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In addition to psychological factors, social factors also play a part in the development of violence in youth in the United States. According to the University of Pittsburgh's Office of Child Development, these social factors may play as important of a role as the psychological factors. First, educational institutions can have a large impact on violence in children. According to their research, over 80% of children failing school have serious youth violence issues, including arrests for violent crimes. According to one study of 11-year-old males, 20% of the subject population of whom the teachers rated as low achievers were later convicted of violent crime, compared to less than 10% of those rated as higher achievers. According to researchers, social situations within the school system, such as overcrowding, imposed conformity, and peer pressure all contribute to youth violence (Farrington, 1989).
Still further, study after study has shown that poverty greatly increases…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1994, July). Criminal victimization in the United States: 1973-92 trends, (NCJ-147006) Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Farrington, D.P. (1989). Early predictors of adolescent aggression and adult violence. Violence and Victims, 4, 79-100.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1995, December). Juveniles and violence (updated). Washington, DC: FBI.
McCord, J. (1994). Aggression in two generations. In L.R. Huesmann (ed.). Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives (pp. 241-254). New York, NY: Plenum.
The popularity of a "bum-fighting" series of DVDs serves as evidence of this culture. The show depicts actually homeless men fighting one another and getting beaten up. A number of the teens involved in violent attacks on the homeless have indicated that they enjoy the series. Even sports seem to play a role in the violent propensities. In the case of the Fort Lauderdale attack, one of the perpetrators was the captain of the high school hockey team, a game in which on-ice fighting is largely tolerated and whose spectator brawls have drawn recent media attention. A possible third suspect in the beating described the attack to officers in sport terms, saying that it felt to him like "teeing off" (Fantz).
Finally, the primary causal factor in attacks such as took place in Fort Lauderdale last year is boredom. Surprisingly, many experts in youth behavior, violence, and occupational sciences describe…
Moore, Mark H. "Youth Violence in America." Crime and Justice. 24 (1998): 1-26.
Weiner, Eric. "Florida Homeless Beating Caught on Tape." 2006. NPR.org. Nov. 3, 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5156425 .
Zimring, Franklin E. "Toward a Jurisprudence of Youth Violence." Crime and Justice. 24
Media violence and youth violence: a 2-year longitudinal study" which was written by Hopf et al. This study examined the relationship between violence in the media and violent delinquency in juveniles. As the title of this article suggests, the research is based on a two-year longitudinal study. The hypotheses for this study were multifold, and were based in large measure on existent hypothesis. The hypothesis of Hopf et al. related to an effect hypothesis that watching violence in the media contributes to aggressive behavior and a selection hypothesis which states that violently aggressive actions stimulates exposure to violence (Hopf et al., 2008, p. 79). As a result, the researchers in this article developed three sub-hypotheses: exposure to violent media at a young age contributes to violence, early playing of video games is the most effective way of contributing to violence in juveniles, and "exposure to media violence…is the strongest predictor…
Hopf, W.H., Huber, G.L., Weib, R.H. (2008). Media violence and youth violence: a 2-year longitudinal study. Journal of Media Psychology. 20(3), 79-96.
3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.
4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.
5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).
One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…
Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.
Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.
Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
Violence in Video Games
Unlike movies, video games are not regulated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is ironic because there are a wealth of studies indicating children do not distinguish between fantasy and reality in a gaming environment (Ferguson, 2011). Simply put, the more time children, adolescents and teenagers spend playing a video game the more they see their reality as the gaming environment (Boyle, McLeod, ojas, 2008) (Hartmann, Vorderer, 2010). To argue that games are not as powerful of an influence on children is ridiculous, yet ironically the FCC regulates who can see a movie by its content alone and has refused to take action on games (Soh, Tan, 2008). In June, 2011 the Supreme Court struck down a California law that fined retailers $1,000 for each occurrence or infraction of selling or renting violent games to anyone under the age of 18 (Lemmens, Valkenburg, Peter, 2011).…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.
Boyle, M., McLeod, D., & Rojas, H.. (2008). The Role of Ego Enhancement and Perceived Message Exposure in Third-Person Judgments Concerning Violent Video Games. The American Behavioral Scientist, 52(2), 165.
Beth Snyder Bulik (2008, May). Despite recession, video-game industry shows massive growth. Advertising Age, 79(20), 6.
Cliff Cheetham (2008, April). Marketing strategies in the gaming community.
As social systems expand to cover the ever growing social dynamics, the norms governing social behaviors are losing their ability to control behaviors. Over the years, concerns over the rising level of crimes committed primarily by the young are evident. The number of youths placed in juvenile correctional facilities is on the rise with the authorities appearing incapacitated to control the situation. This paper looks at the aspects of society contributing to Juvenile criminals and their continued perpetration of antisocial behaviors in the society.
In the modern world the norms that guide transitions and relationships from family to school and work have come under immense challenge. These challenges have seen to the collapse of the smooth socialization process that the young need to become productive in the society (Livingston, Stewart, Allard, & Ogilvie, 2008). As lifestyle trajectories vary and become more unpredictable, the young find it difficult to…
Greenwood, P. (2004). "Cost-effective Violence Prevention through Targeted Family Interventions, in Youth Violence- Scientific Approaches to Prevention." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1036, 201-214.
Livingston, M., Stewart, A., Allard, T., & Ogilvie, J. (2008). Understanding juvenile offending trajectories. Australian and New Zealand. Journal of Criminology, 41(3), 345-363.
Savignac, J. (2008). (2008) Families, Youth and Delinquency: The State of Knowledge, and Family-Based Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Programs. Ottawa: National Crime Prevention Centre, Public Safety.
Sprott, J., Jenkins, J., & Doob, A. (2005). "The Importance of School: Protecting At-Risk Youth from Early Offending." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3, 59-76.
Violence and Victims
Journal: "Violence and Victims" by Springer Publishing Company
Violence and Victims is a social work journal that informs "clinical decisions, legal actions and public policy" (Springer Publishing, 2011). It is a peer-reviewed journal that includes subject matter on "theory, research, policy, and clinical practice in the area of interpersonal violence and victimization" across a myriad of professional disciplines to the likes of medicine, law, sociology, psychology and social work (Springer Publishing, 2011). Some important topics, issues and questions that are discussed include subjects like how to assess a violent offender, how to counsel victims of violence, among other topics.
The editors of this journal include a myriad of different doctors from all over the United States. The editor-in-chief is from the University of Washington of the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, while others that are associate editors and on the editorial and advisory board are various individuals…
Lilly, Michelle M., Graham-Bermann, Sandra A., &, Initials. (2010). Intimate partner violence and ptsd: the moderating role of emotion-focused coping. Violence and Victims, 25(5), Retrieved from http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/springer/vav/2010/00000025/00000005/art00003
Springer Publishing, Initials. (2011). Violence and victims. Retrieved from http://www.springerpub.com/product/08866708
Violence in the Family, Violence Against Children is a Cycle
To have a rational understanding of the cycle of violence and abuse that occurs within families as a result of past sexual abuse and present drug abuse upon the heads of the family, one must seek explanations for such bad parental behavior without excusing the negative behavior on the part of the adults themselves. If no causes of violence can be determined, and only legal vengeance is enacted against the perpetrators of abuse, then merely punishment will occur and the cycle of violence and hatred will never end. It is better to redress such crimes, moreover, with an eye to reforming the family, rather than in a spirit of retributive justice.
