting and living in permanent villages to a nomadic life following the uffalo herds.
When the horse was…
The Cheyenne Indians
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…
"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org /weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Global news provides Americans with a ringside seat to political prisoner issues across the world. Americans hear about people who are taken as prisoners, charged with a crime, but the general consensus remains that they are actually prisoners because they angered the government of either their homeland or the government of the nation they lived in. Americans sit tight and secure in the belief that those type of things could never happen in this country, until they hear about the case of Leonard Peltier. Leonard Pielter has languished in prison for three decades for murder. Anyone who hears about this case choose a camp. One side believes he belongs in prison and deserves the sentence he received. Others believe that he is being used as a pawn in a political show of defiance. This paper will provide a case study that will determine whether or not Peltier is…
Canadian Extradition Proceedings (1976) accessed 3-30-04
Extradition hearing: May 1976
____ (1993). Indian Activist's Lawyer Recounts Trial,
The stage was set for violent onflit (Inident at Oglala).
The Amerian Indian Movement
The Amerian Indian Movement (AIM) emerged in the 1960s during the ivil rights era. It started in urban areas to protest oppression of the Indian people and to support their traditional way of life. They desribed themselves as "an indigenous, land-based spiritual movement, a all to Indian people to return to their sared traditions and, at the same time, to stand firm against the tide of...European influene and dominane" (ited in Sanhez, Stukey, and Morris, 1999).
The AIM tried to attrat attention to Indian problems by demonstrating and protesting the government's refusal to honor its treaty agreements with the Indians. The government pereived the AIM ativism as subversive, militant, and dangerous. A onfidential FBI report written in 1974 titled, "The Amerian Indian Movement: A Reord of Violene," began: "Sine 1971, the Amerian Indian Movement (AIM) has…
cited in Sanchez, Stuckey & Morris, 1999, p. 38). The government was sympathetic to the Wilson regime and unwilling to protect members of the AIM.
On the day of the incident, two FBI agents, Coler and Williams, drove onto the Reservation, looking for an Indian named Jimmy Eagle who was wanted for stealing a pair of cowboy boots. The agents were in separate cars. They had learned that Jimmy Eagle was seen driving a red pick-up truck the night before and radioed that they were following a vehicle that matched the description. They came fast into a camping area where families were staying in teepees. Witnesses who were in their tents said they heard shots. Because of all the violence they had been experiencing, the men immediately got weapons and went to see what was happening. They saw the agents exchanging fire with people
By then I'll be ninety-seven. I don't think I'll make it. My life is an extended agony. I feel like I've lived a hundred lifetimes in prison already. But I'm prepared to live thousands more on behalf of my people. If my imprisonment does nothing than educate an unknowing and uncaring public about the terrible conditions Indian people continue to endure, then my suffering has had - and continues to have - a purpose.
Peltier, who was sentenced to the two concurrent life terms in 1977, has produced some critically acclaimed oil paintings while at Leavenworth, according to an article in the journal the Progressive (July, 2001). "Painting is a way to examine the world in ways denied to me by the United States Justice system, a way to travel beyond the walls and bars of the penitentiary," Peltier is quoted as saying.
Meanwhile, on page 17 of his book,…
Leonard Peltier Defense Committee. "Who is Leonard: Biography of Leonard Peltier."
The Case of Leonard Peltier: Native American Political Prisoner. January, 2003.
McKiernan, Kevin. "Put a Close to This Sad Chapter." Los Angeles Times 7 January 2001: A18.
Peltier, Leonard. Prison Writings: My Life is My Sundance. New York: St. Martin's
The struggle continued until 1980. The historian continues, "In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the ruling in United States v. Sioux Nation. The Sioux were therefore owed $17.5 million for the land value at the time of the taking, plus interest at 5% a year."
However, the Natives turned down the money because they would give up their claim to the land if it was paid out, and demanded return of the land, instead. They still have not regained control of the land. Initially, the Treaty of Fort Laramie seemed like a blessing for the Native Americans, and it gave them trust in the government. However, the U.S. repeatedly ignored the treaty, and the Natives began to learn not to trust the government or its intentions.
