Zoology Essays (Examples)

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Artificial Lighting -- Impacts on

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61636063

The authors explain that "Large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation…" that results from urban sprawl is a major cause of the lack of biodiversity within the insect species (Acharya, 1999, 27). Even the building of a new road, or street lights, in places where previously there were no roads or lights, what the authors call "undisturbed areas," has an impact on insect biodiversity, Acharya explains. Meanwhile, moths, which are known to be drawn to light, have trigger mechanisms that detect the echolocation signals of bats; and on the other hand bats feed "…heavily" on moths, Acharya continues; in fact many bat species use moths as their "main food item" (Acharya, 27).

The point of that information (and of this study) in this peer-reviewed piece is that if "…eared moths" exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid bat attacks, they would not be caught as often by bats and hence this would have an effect on bat feeding (28). The authors "deafened" some moths as an experiment to determine of the moths would still be evasive to the echolocation abilities of bats. The authors released 33 "deafened" moths and 80 "eared" moths and none of the deafened moths exhibited evasive behaviors when…… [Read More]


Acharya, Lilita, and Fenton, Brock M 1999. 'Bat attacks and moth defensive behaviour around street lights.' Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 77, 27-32.

Chepesiuk, Ron. 2009. 'Missing the Dark: Health Affects of Light Pollution.' Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, 20-27.

Conrad, Kelvin F., Warren, Martin S., Fox, Richard, Parsons, Mark S., and Woiwod, Ian P. 'Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis.' Biological Conservation, vol. 132, 279-291

Duverge, Laurent P., Jones, Gareth, Rydell, Jens, and Ransome, Roger D. 2000. 'Functional significance of emergence timing in bats.' Ecography, vol. 23, 32-39.
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Vocational Interest in Becoming a

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89898922

In that respect, one of my professional idols was Steve Irwin who was tragically killed in 2006 in an encounter with a sting ray (Webber, 2011). While he was best known for his television show, the Crocodile Hunter, he was actually a world-renowned environmental conservationist who had dedicated his life to protecting endangered animal species and to educating the public about the importance of protecting the natural environmental habitat of wildlife species. According to the Queensland Department of Education and Training (2006),

"Steve had a significant influence on thousands of Queensland school children and his passion for the environment and wildlife was extremely infectious.


worked tirelessly to protect the world's animals and environment. He was awarded the Queensland Museum's highest accolade in 2003 - the Queensland

Museum Medal - for his exceptional contribution to the understanding and appreciation of Australian wildlife at an international level and his commitment and passion to conservation and the environment."

Becoming a Zookeeper

Becoming a zookeeper does not necessarily require any specific advanced degree but the field is highly competitive so it would be advisable to pursue a college degree in a related field such as Zoology, Animal Husbandry, Biology, or Ecology (UoF, 2011).…… [Read More]

Sources Cited

Australia Zoo. (2010). Chat to a Keeper Archive. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from:


Queensland Government DET. (2006). Honour Steve Irwin's passion for nature.

Retrieved March 25, 2011 from:
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Zoo Animal Technology Program I Want to

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70082961

Zoo Animal Technology Program

I want to enter the Zoo Animal Technology Program at BLANK University for a number of reasons. First, I have always loved animals since I was very young, and I've always felt I wanted to help take care of them in some capacity as my career. In the past, I've had tropical fish, dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, birds, and other animals in my family for as long as I can remember. I have always been involved in training, maintaining, and caring for these animals, and I have loved every one of them. I would like to continue in my life.

I also strongly believe in animal conservation and husbandry, and the zoo technology program would allow me to learn more about these important areas of zookeeping. I know that many animals are endangered in the wild today, and the only way to help preserve many of these magnificent animals is to house and breed them in the world's zoos. I think that is a very important aspect of zoology that many people do not recognize or appreciate. For example, the panda programs that are breeding successfully at national zoos, including the world famous San…… [Read More]

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Search and Rescue Dogs

Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18347727


Search and Rescue Dogs

Search and rescue is all about saving lives. And the capability to save a life is regularly dependent upon how quickly a person can be found and accessed (National Association for Search & Rescue, 2011). Search-and-rescue dogs are smart, nimble and compliant, but their high drive to want to play is what makes them look for a missing person in all kinds of different places and situations. At its most fundamental, the job of a Search and Rescue (SAR) dog has two components. The first is to find the source of a human scent and the second is to let the handler know where it is (Layton, 2011).

The dogs trained for urban search and rescue, utilize their noses to find living victims who are trapped when disastrous events take place like a building collapsing due to an earthquake, hurricane or explosion. Other SAR dogs are trained in wilderness, avalanche and water searches. Each type of SAR requires specific training. Disaster dogs must be capable to focus on their search while finding their way around large piles of shifting rubble and contending with commotion that may include other search dogs and people, and the existence…… [Read More]


Dogs in Search & Rescue. (n.d.). Retreived from  http://www.ussartf.org/dogs_search_rescue.htm 

Layton, J. (2011). How search-and-rescue dogs work. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/zoology/mammals/sar-dog1.htm

Mehus-Roe, K. (2011). Disaster search and rescue dogs. Retrieved from http://www.petfinder.com/how-to-help-pets/disaster-search-rescue-dogs.html

National Association for Search & Rescue. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.nasar.org/
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Phylum Annelida

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44160429

Phylum Annelida

Annelids are members of the Superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The division of the Phylum is in three classes Hirudineans (leeches), Oligochaetes (earthworms) and Hirudinean (Polychaetes and leeches). They inhibit marine aquatic with Parapodia, like nereis Meglitsch P, 1972()

They are worm like animals that have muscular body walls that elongate. They are also circular in cross section. The major difference between Phylum Annelida and other worm like creatures is that, they have segmented bodies (also known as metameric). Each segment has its own particular function. Phylum Annelida include different types of earthworms, leeches and marine polychaetes. There are those that live in fresh water, marine also terrestrial. Some of them live as parasites. Annelids are skilled in swimming, creeping and burrowing Badea, Gagyi-Palffy, Stoian, & Stan, 2010


Meglitsch P (1972)

, said that Annelids are connected to Molluscs and seem to have arisen from flatworms. Given the characteristics that the Annelida display, they may be the predecessors to arthropods. Meglitsch's arguments are made from the fact that they both have segmentation. Among Phylum Annelida, those consider most primitives and polychaetes though to-date they have been relegated degenerate Badea et al., 2010


Characteristics…… [Read More]


Badea, A.B., Gagyi-Palffy, A., Stoian, L.C., & Stan, G. (2010). Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators. [Article]. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society (AACL Bioflux), 3(1), 35-41.

Meglitsch P. (1972). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press.
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18th C Decorative Botanical Art

Words: 3104 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77815266

In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.

Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental remedies, along with recipes, including one using the exotic Japanese tea plant, the white opium poppy and cannabis; it was supposed to be good for gout.

As a result of his personal collecting, and his purchase of others' collections, Sloane "managed to mix the simple businessman in him with the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.

Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp

Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm

Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+. http://www.questia.com/.
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Vertebrate Natural History

Words: 2619 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17061104


It is common knowledge that the human body consists of about 65% water. People cannot live any longer than five days without H20. Individuals of all ages love to sail the oceans, swim in the sea and soar under or speed across the waves. It comes as no surprise, then, that some part of the human psyche remembers millions and millions of years ago before animals came on shore. What is still questionable is how or why these animals made the move from water to land. The journal articles discussed below give some of the latest findings on this topic.

Early in the Devonian Era, close to 400 million years ago, all the continents were grouped closely together and surrounded by the seas. The climate ranged from dry weather to torrential rains as some tropical areas do today. Even flowers had not yet evolved on land, let alone vertebrates. Many of the sealife were preparing for that next big step onto land with lung-like organs that would later evolve into swim bladders to control buoyancy. Some of these creatures moved on lobed fins or fleshy appendages that supported their weight while crawling underground. In time, they adapted to terrestrial…… [Read More]

References Cited

Clack, J.A. "An Early Tetrapod from Romer's Gap." Nature (2002) 418: 72-76. [electronic version]

Clack, J.A. "From Fins to Fingers." Science 304.5667 (2004): 57-59. [electronic version]

Coates, M.I, and J.A. Clack. "Polydactyly in the Earliest Known Tetrapod Limbs"

Nature. (1990) 347: 66-69. [electronic version]
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Double Crested Cormorant Are Opportunistic Generalist Feeders

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28958362

Double Crested Cormorant "are opportunistic, generalist feeders" (Wires, Cuthbert, Dale, & Joshi, 2001). They feed on slow moving fish species that range from 3 centimeters to 40 centimeters. These birds forage in shallow water and seem to be strict diurnal in the way they eat. They are quick to respond to areas with high fish concentration and flock where the fish can easily be caught.

The Double Crested Cormorant breeds in cold climatic conditions and has been living in Alaska for a long time (Wires, Cuthbert, Dale, & Joshi, 2001, p. 36). According to Siegel-Causey & Savinetskii (1991), the remains of the bird have been found on Amchitka Island dating back over 2000 years. These remains suggest that the there were plenty of the species in the central Aleutian Islands and climate changes have reduced their population in Alaska.

Great Blue Herons

Great Blue Herons are prey generalists, although they forage for fish. They catch their prey as they walk along the shores of water bodies such as oceans, lakes, marshes and even rivers. On the mainland, the bird preys on small animals such as rodents (Butler, 1992). The mainland foraging is done in the winter when the shores are…… [Read More]


Patuxent Wildlife Research Center information on Migratory Bird. (2011, July 12). Wood stork

Mycteria americana. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from www.mbrppwrc.usgs.gov: http://www.mbrppwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/bbs.html

BirdLife International. (2004). Turdus migratorius. IUCN .

Butler, R.W. (1992). Great Blue Heron. The birds of North .
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Behavioral Episodes in Relation to Leopard Seals

Words: 2422 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38843229

Behavioral Episodes in Relation to Leopard Seals

Leopard seals are widely known for their ferocity and have been acknowledged as top predators for a long time now. These are large but slender mammals, with females usually exceeding males in size and weight. The spotty coats, distributed along their bodies, define the leopard appearance and allure to the hunting abilities they possess. With powerful jaws and canine teeth, leopard seals can prey on creatures of whatever size. Their agility and reputation have long formed individuals' negative perception upon the former. This document is to try to dismantle the negative image leopard seals have been inoculated with for such a long time. This proposal looks at some of the facts that have led people forming drastic opinions as well as some episodes that appear to indicate how little we may in fact know in relation to leopard seals.

Statement of Problem

Explorers in the Antarctic have often expressed their opinions as to the dangerous nature of leopard seals (De Laca et. al, 1975, p. 85). Threat displays, unexpected attacks, these have all been familiar to researchers since the first Antarctic expeditions. In 2003 however, when a leopard seal attacked and furthermore, drowned…… [Read More]

Reference List

Aguayo-Lobo, A., R., Acevedo, J., Brito, J.L., G., Acuna, P., Bassoi, M., Secchi, E., R., and Rosa, L.D. 2011. Presence of the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx (De Blainville, 1820), on the coast of Chile: An example of the Antarctica -- South America Connection in the marine environment. Oecologia Australis 15(1): 69-85. doi: 10.4257/oeco.2011.1501.07

Ainley, D.G., Ballard, G., Karl, B.J., and Dugger K.M. 2005. Leopard seal predation rates at penguin colonies of different size. Antarctic Science 17(3): 335-340.

De Laca, T.E., Lipps, J.H., and Zumwalt, G.S. 1975. Encounters with leopard seals (Hydruga leptonyx) along the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Journal of the United States 10(3): 85-9.

Hiruki, L.M., Schwartz, M.K., and Boveng, P.L. 1999. Hunting and social behavior of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Sea Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. Journal of Zoology, London 249(1): 97-109. Retrieved from  http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usdeptcommercepub/151/
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Thoreau Was a Student of Nature for

Words: 1782 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88098132

Thoreau was a student of nature for virtually all of his adult life. During Thoreau's life, Cape Cod was a relatively unspoiled area rich with nature and people who worked closely in nature, such as farmers and fishermen. Those who lived on Cape Cod tended to be independent sorts, and Thoreau preferred their company to those of people engaged in commerce or other business-related occupations.

In his small book Cape Cod, Thoreau recounts his experiences on walking excursions around Cape Cod during the mid-1800's. In the process he described much about the unspoiled nature present throughout the Cape at that time.

In the opening chapter Thoreau talks about the ecology of living along the ocean: in the midst of a desperate sight - the wreck of a boat loaded with immigrants, most of whom drowned, he saw people gathering seaweed to use as fertilizer. The seaweed had been tossed up on the shore by the same storm that sank the ship. Thoreau valued such practical use of what nature had to offer.

His unusual perspective about both people and nature is revealed in this sentence: "I sympathized rather with the winds and waves, as if to toss and mangle these…… [Read More]

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Organism Profile for a Wombat

Words: 1116 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39116528

Vombatus Ursinus Organism Profile

Vombatus ursinus is the scientific name given to the organism commonly known as the common Wombat (Matthews & Green, 2012). The common wombat is also referred to as the bare-nosed wombat, or coarse-haired wombat. There are three subspecies of wombats namely Vombatus ursinus hirsutus, Vombatus ursinus tasmaniensis, and Vombatus ursinus. The common Wombat is mainly found in Flinders Island of the Bass Strait Islands. Wombats prefer living in the temperate forest areas of southern Australia. They tend to avoid rainforests, and they are mostly found in the mountainous areas. In Tasmania and South wales, Wombats are found at lower attitudes win open vegetation like woodlands, heathland, and coastal scrub. Wombats prefer to dig their shelters on slopes above gullies and creeks, and they feed in grassy clearings. Wombats are native to Australia, and they belong to the Vombatidae family. Many people have noted that the wombats appear to be smiling because of their huge teeth. Wombats have a lifecycle of 12 years, and they breed any time during the year provided the climate is favorable.