An example of this can be seen in the child psychologist Torey Hayden's book One Child. In her text, the author and teacher chronicle the abuse of one of…
Hayde, Torey. One Child. Avon, 1980
Kruger, (February 7, 2003). "DCF Policy Shift." St. Petersburg Times. Front Page.
The document states this in this wording (United Nations):
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children.
Thus under the leadership of the United Nations, many different groups have joined forces to improve the quality of lives of children around the world.
Many people have defended the Chinese culture and…
Garvin, G. "Tiger mom Amy Chua roars with new controversial book about 'America's elite'." 2 February 2014. Miami Herald Books. Online. 15 April 2014.
Intlekofter, K. "Discipline or abuse?" 3 December 2012. John Hopkins Magazine. Online. 15 April 2014.
Jiali, G. "Child abuse in a culture of non-interference." 7 June 2012. China.org.cn. Online. 14 April 2014.
Pedro, B. "Study debunks 'tiger mom'- myth: children worse grades, are more depressed and more alienated from their parents." 12 May 2013. The Economy of Meaning. Online. 15 April 2014.
Violence in Video Games
The cultivation of violence in video games: causal or correlational?
Studies on media effects have always included the influential role that television and new media technologies such as the computer and Internet (ICTs). With the proliferation of both mass media, there is greater penetration of its content to children and the adolescent youth, who are frequent TV watchers and ICT users. Among the concerns of parents and scholars about the proliferation of this mass media is its unintended effects -- the cultivation of violence and development of violent behavior of the child through TV and ICT content. Focus is especially given to the youth who actively engage in video gaming, either through the TV, computer, or Internet. Parents and mass media research claim that video games harness an individual's violent behavior, resulting to aggressiveness and development of hostile attitude towards other people.
In this paper, the…
Brody, M. (2001). "Playing with death." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, (16)11.
Gaziano, C. (2001). "Towards a broader conceptual framework for research on social stratification, childrearing patterns, and media effects." Mass Communication & Society, (4)2.
Lynne Eagle, L., S. Bulmer, and A. de Bruin. (2003). "Marketing communications implications of children's new electronic media use: a survey of parental opinions and perceptions." Journal of Marketing Communications, (9)3.
Wagner, C. (2004). "Aggression and violent media." Futurist, (38)4.
Violence in Video Games
Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content?
Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content.
"It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play.
Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games
Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence
Body Paragraph 3: Sociological implications and blaming
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution insists that citizens of the U.S. have the right to free speech. This Amendment has been utilized by artists from a wide variety of genres and talents to preserve their right to express themselves and prevent any form of censorship. Most calls for legislation regarding censorship have actually come from the parents of America's youth. Rather than take responsibility for…
Anderson, Craig (2003). "Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions."
Psychological Science Agenda.
Benedetti, Winda. (2008). "Playing the Blame Game." MSNBC. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23204875/
Chalk, Andy. (2007). "Inappropriate Content: a Brief History of Videogame Ratings and the ESRB." The Escapist.
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
causes of teen violence, "Missing the Mark" by Jackson Katz and Sur Jhally, and "Stop Blaming Kids and TV" by Mike Males. Katz and Jhally argue that teen violence is a male-centric occurrence caused by socialization that promotes violent masculinity. Males provide a gender-neutral view of teen violence that he believes is caused by parents who engage in domestic violence.
Because of the obvious differences in these theories, it's tempting to try to advocate one premises over the other, but further thought shows that these two theories are complimentary because the family plays such a large part in the male socialization process.
Both articles deal with the subject of teenage violence and avoid placing blame on teens for their troubled behavior. Instead, these articles present the idea of imitation as a cause of teen violence, but they differ on who the kids are imitating. Males states that teens are copying…
Video Games and Violence
The level of integration of video games into the culture of the youth in the United States could not be clearer. One estimate stated that ninety-seven percent of twelve to seventeen-year-olds played a video game in 2008 (ESA, 2009). These figures suggest that virtually everyone in that specific demographic play video games. The economic result of the demand for video gaming has resulted in over an eleven billion dollar industry (2008) which is continually expanding (ProCon, N.d.). However, many of these games contain graphic violence and sexual content that deemed in appropriate for this demographic.
It is argued that this violence in the digital world can cause a host of negative implications in real life as well. hen children are exposed to violence then this can work to desensitize them to the use of violence and violence can even be perceived as an acceptable way to…
Anderson, C., Sakamoto, A., Gentile, D., Ihori, N., Shibuya, A., Yukawa, S., . . . Kobayashi, K. (2008). Longitudinal Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression in Japan and the United States. Pediatrics, 1067-1072.
ESA. (2009, May). Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry. Retrieved from Entertainment Software Association:
" (Magrid and McKelvey, 1990).
Although some analysts still toss around the question of nature vs. nurture, current research seems to be edging out nature and placing much more emphasis on nurture. Another notable expert who agrees with the author's premise is Benjamin B. Wolman. Wolman explores the foundations of deviant behavior in his widely-read book, "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide," and emphasizes nurture almost to the exclusion of nature, in explaining why sociopaths are more and more prevalent in our society. According to Wolman, "the way that parents rear their children can be crucial. Parental rejection can adversely affect their children's self-confidence and self-reliance. Undeniably, these children will feel neglected and unwanted if their parents are not affectionate and considerate. These children cannot however behave aggressively toward their parents as they fear that they might retaliate. Instead, they behave aggressively toward weak people who are unable…
Karr-Morse, Robin and Wiley, Meredith S., (1999). "Ghosts from the Nursery: Tracing the Roots of Violence" (1999). Chapter 2: Grand Central: Early Brain Anatomy and Violence. Pub Group West.
Magrid, Ken & McKelvey Carole a. (1990). "High Risk Children without a Conscience." Bantam, Doubleday, Dell.
Wolman, Benjamin B. (1999). "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide." Prometheus Books.
Scaflik makes the claim that these types of tactics from networks mean that the network believe that violence is what attracts viewers the most.
Finally, shows such as Law and Order and Dark Shadows manage to show minimal amounts of violence and in inappropriate context, while they ultimately showcase the violence in a de-contextualized manner in the promos (Scaflik 2004). Scaflik points out that this is a serious problem for many different reasons, including the fact that viewers will get the wrong impression from the show and that viewers may also believe that there is a great deal of action and then will later be disappointed when only two or three minimally violent scenes are shown throughout the film or show.
The other problem is that violent promos are often times run during showtimes targeted towards children. Sometimes shows that have absolutely no violence in them at all will use…
Abelard, (1999-2008), Children and Television Violence, Retrieved from http://www.abelard.org/tv/tv.php
Cantor, Joanne, and Suzanne Stutman, Victoria Duran, (1996), What Parents Want in a Television Rating System: Results of a National Survey, National Survey Report, Retrieved from http://yourmindonmedia.com/downloads/parent_survey.pdf
Chandra, Anita, and DrPHa, Steven C. Martino, PhDb, Rebecca L. Collins, PhDc, Marc N. Elliott, PhDc, Sandra H. Berry, MAc, David E. Kanouse, PhDc, Angela Miu, MSc, (October 31, 2008). Does Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. PEDIATRICS, Vol. 122 (No. 5). Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/122/5/1047
Moran, Mark, (July 6, 2007), Govt. Seeks Ways to Reduce Kids' Exposure to TV Violence. Psychiatric News, Vol. 42. (No. 13)(Pg. 5). Retrieved from http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/content/42/13/5.1.full
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
Competency development in the balanced approach emphasizes the need for a broader concern with maturational development, especially by means of acquiring the survival skills required for daily living (p. 485).
