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Usually, in hotter climates that are nearer to the equator, spread will be more powerful and Malaria is spread throughout the year. The uppermost spread is initiated in Africa South of the Sahara and in fractions of Oceania such as Papua New Guinea. In less hot areas, spread will be less powerful and very cyclic. In many moderate regions, like Western Europe and the U.S. financial expansion and public well being actions have been successful in getting rid of malaria. The majority of these regions have Anopheles mosquitoes that spread malaria, and so the reintroduction of the disease is a continuous threat (Malaria, 2010).
In Africa where malaria has presented the largest problem, it has been particularly difficult to manage. There are a lot of reasons that account for this. These include: a proficient mosquito that spreads the infection, an elevated occurrence of the most lethal kinds of the parasite,…
Malaria. (2010). Retrieved September 15, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/
In truth, large sharks tend to hunt large blubbery prey with a much higher ratio of flesh-to-bone than human beings. That is apparently why many test bites on a human result in no further attack.
In the last decade, a tourist industry has evolved in parts of the world with access to coral reefs and natural shark populations. Hand-feeding excursions allow divers, lead by more experienced professionals to encounter sharks in the wild without a high likelihood of attack. Typically, divers descend to the ocean floor where they assemble into a tight group that de-emphasizes their appearance as meal-sized organisms and merges them (from the sharks' point-of-view into a single larger organism, too large to eat. But other procedures involve much smaller groups of two or three divers to hand feed sharks, relying only on the fact that most sharks tend not to perceive humans as potential prey, unless we…
Ellis, R. (1989) the Book of Sharks. Knopf: New York
Perrine, D. Sharks. (1995) Voyageur: Stillwater
Research Center for Shark Research (2001); Biology of Sharks and Rays; Accessed October 14, 2007, at http://www.elasmo-research.org/index.html
Ritter, E. (2000) Anatomy of Shark Accidents; SharkInfo. Accessed, October 14, 2007, at http://www.sharkinfo.ch/SI4_99e/accidents.html
In Paleontology, however, these wing digits have been considered as digits 1, 2 and 3 based on phylogenetic assessment of the fossil lineage suggesting that birds have evolved from theropod ancestors that had lost the fourth and fifth digits. Critics of this theory have suggested that birds have evolved from some other ancestors that had lost the first and fifth digits. Studies of developing limbs of chicken, including a polydactylous variety and mouse have confirmed that the wing digits are actually 1, 2 and 3 and support the hypothesis of theropod descent of birds. (Vargas; Fallon, 87)
The origin of birds from dinosaurs is a fascinating study. The discovery of the first fossil protobird, the Archaeopteryx started most of the studies on the dinosaurian origins of birds. Most paleontologists now agree that birds have descended from a particular line of dinosaurs, the theropods, more specifically the coelurosaurs who had…
Alexander, David E; Vogel, Steven (FRW). Nature's flyers.
JHU Press, 2004.
Davies, Gareth Huw. Evolution. Retrieved 28 April, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/lifeofbirds/evolution/
Farlow, James O; Brett-Surman, M. K; Walters, Robert F. The Complete Dinosaur. Indiana University Press, 1999.
LEECHES: loodsuckers, Life-And-Limb-Savers
"Nothing works as well as leeches when we need to get blood out of a (body) part."
lood clotting is a life-saving body process, but when it endangers life or prevents the resolution of a torn tissue, leeches can come in handy. They have shown their worth as natural blood thinners, painkillers and surgical scavengers with the anticoagulant and anesthetic properties of their saliva. These saliva components hold much promise for the "treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders" (Sohn)
These squirmy bloodsuckers, which naturally occurred in ponds in the Medieval period, were used as a panacea for a variety of diseases and disorders in early times. Surgeons and barbers employed these worms in bloodletting, believing that removing some of the blood in an affected part would cure it. It remained useful until the coming of modern medicine, which discarded it, until its reappearance in the last…
Action for Biology Education. Leeches. ScLinks, 2001
Alien Explorers. Leeches (Common Blood-Suckers): Description, Habitat, Food.
Worms and Leeches, 2001
Movement, Feeding, Human Health
The authors explain that "Large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation…" that results from urban sprawl is a major cause of the lack of biodiversity within the insect species (Acharya, 1999, 27). Even the building of a new road, or street lights, in places where previously there were no roads or lights, what the authors call "undisturbed areas," has an impact on insect biodiversity, Acharya explains. Meanwhile, moths, which are known to be drawn to light, have trigger mechanisms that detect the echolocation signals of bats; and on the other hand bats feed "…heavily" on moths, Acharya continues; in fact many bat species use moths as their "main food item" (Acharya, 27).
The point of that information (and of this study) in this peer-reviewed piece is that if "…eared moths" exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid bat attacks, they would not be caught as often by bats and hence this would…
Acharya, Lilita, and Fenton, Brock M 1999. 'Bat attacks and moth defensive behaviour around street lights.' Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 77, 27-32.
Chepesiuk, Ron. 2009. 'Missing the Dark: Health Affects of Light Pollution.' Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, 20-27.
Conrad, Kelvin F., Warren, Martin S., Fox, Richard, Parsons, Mark S., and Woiwod, Ian P. 'Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis.' Biological Conservation, vol. 132, 279-291
Duverge, Laurent P., Jones, Gareth, Rydell, Jens, and Ransome, Roger D. 2000. 'Functional significance of emergence timing in bats.' Ecography, vol. 23, 32-39.
In that respect, one of my professional idols was teve Irwin who was tragically killed in 2006 in an encounter with a sting ray (Webber, 2011). While he was best known for his television show, the Crocodile Hunter, he was actually a world-renowned environmental conservationist who had dedicated his life to protecting endangered animal species and to educating the public about the importance of protecting the natural environmental habitat of wildlife species. According to the Queensland Department of Education and Training (2006),
"teve had a significant influence on thousands of Queensland school children and his passion for the environment and wildlife was extremely infectious.
worked tirelessly to protect the world's animals and environment. He was awarded the Queensland Museum's highest accolade in 2003 - the Queensland
Museum Medal - for his exceptional contribution to the understanding and appreciation of Australian wildlife at an international level and his commitment and…
Australia Zoo. (2010). Chat to a Keeper Archive. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from:
Queensland Government DET. (2006). Honour Steve Irwin's passion for nature.
Retrieved March 25, 2011 from:
Zoo Animal Technology Program
I want to enter the Zoo Animal Technology Program at BLANK University for a number of reasons. First, I have always loved animals since I was very young, and I've always felt I wanted to help take care of them in some capacity as my career. In the past, I've had tropical fish, dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, birds, and other animals in my family for as long as I can remember. I have always been involved in training, maintaining, and caring for these animals, and I have loved every one of them. I would like to continue in my life.