The Struggle for the Black Hills has not ended for the Natives, and it has been a long and difficult struggle, unlike the…
Giago, Tim. 2002. DLN Issues: The Black Hills. Dakota-Lakota-Nakota Human Rights Advocacy Coalition. http://www.dlncoalition.org/dln_issues/black_hills_articles.htm (accessed12 March 2009).
Johansen, Bruce Elliott, ed. The Encyclopedia of Native American Legal Tradition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Johnson, Andrew. "Wounded Knee, 1890: Historical Evidence on Trial in the Classroom." Teaching History: A Journal of Methods 28, no. 2 (2003): 59+.
Bruce Elliott Johansen, ed., the Encyclopedia of Native American Legal Tradition (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998), 31.
Then they began dancing, wheeling from one quadrant of the sacred circle to the next, drawing everyone into the circle until all were within the center (ink 2000). A stick was planted in the earth that would flower as a sign of life and hope for the Sioux tribe (ink 2000).
Black Elk never doubted that his vision depicted the harmony and life that the Great Spirit wanted for all human beings on earth, yet due to the suffering the Sioux endured by the United States policies, he felt that the vision had failed, and even blamed himself (ink 2000). Toward the end of his life, Black Elk once said,
And now when I look about me upon my people in despair, feel like crying, and I wish and wish that my vision could have been given to a man more worthy. I wonder why it came to me, a…
Black Elk. Retrieved November 27, 2006 at http://home.pacbell.net/wgraetz/wgraetz/black.html
Downey, Anne M. (1994, September 22). A broken and bloody hoop: the intertextuality of 'Black Elk Speaks' and Alice Walker's 'Meridian.' MELUS. Retrieved November 27, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hoxie, Frederick E. (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 1996. Pp. 73,74.
lack Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux
This book is about the life and development of an Indian medicine man, lack Elk. From a historical perspective the life of lack Elk is significant as he was present at the famous he attle of the Little ig Horn and he survived the Wounded Knee Massacre1890. lack Elk is also an important figure as he represents the Sioux people as a holy man or medicine man. The cultural as well as the spiritual aspects of the story of lack Elk also provides the modern reader with insight into the culture of the American Indian.
This book also has a message for the modern person living in a world such as ours, where war, poverty and other problems such as climate change have caused humanity to look at other cultures and views of life for…
Black Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux. Web. 7 Nov.
2011. ( http://www.humanresonance.org/black_elk.pdf).
This intervention by U.S. In a foreign country, in literal words, changed the course of history for the whole world and still its outcomes are yet, to be decided.
The attack on U.S. By Al-Qaeda, on 11th September, 1998, changed the course of American paradigm of Muslims and gave a strong cause for George Bush's "ar against Terrorism." here thousands of American citizens died in Twin Towers, so did the global efforts of maintaining peace between estern and Muslim countries.
Right after, this attack, U.S. invaded Afghanistan initially through Missile attacks and then landed its troops into this land of rocks, physically. Thousands of American soldiers were deputed there and made to fight the mujahids of Al-Qaeda who were rather well-versed with the seasonal feasibility of their land.
Therefore, initially, U.S. army did faced a lot of difficulties, mainly because of weather and foreignness of the war field. However with…
Bean, Lowell John. "Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California." Berkeley, California: University of California Press.1972
Bean, Lowell John. "Cahuilla," in California" pp. 575 -- 587. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1978
Bean, Lowell John, Sylvia Brakke Vane, and Jackson Young. " the Cahuilla Landscape:
Brown, Glenn . "Chapter XX Sculpture." History of the United States Capitol. Government Printing Office. 2007
Lance and the Shield
Most Americans have some vague idea of who Sitting Bull was - some image that can be dredged up out of memory of a solemn man, sitting very upright, with all the cares of a people written across his face.