The common wombat will range between 75-85 cm in length and weigh around 20kg. However, wombats are known to reach…… [Read More]


Brewer, P., Archer, M., Hand, S.J., & Abel, R. (2015). New genus of primitive wombat (Vombatidae, Marsupialia) from Miocene deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area (Queensland, Australia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 18(1), 1-40.

Matthews, A., & Green, K. (2012). Seasonal and altitudinal influences on the home range and movements of common wombats in the Australian Snowy Mountains. Journal of Zoology, 287(1), 24-33.

Roger, E., Bino, G., & Ramp, D. (2012). Linking habitat suitability and road mortalities across geographic ranges. Landscape ecology, 27(8), 1167-1181.

Story, G., Driscoll, D., & Banks, S. (2014). What can camera traps tell us about the diurnal activity of the nocturnal bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus)? Camera Trapping: Wildlife Management and Research, 35.
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Louis Agassiz the Scientific Legacy

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52428743

Agassiz continued to find evidence for his ice age hypothesis when he traveled to North America in 1846. He was welcomed warmly in America, and was soon put in charge of building the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, where he also assumed a professorship (Duffin, 2007). The museum opened in 1860, and had the distinction of being the first publicly funded museum of science in North America (Berkeley). Agassiz worked tirelessly to promote scientific education in the United States. In 1863, he was a founding member of the new National Academy of Sciences, and in the same year was appointed a regent of the Smithsonian Institution (Ibid.).

In 1873, just a few months before his death, Agassiz founded the first American marine biology laboratory on the island of Penikese in Massachusetts. The primary goal of the laboratory was two-fold: to be a venue for new research, and, more importantly to Agassiz, to teach methods of observation in natural history to secondary school teachers, ensuring the further dissemination and proliferation of this relatively young field (Benson, 1988). Agassiz endowed the project with his own passion and his own education philosophy, stenciling the door of the main laboratory with his own…… [Read More]


Benson, K. (1988). "Laboratories on the New England Shore: the "somewhat different direction" of American marine biology." The New England Quarterly, 61(1), 55-78.

Duffin, C. (2007). "Louis Agassiz (1807-1873): a passion for fishes." Geology Today, 23(4), 133-142.

Levin, H. (2010). The Earth Through Time. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Zirkle, C. (1946). "Review: The Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory." Isis, 36(3), 270-271.
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Rachel Carson She Was Belittled

Words: 2394 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97479661

Kennedy announced the formation of a special government group to investigate the use and control of pesticides under the direction of the President's Science Advisory Committee (Rachel pp). The book caused a firestorm of public outrage and sold more than a quarter million copies by the end of 1962 (Rachel pp). United State Supreme Court Justice William Douglas called it "the most important chronicle of this century for the human race" and Loren Eisely of the University of Pennsylvania described it as a "devastating, heavily documented, relentless attack upon human carelessness, greed and irresponsibility"(Rachel pp). The fervor of the favorable reviews were matched by the intense attacks of the chemical industry and those it influenced, such as the president of the Montrose Chemical Corporation, the nation's largest producer of DDT, who asserted that Carson had written not "as a scientist but rather as a fanatic defender of the balance of nature" (Rachel pp). Critics labeled her a food-faddist, nature nut, and fish-lover, and despite poor health, Carson responded to these attacks by speaking to organizations, testifying at Congressional hearings, appearing on special televised segments of CBS Reports, and conferring with President Kennedy and his Science Advisory Committee (Rachel pp). On…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rachel Louise Carson (1907-1964)."

Pennsylvania's Environmental Heritage. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/PA_Env-Her/rachel.htm

Matthiessen, Peter. "Before there was an environmental movement, there was one brave woman and her very brave book." Time. http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/carson.html

Orlando, Laura. "From Rachel Carson to Oprah: Forty years after the publication of silent spring, corporations are still producing poisons - and still trying to keep critics from fighting back." Dollars & Sense. March 01, 2002; Pp.
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Renaissance in 1535 a Young

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82202056

Apart of this macroeconomic force of which he was a part, was a Europe-wide banking network that facilitated not only international trade, but also state making elsewhere. He financed the Florentine intellectual and artistic breakthroughs we now refer to as "the Renaissance."

Cosimo's power was greatly respected, and by 1434 foreign princes went to Florence to work out international relations. Machiavelli, nearly a century later, still regarded the Medici family as the harbinger of everything good and evil in Florentine life to Cosimo's "deep and ruthless machinations." Despite the influence of Medici, he is portrayed as indecisive and in the background of affairs: "Cosimo was anxious to remain in the background, hiding his great influence, and acting, when need arose, through a deputy. As a result, very little is known of the measures for which he was directly responsible." Cosimo did not expect eternal rule, nor did he ever give a public speech. After 1434, Cosimo appeared increasingly reactive to events around him, seldom offering explanations for his actions. Typically, his actions served his diverse interests.

The Renaissance in Florence was not a period of individualism. Household relationships were typically, but not always, very strong. The turbulent times reinforced defensive…… [Read More]


1. ____. Medici Exhibition. The Medici, Michelangelo, and the art of the Late Renaissance Florence

2. Padgett F. John, Ansell K. Christopher. (May, 1993). Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, the American Journal of Sociology, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1259-1319.
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Human Biological Variation Is Human

Words: 2690 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55012786

Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least to some extent across human and nonhuman mammalian species, and possibly across other vertebrates as well" he notes, which would indicate that fear is not cultural, in fact, but physical, gene-based rather than a product of society. On the other hand, he also encompasses the familiar Pavlovian model in his…… [Read More]

Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;

Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com.
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Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky's

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43345771

The Vygotsky influence has recently had an impact in a university environment in New Zealand. Indeed, the application of the ZPD model in New Zealand moved well beyond just another theory for "old school" teachers to bravely tackle, and has actually become a "common sense" approach to learning and development. This information comes through another peer-reviewed research article ("Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and Problem-based Learning: linking a theoretical concept with practice through action research"). In the piece, the author explains that students had been employing "problem-based learning" (PBL) methods to develop "relevant content knowledge and the metacognitive skills that will enable them to become good learners and problem-solvers..." (Harland, 2003).

In this instance, PBL had been providing a needed challenge to the "traditional teacher's role" in that teaching was by way of becoming more like "research supervision" or "mentoring" then actually teaching. Indeed, Harland writes that PBL has been called "an ideology routed in the experiential tradition" because it is altogether capable of being "modified" by individual teachers.

Getting back to a point made earlier in this paper about teachers who have a difficult time abandoning conventional, comfortable methods of instruction - in this case the setting is in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chak, Amy. (2001). Adult Sensitivity to Children's Learning in the Zone of Proximal

Development. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 31(4), 383-395.

Harland, Tony. (2003). Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and Problem-Based

Learning: linking a theoretical concept with practice through action research. Teaching in Higher Education, 8(2), 263-272.
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JD Watson

Words: 1917 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69450001

James Dewey Watson

The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James Watson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA allowed scientists to begin to understand the mechanism behind inheritance. While many scientists over the years had studied heredity, beginning with Gregor Mendel, no one had been able to discover the exact mechanism for how heredity actually works. It was not until the technology of the time advance to a point where scientists could determine the structure of molecules that the discovery of the structure of genetic material could be determined. After much research, and some failures, two scientists, working together, finally determined the molecular structure of the genetic molecule, allowing for the study of the exact mechanism to begin. James Watson was one of the scientists responsible for the discovery of the DNA molecule, and since that time has become one of the greatest scientists in American history. However, James Watson was also a human being and capable of human error, which at the end of his long and illustrious career, all but ruined him.