I also strongly believe in animal conservation and husbandry, and the zoo technology program would allow me to learn more about these important areas of zookeeping. I know that many animals are endangered in the wild today, and the only way to help preserve…
Annelids are members of the Superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The division of the Phylum is in three classes Hirudineans (leeches), Oligochaetes (earthworms) and Hirudinean (Polychaetes and leeches). They inhibit marine aquatic with Parapodia, like nereis Meglitsch P, 1972()
They are worm like animals that have muscular body walls that elongate. They are also circular in cross section. The major difference between Phylum Annelida and other worm like creatures is that, they have segmented bodies (also known as metameric). Each segment has its own particular function. Phylum Annelida include different types of earthworms, leeches and marine polychaetes. There are those that live in fresh water, marine also terrestrial. Some of them live as parasites. Annelids are skilled in swimming, creeping and burrowing Badea, Gagyi-Palffy, Stoian, & Stan, 2010
( ADDIN EN.CITE )
Meglitsch P (1972)
, said that Annelids are connected to Molluscs and seem to have arisen from flatworms. Given…
Badea, A.B., Gagyi-Palffy, A., Stoian, L.C., & Stan, G. (2010). Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators. [Article]. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society (AACL Bioflux), 3(1), 35-41.
Meglitsch P. (1972). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press.
In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.
Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…
Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.
Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp
Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm
Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+. http://www.questia.com /.
It is common knowledge that the human body consists of about 65% water. People cannot live any longer than five days without H20. Individuals of all ages love to sail the oceans, swim in the sea and soar under or speed across the waves. It comes as no surprise, then, that some part of the human psyche remembers millions and millions of years ago before animals came on shore. What is still questionable is how or why these animals made the move from water to land. The journal articles discussed below give some of the latest findings on this topic.
Early in the Devonian Era, close to 400 million years ago, all the continents were grouped closely together and surrounded by the seas. The climate ranged from dry weather to torrential rains as some tropical areas do today. Even flowers had not yet evolved on land, let alone vertebrates.…
Clack, J.A. "An Early Tetrapod from Romer's Gap." Nature (2002) 418: 72-76. [electronic version]
Clack, J.A. "From Fins to Fingers." Science 304.5667 (2004): 57-59. [electronic version]
Coates, M.I, and J.A. Clack. "Polydactyly in the Earliest Known Tetrapod Limbs"
Nature. (1990) 347: 66-69. [electronic version]
Double Crested Cormorant "are opportunistic, generalist feeders" (Wires, Cuthbert, Dale, & Joshi, 2001). They feed on slow moving fish species that range from 3 centimeters to 40 centimeters. These birds forage in shallow water and seem to be strict diurnal in the way they eat. They are quick to respond to areas with high fish concentration and flock where the fish can easily be caught.
The Double Crested Cormorant breeds in cold climatic conditions and has been living in Alaska for a long time (Wires, Cuthbert, Dale, & Joshi, 2001, p. 36). According to Siegel-Causey & Savinetskii (1991), the remains of the bird have been found on Amchitka Island dating back over 2000 years. These remains suggest that the there were plenty of the species in the central Aleutian Islands and climate changes have reduced their population in Alaska.
Great Blue Herons
Great Blue Herons are prey generalists, although they…
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center information on Migratory Bird. (2011, July 12). Wood stork
Mycteria americana. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from www.mbrppwrc.usgs.gov: http://www.mbrppwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/bbs.html
BirdLife International. (2004). Turdus migratorius. IUCN .
Butler, R.W. (1992). Great Blue Heron. The birds of North .
Behavioral Episodes in elation to Leopard Seals
Leopard seals are widely known for their ferocity and have been acknowledged as top predators for a long time now. These are large but slender mammals, with females usually exceeding males in size and weight. The spotty coats, distributed along their bodies, define the leopard appearance and allure to the hunting abilities they possess. With powerful jaws and canine teeth, leopard seals can prey on creatures of whatever size. Their agility and reputation have long formed individuals' negative perception upon the former. This document is to try to dismantle the negative image leopard seals have been inoculated with for such a long time. This proposal looks at some of the facts that have led people forming drastic opinions as well as some episodes that appear to indicate how little we may in fact know in relation to leopard seals.
Statement of Problem
Aguayo-Lobo, A., R., Acevedo, J., Brito, J.L., G., Acuna, P., Bassoi, M., Secchi, E., R., and Rosa, L.D. 2011. Presence of the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx (De Blainville, 1820), on the coast of Chile: An example of the Antarctica -- South America Connection in the marine environment. Oecologia Australis 15(1): 69-85. doi: 10.4257/oeco.2011.1501.07
Ainley, D.G., Ballard, G., Karl, B.J., and Dugger K.M. 2005. Leopard seal predation rates at penguin colonies of different size. Antarctic Science 17(3): 335-340.
De Laca, T.E., Lipps, J.H., and Zumwalt, G.S. 1975. Encounters with leopard seals (Hydruga leptonyx) along the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Journal of the United States 10(3): 85-9.
Hiruki, L.M., Schwartz, M.K., and Boveng, P.L. 1999. Hunting and social behavior of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Sea Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. Journal of Zoology, London 249(1): 97-109. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usdeptcommercepub/151/
Thoreau was a student of nature for virtually all of his adult life. During Thoreau's life, Cape Cod was a relatively unspoiled area rich with nature and people who worked closely in nature, such as farmers and fishermen. Those who lived on Cape Cod tended to be independent sorts, and Thoreau preferred their company to those of people engaged in commerce or other business-related occupations.
In his small book Cape Cod, Thoreau recounts his experiences on walking excursions around Cape Cod during the mid-1800's. In the process he described much about the unspoiled nature present throughout the Cape at that time.
In the opening chapter Thoreau talks about the ecology of living along the ocean: in the midst of a desperate sight - the wreck of a boat loaded with immigrants, most of whom drowned, he saw people gathering seaweed to use as fertilizer. The seaweed had been tossed up…
Vombatus Ursinus Organism Profile
Vombatus ursinus is the scientific name given to the organism commonly known as the common Wombat (Matthews & Green, 2012). The common wombat is also referred to as the bare-nosed wombat, or coarse-haired wombat. There are three subspecies of wombats namely Vombatus ursinus hirsutus, Vombatus ursinus tasmaniensis, and Vombatus ursinus. The common Wombat is mainly found in Flinders Island of the Bass Strait Islands. Wombats prefer living in the temperate forest areas of southern Australia. They tend to avoid rainforests, and they are mostly found in the mountainous areas. In Tasmania and South wales, Wombats are found at lower attitudes win open vegetation like woodlands, heathland, and coastal scrub. Wombats prefer to dig their shelters on slopes above gullies and creeks, and they feed in grassy clearings. Wombats are native to Australia, and they belong to the Vombatidae family. Many people have noted that the wombats…
Brewer, P., Archer, M., Hand, S.J., & Abel, R. (2015). New genus of primitive wombat (Vombatidae, Marsupialia) from Miocene deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area (Queensland, Australia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 18(1), 1-40.