But most of us do not have any comprehensive sense of what his contributions were to his own people or to the American nation as a whole. Robert Utley helps fill in the gaps in our collective memory with The Lance and the Shield: The Life and Times of Sitting Bull. The book is an example of what is often called "new history" in that the style is quite literary. Utley has also written, at least to some extent, from the perspective of the Lakota Sioux: This is not an entirely objective portrait of Sitting Bull. However, this should not be interpreted to be a criticism…
Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (2002), lack Elk (1863-1950) was a Native American religious leader of the Oglala Lakota band of the Sioux tribe. lack Elk, who at the age of 17 had a vision of the Lakota people rising up and freeing their lands from the white settlers, tried to find ways of reconciling his people's traditions with Christianity and the encroaching reality of white dominance. This vision was a famous one among the Sioux in which the Powers of the World told lack Elk of a "fearful road, a road of troubles and of war. On this road you shall walk, and from it you shall have the power to destroy a people's foes" (Neihardt, p. 29). Reality, unfortunately, would prove to be quite different. The whites were eventually successful in obliterating the Native Americans' way of life and subjugating the peoples.
This reality, however, was not easily accepted by…
Black Elk. Retrieved from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, December 10, 2002. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=762504935
Neihardt, John G. (Flaming Rainbow). Black Elk Speaks: Being the Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1972.
Ballantine, Betty and Ian Ballantine. Eds. The Native Americans: An Illustrated History. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing, 1993.
Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. 500 Nations: An Illustrated History of North American Indians. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
Both Tayo and Crowe begin their journeys wandering between two worlds. Both are aware of their wandering and are constantly searching for an identity that will allow them to find the world and identity in which they are most suitable for inclusion. Similarly, both Crowe and Tayo experience a traumatic event that leaves them haunted not only by their pasts, but also guilty about their own actions in the past and sure that these actions have caused others pain. Additionally, these hauntings result in both Tayo and Crowe pushing away the ones they love. For Crowe it is his wife and for Tayo, his family. The similarities between the characters of Tayo and Crowe, therefore, suggest the truth of Saez and insbro's claims. Ethnic writers Shyamalan and Silko certainly employ a common theme of exclusion and inclusion, a theme that is encompassed by the larger theme of the presence of…
The Sixth Sense. Dir. M.Night Shyamalan. Perf. Bruce Willis, Haley Joel Osment. 1999.
Santiago, Esmeralda. America's Dream. New York, Harper: 1997.
Saez, Barbara J. "Varieties of the Ethnic Experience: A Review" the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States. 27.4 (2002): 204-207.
" Photography may not, as Susan Sontag has claimed, symbolically reduce its subjects to "corpses,"
It should also be pointed out this is to often not a specifically intentional attempt at disguise, but rather forms part of the cultural views and milieu of the time. This becomes evident if we take an cursory look at some of the photographers of the period.
Frances enjamin Johnston's Hampton Album was possibly one of the first photographic attempts to document and 'explain' in images the concept and reality of the American dream. Her work particularly relates to the above problems: the question of the other or minorities in the nation. Johnson created her images at Virginia's Hampton Institute in November and December 1899. This was an institution which was concerned with the education and training of lack people.
Many of the aspects relating to nations building and the American…
Bird, S. Elizabeth, ed. Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Blair, Sara. "Cultural Geography and the Place of the Literary." American Literary History 10.3 (1998): 544-567.
Clark, Walter. Photography by Infrared: Its Principles and Applications. 2nd ed. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, inc.;, 1946.
Conner, Jill. "Representation and Photography." Afterimage 29.2 (2001): 16. Questia. 15 May 2005 .