Interventions that emphasized the balanced approach do look at the deficits and dysfunctions of the individual, but also identify family and community strengths, to draw upon. Not only would this intervention increase competency in the delinquent youth, but also help ensure public safety. Mentoring with a parental education and community organization approach, coupled with an effective sanctioning guidelines with meaningful consequences, is one intervention that would fulfill this criteria.
This type of intervention differs significantly from the interventions commonly utilized in the current system. Most interventions are geared to address a singular facet of delinquency, and regretfully ignore the others. As an example, the Boys and Girls Clubs of America offer a wide variety of programs to help counter risk…
Education and career. (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from http://www.bgca.org/programs/education.asp .
Ek, A. (Mar 2008). Cluster profiles of youths living in urban poverty: Factors affecting risk and resilience. Social Work Research, 32(1). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from CINAHL Plus database.
Leve, L. & Chamberlain, P. (Jun 2005). Association with delinquent peers: Intervention effects for youth in the juvenile justice system. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(3). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from PubMed Central database.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (Aug 1997). Balanced and restorative justice for juveniles. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/framwork.pdf .
Campus Violence on K-12 Setting
To Whom it May Concern,
I am planning to research the effects of offering a martial arts program regiment within the school on school violence among elementary, middle, and high school students. Search of ERIC databases has generated little prior research on this topic. Many studies have shown that martial arts have many beneficial effects on the emotional and physical well-being of those who participate in martial arts classes and studies. Other studies have linked school violence to a number of sources, including low self-esteem of those who experience violent outbursts, the stress caused by the school environment, the physical inactivity levels of a student sitting in class daily, and the often abusive and humiliating nature of the physical education programs that are traditionally offered in school, among many other factors. Additionally, many bullies chose to pick on those who have little or no self-defense…
violence and aggression. First, different aspects of violence, such as diversity and culture, gender and psychosocial aspects are discussed. And, the ethical and legal dimensions of mandatory reporting of child and elder abuse are looked into. The emerging technologies in the field of psychology are also discussed in relation to the topic of violence and other forms of deviant behavior. Lastly, correlations of the causality and violence prevention interventions are given.
MFT: Psychology of Violence
The history of the world is mired with incidences of violence. Violence traces its origins back to prehistory, and there is barely a community, society or individual that has never experienced or witnessed some form of violence. A single incidence of violence can be powerful and unbearable whether it is terrorism, war, suicide, homicide or even systemic injustices (structural violence -- whereby there are access barriers to health care, social justice, or some other type…
Anderson, C., & Bushman, B. (2002). Human Aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27-51.
Duxbury, J., & Wright, K. (2011, March 7). Should nurses restrain violent and aggressive patients? Retrieved from Nursing Times: http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/specialisms/mental-health/-should-nurses-restrain-violent-and-aggressive-patients/5026793.article
EIGE. (2015). What is gender-based violence. Retrieved from European Institute for Gender Equality: http://eige.europa.eu/gender-based-violence/what-is-gender-based-violence
Felson, R., Deane, G., & Armstrong, D. (2008). Do theories of crime or violence explain race differences in delinquency. Social Science Research, 624-641.
Threats of Violence in Counseling and Psychotherapy
There is an urban legend about an incident at a mental hospital caught on video: a psychotic patient at a hospital, who has a history of threatening violent acts, manages to smuggle a screwdriver from a workman. This patient, armed with said screwdriver, barricades himself into a room, takes a nurse hostage, and does not respond well to the attempts made by psychiatrists and police officers alike. n the end, the mental patient stabs the nurse hostage fatally in the neck with the screw driver. Of course, the supposed incident on tape that has circulated the semi-underground video circuit for decades (included on "Faces of Death Volume V") is actually a poorly staged reenactment of an event which probably never occurred in the first place. However, tales such as these have inevitably become a part of the universal subconscious of a modern society…
It may be beneficial to refer any students showing warning signs to the school counselor, but this will only be beneficial if that counselor is sympathetic, knowledgeable, ethical, and holding every student's best interest in mind. It is additionally important to ensure that the counseling sessions do not interfere with school and social activities to the degree that they actually incite more frustration, anger, and hostility for the student in question! Recommending a student speak with the school counselor is not usually dangerous ground legally. However, making this mandatory can have legal implications, and certainly making mandatory sessions with a psychotherapist a condition of continued attendance at the school can backfire. Administrators and school counselors need to work together to create a supportive school environment that fosters communication between students, teachers, and counselors, so that potential problems can be identified early and addressed while there is time to avoid damage to the student, his or her peers, or school property. Based on the findings that "there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against clinician counseling of asymptomatic adolescents and adults to prevent morbidity and mortality from youth violence" (Counseling to Prevent Youth Violence 2004), it can be assumed that students will not have an undesirable reaction from continued counseling to help deal with issues of violence in schools.
When dealing with threats of domestic violence, there are many considerations that must be carefully weighed in determining the best approach. Counselors and psychotherapists may offer help directly to the victims of or witnesses to domestic violence. Others approach the situation by counseling the batterers, or perpetrators of domestic violence. There are some counseling organizations that focus on breaking the cycle of violence by counseling the abusers, as well as their victims. "AMEND provides counseling to men who have been abusive, anger management, and addiction counseling; educational support, groups for victims, and community education." (AMEND 2004) This approach would not seem outrageous at all if applied to, for example, students with a history of violent outbursts. However, the domestic abuser has been thoroughly demonized in our society. Whether the abuse is physical, emotional, or otherwise, certainly these actions cannot be justified. However, the AMEND group explains that:
Domestic violence will never go away if we provide services only to the victims. Abusive men can change if they have the ...
Domestic violence has been around for as long as many cultures can remember, however, that's not an excuse for its continuance. Although some see women and children as mere property, their rights and safety should be protected. Whether they suffer from physical, sexual or emotional abuse, thankfully there are an increasing number of programs for these victims to turn to. These programs work hard to take the steps necessary for America to become a domestic violence-free society.
Stopping Domestic Violence in America
Although domestic violence is often thought of in terms of physical violence or even sexual violence, it goes beyond that, beyond the cuts, the bruises, the scrapes, the broken bones; it's a control issue. "Domestic violence is a pattern of coercive control that one person exercises over another in order to dominate and get their way." ("Voices Set Free," n.d.) In addition to physical and sexual abuse, it…
Get the Facts - Domestic Violence in the United States. (2003). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://endabuse.org/resources/facts/
Victim Support. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://www.awoscentral.com/victim_support/victim_support.html
Voices Set Free. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://www.awoscentral.com/domestic_violence/domestic_violence.html
Stopping Domestic Violence in America
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
A Concise Description of Youth
Who exactly is a youth? Are there specific traits that distinguish a youth from an adult or a child for that matter? These are the questions that immediately come to mind when one attempts to come up with a concise definition of "youth." From the onset, it is important to note that the term youth does not have an assigned definition. In that regard therefore, "youth" as a term could mean different things to different people. For some, youth is the period after childhood. For others, however, youth is that period coming immediately after or preceding adulthood. In this text, I will take a different approach in an attempt to describe youth. Instead of reviewing existing literature in search of the numerous definitions that have been applied to the term, I will largely concern myself with features or characteristics of youth. However, for guidance…
violence in the media can create violent behavior in children and teens. Many studies show that watching violent media, such as video games, films, and even the television news can cause violent behavior in children and teens, and that behavior can continue into adulthood.