Matthews, A., & Green, K. (2012). Seasonal and altitudinal influences on the home range and movements of common wombats in the Australian Snowy Mountains. Journal of Zoology, 287(1), 24-33.
Roger, E., Bino, G., & Ramp, D. (2012). Linking habitat suitability and road mortalities across geographic ranges. Landscape ecology, 27(8), 1167-1181.
Story, G., Driscoll, D., & Banks, S. (2014). What can camera traps tell us about the diurnal activity of the nocturnal bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus)? Camera Trapping: Wildlife Management and Research, 35.
Apart of this macroeconomic force of which he was a part, was a Europe-wide banking network that facilitated not only international trade, but also state making elsewhere. He financed the Florentine intellectual and artistic breakthroughs we now refer to as "the Renaissance."
Cosimo's power was greatly respected, and by 1434 foreign princes went to Florence to work out international relations. Machiavelli, nearly a century later, still regarded the Medici family as the harbinger of everything good and evil in Florentine life to Cosimo's "deep and ruthless machinations." Despite the influence of Medici, he is portrayed as indecisive and in the background of affairs: "Cosimo was anxious to remain in the background, hiding his great influence, and acting, when need arose, through a deputy. As a result, very little is known of the measures for which he was directly responsible." Cosimo did not expect eternal rule, nor did he ever give…
1. ____. Medici Exhibition. The Medici, Michelangelo, and the art of the Late Renaissance Florence
2. Padgett F. John, Ansell K. Christopher. (May, 1993). Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, the American Journal of Sociology, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1259-1319.
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…
Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;
Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com .
The Vygotsky influence has recently had an impact in a university environment in New Zealand. Indeed, the application of the ZPD model in New Zealand moved well beyond just another theory for "old school" teachers to bravely tackle, and has actually become a "common sense" approach to learning and development. This information comes through another peer-reviewed research article ("Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and Problem-based Learning: linking a theoretical concept with practice through action research"). In the piece, the author explains that students had been employing "problem-based learning" (PBL) methods to develop "relevant content knowledge and the metacognitive skills that will enable them to become good learners and problem-solvers..." (Harland, 2003).
In this instance, PBL had been providing a needed challenge to the "traditional teacher's role" in that teaching was by way of becoming more like "research supervision" or "mentoring" then actually teaching. Indeed, Harland writes that PBL has been…
Chak, Amy. (2001). Adult Sensitivity to Children's Learning in the Zone of Proximal
Development. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 31(4), 383-395.
Harland, Tony. (2003). Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and Problem-Based
Learning: linking a theoretical concept with practice through action research. Teaching in Higher Education, 8(2), 263-272.
James Dewey atson
The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James atson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA allowed scientists to begin to understand the mechanism behind inheritance. hile many scientists over the years had studied heredity, beginning with Gregor Mendel, no one had been able to discover the exact mechanism for how heredity actually works. It was not until the technology of the time advance to a point where scientists could determine the structure of molecules that the discovery of the structure of genetic material could be determined. After much research, and some failures, two scientists, working together, finally determined the molecular structure of the genetic molecule, allowing for the study of the exact mechanism to begin. James atson was one of the scientists responsible for the discovery of the DNA…
"Biography James Watson." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.
"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the most famous of the ancient Greek philosophers. All three of them have left a deep impact on the Western philosophy. In this paper we will look at the main points of their philosophies and the impact they left on us.
Socrates (469-399 BC)
Socrates was the first of the famous trio. He did not write any books and most of what we know about Socrates has been derived from the works of his equally illustrious pupil, Plato. Socrates not having written any book is part of his philosophy as he believed in the superiority of argument over writing and spent most of his life in public places practicing dialogue and argument with his contemporaries.
Socrates' basic philosophy was ethical in nature. He believed in an objective understanding of justice, love, and virtue. He particularly emphasized 'self-knowledge' and believed in the essential goodness of men.…
Essentially, Pearson's formula translates qualitative data from a set of observations into a single number. Probability tables with corresponding numbers, with variances built in for different levels of significance and different degrees of freedom (the number of available data points used for the estimation/prediction of other data, the calculation of which in Chi Square analysis is provided for by another straightforward equation), provide the probability of dependence for any given Chi Square statistic.
The most simple example of a Chi Square test uses two populations and one variable of examination with a binary ("yes/no") set of possibilities. One example used is examining the high school graduation rate of students in a special program vs. The graduation rate of a control group of students not involved in the program (Lane 2010). If a grid is constructed to fill in data points, there would be two rows -- one for each population…
HSW. (2010). "The Chi Square Statsitic." Hobart and William Smith College. Accessed 26 February 2010. http://math.hws.edu/javamath/ryan/ChiSquare.html
Lane, D. (2010). "Introduction to the Chi Square Test of Independence." Accessed 26 February 2010. http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/B143466.html
Plackett, R.L. (2010). "Karl Pearson and the Chi Squared Test." International statistical review 51, pp. 59-72.
The most arrangement of these hominids is as shown in the table above (antala, 2007, p.17).
Humans have undergone a series of evolution from the most primitive hominids to the modern man. The development in the structure of the hominids was gradual; with almost half being upright and the rest being bent creatures. Evolution is expected to continue and man is expected to evolve into a different creature depending on the use and disuse of his limbs.
Macroevolution gives finer details about the origin of humans and tries to bring out substantive information from carbon dating that indicate that for real man is a product of a continuous evolution and thus is thus not the final product of evolution. However, the theory of evolution has faced a lot of criticism especially from the Theologians whose views about the origin of humans are contrary to those of macroevolution. The theory…
Barsh, G. (2003). What controls variation in human skin colour? Journal on Biological
Principles. 11(7), 19-22.
Fleagle, J. (1998). Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Second Edition. New York: Academic
Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education
Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.
From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.
In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."
uch well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set…
Ford, W. Ed. Thomas Jefferson Correspondence. Boston, 1916.
Jefferson, T. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1993.
Public and Private Papers New York: Vintage Books/the Library of America, 1990.