Mirror of the Face of America
Robert Takaki's book A Different Mirror is a history of the people of the nation of America. The book is not, however, a history of America that a reader might expect when he or she first opens an introductory text. The subtitle of A Different Mirror is A History of Multicultural America. The book attempts to give a fuller history of America. It tries to give a fuller history of the America of nationalities such as the Native Indian peoples of America, African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Japanese-Americans, Chinese-Americans, Irish-Americans, and of the people of the Jewish religion in America. By telling the different stories of these different groups, Robert Takaki demonstrates that more conventional American history books are incomplete. The history of A Different Mirror is not simply the history of many different American groups -- it is a more complete history of America itself. The…
Takaki, Robert. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Back Bay Books, 1993. Reprinted 1994.
"The 'White' race was obeying the 'divine command, to subdue and replenish the earth,' as it searched for new and distant lands."
They were proud of their progress.
They believed they were bringing civilization to races and people who would otherwise be primitive heathens. If they couldn't convert them, they killed them. They were destroying "savagery." Houses replaced wigwams. White women replaced Indian squaws. And all of it was done in the name of God. They were really doing it for money, but rationalized the evil of it by calling it progress. This attitude, that whites were a civilizing influence, extended toward the yellow races also.
A chose this section because it is another example of how capitalism lacks a social conscience. The Chinese were brought here for cheap labor and were exploited for profits.
To paraphrase: Annexing California led to bringing Asian workers here to build a transcontinental railroad.…
The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.
The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.
This is far longer than the mere…
Multicultural Matrix and Analysis
Multicultural Matrix and Analysis Worksheet
Select and identify six groups in the left-hand column. Complete the matrix.
Write a summary.
Format references consistent with APA guidelines.
What is the group's history in the United States?
What is the group's population in the United States?
What are some attitudes and customs people of this group may practice?
What is something you admire about this group's people, lifestyle, or society?
The Sioux is a group of Native American tribes, related by language, that were based in the Great Plains. In the 1800s, westward expansion and white settlement led the U.S. government to by force remove the Sioux from their native lands onto reservations. Anger over these removals and poor treatment by the federal government ultimately boiled over into armed confrontation, which ended in the Great Sioux War of 1876-77 and the…
Sioux. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/sioux
Black History. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory
African-American Voices. (2007). Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20080507214116/http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/black_voices/voices_display.cfm?id=23
The Story Of Hispanics In The Americas. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://history-world.org/hispanics.htm
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…
Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298
Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138
Vine Deloria Jr.'s Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto
An Analysis of Vine Deloria, Jr.'s Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto
One of the more profound developments of the current Native American movement has been an effort on the part of Indians themselves to record their own history in order to help them gain control of their future. When Deloria promulgated his "Indian Manifesto" in 1969 with the title of Custer Died for Your Sins, it became apparent that he was at the forefront of this movement and the issues he identifies continue to be at the forefront of Native American concerns today. This paper will provide an overview of Deloria's book, followed by a discussion of six of the main points made by the author. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
According to his editors, Vine Deloria,…
Deloria, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, New York: Macmillan, 1969.
In a discussion about life and death, other soldiers talk about the lieutenant's sensibility and wonder whether there was something wrong with them for not feeling as bad as Cross felt.
The young lieutenant blames himself for Lavender's death as he realizes that his love for Martha had prevented him from properly guiding and protecting his men. When the dark falls upon the Alpha Company, Cross digs a foxhole and stands at its bottom weeping. "In part he was grieving for Ted Lavender, but mostly it was for Martha, and for himself, because she belonged to another world [...] and because he realized she did not love him and never would." (O'rien)
The morning following Ted's death, Lieutenant Cross throws Martha's photographs and letters in the foxhole and sets them on fire. This moment represents the character's change in feelings and behavior. Now that he realizes the seriousness of war…
O'Brien, T., the Things They Carried, Broadway, December 29, 1998
Nielson, J., Warring Fictions: American Literary Culture and the Vietnam War Narrative, University Press of Mississippi, December 1998
Talbott, J.E., Soldiers, Psychiatrists and Combat Trauma, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 27, Number 3, 1997
The men of Mortheal started to march down the battlefield. The Territorial Army of King Oreck followed with stable weapons. The army's march soon turned into a slow jog, and then to a run. The spear-bearers led the way with spears held lightly in their hands as they prepared to hurl them into the approaching horde.