Several different studies have indicated that violence in the media can produce violent and aggressive behavior in children and teens. Two researchers note, "In the past decade, media-effects researchers have progressively reached consensus that exposure to television violence can result in aggressive behavior" (Greene & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, a fifteen-year study by the American Psychological Association (APA) also showed that both men and women are affected by media violence, and that adults who watched this media as children tended to be more violent, and convicted of more violent crimes (Partenheimer, 2003). In the past decade, violence has become much more common in the media, as…
Editors. (2009). Children and media violence. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the MediaFamily.org Web site: http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_vlent.shtml .
Greene, K., & Krcmar, M. (2005). Predicting exposure to and liking of media violence: A uses and gratifications approach. Communication Studies, 56(1), 71+.
Partenheimer, D. (2009). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009, from the American Psychological Association Web site: http://www.apa.org/releases/media_violence.html.
Children and Violence
Exposure to domestic violence can have negative effects on children that may result in short-term or long-term complications in the child's life. Taking timely and appropriate measures help limit the negative effects such experiences may have on children. Young kids living in families experiencing domestic violence are a disempowered lot. They develop limited emotional literacy and verbal skills. Further, the environment occasioned by domestic violence is that of intimidation and secrecy. The caregivers are also less emotionally available to the children. Together, such factors restrict the children's opportunity and capacity to make their opinions heard. To help the children, their preferences should be considered and a healthy environment that ensures the maintenance of the daily routine of children is maintained in the temporary shelters. They should be continually supported and support structures established in every area that the children are. Discussed in this paper are the consequences…
Brown, R., & Luppi, F. (2010). Domestic Violence and Children. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 1-12.
Carpenter, G. L, & Stacks, A.M.(2009). Developmental effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in early childhood: Are view of the literature. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(8),831-839.
Ehrensaft, M.K., Cohen, P., Brown, J.,Smailes, E., Chen, H., & Johnson, J.G. (2003). Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A20-year prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 741.
Epstein, C. & Keep, G. (1995). What children tell Children about domestic violence. In A. Saunders, C. Epstein, G. Keep & T. Debbonaire (Eds.), It hurts me too: Children's experiences of domestic violence and refuge life. Bristol: WAFE/Child-line/NISW.
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
Gang Violence Prevention
Study of each and every society around the world gives us a phenomenon, which indicates at a certain graph related to organized crime. American society has long been associated with such a vice, and there have been many unearths made in this direction. There has been a lot of study and research associated with fact that how these gangs formed and what is the major motivational factor behind such activities. Several studies in this regard have brought forward certain phenomenon which forms the basis of gang formations and majority of which is related to unsatisfied social structure. These gangs are formed in the societies, which are highly disintegrated and have developed into individually functioning micro units. Extensive liberalization of political policies and the general promotion of individualistic approach towards life in most countries have motivated certain individuals in direction of organized crime, and this is…
Alleyne, E., & Wood, J. (2010). Gang involvement: Psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth and non-gang youth. University of Kent. Retrieved from: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/27523/2/Gang_involvement_-_Revised2_ACCEPTED_by_Aggressive_bevhavior.pdf
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E., & Caspi, A. (2005).Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 16, 328-355.
Dukes, R.L., Martinez, R.O., & Stein, J.A. (1997).Precursors and consequences of membership in youth gangs. Youth and Society, 29, 139-165.
Esbensen, F-A., Winfree, L.T., Jr., He, N., & Taylor, T.J. (2001). Youth gangs and definitional issues: When is a gang, and why does it matter? Crime and Delinquency, 47, 105-130
2. I agree wholeheartedly with the author. Random acts of kindness do make the world and our society a better place. We need to become more aware of the connections between people. We do need to smile more, treat others with deep respect, and recognize the impact our actions have on other people. Instead of walking around angry all day, we need to develop a positive frame of mind and speak and act with kindness.
Universal health care would reflect a deep change in our culture. We have become so focused on our independence that we forgot the value of sharing and caring. Our selfishness and greed has led to a situation in which most Americans cannot afford adequate healthcare. Yet Americans are afraid of making small sacrifices that could benefit our society such as paying slightly more taxes to fund a truly universal system…
Anti-Jock, Cyber 'Movement'?
Brian ilson, in his article The Anti-Jock Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet, uses new social movement theory to examine the nature of a cyber-community that has emerged in opposition to the so-called 'jock culture' endemic in American high schools. ilson divides his analysis of the 'anti-jock' youth resistance into two parts. The first part examines published research on youth resistance and then attempts to weave a cohesive argument by relying on new social movement theory to address the role internet-based social media might be playing. In the second part, ilson briefly reviews what is known about jock culture and applies his theory to the emergent anti-jock websites and webzines to see if new social movement theory is adequate to the task of describing this cyber-community. ilson's approach is therefore qualitative in nature and represents a case…
Wilson, Brian. "The "Anti-Jock" Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet." Sociology of Sport Journal 19.2 (2002): 206-233.
Schools have more esponsibility to Prevent School Violence than ever before
Issues related to school violence have become an increasingly salient issue in modern society. This issue affects schools on many levels. On one level, there rise in the number of tragedies such as mass shootings have increased and these incidents clearly illustrate the need for safer educational environments for children and adolescents. However, there are also more subtle examples of violence that can occur in school environments such as bullying. The evidence that bullying is severe physical and psychological detriment to students has become increasingly clear. Furthermore, technology has also offered new platforms in which violence can occur between students. For example, there have been many cases of online bullying that have occurred on social networks. This analysis will provide a brief overview of different types of violence that can occur in schools as well as a…
Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2002). Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning. . Childhood Education, 261-268.
Beccerra, S., Munoz, F., & Riquelme, E. (2015). School violence and school coexistence management: unresolved challenges. Procedia, 156-163.
Crews, G. (2014). School Violence Perpetrators Speak: An Examination of Perpetrators Views on School Violence Offenses. Jouranl of the Institute of Justice and International Studies, 41-62.
The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.
As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.
Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.
Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.
Fear of crime is…
Schissel, Bernard (1997) Youth crime, moral panics, and the news: the conspiracy against the marginalized in Canada. ('moral panic' caused by increased incidence of youth crime in Canada, and young offenders identified as coming from homes led by single mothers and racial minorities)(Reconfiguring Power: Challenges for the 21st Century) Journal of Social Justice
Sprott, Jane B (1996) Understanding public views of youth crime and the youth justice system.(Canada) Canadian Journal of Criminology
Doob, Anthony N. And Julian Roberts 1988 Public punitiveness and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian Surveys. In N. Walker and M. Hough (eds.), Public Attitudes to Sentencing. Aldershot: Gower.