This would clearly be preferable to performing surgery, but may be more applicable in cases of type B than type a polydactyly. Of a total of 21 cases which were examined, this procedure resulted in a slight complication in only one case, where the digit had to be removed surgically due to failure of removal by suture ligation. The only real side effect of this simple treatment is that there was found to be a small bump remaining at the site in 43% of cases.
Although there has been some work into the genetic basis of polydactyly, advances in examination of the human genome may create a better understanding of the condition in the future. A large amount of the work done so far has been focused on animal models, and there is still room for further work to discover the genetic basis of the different types of polydactyly…
Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.
Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino Roth, M. & Santos, I.S. (2001). Epidemiologia das polidactilias: Um estudo de casos e controles na populacao de Pelotas-RS. Journal de Pediatria, 77(2); d.o.i.: 10.1590/S0021-7557200100017.
Borisch, N., Stunitz, B. & Blauth, W. (1995). Case histories surgical treatment of polydactyl of the little toe involving proximal and middle phalanx. Orthopedics and Traumatology, 4(4): 246-253.
Gurnett, C.A., Bowcock, a.M., Dietz, F.R., Morcuende, J.A., Murray, J.C. & Dobbs, M.B. (2007). Two novel point mutations in the long-range SHH enhancer in three families with triphalangeal thumb and preaxial polydactyly. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 143(1): 27-32.
These insects run through the markets of Thailand, South Africa and South Korea offered separately as crunchy snacks to locals and bold travelers. They are highly rich in protein and may be considered as a good food supplement to boost energy. In case you can't make up your mind, a "bug-pack" may be suggested consisting of all edible insects you can munch on while appreciating great views and nature tripping. Larvae and Caterpillars of these insects were also considered as a rare delicacy, either as soup or added flavor to paste.
Farmed by an old Japanese lady in Kyushu Island, the Giant Japanese Hornet is used to make honey. This is a completely incredible honey - literally! The Giant Japanese Hornet is the largest species of wasp in the world, and it contains special enzymes in its body which are reputed to increase strength and energy levels. Giant…
Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia (1989). Insects. New York: Lexicon Publications, Inc.
M. Burton (1971). Nature, the Realm of Animals and Plants. London: The Grolier Society Limited.
2000 Nation Multimedia Group. A Beetle a Day, July 6, 1999, the Nation. Retrieved April 19, 2008, at http://www.thaibugs.com/Articles/beetleaday.htm
Edible. Insectivores. Retrieved April 19, 2008, at http://www.edible.com/shop/browse.php?cmd=showdepartment§ionId=23
Although this theory totally impacted the world, Darwin's second book the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) began a major debate, especially between religion and science. As he stated in the conclusion of his book, "The main conclusion here arrived at, and now held by many naturalists who are well competent to form a sound judgment is that man is descended from some less highly organized form."
He even theorized that intelligence and emotion could develop through natural selection.
However, he also stressed the difference between humans and lower animals. Man has a conscience and moral sense. In Chapter 4 he states: "any animal whatever, endowed with well-marked social instincts, the parental and filial affections being here included, would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well, or nearly as well developed, as in man."
Darwin, C. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1859) Retrieved January 5, 2007 http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/origin.html
Darwin, C. Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871). Retrieved January 5, 2007. http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/
Desmond, a. And Moore, J. (1991) the Life of a Tormented Evolutionist: Darwin
New York: Warner.
Nonetheless, an argument from common sense can be made based on our own observational context. For example, neurologically speaking, there is a wealth of evidence to illustrate that genes have an immense impact on the final structure of the brain, and thus on behavior. Schizophrenia is an obvious example of this.
Logically, though, there is also abundant support for Dawkins' thesis. oughly, an argument can be shown to be logically viable if its conclusions can be reasonably drawn from its suppositions based on the available evidence. This is abundantly the case in the Selfish Gene, wherein Dawkins (1976) draws on all the existing evidence on evolutionary theory and the development of life, including the mechanism of natural selection (p. 48) and DNA as the molecule of choice for genetic propagation (pp. 22-23). The evidence that Dawkins provides is, quite simply, sufficient to support his argument that the gene should be…
Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2005). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. 5th ed. Wadsworth-Thomson Learning.
Thus, just an article strictly on the newest thoughts regarding complex design by Zimmer would be seen as support of his beliefs.
Why, then, the added zing against ntelligent Design? s because the continued dispute between the scientists and Creationists has disturbed Zimmer so much that he had to add these comments? Or, was it a National Geographic editor who read Zimmer's piece and said, "Let's make this article juicier by setting the ntelligent Design people against the scientists."
No one will ever know for sure if either of these scenarios or another one is the truth. However, it does seem odd that the three paragraphs noted above after the introduction can easily be removed without any changes needed to the flow of the article. The first two paragraph introduction moves very smoothly into "Some have emerged..." There is nothing lost by removing these middle three paragraphs than some heat.…
It just would have been more effective if there were two separate articles: The overall article on the complexity and then a side bar on the evolution vs. Creationism controversy. In the latter article, additional comments could have come from scientists both pro and con Intelligent Design, for, in fact, there are a number of scientists (even biologists and zoologists) who do believe that these marvels of nature are the result of some overall plan or design.
In his book Why Darwin Matters, Author Michael Shermer, founding editor of the Skeptic and Scientific American columnist, writes why religion and science need not be in conflict. Science and religion are two different realms, he stresses: respectively the natural and supernatural. He cites Pope John Paul II in support of their possible coexistence. Zimmer and other scientists do not need to discount their opponents to demonstrate the fascination of evolution. All the examples in nature do it all by themselves.
Zimmer, Carl (2006). "A Fin, is a Limb is a Wing." National Geographic Magazine.
Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.
Other significant achievements took place in less…
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…
Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University
Press, New York City, 585
Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.
Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
Measuring Heart and Ventilation Rate During and After Moderate Exercise
A useful perspective to begin the process of conducting an experiment to measure heart and ventilation rate during and after a moderate exercise is to explain the central purpose of the experiment. Generally speaking, if we can measure the heart and the ventilation rate of an individual, we will be able to ascertain the individual's level of fitness. In addition, during an exercise activity, measuring the heart and ventilation rate can be a strategy for indicating the presence of disease in the subject's system. Furthermore, this kind of experiment can enable a researcher to determine the subject's maximum capacity, which, in turn, can serve not only as a barometer for determining the subject's cardiac capacity but also of his/her fatigue level. The following sections explored the objectives, steps and procedures for the experiment for measure the heart rate and ventilation…
Allaby, M 2011, Cardiac Cycle, A Dictionary of Zoology. Encyclopedia.com, . viewed April 7, 2011, .
Davis M. 2000, The Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook, New Harbinger inc., Sacramento, CA.