The armies were not far from each other now. Orcen armies had been attacking in groups for the last two fortnights, and had suffered many casualties but that did not seem to lessen their numbers any as they streamed forth across the field with no end in sight. Mortheal's army was now running forward as fast as possible while still maintaining their balance. The spear-bearers launched their weapons, desiccating the Orcen front line.
Mortheal himself was one of the first to enter the fray after the spear-bearers had accomplished their task. An axe came…
Sherman's March To The Sea
Services and trainings at military
Marriage and Career
Services in Civil Wars
Year 1864 (Atlanta Event): Preparation of War 4
March to the Sea Event
Move to South Carolina Event
Move to North Carolina Event
Consequences of the Sherman's March
esearch Paper Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman who was also known as General Sherman (born on 8 February, 1820 in Lancaster-Ohio) that is nearby Hocking iver shore. By profession, his father was a lawyer and worked at Ohio Supreme Court. At the age of nine, his father died. A family friend raised him.
When he was 16 years old, Ewing appointed him as a cadet in U.S. military academy at the West Point. After his graduation, he entered into the army as second lieutenant in 1840. Sherman was promoted to Captain due to his services. He was not…
Clarke & Dwight, L. (1969). William Tecumseh Sherman: Gold Rush Banker. California Historical Society.
Eicher, J.H. & Eicher, D.J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press.
Inscoe, J. (2011). The Civil War in Georgia: A New Georgia Encyclopaedia Companion. University of Georgia Press.
Rhodes, J.F. (1901). Sherman's March to the Sea. The American Historical Review, 6(3), 466-474.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
Tarleton was known for cruelty and slaughter. When his troops took Marion's nephew Gabriel prisoner during an unsuccessful attempt to capture Georgetown, Tarleton followed up by murdering Gabriel in cold blood. But Marion did not engage in any similar brutality or seek revenge by killing British prisoners of war. it's a testament to his moral character and to "a scrupulous piety that was part of his Huguenot background" (Smith, 1976, p. 1437). By his own upright behavior he set a standard for those who served him, and the men under him made it their standard too (American evolution - General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox web site).
Marion got his nickname "The Swamp Fox" from the enemy. Colonel Banastre ("Bannister") Tarleton called him that because of his elusive tactics (the Swamp Fox web site). Cornwallis was determined to put an end to Marion's daring exploits and had sent Tarleton to…
American revolution web site. Francis Marion, Revolutionary War 'Swamp Fox': Retrieved 17 June 2007 at http://www.americanrevolution.com/FrancisMarion.htm
Commager, H.S. And Morris, R.B. (Eds) (1983). The spirit of seventy-six. New York: Bananza Books.
Leadership qualities web site: Retrieved 19 June 2007 at http://pirate.shu.edu/~gonosann/assignments/leadershipqualities.htm.
Simms, W.G. (1844). The life of Francis Marion. Retrieved 17 June 2007 at http://www.geocities.com/bourbonstreet/1786/1sfox10.txt
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
This was known as pyrrexhia or trench fever. The first symptoms were shooting pains in the shins and was followed by a very high fever" (Simkin). It was not a deadly disease, but stricken men could not fight. Trench fever affected thousands of soldiers, and so did trench foot.
Trench foot is one of the most common ailments of soldiers in the trenches. Their boots and socks were always wet and muddy, and this led to the condition called trench foot. The feet would become numb and turn red or blue, and in extreme cases, it could lead to gangrene and amputation of the foot. The feet would also swell, fester, and develop sores. Soldiers had to change their socks at least three times a day to control the disease, and after the armies understood how severe is was, soldiers in the trenches received extra socks as part of their…
Bell, Fraser. "The Spirit of Our Time." Queen's Quarterly Spring 2004: 11+.
Cox, Gary. "3 France." Researching World War I: A Handbook. Ed. Robin Higham and Dennis E. Showalter. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003. 51-78.