Sociologists base their studies of youth subcultures on structured and unstructured interviews, participant observation and analysis of media, texts and music. Unlike similar studies in the 1950s and 1960s, such as Albert Cohen's Delinquent Boys (1955) that described post-World War II youth cultures as a relatively new and unknown phenomenon, more recent research over the past thirty years has been heavily based on feminist and postmodernist theories. These place special emphasis on the diversity and multiplicity within each subculture, while trying to avoid the stereotypes that commonly appear in the mass media. This new type of sociology also appears to me more journalistic than objective, scientific or value free, rejecting the principles and pretensions of Talcott Parsons and his generation of postwar sociologists. Of course, any type of sociology should still consider questions of ethnicity, social class, immigration, poverty, inequality and violence, although the funding to investigate these…
Wilson, B. (2006). Fight, Flight, or Chill: Subcultures, Youth and Rave into the Twenty-First Century. McGill-Queen's University Press.
Wood, R.T. (2006). Straightedge Youth: Complexity and Contradictions of a Subculture. Syracuse University Press.
Video Violence: Assessing and Curbing the Effects of Television
Violence within Youth Programming in the United States of America
In today's day and age, technology has become a cornerstone of the American existence. With each passing day, new and improved technological devices turnover in order to bring the outside world into the individual American home, but the television has remained unaffected. The television and its programming have remained a constant yet changing staple in the country that brings with it an unparalleled ability to shape its watchers, with the most affected being the children and youth of America. While so many individuals immediately connect the phrase "children's programming" to harmless programs like Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, the truth remains that along with this wholesome educational programming, violence has also become a constant in many of the television programs geared toward children today. In viewing the research that is…
Hesmann, L.R. et al. "Early Exposure to TV Violence Predicts Aggression in Adulthood."
Developmental Psychology, 39(1): pp. 201-221.
Keer, Gregory. "The Effects of Seeing TV Violence." Parenthood. 2010. Web. 8 November
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-
analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.
Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),
Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
Domestic violence is a major problem in today's society that has significant effects in the well-being and proper functioning of the family and society. Generally, domestic violence and threat of violence contributes to the emergence of fear that basically destroys the normal functioning of the family and eventually affects the society. omen, children, and young people are the most commonly targeted and affected by violence or the threat of violence at home. The effect of domestic violence on individuals is attributed to the fact that exposure to violence in the immediate social environment generates considerable challenges and difficulties for the individual. The home or family environment acts as the immediate social environment for the growth and development of a person.
Brief Description of Domestic Violence:
Domestic violence has traditionally been regarded as a personal problem rather than a social problem. However, violence or the threat of violence has increased significantly…
Ooms, Theodora. "A Sociologist's Perspective on Domestic Violence: A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D." CLASP - Center for Law and Social Policy. Center for Law and Social Policy, 2006. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. .
"Sociological Effects on Women - Violence Against Women." Violence Against Women. Weebly.com, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. .
Domestic violence poses serious mental and physical health risks. In fact, it is estimated that" more than 1.5 million women nationwide seek medical treatment for injuries related to abuse each year" (Stark, 2001, p. 347(Tomison, 2003)). Those who are abused can experience mental health issues, such as anxiety attacks, posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic depression, acute stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts and ideation (Tomison, 2003)."
Domestic violence in America comes with an annual $44 million price tag with more than 20,000 hospital stays and 40,000 doctor visits each year (Tomison, 2003).
One of the issues that literature has uncovered is a lack of services or resources for women who are the victim of abuse by their domestic partner.
Shelters and batterer's intervention programs are often geographically inaccessible and not community based (Asbury, 1987; Williams & Becker, 1994; Williams-Campbell, 1993). Inaccessible services are less likely to be used despite the need. Transportation…
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.(2004) Perceptions of domestic violence: a dialogue with African-American women. Health and Social Work
Tomison, Adam M (2003)an analysis of current Australian program initiatives for children exposed to domestic violence. Australian Journal of Social Issues
Sharron M. (2005) Dating violence prevention in middle school and high school youth.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
In contrast, TV influences children in abandoning the theories they were taught and embrace other concepts, most related to violence. Also, after being exposed to TV violence children feel that it is perfectly natural for them to behave similar to the characters on TV (Langone, 1984, p. 48).
It is extremely important for a child to be assisted by an adult when watching TV. Studies have shown that children are influenced by the way adults perceive TV programs, meaning that a child is likely to gain a better understanding of right and wrong when he or she is supported by a mature individual. Even with that, TV violence can negatively influence children, as they will merely hide their aggression in the cases when they are assisted by an adult who disapproves of violent behavior in watching TV (Langone, 1984, p. 56).
Children are generally willing to do anything in ordered…
1. Barker, M. & Petley, J. (2001). Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate. New York: Routledge.
2. Hoffman, A.M. (1996) Schools, Violence, and Society. Westport, CT: Praeger.
3. Josephson, W.L. (1995). "Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages." Retrieved August 16, 2010, from the Media Awareness Network Web site: http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/research_documents/reports/violence/tv_violence_child.cfm
4. Langone, J. (1984). Violence!: Our Fastest-Growing Public Health Problem. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown
damaging aspects of domestic violence, its effect on the children who witness it, is also one of least studied. Most children whose parents are involved in domestic violence witness that violence. Furthermore, these children experience behavioral and emotional problems as a result of this exposure. Despite these facts, the development of intervention programs aimed at helping children who have witnessed domestic violence is fairly recent. One of the issues surrounding intervention is whether children's intervention programs should include the non-offending parent. The existing literature does little to answer that question, because some studies have found that conjoint intervention is helpful, while other studies have failed to support those findings. To resolve the issue, Sullivan, Egan, and Gooch (2004) studied the effect of conjoint interventions on adult and child victims of domestic violence.
In order to study the effect of conjoint interventions, Sullivan, et al. (2004) followed a nine-week group intervention…
Sullivan, M., M. Egan, & M. Gooch. (2004). Conjoint interventions for adult victims and children of domestic violence: a program evaluation. Research on Social Work Practice,
Alcohol and Youth
According to the Center on Marketing and Youth (CAMY), states are not doing very much in terms of keeping adolescents and other youth from being over-exposed to alcohol-related advertisements on television. The liquor and beer companies are clearly interested in getting young people started with their particular brand, and through television commercials those companies make beer and liquor seem very "cool" to impressionable young people. This paper reviews and critiques the literature on youth and alcohol-related advertising on television -- including peer-reviewed scholarship from several sources.
Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising
The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth -- a component of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health -- reports that the amount of advertising on television that specifically targets youth rose by 38% between 2001 and 2007. About one in five alcohol advertisements was placed on programs that attracts young people ages 12 to…
Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. (2008). Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television, 2001-2007. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from http://www.camy.org .
Jernigan, David H. (2010). The extent of global alcohol marketing and its impact on youth.
Contemporary Drug Problems, 37(1), 57-89.
Siegel, Michael, King, Charles, Ostroff, Joshua, Ross, Craig, Dixon, Karen, and Jernigan, David
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
Even some police still view the partner in domestic violence as "asking" for it in some way. In addition, even though laws in the United States and many other countries have become stiffer, there are still many countries around the world that subscribe to archaic and violent practices against women, often with the approval of their religion or beliefs.