Goleman D & Gurin J. 1993, Mind Body Medicine, Consumer Books
Hawkins M. 1993, Rebounding for Health and Fitness, Thorsons, London
Man has always asked questions about how the world began. All cultures in the ancient world had origin myths. People looked to higher powers, or deities, or life forces, to explain what they could not understand. esearchers do not know where humankind's need for spirituality comes from, but it is clear, looking at history, that faith and the need to believe in something greater than ourselves are part of what makes us human.
The late Stephen Jay Gould, professor of zoology and geology at Harvard University, believed that science and religion were not in conflict. Because they are entirely different, he argued, they could not be synthesized into any common theme (Mitchell & Blackard 2009, p. 146). His is a view that is shared by many scientists who draw a distinction between science and scripture. Science and scripture offer us two different things. One does not have to…
Carter, K.L. And Welsh, J. 2010, 'The pedagogy of the debate over evolution and intelligent design', Liberal Education, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 46-53.
Hlodan, O. 2011, 'Molecular insights into classic examples of evolution', BioScience, vol. 61,
no. 4, pp. 264-267.
Miller, K. Darwin and Christian Faith. . [Distinguished Lecture Series, Pepperdine
Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.
Clean ater Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.…
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm .
Clean Water Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm .
Endangered Species Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/esa.htm .
Freedom of Information Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/foia.htm .
Traditionally, researchers in various fields of study have generally limited investigations to their area of expertise. Social scientists attend to prescribed areas such as memory, deviance, and microeconomics. In addition, natural scientists restrict their focal points to phenomena like DNA, gravity, and erosion. This practice of detached exploration, which initially proved productive, is gradually giving way to interdisciplinary endeavors as new and overwhelming evidence indicates that many domains are profoundly interconnected. Although some conventional sociologists steadfastly resist such infiltration, the field is not immune to this growing interdisciplinary movement.
Sociobiology, as the name indicates, is the synthesis of sociology and biology. It is the logical bridge 'between the natural sciences on the one side and social sciences and humanities on the other' (Wilson, 5). Stated differently, it applies the principles of biology to the study of social behavior in both human and non-human populations. More precisely, sociobiology employs evolutionary theories…
Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and The
Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Boeree, George C. 'Sociobiology'. 1998 .
Cosmides, Leda & Tooby, John. 'Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer'. 1997
hile the winner gets a huge amount of money for supposedly being the strongest human, in fact, the strongest human is merely the one that uses the greatest amount of self-centered cunning and brute strength. If one is going to define humanity, especially in the post-Darwinian age, then it would seem that humanity, to be set apart, would depend on altruistic feelings and use of intelligence rather than selfish feelings and use of brute force alone. In this respect, there is little to separate the producers of TV reality shows from Dr. Moreau, and, by extension, little to separate the participants from the man-beasts. hile it is certainly a cynical viewpoint, it would seem that those who participate in the reality shows might be assumed to be as dimly aware of their condition as the man-beasts after their reversion to the more animal state.
Graff compares Dr. Moreau to Mary…
Bergonzi, Bernard. The Early H.G. Wells: A Study of the Scientific Romances. Manchester, Eng.: Manchester UP (1961).
Graff, Ann-Barbara. "Administrative Nihilism': Evolution, Ethics and Victorian Utopian Satire." Utopian Studies 12.2 (2001): 33+. Questia. 27 Sept. 2005 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001049071.
Hillegas, Mark. The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians. New York: Oxford UP (1967).
Sirabian, Robert. "The Conception of Science in Wells's the Invisible Man." Papers on Language & Literature 37.4 (2001): 382. Questia. 27 Sept. 2005
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
In 1910, Morgan publicly disagreed with the prevailing notion in embryology, that a fully-formed adult was already locked inside the ova or sperm cell. Rather, Morgan argued that there was no single chromosome that guaranteed the heredity of specific traits (Shine and robel 1976).
In 1903, Morgan accepted the first professorship in experimental zoology at Columbia University. He moved his family to New York and began to work in genetics, fueled by his interest in the gaps in the work of Darwin and Mendel. During this time, scientist Hugo De Vries, a geneticist, revisited the work of Mendel and again proposed that new species were created as a result of mutations. Morgan then set out to prove De Vries' theory, using his now-famous Drosophila experiment.
Morgan used X-rays to mutate samples of Drosophila and cross-bred the mutants to regular samples. In 1910, Morgan found a male fly with white…
Allen, G.E. 2000. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978
Kandel, Eric. 1999. "Genes, Chromosomes, and the Origins of Modern Biology." Columbia Magazine. Fall 1999.
Morgan, Thomas Hunt. 2002. Embryology and Genetics. New York: Agrobios.
Shine, I. And Wrobel, S. 1976. Thomas Hunt Morgan: Pioneer of Genetics. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky
Nonprofit accounting is based on the fund accounting, making it very complicated and different from for profit accounting. Fund accounting financial statements are divided into government wide, proprietary, and fiduciary statements. Nonprofit actually has three sets of financial statements compared to one set of financial statements for a for profit entity. Government wide statements basically cover the operations of the government in general. The government wide statements are the ones that are basically the same as for profit financial statements, except they are done differently. Proprietary statements cover funds that are restricted for certain items, such as capital infractures. Fiduciary statements are funds the government is responsible for that are for held other entities, such as the hospital district.
Differences in Missions
There are key differences between non-profit and for profit accounting. (Nonprofit (Not-for-Profit) Accounting) The primary mission of nonprofit is to provide needed services to the community,…
Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. (2010, Nov 30). Retrieved from Cook County, Illinois: http://www.cookcountygov.com/taxonomy2/Finance,%20Bureau%20of/Downloads/2010_CAFR,pdf
Kieso, e. a. (2008). ACC 303/304/305 Intermediate Accounting I, II, & III. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Nonprofit (Not-for-Profit) Accounting. (n.d.). Retrieved from Accounting Coach: http://www.accountingcoach.com/nonprofit-accounting/
career interest is accounting. Accountancy is the process of evaluating the financial information about business entities to users such as the managers of the shareholders (Elliot, & Elliot, 2004). Accountancy falls into three areas: accounting, bookkeeping, and auditing.
I choose accounting since it will give me a solid employment with a lucrative wage and this is what is important to me. I have also learned that it can be fun in the investigative way if I se it as such. The work conditions are fine -- not too tedious and best of all I can structure them at my convenience. I can work either for an institution or be self-employed. Chances for advancement also depend on myself and, best of all, I can find global opportunities in any and every business..
• Career goals and career strategy
The kind of job that I am most interested in is working in…
Accountants and Auditors. Career Information. CollegeGrad.com
Accounting Jobs Today.com Controller | Sample Resume 5
Alba, J. Vault career guide to accounting. New York: Vault, c2002.
ho are the main stakeholders in the zoo acquisition?