Duffy, Michael. "Weapons of War: Poison Gas." First World War.com. 2008. 22 Nov. 2008. http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/gas.htm
Grotelueschen, Mark E. Doctrine under Trial: American Artillery Employment in World War I. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Jesse Jackson -- Minister, Civil Rights Activist, Author
The life of Jesse Jackson has always been associated with a strong belief in the Christian faith. His activism in the Civil Rights Movement -- like that of his mentor, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. -- was based not just on social / racial justice, but in a powerful belief that God intended for all his children to be free, to have a chance at a good and decent life, and that heaven awaits those who fight for justice and fairness and live wholesome, productive lives. Among his many accolades, awards, and appointments, he was appointed "Special Envoy to Africa" by President Bill Clinton, and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2000 (Gale Biography). This paper sheds light on Jackson's career, his faith, his ministry and the impact he has had on American society.
Jackson's Early Life and Times
Burns, Roger. 2005. Jesse Jackson: A Biography. Chicago, IL: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Encyclopedia of World Biography. 1998. Jesse Louis Jackson. Retrieved December 14, 2011,
from Gale Biography in Context / http://0-ic.galegroup.com.
Frady, Marshall. 1998. 'At Random' Magazine's interview with author Marshall Frady. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved December 14, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org .
Dull Knifes of Pine Ridge
he Historical Events
In 1877, Custer's defeat had heated up military determination to put an end to what was vaguely known as "the Indian problem." Military reinforcements poured into the Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming territories, with the singular objective of corralling all the remaining Sioux and Cheyenne into the newly established reservation system. It didn't matter if the tribes in question had participated in the Little Big Horn or not. he reservation system was a "one size fits all" solution to the settlement of the land by the whites.
As a result, in the spring of 1877, a band of approximately 900 Cheyenne, came to Ft. Robinson, Nebraska intent upon surrender.
History reports three reasons contributed to their decision to surrender: 1) they lived by the hunt, and the buffalo were all but gone, 2) plains Indians knew they could not survive the white man's…
The families of the chiefs and tribes of the Sioux were exposed to torture, starvation, imprisonment, hardships and loss in fighting for the very freedoms that Americans should be able to expect, simply by way of being Americans.
The changes, loss, heroism, and renewal of the support systems for these heroic battle chiefs is as much a part of the story of The Dull Knifes of Pine Ridge as the battles waged themselves.
Sarita, J. Dull Knifes of Pine Ridge: A Lakota Odyssey. Berkley Pub Group; Reprint edition (March 1996).
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…
Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6
Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99
Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21
Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.
However, despite the personal successes, he felt personally responsible for the loss and would use the events from ull Run to questions his effectiveness as a military officer.
Next, Sherman would serve under Robert Anderson. Where, he would eventually succeed him and take command of all Union forces in Kentucky. This was important, because Kentucky was considered to be a neutral state in the war, where the Union army was based and there were pockets of Confederate units as well. This would create an atmosphere, where Sherman would be unable to conduct a total war, to defeat the various Confederate elements. At which point, he would complain to Washington about the constant shortages that he would face in achieving this objective, with his army lacking the men necessary to fight a successful campaign to low food provisions / ammunition. This would cause Sherman to be relieved of command and placed…
General Sherman's March to the Sea. Son of the South, 2008 Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/shermans-march-to-the-sea.htm . Accessed 14 July, 2010.
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sherman, William . After the War. Son of the South, 2008. Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-after-war.htm Accessed 14, July 2010.
Sherman, William . The Battle of Bull Run to Puducah 1861 -- 1862. Son of the South, 2008. Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-battle-bull-run.htm Accessed 14, July 2010.