James Dewey Watson was born in Chicago Ill,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Biography James Watson." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.


"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.

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Socrates Plato and Aristotle Are the Most

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31664554

Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the most famous of the ancient Greek philosophers. All three of them have left a deep impact on the Western philosophy. In this paper we will look at the main points of their philosophies and the impact they left on us.

Socrates (469-399 BC)

Socrates was the first of the famous trio. He did not write any books and most of what we know about Socrates has been derived from the works of his equally illustrious pupil, Plato. Socrates not having written any book is part of his philosophy as he believed in the superiority of argument over writing and spent most of his life in public places practicing dialogue and argument with his contemporaries.

Socrates' basic philosophy was ethical in nature. He believed in an objective understanding of justice, love, and virtue. He particularly emphasized 'self-knowledge' and believed in the essential goodness of men. According to Socrates no person is willingly bad and 'virtue is knowledge.' According to this philosophy, it is only with knowledge that one can differentiate between 'right' and 'wrong' and once a person has the knowledge he (or she) will act rightly. He also placed great emphasis on rational argument.…… [Read More]

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Chi Square an Overview of

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8409477

Essentially, Pearson's formula translates qualitative data from a set of observations into a single number. Probability tables with corresponding numbers, with variances built in for different levels of significance and different degrees of freedom (the number of available data points used for the estimation/prediction of other data, the calculation of which in Chi Square analysis is provided for by another straightforward equation), provide the probability of dependence for any given Chi Square statistic.

The most simple example of a Chi Square test uses two populations and one variable of examination with a binary ("yes/no") set of possibilities. One example used is examining the high school graduation rate of students in a special program vs. The graduation rate of a control group of students not involved in the program (Lane 2010). If a grid is constructed to fill in data points, there would be two rows -- one for each population -- and two columns -- one recording the number of students who graduated per population, the other recording the number of students who did not (Lane 2010). Using Pearson's formula to develop the Chi Square statistic, the columns and the rows would each be added separately, yielding four different numbers.…… [Read More]


HSW. (2010). "The Chi Square Statsitic." Hobart and William Smith College. Accessed 26 February 2010.  http://math.hws.edu/javamath/ryan/ChiSquare.html 

Lane, D. (2010). "Introduction to the Chi Square Test of Independence." Accessed 26 February 2010. http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/B143466.html

Plackett, R.L. (2010). "Karl Pearson and the Chi Squared Test." International statistical review 51, pp. 59-72.
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Macroevolution Humans Are One of

Words: 1658 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2346697

The most arrangement of these hominids is as shown in the table above (Rantala, 2007, p.17).


Humans have undergone a series of evolution from the most primitive hominids to the modern man. The development in the structure of the hominids was gradual; with almost half being upright and the rest being bent creatures. Evolution is expected to continue and man is expected to evolve into a different creature depending on the use and disuse of his limbs.

Macroevolution gives finer details about the origin of humans and tries to bring out substantive information from carbon dating that indicate that for real man is a product of a continuous evolution and thus is thus not the final product of evolution. However, the theory of evolution has faced a lot of criticism especially from the Theologians whose views about the origin of humans are contrary to those of macroevolution. The theory has been rejected by many institutions of learning especially hose that teach the doctrines of creation. but, still evolution remains to be the most proximate theory on the origin of humans.… [Read More]


Barsh, G. (2003). What controls variation in human skin colour? Journal on Biological

Principles. 11(7), 19-22.

Fleagle, J. (1998). Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Second Edition. New York: Academic

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Thomas Jefferson A Pioneer in

Words: 5416 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9505486

Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education

Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.

From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.

In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."

Such well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set the matters at hand "to rights."

Education, then, was to play the critical role of informing and enlightening the people.

Jefferson would make this argument more completely in his "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge," which he proposed as part of his efforts to revise Virginia's laws in…… [Read More]



Ford, W. Ed. Thomas Jefferson Correspondence. Boston, 1916.

Jefferson, T. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1993.

Public and Private Papers New York: Vintage Books/the Library of America, 1990.
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Polydactylism Polydactyly Is a Relatively

Words: 2143 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14456156

This would clearly be preferable to performing surgery, but may be more applicable in cases of type B than type a polydactyly. Of a total of 21 cases which were examined, this procedure resulted in a slight complication in only one case, where the digit had to be removed surgically due to failure of removal by suture ligation. The only real side effect of this simple treatment is that there was found to be a small bump remaining at the site in 43% of cases.


Although there has been some work into the genetic basis of polydactyly, advances in examination of the human genome may create a better understanding of the condition in the future. A large amount of the work done so far has been focused on animal models, and there is still room for further work to discover the genetic basis of the different types of polydactyly in humans.… [Read More]


Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.

Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino Roth, M. & Santos, I.S. (2001). Epidemiologia das polidactilias: Um estudo de casos e controles na populacao de Pelotas-RS. Journal de Pediatria, 77(2); d.o.i.: 10.1590/S0021-7557200100017.

Borisch, N., Stunitz, B. & Blauth, W. (1995). Case histories surgical treatment of polydactyl of the little toe involving proximal and middle phalanx. Orthopedics and Traumatology, 4(4): 246-253.

Gurnett, C.A., Bowcock, a.M., Dietz, F.R., Morcuende, J.A., Murray, J.C. & Dobbs, M.B. (2007). Two novel point mutations in the long-range SHH enhancer in three families with triphalangeal thumb and preaxial polydactyly. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 143(1): 27-32.
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Edible Insects What's for Dinner

Words: 3131 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15701508

These insects run through the markets of Thailand, South Africa and South Korea offered separately as crunchy snacks to locals and bold travelers. They are highly rich in protein and may be considered as a good food supplement to boost energy. In case you can't make up your mind, a "bug-pack" may be suggested consisting of all edible insects you can munch on while appreciating great views and nature tripping. Larvae and Caterpillars of these insects were also considered as a rare delicacy, either as soup or added flavor to paste.

3. Hornets

Farmed by an old Japanese lady in Kyushu Island, the Giant Japanese Hornet is used to make honey. This is a completely incredible honey - literally! The Giant Japanese Hornet is the largest species of wasp in the world, and it contains special enzymes in its body which are reputed to increase strength and energy levels. Giant Japanese Hornets have one of the most incredible stamina's of any living creature and this stamina can be temporarily passed into the system of those who consume it. In fact, so certain are the Japanese of its properties, that the Japanese athletes consumed Giant Hornet enzymes before competing in the…… [Read More]


Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia (1989). Insects. New York: Lexicon Publications, Inc.