There are two directly opposing groups in the zoo acquisition. The first group, represented by Rollo, is comprised of the new purchasers of the zoo and the people who thus have a financial stake in the success and progression of the zoo. Rollo has been given strict instructions that the zoo is to be completely and thoroughly reorganized to both increase attendance and provide a surge in the profit margin of the enterprise. His employers, Octopus Inc. demand that each business in the empire have a 20% profit margin. At present the zoo is not making any profit whatsoever. These are the financial stakes involved in the equation. On the opposing side of the equation are those who are involved with the zoo in its current iteration. They have an emotional stake in this acquisition because they are mainly…
Fierce Creatures. (1997) Dir. Fred Schepisi. Perf. John Cleese and Kevin Kline. Universal Pictures, DVD.
Environment Science education and its effect on Students' Improvement
Does the current curriculum actually improve the student's decision making regarding environmental issues?
Sample Size and Sampling Method
Time Frame for the Study
Scope and Limitations
Current Environmental Science Curriculum
Is the current curriculum design actually improves the decision making regarding environmental issues?
For years it has been a tough job to implement the appropriate environmental education in the colleges. esearch in the field has pointed out several challenges in the creation of effective environmental curricula. esearchers also examined different strategies being used for the promotion of student awareness as well as fostering them to engage in the ever changing circumstances. The empirical research studies have made it clear that just acquiring the information on the environment science and ecology is not enough to motivate students to practically participate in environment protection. For the motivation there is a need…
Balgopal, M., & Wallace, A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(13), 13 -- 22.
Balgopal, M., & Wallace, A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(13), 13 -- 22.
Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Biriukova, N. (2005).The formation of an ecological consciousness. Russian Education and Society, 47(12), 34 -- 45.
In mid-1800's, telegraphy was invented. This invention was revolutionary because it decreased all the hurdles in communication of information. This type of invention or any innovations that connects two or more people and acts as a survival tool for a particular group i.e. ethnic or technological group is known as Keystone specie. Even though Specie is a term mostly used for living organisms, here in a larger context keystone specie is referred to as "a system of people, practices, values, and technologies" that is essential for the survival of anything. (Johnson, 2010)
The keystone species concept has been a mainstay of the ecological and conservation biology literature since its introduction by UW zoology professor Robert T. Paine in 1969. His seminal paper extended the conclusions of a field experiment published three years earlier. The research resulting in the keystone species concept was done on Makah Tribal lands on…
Johnson, S. (2010). Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation. London: Penguins Books Ltd.
Keystone Species Hypothesis. (1996). Retrieved September 24, 2011, from washington.edu: http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1969g.html
McNely, B. (2010) Exploring a Sustainable and Public Information Ecology, S.Carlos, SP, Brazil.
Nardi, B.A. And V.L. O'Day (2004) Information Ecologies. Chapter 4 in Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Academic Profile of Home Schooling - a Case Study
Home Schooling vs. Traditional Educational Methods
Home Schooling Methodology
Focus of the Practicum
Area of Inquiry
Home Schooling as an Alternative
Curricula and Materials Used for Home Schooling
The Success of Home Schooling
Conditions for Change
Maryland: A Legal Analysis
State Laws and Regulations - Maryland
Goulart and Travers vs. Calvert County
Home-schooled Kids Find Social Growth"
Home Schoolers in the Trenches"
Home School Academic Advantage Increases Over Time"
Home Schooling." ERIC Digest, Number 95.
The Academic Profile of Home Schoolers
The focus of this applied dissertation proposal is to examine and analyze home school families' academic environment, the institutional materials they use, and to gain an understanding of their academic success.
Prince George's County Public School System is the nineteenth largest school system in the nation with a…
Buchanan, Jim (1984). Home Instruction: A Growing Alternative to Public Schools. Monticello, IL.
Lande, Nancy (2000). Home school Open House: Interviews with 55 Home schooling Families. Bozeman, MT
Waring, Bill and Diane (1999). Emerald Books: A look back on what they learned along the way by veteran home schooling parents of varying approaches.
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd: His Work and Philosophy
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd (1126-1198 C.E), also known as Averroes, is regarded by many as one of the foremost Islamic philosophers and a pivotal figure in the history of Andalusian philosophy. He is also deemed an important figure in the history of Western philosophy. An important contribution to Islamic culture and philosophy was his defense of Greek philosophy in the Islamic world as well as his emphasis on the philosophy of Aristotle. Ibn Rushd is credited with the introduction of "rationalism" into Islamic philosophy.
A as Etienne Gilson has written in his Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, Rationalism was born in Spain in the mind of an Arabian philosopher, as a conscious reaction against the theologism of the Arabian divines, by whom he means the Ash'arite Mutakallimun. (Fakhry)
In global terms it has been asserted that not only…
Allahhakbar. Net. Groundwork on Islamic Philosophy in the context of Modern Western Philosophy. 3 March 2004. www.salaf.indiaaccess.com/atheist/groundwork_on_islamic_philosophy.htm
Fakhry M. Averroes: (Ibn Rushd) His Life, Works and Influence. 4 March, 2004. www.oneworld-publications.com/books/texts/averroes-his-life-woks-and-influence-intro.htm
Hillier C. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 4 March, 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/i/ibnrushd.htm
IIDL. Abul Walid Muhammed Ibn Ahmed Ibn Rush. 4 March, 2004. http://iidl.net/index.php?ch=15&pg=64&ac=111
Desire, Emotion, and Knowledge: Greek Society and Culture in the Classical Period (480-338 .C.)
Following the aftermath of Greeks' victory over Persians during 480-479 .C., Greek society has undergone rapid changes and revival in its political, economic, and cultural structures, called the Classical period of Greek society and culture. This period, 480-338 .C., is characterized by the emergence of new reforms in the society, such as the establishment of a new Athenian democratic government, the gradual assertion of women equal treatment in a patriarchal Greek society, and the flourishing of the arts through philosophy, literature, mathematics, and science.