He is more interested in "things," than what those things will bring. "Nick went over to the pack and found, with his fingers, a long nail in a paper sack of nails, in the bottom of the pack. He drove it into the pine tree, holding it close and hitting it gently with the flat of the axe. He hung the pack up on the nail. All his supplies were in the pack. They were off the ground and sheltered now" (as quoted in Vernon)
However, with time Nick is able to find some semblance of his early self. He overcomes challenges and moves forward the best he can. Despite the fact that he is walking uphill through burned land with a backpack that is too heavy, he is now in a familiar place and happy to be here:
Nick slipped off his pack and lay down in the shade.…
Crane, Stepen. Red Badge of Courage. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Hemingway, Ernest. Big Two Hearted River. In Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner's, 1987.
O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Random House, 1998.
Stewart, Matthew. Hemingway and World War I: Combatting recent psychobiographical reassessments, restoring the war. Papers on Language and Literature. (2000) 36, 198-217
So the economy is stuck in an equilibrium well below its production and employment potential, even as gross domestic product resumes modest growth" (p. 3).
As a public sector employee for the State of New Jersey Division of Criminal Justice, this means that some important ongoing initiatives such as gang awareness and enforcement may be cut back in the future. In my capacity as team leader with 4 years' tenure and 13 years' total employment for the State of New Jersey, I have a vested interest in the outcomes of these initiatives as well as the fate of the state's civil service cadre. In addition, I also work part time as a certified emergency medical technician, meaning I must remain cognizant of applicable licensure laws for the profession and how far my authority extends as a first responder. There is also the issue of substantial student loans that remain in…
Abdolian, L.F. & Takooshian, H. (2003). The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act: Civil liberties, the media, and public opinion. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 30(4), 1429-1431.
Best, S. (2008). The son of Patriot Act and the revenge on democracy. Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science, 3(3/4), 1-2.
Deybach, G. (2007, January). Identity theft and employer liability. Risk Management, 54(1), 14-
At the beginning of E.M. Forster's book A Room with a View, the inn's guest Mr. Emerson states: "I have a view, I have a view. . . . This is my son . . . his name's George. He has a view, too." On the most basic level, this statement is just as it appears: Mr. Emerson is talking about what he sees outside of his window. However, the comment also suggests one of the major themes of this book, as well as another early 20th-century novel, Jacob's Room, by Virginia oolf: That is, the view one social class has of another. These books by Forster and oolf described the times in socio-economic terms as well as how the characters related to them.
Forster's novel A Room with a View details the happenstance of the young middle-class Englishwoman Lucy Honeychurch in the early 1900s on a visit…
Woolf, Virginia. The Death of the Moth, and other essays. Harcourt 1974.
Woolf, Virginia. Jacob's Room. The Literature Network. Website retrieved
April 12, http://www.online-literature.com/virginia_woolf/jacob-room/
As the formation collides with one another, spheres are aimed at the groin of each opponent. The sword swings an aim towards an enemies head and vital parts of the body. Extreme agility and presence of mind are required to every hoplite in the exhausting close combat.
The defeated phalanx has only two choices to survive: The first option would be is to drop their weapons and flee hastily without being pursued by the victorious opponent which is normal in Greek Warfare. The second option is to retreat in the same formation in an orderly manner. However, this situation based on historical events often happens. After which, 5. victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the "custom of the Greeks"(Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2005).
History: Development and Downfall
As the economy of Ancient Greece developed, city states have focused their attention in developing a much reliable armies…
Athenian Daily Life; Roger Dunkle, Brooklyn College (2005) Extracted September 25, 2006: Website:
The Development of the Greek World 800-500 BC; Jeffery Lumb; HSC Online (2006) Extracted September 25, 2006 Website:
American Experience With War
Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?
While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.
But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…
Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The
MacMillan Company, 1969.
Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),
Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Governments make and break alliances, treaties, and agreements for financial and political gains, as well as for power and control, all in a constantly fluid manner. Such changes have been taking place as long as there have been countries, so the maneuverings should not be of any surprise; what this paper seeks to do is determine how those ongoing changes reflect the current environment as well as how the alliances will influence governments over the next several years, and decades.