M. Burton (1971). Nature, the Realm of Animals and Plants. London: The Grolier Society Limited.

2000 Nation Multimedia Group. A Beetle a Day, July 6, 1999, the Nation. Retrieved April 19, 2008, at http://www.thaibugs.com/Articles/beetleaday.htm

Edible. Insectivores. Retrieved April 19, 2008, at http://www.edible.com/shop/browse.php?cmd=showdepartment&sectionId=23
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Descent of Man Since Their

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4680654

Although this theory totally impacted the world, Darwin's second book the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) began a major debate, especially between religion and science. As he stated in the conclusion of his book, "The main conclusion here arrived at, and now held by many naturalists who are well competent to form a sound judgment is that man is descended from some less highly organized form."

He even theorized that intelligence and emotion could develop through natural selection.

However, he also stressed the difference between humans and lower animals. Man has a conscience and moral sense. In Chapter 4 he states: "any animal whatever, endowed with well-marked social instincts, the parental and filial affections being here included, would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well, or nearly as well developed, as in man."

In many ways Darwin's second book is of much more interest than the Origin of Species. When reading the Descent of Man it is easy to see how much this book must have impacted everyone at the time from the general public, to scientists to the clergy. It must have been fascinating…… [Read More]

Books Cited:

Darwin, C. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1859) Retrieved January 5, 2007  http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/origin.html 

Darwin, C. Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871). Retrieved January 5, 2007. http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/

Desmond, a. And Moore, J. (1991) the Life of a Tormented Evolutionist: Darwin

New York: Warner.
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Psychology Dawkins' Selfish Gene and

Words: 1827 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34663368

Nonetheless, an argument from common sense can be made based on our own observational context. For example, neurologically speaking, there is a wealth of evidence to illustrate that genes have an immense impact on the final structure of the brain, and thus on behavior. Schizophrenia is an obvious example of this.

Logically, though, there is also abundant support for Dawkins' thesis. Roughly, an argument can be shown to be logically viable if its conclusions can be reasonably drawn from its suppositions based on the available evidence. This is abundantly the case in the Selfish Gene, wherein Dawkins (1976) draws on all the existing evidence on evolutionary theory and the development of life, including the mechanism of natural selection (p. 48) and DNA as the molecule of choice for genetic propagation (pp. 22-23). The evidence that Dawkins provides is, quite simply, sufficient to support his argument that the gene should be perceived as the primary building block of life and evolution, just as the atom is the primary building block of all matter. Because of the evidence provided, and the logical claims that follow, it is easy to support Dawkins' thesis that the gene is the basis for evolution and that…… [Read More]


Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (2005). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. 5th ed. Wadsworth-Thomson Learning.
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Evolution vs Creation One Can

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17717613

Thus, just an article strictly on the newest thoughts regarding complex design by Zimmer would be seen as support of his beliefs.

Why, then, the added zing against Intelligent Design? Is because the continued dispute between the scientists and Creationists has disturbed Zimmer so much that he had to add these comments? Or, was it a National Geographic editor who read Zimmer's piece and said, "Let's make this article juicier by setting the Intelligent Design people against the scientists."

No one will ever know for sure if either of these scenarios or another one is the truth. However, it does seem odd that the three paragraphs noted above after the introduction can easily be removed without any changes needed to the flow of the article. The first two paragraph introduction moves very smoothly into "Some have emerged..." There is nothing lost by removing these middle three paragraphs than some heat.

How much more credible the article is without these added paragraphs. Now, the article is not on who is right or wrong, but rather how much is being learned through the study of these complex marvels. The story is not whether one animal evolved into another and into another or…… [Read More]

It just would have been more effective if there were two separate articles: The overall article on the complexity and then a side bar on the evolution vs. Creationism controversy. In the latter article, additional comments could have come from scientists both pro and con Intelligent Design, for, in fact, there are a number of scientists (even biologists and zoologists) who do believe that these marvels of nature are the result of some overall plan or design.

In his book Why Darwin Matters, Author Michael Shermer, founding editor of the Skeptic and Scientific American columnist, writes why religion and science need not be in conflict. Science and religion are two different realms, he stresses: respectively the natural and supernatural. He cites Pope John Paul II in support of their possible coexistence. Zimmer and other scientists do not need to discount their opponents to demonstrate the fascination of evolution. All the examples in nature do it all by themselves.

Zimmer, Carl (2006). "A Fin, is a Limb is a Wing." National Geographic Magazine.
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Green The Science - Literature

Words: 6746 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50357583

Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.

Other significant achievements took place in less theoretical, and more pragmatic areas of erudition, such as those which were largely responsible for a technological revolution which included the development of advancements in the windmill, compass, and rudder (Crosby). Such inventions directly affected the management of conventional means of production as well as that of economic growth. Other…… [Read More]

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Oceans & Plastic Pollution the

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31117096

9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.

Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). What is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).

There is lethal danger for small marine organisms as well, when it comes to "microscopic plastic particles" that lodge in sediments and surface waters of oceans, Katsanevakis explains (p. 71). After these microscopic particles are ingested by small marine organisms (lugworms, bivalves, barnacles and amphipods), and these organisms are in turn consumed by larger species, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University

Press, New York City, 585

Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.

Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
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Measuring Heart and Ventilation Rate During and

Words: 1446 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20368597

Measuring Heart and Ventilation Rate During and After Moderate Exercise

A useful perspective to begin the process of conducting an experiment to measure heart and ventilation rate during and after a moderate exercise is to explain the central purpose of the experiment. Generally speaking, if we can measure the heart and the ventilation rate of an individual, we will be able to ascertain the individual's level of fitness. In addition, during an exercise activity, measuring the heart and ventilation rate can be a strategy for indicating the presence of disease in the subject's system. Furthermore, this kind of experiment can enable a researcher to determine the subject's maximum capacity, which, in turn, can serve not only as a barometer for determining the subject's cardiac capacity but also of his/her fatigue level. The following sections explored the objectives, steps and procedures for the experiment for measure the heart rate and ventilation rate during and after moderate exercise.

Experiment 1

Objectives: To measure the heart rate during and after moderate exercise in humans.


Broadly speaking, our body store energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, commonly known as ATP. The human body can call up ATP at short notice to provide…… [Read More]


Allaby, M 2011, Cardiac Cycle, A Dictionary of Zoology. Encyclopedia.com, . viewed April 7, 2011, < http://www.encyclopedia.com >.

Davis M. 2000, The Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook, New Harbinger inc., Sacramento, CA.

Goleman D & Gurin J. 1993, Mind Body Medicine, Consumer Books

Hawkins M. 1993, Rebounding for Health and Fitness, Thorsons, London
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Intelligent Design Man Has Always Asked Questions

Words: 1783 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27384332

Intelligent Design

Man has always asked questions about how the world began. All cultures in the ancient world had origin myths. People looked to higher powers, or deities, or life forces, to explain what they could not understand. Researchers do not know where humankind's need for spirituality comes from, but it is clear, looking at history, that faith and the need to believe in something greater than ourselves are part of what makes us human.