Indeed, the Classical period is more appropriately described as a time wherein human potential and intelligence is at its highest. As Plato had stated, "Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, knowledge." This statement from the Greek philosopher brings into lucidity the important works of literature that had…
Kagan, D., S. Ozment, and F. Turner. (1995). The Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.
atson and Crick
The fact that James atson and Francis Crick were able to discover the structure of DNA is, in retrospect, somewhat shocking. By the early 1950s, it had become clear that the riddle of DNA's structure would be solved through X-ray crystallography, while atson admits in the fourth chapter of The Double Helix that "I knew nothing about the X-ray diffraction techniques that dominated structural analysis" (atson 31). Moreover, some of the best scientists who did have a knowledge of X-ray crystallography -- like Linus Pauling in America and Rosalind Franklin in the UK -- were consciously working on the structure of DNA at the same time that atson and Crick got involved. Additionally, atson was extraordinarily young at the time of the discovery. Although Crick was "thirty-five, yet almost totally unknown" at the time of their collaboration (atson 7) but atson was born in 1928 and in…
Smith, Hal. Lecture Notes, Humanities 4317. University of Houston-Victoria, 2014.
Watson, James D. The Double Helix. New York: Scribner Classics, 1998. Print.
Sociobiology offers an evolutionary approach to human behavior and psychology. The fundamental tenet of sociobiology is that psychological traits have adaptive functions and are often embedded in DNA. Psychological traits, like physical features, are passed down through the generations. Some traits will manifest with greater likelihood than others, and thus, traits evolve in a process of natural selection. The intellectual roots of sociobiology stem from the theory of evolution in biology, as well as from sociology and anthropology. The study of sociobiology originated with Wilson, who also refers to the field as behavioral ecology (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000). Methodologies include biological and genetics research, as well as the methods of data collection employed in the social sciences such as observation. To avoid complications with longitudinal studies and long-range data collection, sociobiologists use frequency models including those resembling game theory (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000).
Sociobiology is concerned more with how and…
Driscoll, C. (2013). Sociobiology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/sociobiology/
Wilson, E.O. (2000). Sociobiology. Belknap.
red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value. Over all, I have given thorough information regarding the life and habits of the red wolf that is now an endangered animal.
The red wolf is a species of wolf that is smaller in size and its color varies from reddish gray to almost black. It is commonly known as red wolf. The red wolf is considered as the most beautiful of all the wolves on the planet (Sutton, 1998). However, it has been given the scientific name of Canis rufus. It belongs to the Family Canidae and Order Carnivora (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). As far as the status of red wolf is concerned, it has been categorized as an endangered living creature as this species of wolf…
Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.
Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.
Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-022-01-0001.pdf
particular book. The author in question is a man by the name of Steven Wise. Wise has written two quite notable books about animal rights and the debate about the same and the book under review, that being Drawing the Line, is one of those two books. The prior offering on the same general subject was called attling the Cage. The author of this report will focus on four chapters in particular when it comes to Drawing the Line, those being the second, third, eleventh and twelfth chapters. Those chapters pertain to a number of subjects including who gets liberty rights, Koko the gorilla and legal rights for non-human animals. While many people may assert that the animal rights argument is cut and dry and that no animal holds the same (or even a similar) status as humans, the debate is actually quite deep and expansive and Wise does a…
Wise, S. (2002). Drawing the line. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Books.
The Evolution of Zoos and Conservation Centers
Zoos were once the means of simply bringing rarely seen animals to the forefront of the public. However, during the end of the 20th center they evolved into much needed conservation centers for the preservation of endangered species. In this respect, the purpose of these facilities has become largely didactic. They educate the public about which species are endangered, and some of the factors leading to such predicaments.
Nonetheless, there are a considerable number of economic pressures which zoos face in varying degrees of severity. In terms of resources, they have continual challenges with economic resources necessary for providing habitats which are endemic for some of the rarer species they quarter (Keulartz, 2015, p. 336). However, they are also plagued by constraints on the space required to quarter such animals—which affects the overall vivacity of these creatures. Also, zoos have a…
For Unilever, this loss of legitimacy should the MSC fail will be compounded by a loss of the commercial supply of the world's fish, which will create a major loss of profits for the company. It would also greatly hurt the company's image with both consumers and environmentalists, as well as with their suppliers in the fishing and other industries. This last could be of incredible detriment to the company; if the policies it encourages its suppliers to adopt and implement ultimately lead to their failure, the level of trust between Unilever's many suppliers and the international food and consumer product will be hugely diminished, likely irrevocably. This will make it highly difficult for Unilever -- and possibly any other large company -- to engage in similar projects in the future.
The World Wildlife Fund also faces a great loss of trust and stature should the Marine Stewardship Council fail…
Radler, G. (2000). "The marine stewardship council: Is a joint venture possible between
"suits and sandals"? International institute for management and development.
The women sustainably harvest items from the forest, and how produce essential oils, lotions, and soaps from the ingredients they harvest. Because they only harvest ingredients instead of using the entire plant, the forest lives on, while they still are earning an income from the sales of their products.
Many experts have ideas about how to improve on sustainable development in the region. Another expert says, "For instance, improving the monitoring of species loss reduces ignorance about the ecological system and may lead to patents for medicinal plants. The latter enables synergies that integrate indigenous knowledge into management/conservation" (eyer). Convincing companies to invest in these types of development have often fallen on deaf ears because of costs. Many very large global corporations have large operations in the rainforest, such as Mitsubishi and Georgia Pacific, and because the government essentially gives them free reign with little regulation, they exploit the rainforest…
Butler, Rhett a. "Deforestation in the Amazon." Mongabay.com. 2009. 19 March 2010.
Editors. "Rainforest Facts." Raintree Nutrition. 2010. 19 March 2010.
They can take care of themselves. I've also been told they're good companions. But I wonder. A lot of the cats I've seen have either been so independent that they don't care if a human is around, or they are so scared they won't even let you near them. I don't know if this is normal, but it's my experience. I knew a cat that would hide over the refrigerator every time I came into my friend's house. I knew another cat that treated me as if I didn't exist. I don't think that's the kind of pet I want. I want a pet that is interactive all the time, not just when its mood feels like it. Cats require all the same shots, collars, and food that dogs need, as well as litter boxes. They aren't cheaper than dogs, even if they are supposedly cleaner and more self sustaining.…
Though the General Zaroff is sophisticated and a "thoughtful and affable host," Rainsford is leery of him. Instinct and not rational thought makes him uneasy (13). During dinner, Rainsford feels the general "studying him, appraising him narrowly" (13). Though he has no foundation for suspicion -- the general is kind and convivial -- Rainsford is instinctually uneasy. Both before and after his landing on Zaroff's island, Rainsford, despite his avowals to the contrary, displays beast-like qualities.
It is not mere instinct, however, that allows Rainsford to survive in Connells' story. He must rely on his mind as well. Throughout the text, Rainsford uses rationality to direct his course of action. Knowing that "there was a chance that his cries could be heard by some one on board the yacht, but that chance was slender," Rainsford decides to cease his yelling and decides to look for another possibilty (10). He uses…
Starting in the 1920's and 1930's, the lake's resorts were host to many Hollywood elite and prominent political figures. Author Peter Goin's book, Lake Tahoe (Arcadia Publishing, 2005) details this part of the Lake's history and talks about the steamers that frequently ran from point to point on the lake, whose whistles added to the trademark ethereal experience of the lake during that time period. Goin's book is heavy with historical details but in terms of academic merit, there is very little except for the few pages devoted to the Washoe Indians and their legacy.