Historical Context -- World War I (1914 -- 1919)
A recent historical report states that "with deliberate deceptions, lies and attempts on all sides to appear as the wronged, it is little wonder that, after a hundred years, there is still no consensus on why the July Crisis escalated into the First World War" (Mombauer, 2014, p. 23). World War I was known as the war to end all wars,…
Bilefsky, D. & Baumejan, M.; (2015) Terrorists strike Charlie Hebdo, newspaper in Paris, leaving 12 dead, NY Times accessed on February 27, 2015 at http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/08/world/europe/charlie-hebdo-paris-shooting.html
Bogdanor, V.; (2014) The shadows lengthen, History Today, 64(8)19-25
Bosco, D.; (2014) Assessing the UN Security Council: A concert perspective, Global Governance, 20(4) 545-561
Brinkley, J.; (2013) Islamic terror, World Affairs, 176(2) 43 -- 55
How was the war similar or different to previous U.S. attempts at "containment"?
What were the key mistakes the U.S. made, in your view?
What where the key turning points of U.S. involvement?
Why did the U.S. lose the war?
How was the war similar or different to previous U.S. attempts at "containment"?
The policy or strategy if the U.S. of 'containment' originated during the formative years of te cold war and it aimed to defeat the Soviet Union by means of stopping it expanding its influence and the territories under its communist control. This was the primary reason for the conflict and the strain in relations between the two superpowers. This policy of containment by the U.S. found some success during the Korean War and the Cuban Missile Crisis. However, critics claim that the Vietnam War was a failure and not a true reflection of the policy…
Ferguson, Niall. Colossus. New York: Penguin Books, 2005. Print.
Hunt, Michael H. Lyndon Johnson's War. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996. Print.
LaFeber, Walter. America, Russia, And The Cold War, 1945-2006. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.
Overholt, William H. Asia, America, And The Transformation Of Geopolitics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print.
Creation ithout Love: The Problem of Frankenstein
In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Dr. Frankenstein assumes the role of God by attempting to create new life. He is not, however, prepared for the consequences, and the outward hideousness of his creation compels him to reject the monster. Inwardly, Frankenstein's monster possesses a soul and longs for love and learning. The fact that he must seek both surreptitiously (and is yet still rejected) compels him to lash out -- both at society and at his creator. Along the way, the monster identifies with Milton's Satan -- another creature who lashed out at his creator after feeling spurned. This paper will show how Frankenstein's monster feels rejected by "god" (both the actual God of creation and also Frankenstein in the role of creator-god for the Creature) and how this leads to tragic consequences -- namely, both Frankenstein's and the monster's eventual isolation and death…
Milton, John. Paradise Lost. Poetry Foundation. Web.
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. UK: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.
Again, this feminine passivity outshines masculine action in its ability to experience divine and even human love.
As Crashaw continues, the erotic imagery becomes more emboldened and perhaps slightly more ambiguous, not clouding or confounding interpretation but suggesting several alternatives that work towards the same end of demonstrating the purity of passivity in its relation to the divine. After setting up the concept of virginity, love, and an active passivity with the juxtaposition of love with blood, Crashaw either extends or shifts this image further with the lines, "Scarse has she Blood enough to make / a guilty sword blush for her sake" (25-6). There is the clear surface image that juxtaposes the child with the soldier; the child is so small that she would scarcely stain the sword of a soldier that slays her, and already the grotesque nature of this image emerges as a means of shocking the…
Crashaw, Richard. "The Flaming Heart." Accessed 29 May 2012. http://www.bartleby.com/236/29.html
Crashaw, Richard. "A Hymn to the Name and Honor of the Admirable Sainte Teresa." Accessed 29 May 2012. http://www.bartleby.com/236/28.html
Davis, Walter. The Meditative Hymnody of Richard Crashaw. ELH, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Spring, 1983): 107-29.
Gallagher, Lowell. Crashaw and Religious Bias in the Literary Canon. In Early Modern English Poetry, Patrick Cheney et al., eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.