The late Stephen Jay Gould, professor of zoology and geology at Harvard University, believed that science and religion were not in conflict. Because they are entirely different, he argued, they could not be synthesized into any common theme (Mitchell & Blackard 2009, p. 146). His is a view that is shared by many scientists who draw a distinction between science and scripture. Science and scripture offer us two different things. One does not have to choose to accept one or the other. There is room in a belief system for both because they answer different questions and meet different needs.

Mitchell and Blackard believe that there is no real debate between the Bible and science, when each is taken whole, but rather "a small number…… [Read More]


Carter, K.L. And Welsh, J. 2010, 'The pedagogy of the debate over evolution and intelligent design', Liberal Education, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 46-53.

Hlodan, O. 2011, 'Molecular insights into classic examples of evolution', BioScience, vol. 61,

no. 4, pp. 264-267.

Miller, K. Darwin and Christian Faith. . [Distinguished Lecture Series, Pepperdine
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Margaret Atwood's Theory of Natural

Words: 8410 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32141388

As Canada has become less wild, many of these obstacles have been recognized by writers to exist internally, as Atwood says: "no longer obstacles to physical survival but obstacles to what we may call spiritual survival, to life as anything more than a minimally human being."

Grim survival is that sort of survival which overcomes a specific threat which destroys everything else about one, such as a hurricane or plane crash. One supposes that survival in a war setting, or even survival of a serious personal tragedy (such as rape) might also qualify. Of this sort of survival, Atwood writes: "The survivor has no triumph or victory but the fact of his survival; he has little after his ordeal that he did not have before, except gratitude for having escaped with his life."

Cultural survival is also a vital issue. French Canadians struggled to retain their language and religion under the rule of an anglophile government. Today all Canadians are struggling to maintain their independence under the cultural and economic global hegemony of America. Survival can in this sense be either quite positive, as in the maintenance of a valued cultural integrity, or refer to what Atwood calls: "a vestige…… [Read More]


Atwood, Margaret. Cat's Eye. New York: Anchor Books 1998.

Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid's Tale. New York: Ballantine Books: 1985.

Atwood, Margaret. Surfacing. New York: Anchor Books 1998.

Atwood, Margaret. Survival: A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature. Toronto: Anansi 1972. Ebook edition.
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Safety Management in the United

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11996538

Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.… [Read More]

Works Cited

About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.

Clean Water Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.

Endangered Species Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/esa.htm.

Freedom of Information Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/foia.htm.
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Sociobiology and Culture

Words: 2746 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44210691

Traditionally, researchers in various fields of study have generally limited investigations to their area of expertise. Social scientists attend to prescribed areas such as memory, deviance, and microeconomics. In addition, natural scientists restrict their focal points to phenomena like DNA, gravity, and erosion. This practice of detached exploration, which initially proved productive, is gradually giving way to interdisciplinary endeavors as new and overwhelming evidence indicates that many domains are profoundly interconnected. Although some conventional sociologists steadfastly resist such infiltration, the field is not immune to this growing interdisciplinary movement.

Sociobiology, as the name indicates, is the synthesis of sociology and biology. It is the logical bridge 'between the natural sciences on the one side and social sciences and humanities on the other' (Wilson, 5). Stated differently, it applies the principles of biology to the study of social behavior in both human and non-human populations. More precisely, sociobiology employs evolutionary theories to describe, explain, and explore social phenomena. Considering the amount of social creatures on this planet, it is not surprisingly that 'sociobiology consists mostly of zoology' (Wilson, 1). Areas of interest within this discipline include but are not limited to sexual attraction and behavior, aggression, infant and parental behavior, social…… [Read More]


Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and The

Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Boeree, George C. 'Sociobiology'. 1998 .

Cosmides, Leda & Tooby, John. 'Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer'. 1997
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 2364 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

While the winner gets a huge amount of money for supposedly being the strongest human, in fact, the strongest human is merely the one that uses the greatest amount of self-centered cunning and brute strength. If one is going to define humanity, especially in the post-Darwinian age, then it would seem that humanity, to be set apart, would depend on altruistic feelings and use of intelligence rather than selfish feelings and use of brute force alone. In this respect, there is little to separate the producers of TV reality shows from Dr. Moreau, and, by extension, little to separate the participants from the man-beasts. While it is certainly a cynical viewpoint, it would seem that those who participate in the reality shows might be assumed to be as dimly aware of their condition as the man-beasts after their reversion to the more animal state.

Graff compares Dr. Moreau to Mary Shelley's Dr. Frankenstein; both set about upsetting taboos concerning "hybridity, miscengeny and degeneration" (2001, p. 33+). Both are mechanistic in the extreme, viewing individuals as no more than a collection of animal parts to be reconstructed as a human of genius sees fit.

Graff notes that "Science has provided Moreau…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bergonzi, Bernard. The Early H.G. Wells: A Study of the Scientific Romances. Manchester, Eng.: Manchester UP (1961).

Graff, Ann-Barbara. "Administrative Nihilism': Evolution, Ethics and Victorian Utopian Satire." Utopian Studies 12.2 (2001): 33+. Questia. 27 Sept. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001049071.

Hillegas, Mark. The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians. New York: Oxford UP (1967).

Sirabian, Robert. "The Conception of Science in Wells's the Invisible Man." Papers on Language & Literature 37.4 (2001): 382. Questia. 27 Sept. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000917120.
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

Biology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the smallest, fundamental building blocks of every living and non-living matter. Molecules are nothing but groups of atoms bound together by means of chemical bonds.

5) Water is a universal solvent that dissolves most molecules and it is non-reactive as well. All plant and animal life is dependant on water and…… [Read More]


1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Thomas Hunt Morgan Was an

Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8626006

In 1910, Morgan publicly disagreed with the prevailing notion in embryology, that a fully-formed adult was already locked inside the ova or sperm cell. Rather, Morgan argued that there was no single chromosome that guaranteed the heredity of specific traits (Shine and Wrobel 1976).


In 1903, Morgan accepted the first professorship in experimental zoology at Columbia University. He moved his family to New York and began to work in genetics, fueled by his interest in the gaps in the work of Darwin and Mendel. During this time, scientist Hugo De Vries, a geneticist, revisited the work of Mendel and again proposed that new species were created as a result of mutations. Morgan then set out to prove De Vries' theory, using his now-famous Drosophila experiment.

Morgan used X-rays to mutate samples of Drosophila and cross-bred the mutants to regular samples. In 1910, Morgan found a male fly with white eyes, a mutation from the typical red eyes. However, after breeding the white-eyed fly with a red-eyed female, Morgan discovered that the resulting spawn all had red eyes. To Morgan, this suggested that the white-eye trait was a recessive trait. Later, Morgan found and tracked the results of other mutations,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, G.E. 2000. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978

Kandel, Eric. 1999. "Genes, Chromosomes, and the Origins of Modern Biology." Columbia Magazine. Fall 1999.

Morgan, Thomas Hunt. 2002. Embryology and Genetics. New York: Agrobios.