The questions that remain unanswered about domestic violence and its long history are many. How has it been allowed to continue so long unchecked? How do men rationalize violence against family members they supposedly "love?" Why did it take until the 1960s and 70s in America to acknowledge there was a problem, and that men ruled the criminal justice system and the prevailing attitudes about domestic violence? Unfortunately, some of these attitudes still exist. Another writer notes, "The law and order movement has attained stringent warrantless arrest rules in the domestic…
Colker, R. (2006). Marriage mimicry: The law of domestic violence. William and Mary Law Review, 47(6), 1841+.
Goelman, D.M. (2004). Shelter from the storm: Using jurisdictional statutes to protect victims of domestic violence after the violence against women act of 2000. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 13(1), 101+.
Shipway, L. (2004). Domestic violence: A handbook for health professionals. New York: Routledge.
Sex and Violence in V
Sex and Violence on V and in the Movies:
Should Sex and Violence Continue to be Restricted for American Audiences?
here are many things that our society has been exposed to, especially with the advent of technology, and many of these things have not been positive. For instance, the new generation's constant obsession with sex and violence, one may state, is not exactly healthy. Yet younger and younger children know, from the internet, video games, and television shows, about sex and violence, and how these are portrayed in daily life. hough children must be aware of various things, sometimes, they need not learn of such topics at a young age. his paper will, therefore, argue that sex and violence on television and in the movies should continue to be restricted to minors, as it currently is, and will provide various opinions and facts on this…
The movie ratings of today vary in severity. The MPAA website explains, very clearly, why it chooses to restrict various movies, and why ratings are necessary. For instance, on its website, it clearly includes a page that has all ratings, which vary from G (General Audiences) to NC-17 (No One Under 17 and Under Admitted). It is important, due to the gruesomeness of some films and television shows, as well as due to sexual nature, that parents do follow these guidelines, thereby allowing children to learn, at their own pace and at a proper age, rather than in an unrealistic way, often portrayed by television and movies, what sex and violence truly means and how harmful these can sometimes be to society, as well as how they can affect it. This can mean that parents should truly try to abide by the ratings given by the MPAA, which, again, include G (General Audiences a.k.a all ages), PG (Parental Guidance Suggested a.k.a some material may not be suitable for children), PG-13 (Parents Strongly Cautioned, no minor under 13 without parents admitted), R (Children under 17 Require Accompanying Parent or Adult Guardian), and NC-17 (No One 17 and Under Admitted).[footnoteRef:1] There is a reason why these guidelines are in place, and for this reason, parents should follow them. [1: "What Each Rating Means." Motion Picture Association of America. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
The reason why this paper argues so strongly pro-censorship and the need thereof is not just because of those individuals who have already instituted this system for a certain purpose, but also because there are various articles and studied written on the topic as to how widely and negatively children can be affected by being exposed to the harshness of humankind from a young age, especially with regard to violence and sex. The Parents Television Council, for instance, has many papers from which to start.[footnoteRef:2] And yet another website offering advice with regards to this topic is Parenthood in America.[footnoteRef:3] In this latter website's article, "Protecting Children from Harmful Television," it is clear to see why ratings are necessary. As the article states, "Much research suggests that television viewing is related to a host of negative outcomes in children. Studies have found that television viewing is associated with aggression, a "desensitization" to violence, and increased fear […] Given that children's exposure to television is inevitable, parents may wonder what they can do to protect their children from experiencing these and other negative effects. The purpose of this paper is to discuss one option for controlling children's television viewing: the use of television ratings. More specifically, this paper will briefly describe the history and development of television ratings, discuss three of the major problems associated with television ratings, and then finally point out some of the other methods that are available to help parents cope with the presence of television in their children's lives."[footnoteRef:4] [2: "Studies on Violence and Sex in the Media - Parents Television Council." Parents Television Council - Because Our Children Are Watching. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ] [3: "Protecting Children from Harmful Television: TV Ratings and the V-chip." Parenthood in America. 15 Oct. 1998. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ] [4: "Protecting Children from Harmful Television: TV Ratings and the V-chip." Parenthood in America. 15 Oct. 1998. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
To further cement these facts and conclusively argue that children should be protected from sex and violence on TV and in movies, one need only to look at some examples in which children were exposed to such instances at a young age. One such example refers to the 2004 Super Bowl, which TV rating company Nielsen "estimates that 6.6 million kids 2-11 were watching at about the time that CBS's little halftime fiasco developed when Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of Jackson's bodice, exposing her right breast to the nationwide audience. Another 7.3 million teens 12-17 were tuned in at that time as well."[footnoteRef:5] For these reasons, one should not throw caution to the wind and not care about children watching harmful television, but should rather make a point to protect children from these harmful effects for as long as possible, at least until they have reached an age at which they can truly understand how sex and violence affect society, and what is good and bad about these issues. [5: "Sex, Violence, and Profanity in the Media Fact Sheet, TV Statistics - Parents Television Council." Parents Television Council - Because Our Children Are Watching. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…
Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.
Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.
Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
This can be directly linked to the frustration-aggression theory. Writer Smith continues, "In this theory, frustration and aggression are linked in a cause and effect relationship. Frustration is the cause of aggression and aggression is the result of frustration" (Smith, 1999). The aggressive behavior may be passed down from parent to child. Studies also indicate that aggressive parenting often produces aggressive children who continue the behavior.
There is a need for reducing domestic violence. Using these theories, one way to reduce the behavior is to reduce the frustration of poverty and lack of education. This is a social condition that can change, and should change. By helping people change their circumstances, they can experience less frustration and more satisfaction. educing outside violent influences, such as games and parental behavior is important too, as is education violent partners how to manage their violent tendencies.
Smith, A.K. (1999) Theories of aggression.…
Smith, A.K. (1999) Theories of aggression. Retrieved from the Bryn Mawr College Web site: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/Smith.html3 Aug. 2006.
Cultural Observation Project
Location of Observation: Shopping mall
Youth 201-Section # Observation:
Write at least two full pages of an observation response as to what you saw from your first field assignment experience. Use the first field assignment suggestions as some suggestive points to this response. This is more of an analytical "objective" observation (from the head).
The shopping mall site that I selected meets the criteria of a secular well-attended local teenage (ages 12 -- 18) "hot spot" because it contains attractions that are designed to draw young people to mall and keep them engaged in activities at the mall for relatively long periods of time. Like many shopping malls today, the site I chose rubs shoulders with a movie complex. Teenagers congregate on the "apron" just outside the theater before and after seeing movies. And from the movie theater, the teenagers walk into the mall to investigate other…
Awareness about psychology behind domestic violence has been greatly enhanced in recent years, as have legal protections for victims. However, the courts' major decisions on domestic violence cases have been somewhat equivocal. For example, in the case of Castle ock v Gonzales, the abused woman filed a complaint against the police department, arguing that it violated her right to Due Process when "acting pursuant to official policy or custom" the police "failed to respond to her repeated reports over several hours that her estranged husband had taken their three children in violation of her restraining order against him. Ultimately, the husband murdered the children" (Castle ock v Gonzales, 2012, Cornell). In the case, the woman had a restraining order against her husband, prohibiting him from coming near her or her children. However, ultimately the court did not find favor with the defendant since a restraining order is not a property…
Castle Rock v Gonzales. (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved:
Hiatt, Heidi. (2011). Landmark domestic violence legislation: Tracey Thurman vs. Torrington,
CT. Time's Up. Retrieved: http://timesupblog.blogspot.com/2011/10/landmark-domestic-violence-legislation.html
urban violence as it relates to a significant family stressor. The author examines the causes of violence as related to family stressors and applies a program to it to affect change. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The problem with urban violent is not just a problem for those who are involved. The occurrence of urban violence impacts the local business, schools, and families of those who are near the area. When urban violence begins to appear several things begin to happen. Businesses are affected because the consumer does not want to go into the area to shop. This causes economic problems for the businesses and they close down. Once they close down this means a loss of jobs, which can contribute to the poverty level that has been documented as a contributing factor to urban violence. It is a vicious circle that perpetuates itself. The schools…
Adolescent development: challenges and opportunities for research, programs, and policies.