Squaw Valley, a Lake Tahoe ski resort hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics, which helped to solidify Lake Tahoe as an internationally renown travel destination. By the late 1960's, concerns had growth relative to the environmental impact that tourism and visitors were having on the lake. The book entitled, Lake Tahoe: A Fragile Beauty by Thomas…
"Using animals this way is morally right. efusing to use them because to do so is thought as an infringement of the 'rights' of rats and mice is morally wrong." It is inhumane, to the majority of Americans.
It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare. That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: 1) Animals do have sensations, such as pain, and emotional states, such as fear or suffering. esearch is growing for the proposition that at least vertebrate animals are very likely sentient (ose and Adams); 2) Numerous animals, at the very least mammals, have the capacity a variety of other mental states, such as distress and discomfort. This is…
Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom. Animal Rights Debate. New York: Roman & Littlefield, 2001
Hayhurst, Christ. Animal testing: the animal rights debate. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2000.
Moore, David. Public Lukewarm on Animal Rights. Gallup Poll. 21 May 2003. 23 April, 2010. http://www.gallup.com/poll/8461/public-lukewarm-animal-rights.aspx
Mur, Cindy. Animal Experimentation. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004
ildlife which does not have natural predators in Florida was introduced by people who had bought those animals or reptiles and could not control them, or had to leave the state, and therefore abandoned them in the Everglades. The best example is the one of a Burmese python which was let go in the Everglades and had attached an alligator. Both animals did not survive the encounter, yet it shows that human are the main threat to the environment.
To summarize the environmental issues in Florida, we can say that the main issue is the development and encroachment into the Everglades. The lush mangrove and saw grass marshes of South Florida are the last of a great wilderness that, until the 20th century, stretched for hundreds of miles. Our Everglades refuge countless species, including endangered Florida panthers, Cape Sable seaside sparrows and American crocodiles. Many years of encroaching development have…
NAI. Everglades. NDI Wild Places . 26 April 2010 .
NAI2. Saving the Everglades. 2010. 26 April 2010 .
Natural Resources Defense Council. Florida Everglades. 20 September 2009. 26 April 2010 .
Parker, Karen. Wildlife 'rescues' can do more harm than good. 19 April 2010. 26 April 2010 .
Accordingly, the Lower Rio Grande Valley National ildlife Refuge, the former Sabal Palms Audubon Sanctuary, and the Nature Conservancy's Southmost Preserve would all be subjected to direct environmental auditing. Comparative figures measuring current findings against archived findings will provide a quantifiable understanding of the impact being levied by the wall in these specific areas. The sanctuaries have been selected for a number of reasons, specifically owing to the claim that these have been directly impacted by the construction of the Border all and based on the assumption that these sanctuaries will already possess a significant set of archived data on environmental features such air, soil and water quality, wildlife migration habits and the environmental safety of human habitation.
It is thus that the proposed study here seeks to support the claim that the border wall constructed in the LRGV is a both a poor response to the immigration crisis and…
Daily KOS. (2010). Walling off the Nature Conservancy. m.dailykos.com.
Mattei, E. (2009). Borderline: When it Comes to the Texas/Mexico Wall, No One's Sitting on the Fence. A Nation Divided. Online at http://blogs.swarthmore.edu/borderwall/?tag=rio-grande-valley
No Border Wall (NBW). (2010). Texas Politicians Ignoring the Danger That the Border Wall Poses to South Texas Levees. No Texas Border Wall. Online at
The attempts to penetrate the cove seems to be more thrilling to timepiece, as individual may be able to see the very real danger the creatures were subjected to due to the system or methods used in capturing them which did range from revolutionary, at night they indeed they used thermal-imaging to scout out the location.
There is No doubt that such a sturdy mix of factors has been involved in the reformation of the AME food web with which both climate alter and exhaustion of acme and middle atrophic level of genus playing a part which brings us to this question of whether we should seriously re think the relative contributions what it is that we actually measure or manage in the whole observed trends of SO organization
Johnston, E. "Mercury Danger in Dolphin Meat," Japan Times, 23 (September 2009).
Leigh, E.G., S.J. Wright, E.A. Herre, and…
Johnston, E. "Mercury Danger in Dolphin Meat," Japan Times, 23 (September 2009).
Leigh, E.G., S.J. Wright, E.A. Herre, and F.E. Putz. 1993. The decline of tree diversity on newly
isolated tropical islands: A test of a null hypothesis and the implications. Evol. Ecol. 7:76-102.
"Mercury levels of whale-eating town's residents 10 times average," Japan Today: Japan News
During times of serious fractures or illnesses of the animals, a veterinarian used to visit the ranch. I would observe and learn as much as I can to know how to: set fractures, assist in performing surgeries along with helping to euthanize the animals that were unable to be treated. As these different elements are an important part of what: a veterinarian has to do on the job. In some cases, veterinarians used to come to the ranch, to consult with the owner about various issues related to: the feeding, breeding, housing and other issues surrounding the animals. All of this would help to give me more experience in: working with animals and diagnosing various problems that are affecting them. At which point, I could help to give them comfort and ensure that they were treated humanely.
As a result, life on the ranch transformed me into a completely independent…
This has also introduced salt water fish and marine life that can exist in fresh water, the many forms of Jellyfish being one of several who have made their way nearly a hundred miles inland on the river (Salazar, 2000). If the dam had not been built the influx of marine life from the ocean would not have occurred, which would have led to a greater stabilization of the fish ecosystem. The many benefits of a fish and water-based ecosystems matter more in countries with lower per capita incomes where the waters are fished for regularly meals instead of for sport. In China, the river is the equivalent of the western world's grocery store. Creating such a huge disruption to the river has in effect contaminated the "grocery store" for millions of residents who rely on the fish for a source of food along the river's bans. Not only has…
Henry C. Alberts, Renee M. Alberts, Mitchel F. Bloom, a. Diane LaFlamme, & Satu Teerikangas. (2004). The Three Gorges Dam Project from a systems viewpoint. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 21(6), 585.
Joanna Gail Salazar. (2000). Damming the child of the ocean: The three Gorges project. Journal of Environment & Development, 9(2), 160-174.
Manik Suri. (2003). A river in peril: The waters rise at Three Gorges. Harvard International Review, 25(3), 10-11.