Shine, I. And Wrobel, S. 1976. Thomas Hunt Morgan: Pioneer of Genetics. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky
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Non-Profit CAFR Nonprofit Accounting Is Based on

Words: 1384 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55748072

Non-Profit CAFR

Nonprofit accounting is based on the fund accounting, making it very complicated and different from for profit accounting. Fund accounting financial statements are divided into government wide, proprietary, and fiduciary statements. Nonprofit actually has three sets of financial statements compared to one set of financial statements for a for profit entity. Government wide statements basically cover the operations of the government in general. The government wide statements are the ones that are basically the same as for profit financial statements, except they are done differently. Proprietary statements cover funds that are restricted for certain items, such as capital infractures. Fiduciary statements are funds the government is responsible for that are for held other entities, such as the hospital district.

Differences in Missions

There are key differences between non-profit and for profit accounting. (Nonprofit (Not-for-Profit) Accounting) The primary mission of nonprofit is to provide needed services to the community, where for profit is to earn profits for shareholders. The secondary mission is to ensure revenues are greater than expenses in order for services to be maintained or expanded, where for profit is to provide services and sell goods to make profits. The tax status of nonprofit is tax exempt…… [Read More]


Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. (2010, Nov 30). Retrieved from Cook County, Illinois: http://www.cookcountygov.com/taxonomy2/Finance,%20Bureau%20of/Downloads/2010_CAFR,pdf

Kieso, e. a. (2008). ACC 303/304/305 Intermediate Accounting I, II, & III. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Nonprofit (Not-for-Profit) Accounting. (n.d.). Retrieved from Accounting Coach: http://www.accountingcoach.com/nonprofit-accounting/
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Career Interest Is Accounting Accountancy Is the

Words: 2443 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49806372

career interest is accounting. Accountancy is the process of evaluating the financial information about business entities to users such as the managers of the shareholders (Elliot, & Elliot, 2004). Accountancy falls into three areas: accounting, bookkeeping, and auditing.

I choose accounting since it will give me a solid employment with a lucrative wage and this is what is important to me. I have also learned that it can be fun in the investigative way if I se it as such. The work conditions are fine -- not too tedious and best of all I can structure them at my convenience. I can work either for an institution or be self-employed. Chances for advancement also depend on myself and, best of all, I can find global opportunities in any and every business..

• Career goals and career strategy

The kind of job that I am most interested in is working in a prestigious major accounting or business firm as a piblic accountant. Competition is keen there, but I will have an advantage through gaining a Masters in the subject, accreditations or licensures on related subjects, as well as acquirign proficiency in the subject and in auditing computer software. To gain an…… [Read More]


Accountants and Auditors. Career Information. CollegeGrad.com

Accounting Jobs Today.com Controller | Sample Resume 5


Alba, J. Vault career guide to accounting. New York: Vault, c2002.
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Fierce Creatures Who Are the Main Stakeholders

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38008506

Fierce Creatures

Who are the main stakeholders in the zoo acquisition?

There are two directly opposing groups in the zoo acquisition. The first group, represented by Rollo, is comprised of the new purchasers of the zoo and the people who thus have a financial stake in the success and progression of the zoo. Rollo has been given strict instructions that the zoo is to be completely and thoroughly reorganized to both increase attendance and provide a surge in the profit margin of the enterprise. His employers, Octopus Inc. demand that each business in the empire have a 20% profit margin. At present the zoo is not making any profit whatsoever. These are the financial stakes involved in the equation. On the opposing side of the equation are those who are involved with the zoo in its current iteration. They have an emotional stake in this acquisition because they are mainly concerned with zoology and with the welfare of the animals in the zoo. This side represents the emotional stakeholders in the dichotomy.

2. How are the values of the stakeholders being expressed in the meeting?

The values are being expressed by the various factions according to their position on the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Fierce Creatures. (1997) Dir. Fred Schepisi. Perf. John Cleese and Kevin Kline. Universal Pictures, DVD.
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Environment Science Education and Its Effect on

Words: 3831 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77559694

Environment Science education and its effect on Students' Improvement

Does the current curriculum actually improve the student's decision making regarding environmental issues?

Sample Size and Sampling Method

Time Frame for the Study

Scope and Limitations

Budgetary Plan

Current Environmental Science Curriculum

Is the current curriculum design actually improves the decision making regarding environmental issues?

For years it has been a tough job to implement the appropriate environmental education in the colleges. Research in the field has pointed out several challenges in the creation of effective environmental curricula. Researchers also examined different strategies being used for the promotion of student awareness as well as fostering them to engage in the ever changing circumstances. The empirical research studies have made it clear that just acquiring the information on the environment science and ecology is not enough to motivate students to practically participate in environment protection. For the motivation there is a need to connect to the environment and possess an emotional commitment that encourages students to participate. "We cannot win this battle to save species and environments without forging an emotional bond between ourselves and nature as well -- for we will not fight to save what we do not love" (Gould,…… [Read More]


Balgopal, M., & Wallace, A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(13), 13 -- 22.

Balgopal, M., & Wallace, A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(13), 13 -- 22.

Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Biriukova, N. (2005).The formation of an ecological consciousness. Russian Education and Society, 47(12), 34 -- 45.
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Are There Keystone Species in Information Ecologies That Might Affect Knowledge Management Processes

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61951133

Keystone Species

In mid-1800's, telegraphy was invented. This invention was revolutionary because it decreased all the hurdles in communication of information. This type of invention or any innovations that connects two or more people and acts as a survival tool for a particular group i.e. ethnic or technological group is known as Keystone specie. Even though Specie is a term mostly used for living organisms, here in a larger context keystone specie is referred to as "a system of people, practices, values, and technologies" that is essential for the survival of anything. (Johnson, 2010)

The keystone species concept has been a mainstay of the ecological and conservation biology literature since its introduction by UW zoology professor Robert T. Paine in 1969. His seminal paper extended the conclusions of a field experiment published three years earlier. The research resulting in the keystone species concept was done on Makah Tribal lands on the outer coast of Washington State, with the Makahs' permission. It involved the sustained removal of a single predator species over a three-year interval and documentation of the resultant changes. (Keystone Species Hypothesis, 1996)

The result was the same as expected, other species slowly died out as a result of…… [Read More]


Johnson, S. (2010). Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation. London: Penguins Books Ltd.

Keystone Species Hypothesis. (1996). Retrieved September 24, 2011, from washington.edu:  http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1969g.html 

McNely, B. (2010) Exploring a Sustainable and Public Information Ecology, S.Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Nardi, B.A. And V.L. O'Day (2004) Information Ecologies. Chapter 4 in Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
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Columbia STS 107 Crew

Words: 1812 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10203538

Columbia STS-107 Crew

Introduction/Space Shuttle Columbia

History of Columbia

It's all in a Name

Previous Missions

Columbia's Final Flight

The Crew

Richard Husbands

William McCool

Michael Anderson

David Brown

Kalpana Chawla

Laurel Clark

Ilan Ramon

Space Shuttle Columbia

On January 16th, 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia STS Flight with seven crewmembers on board departed earth on a sixteen-day research mission. More specifically, the crew of Columbia was charged with conducting research in physical, life, and space sciences, conducted in approximately 80 separate experiments, comprised of hundreds of samples and test points. The mission also known as FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research) was the 28th flight and the 113th mission for the shuttle Columbia. This much anticipated flight gave more than 70 international scientists access to the micro gravity environment in space. This paper will explore the lives of the crew of the Columbia as well as provide some insight into the fascinating history and missions of NASA's oldest shuttle.