Segregation and crime: the effect of black social isolation on the rates of black urban violence.
Lerner JV, Lerner RM. 1983. Temperament and adaptation across life: theoretical and empirical issues. In Life-Span Development and Behavior, ed. PB Baltes, OG Brim Jr., 5:197-230. New York: Academic. 411 pp.
Lerner RM. 1995. America's Youth in Crisis: Challenges and Options for Programs and Policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 147 PP.
(Why I Quit Hockey... Keep Your Priorities Straight)
The mark of success is often due to goals in a hockey match, but in practice other performances are equally important, and that should be realized the people who are encouraging the player. The supporters often want the player to carry out action on the field that the player cannot do due to his deficiencies in some areas, though that does not make him any less a player. The players often get encouragement from their non-tournament performance as then they can perform without tension and this improves their capacities as a player. The supporters keep advising the coaches about what they should or should not do, and often enough even the players knows that such an action will be wrong. The players are aware that their game is costing the guardians money, and to them it seems that the guardian is not…
Bach, Greg. Combating Violence in Youth Sports. Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ip010927.html . Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Bayles, Fred; Sharp, Deborah. Parental behavior under scrutiny. USA Today. 13 January, 2002.
Retrieved at http://www.pysa.com/images/Parents%20Under%20Scrutiny.PDFAccessed on 12 July, 2005
Davis. Peter. Be the Coach you want to be. Retrieved at http://www.fieldhockeywest.org/articles/art6.htm. Accessed on 14 July, 2005
If his father had been violent with him, Jeremiah would have that experience to draw upon in order to solve problems. He may have seen violence as the only way out of the situation. Moreover, Jeremiah's extreme insecurity led him to be fully engaged in conditioned thinking, which compelled him to assert the validity of his worldview by any means necessary. In this instance, that meant resorting to murder in order to prove that he was right.
Where do these feelings of insecurity originate from? According to POM, insecurities are not a result of circumstances or life events. On the contrary, POM suggests that the source of insecure feelings exists within the mind of the offender and occurs as a function of different mood states (Kelley, 1996). The reason why a certain person may have feelings of insecurity in one instance but not in another, even under identical circumstances, stems…
Adams, M.S., Robertson, C., Gray-Ray, P., Ray, M. (2003). Labeling and delinquency. Adolescence, 38(149), 171-86.
Dishion, T.J., Nelson, S., Bullock, B., Winter, C. (2004). Adolescent friendship as a dynamic system: entropy and deviance in the etiology and course of male antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(6), 651-63.
Doucette, P.A. (2004). Walk and talk: an intervention for behaviorally challenged youths. Adolescence, 39, 373-88.
Flom, P.L., Friedman, S., Kottiri, B., Neaigus, A., Curtis, R. (2001). Recalled adolescent peer norms towards drug use in young adulthood in a low-income, minority urban neighborhood. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(2), 425-43.
Despite these compelling findings, many youth are not routinely assessed for such violence exposure and its ramifications by the educational, child welfare, social service, and juvenile justice systems with which they frequently interact." (2007) This exposure is not only related to outcomes of a negative nature as well as heightened drug use and greater HIV related risk behaviors." (Vioson, 2007) the work of McDowell (2006) entitled: "Caring for Child Victims: Countering the Effects of Domestic Violence" published in the Journal of Specialists in Pediatric Nursing states that children are affected by family violence and that holistic assessment by the nurse is "essential to understanding the stressor of domestic violence." (McDowell, 2006) it is important to understand that less than one-third of domestic violence cases are reported. This author specifically charges the pediatric nurse in having the knowledge and skills necessary to identify childhood trauma from having witnessed family abuse.
Dalpaiz, C.M. (2006) Breaking Free, Starting Over: Parenting in the Aftermath of Family Violence. Family Therapy Journal Vol. 33 Issue 1 San Diego 2006.
Henry, M.; Szajnberg, N. (2006) My Life is a Longing: Child Abuse and its Adult Sequelae: Results of Brody Longitudinal Study from Birth to age 30" International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 87, Issue 2.
Hurley (2006) Internalized Other Interviewing of Children Exposed to Violence. Journal of Systematic Therapies. Summer 2006. Vol. 25. Guilford Publications, Inc.
Kaplow, J.B.; Saxe, G.N.; Putman, F.W.; Pynoos, R.S.; and Lieberman, a.F. (2006) the Long-Term Consequences of Early Childhood Trauma. A Case Study and Discussion. Psychiatry. New York Winter 2006. Vol. 69. Issue 4.
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…
Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions
Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.
Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20050610/media-violence-may-affect-childrens-minds
Imagine being caught in the middle of a crossfire with two students shooting and you are right in the middle of it. Well that is exactly what students and teachers in Littleton, Colorado went through. On April 20, 1999, at approximately 12:20am, two students armed with semi-automatic handguns, shotguns and explosives conducted an assault on the Columbine High School and the people inside. A total of 12 students, 1 teacher and 2 suspects were killed; 24 students were transported to six local hospitals; and 100 students were treated at the scene (www.Littleton.org).Isthis what is happening inside the walls of where America's youth is suppose to be learning and in a safe environment. What can we do to prevent events like this from happening? It is a question we are constantly searching for answers to. There seems to be no concrete answers or solutions just certain explanations.
Bibliography. Joan Nordquist; Santa Cruz, CA: Reference and Research Services, 1994.
Violence Prevention: Totally Awesome Teaching Strategies for Safe and Drug-Free Schools. Linda Meeks and Philip Heit; Meeks Heit, 1994.
(1999) formed the basis of the survey. (Vermeiren et al.)
The study found that that the older age groups and those who had previously experienced abuse were more prone to suicide as a result of the exposure to violence. In essence, the study also found in this sample of communities that exposure to violence in European inner cities is frequently experienced. Furthermore the findings.".. demonstrate that suicidal risk is increased in youths exposed to community violence, and that this risk gradually increases with the level of exposure" (Vermeiren et al.).
Another important finding is that, as was hypothesized from the literature, there is a marked and significant difference in relation to gender. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15.3% of girls and 9.5% of boys..." (Vermeiren et al.).
The authors underline the importance of this area of research in that suicide is one of the major health risks among adolescent youth.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000845647
Vermeiren, Robert, et al. "Exposure to Violence and Suicide Risk in Adolescents: A Community Study." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 30.5 (2002): 529+.
'" (Moynihan, 1965)
Moynihan implies that the decreasing role of the black male is a central aspect to be addressed in resolving the matters of violence in the black communities. As a result, he proposes a series of social and political policies that would strengthen the role played by the black male in the family. These refer to better employment opportunities, wage increases or an improved social perception of the roles that fathers play within the family. The senator exemplifies by stating that the white families are mostly run by two parents and the presence and role of both mother and father foster the growth and development of a stable individual, who will not engage in criminal actions.
The report issued by Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan set the basis for years of controversy. Organized under the title the Negro Family: The Case for National Action, the findings were…
DuRant, R.H., Pendergats, R.A., Stevens, G., Linder, C.W., April 1994, Factors Associated with the Use of Violence among Urban Black Adolescents, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 6, pp. 612-617
Hall, J.D., August 2, 1993, Big Shots: A Boy and His Gun, Time Magazine, pp. 21-29
Moynihan, D.P., March 1965, the Moynihan Report - the Negro Family: The Case for National Action, Office of Policy Planning and Research, United States Department of Labor
April 1994, Reducing Violence - How do we Proceed? American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84. No. 4, pp.539-540
Exposure to Community Violence: Intervention
The purpose of this work is to research exposure to community violence by school-age children and further to examine the intervention methods utilized in dealing with the trauma and associated psychological factors.
Intervention being implemented early is key in assisting school-age children in coping with trauma and the associated symptoms and conditions both emotionally and psychologically for avoidance of complicating the condition or other results in permanent damage.
What the Professionals have to Say:
Exposure to trauma and violence is a risk that is at a "disconcertingly high level[s]" according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
Researchers have noted that there are 'certain limitations and knowledge' and that there is need for more research in this area and a more comprehensive long-term analysis.
Study performed by Cognitive ehavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools;
A study performed by the Los Angeles School…
Children and Adolescents Exposure to Community Violence, Post-Traumatic Stress Reactions, and Treatment Implications [Online] located at: http://188.8.131.52 / search?q=cache:kL3UFs5EXVEJ: www.rand.org/publications/newsletters/child/0104/is sue.pdf+Exposure+to+Community+Violence,+Student+Intervention& hl=en& ie=UTF-8
Lumsden, Linda (2000) Research Roundup 17, 1 (Fall 2000) Early Intervention to Prevent Violence [Online] at: http://eric.uoregon.edu/publications / roundup/Fall_2000.html
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools [Online] at: http://ww.hsrcenter.ucla.edu/research/cbits.shtml
Sieger, Karin et al. (2004)The Effects and Treatment of Community Violence in Children and Adolescents What Should Be Done? Trauma, Violence & Abuse Vol.5, No.3, 243-259 (2004)
TV & Internet
Mass media technology has become omnipresent in our society. It is not uncommon for children to now be raised with personal electronics, constant television and an overall barrage of sensory stimulus. Moreover, electronic devices are becoming the main means of communication for the younger generation, which can challenge their ability to relate to others. While many in the media have called into question the impacts of these socio-technical changes, others point the benefits that technology offers, and note that change is inevitable and the negative effects are overblown. This paper will take a look at the effects of television and Internet consumption on the young generation.
There are a number of different influences the have been hypothesized for children based on their exposure to television and the media, none more prevalent than the argument that children are exposed to much more violence throughout their childhoods than…
AAP. (2011). Children, adolescents, obesity and the media. Pediatrics. Vol. 128 (1) 201-208.
Castillo, M. (2013). Parents' TV time may be the biggest influence on kids' viewing habits. CBS News. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/parents-tv-time-may-be-the-biggest-influence-on-kids-viewing-habits/
Donnerstein, E. (2010). The media and aggression: From TV to the Internet. University of Arizona. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.sydneysymposium.unsw.edu.au/2010/chapters/DonnersteinSSSP2010.pdf
Harris, J., Speers, S., Schwartz, M. & Brownell, K. (2012) U.S. food company branded advergames on the Internet: Children's exposure and effects on snack consumption. Journal of Children and the Media. Vol. 6 (1) 51-68.
The interesting aspect of this phenomena is that in general this usually ends in a cyclical resurgence of the dismissal of biological factors as a possible answer for delinquent behavior, when in reality the opposite is true. Cognitive therapy tends not to work, especially in the long-term for impulse disorders, not because all therapy is bogus but because it is treating the wrong area of the brain. The failing, by most standards of cognitive therapy and especially, cognitive behavioral therapy is that it tends to assume that actions are driven by thought, even when such thoughts are not really there, or at the very least are to fleeting to actually be considered cognitions but are more akin to fleeting words, rather than core beliefs. (Neenan & Dryden, 2004, p. 77)
The biology that is outlined by Karr-Morse and Wiley and the many experts they cite to demonstrate the necessity for…
Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Painter, S.G., & Howell, C.C. (1999). Rage and Women's Sexuality after Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Phenomenological Study. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 35(1), 5.
Shelton, T.L., Barkley, R.A., Crosswait, C., Moorehouse, M., Fletcher, K., Barrett, S., et al. (1998). Psychiatric and Psychological Morbidity as a Function of Adaptive Disability in Preschool Children with Aggressive and Hyperactive-Impulsive Inattentive Behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(6), 475.
Therapy on the NHS? What a Crazy Waste of [Pounds Sterling]600million! As the Government Promotes Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as the Panacea for All Mental Ills, a Psychologist Gives His Scornful Response GoodHealth. (2006, October 24). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 57.
Collect analyze newsprint media depictions youth crime a -week period (i.e., check newspaper day weeks articles discussing youth crime justtcej] How media depict youth crime comparison actual picture youth Crime?YOu information actual youth crime picture Study Guide, textbook, Juristat reports relevant: 1.
Youth Crime in the Media
There is much controversy today in regard to youth crime, its effects on society, the way that it operates, and how it is perceived by the masses. The mass media currently has a lot of influence and it is very difficult for people to be able to filter information in order to avoid being manipulated. More and more media devices come to depict youth crime as a significant threat to society's well-being and emphasize the fact that conditions are likely to worsen in the near future if the reform does not occur. The masses have trouble understanding youth crime correctly because people generally…
Alvi, S. "Youth Criminal Justice Policy in Canada: A Critical Introduction," Springer, 2011.
Brennan, S. And Dauvergne M. "Police-reported crime statistics in Canada, 2010," Retrieved January 24, 2012, from the Statistics Canada Website: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11523-eng.htm#a6
Brown, S. "Understanding Youth and Crime: Listening to Youth?," 2nd ed. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press, 2005.
Charron, M. "Neighbourhood Characteristics and the Distribution of Crime in Toronto: Additional Analysis on Youth Crime," Retrieved January 24, 2012 from the Statistics Canada Website: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-561-m/85-561-m2011022-eng.htm
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…
Von Wormer, Katherine, and McKinney, Robin. (2003). What Schools Can do To Help Gay/
Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: A Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409-420.
Von Wormer asserts through this article that because adjusting to heterosexual environment in public schools -- and dealing with the bias that often is in evidence -- is difficult, it is a "major cause of psychological problems" which leads these minorities to alcohol and drug abuse issues.