History of Columbia

Space shuttle Columbia was ordained with the name Columbia from a sailing boat named Columbia that successfully completed the first circumnavigation of the globe. More apparently, the name Columbia is the feminine version of…… [Read More]


Boyle, Alan. "Space Shuttle Questions and Answers." Retrieved on March 1, 2003 from website http://www.msnbc.com/news/867926.asp?0cv=TA01

Crew Profiles." Retrieved on March 2, 2002 from website  http://www.nasa.gov/columbia/crew/index.html 

Israel's First Astronaut Launches into Space from Kennedy Space Center." Retrieved on February 26th, 2003 from website http://www.israelnewsagency.com/israelastronautilanramon.html

Laurel Clark Email." Retrieved on February 28th, 2003 from website http://www.dalebroux.com/assemblage/20030203LaurelClark.asp
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Academic Profile of Home Schoolers a Case Study

Words: 16937 Length: 62 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56680433

Academic Profile of Home Schooling - a Case Study

Home Schooling vs. Traditional Educational Methods

Home Schooling Methodology

Focus of the Practicum


Area of Inquiry

Subject/Topic Areas

Home Schooling as an Alternative

Curricula and Materials Used for Home Schooling

The Success of Home Schooling

Evaluation Design

Conditions for Change



Legislative Information:

Maryland: A Legal Analysis

State Laws and Regulations - Maryland

Goulart and Travers vs. Calvert County

Home-schooled Kids Find Social Growth"

Home Schoolers in the Trenches"

Home School Academic Advantage Increases Over Time"

Home Schooling." ERIC Digest, Number 95.


The Academic Profile of Home Schoolers

Case Study

The focus of this applied dissertation proposal is to examine and analyze home school families' academic environment, the institutional materials they use, and to gain an understanding of their academic success.

Prince George's County Public School System is the nineteenth largest school system in the nation with a diverse student population of over 137,000 students. Currently, there are 2,309 students that are being educated at home; 858 are being taught through correspondence courses that are registered with the Maryland State Department of Education. The remaining 1,451 are being supervised by Price George's County Public Schools. The school system…… [Read More]


Monticello, IL.

Buchanan, Jim (1984). Home Instruction: A Growing Alternative to Public Schools. Monticello, IL.

Lande, Nancy (2000). Home school Open House: Interviews with 55 Home schooling Families. Bozeman, MT

Waring, Bill and Diane (1999). Emerald Books: A look back on what they learned along the way by veteran home schooling parents of varying approaches.
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Scientific Revolution

Words: 375 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18648564

Scientific Revolution was the period when man's intellect explored the interests of science, reasoning, and truth. It was the time when man, not satisfied with the assumptions about things he was used, explored scientific methods and theories to determine the truth about things based on scientific way of thinking. The emphasis of this intellectual change was on natural sciences of the earth such as astronomy, physics, zoology, geology, mathematics, and botany. The period of the Renaissance's desire to produce reality from art led to mathematics and scientific interests (Sedivy, D. HRHS). This intellectual shift appealed to the middle and upper classes of society. Two of the famous contributors in the Scientific Revolution were Isaac Newton and Galileo. Isaac Newton formulated the law of gravity, while Galileo developed the first telescope. Rene Descartes was another contributor of this period of intellectual change. He formulated mathematical theories that provide explanation to the existence of the universe.

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was a period in which most of the ideas were inspired by the intellect and reasoning of the Scientific Revolution. If Scientific Revolution centers its subject to…… [Read More]


Sedivy, Dave. The Enlightenment.

Highlands Ranch High School. 27 Oct 2003.  http://mrsedivy.com/enlite.html 

The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment.

CLSCC.cc.tn.us. 27 Oct 2003. http://www.clscc.cc.tn.us/Courses/ngreenwood/scientific_revolution_and_the_en.htm
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Islamic Philosophy

Words: 2042 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58285182

Islamic Philosophy

Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd: His Work and Philosophy

Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd (1126-1198 C.E), also known as Averroes, is regarded by many as one of the foremost Islamic philosophers and a pivotal figure in the history of Andalusian philosophy. He is also deemed an important figure in the history of Western philosophy. An important contribution to Islamic culture and philosophy was his defense of Greek philosophy in the Islamic world as well as his emphasis on the philosophy of Aristotle. Ibn Rushd is credited with the introduction of "rationalism" into Islamic philosophy.

A as Etienne Gilson has written in his Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, Rationalism was born in Spain in the mind of an Arabian philosopher, as a conscious reaction against the theologism of the Arabian divines, by whom he means the Ash'arite Mutakallimun. (Fakhry)

In global terms it has been asserted that not only did he make an invaluable contribution to Islamic thought but that his 'philosophical rationalism', which was created five centuries earlier than Descartes writings, is even more comprehensive that the rationalism of the famous Western philosopher. This is an indication of the stature of Ibdn Rushd, as Descartes is generally regarded…… [Read More]


Allahhakbar. Net. Groundwork on Islamic Philosophy in the context of Modern Western Philosophy. 3 March 2004. www.salaf.indiaaccess.com/atheist/groundwork_on_islamic_philosophy.htm

Fakhry M. Averroes: (Ibn Rushd) His Life, Works and Influence. 4 March, 2004. www.oneworld-publications.com/books/texts/averroes-his-life-woks-and-influence-intro.htm

Hillier C. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 4 March, 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/i/ibnrushd.htm

IIDL. Abul Walid Muhammed Ibn Ahmed Ibn Rush. 4 March, 2004. http://iidl.net/index.php?ch=15&pg=64&ac=111
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Classical Greece Desire Emotion and Knowledge Greek

Words: 1132 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72763106

Classical Greece

Desire, Emotion, and Knowledge: Greek Society and Culture in the Classical Period (480-338 B.C.)

Following the aftermath of Greeks' victory over Persians during 480-479 B.C., Greek society has undergone rapid changes and revival in its political, economic, and cultural structures, called the Classical period of Greek society and culture. This period, 480-338 B.C., is characterized by the emergence of new reforms in the society, such as the establishment of a new Athenian democratic government, the gradual assertion of women equal treatment in a patriarchal Greek society, and the flourishing of the arts through philosophy, literature, mathematics, and science.

Indeed, the Classical period is more appropriately described as a time wherein human potential and intelligence is at its highest. As Plato had stated, "Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, knowledge." This statement from the Greek philosopher brings into lucidity the important works of literature that had helped change the course of Greek history. In desire, Greeks have shown their need to become independent from colonizers and establish their own form of government. Through emotions, Greeks were able to discuss and express everyday life according to prevalent social issues. Lastly, knowledge served as the guiding principle in…… [Read More]


Kagan, D., S. Ozment, and F. Turner. (1995). The Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Watson's the Double Helix and the Discovery of DNA Structure

Words: 2068 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89034252

Watson and Crick

The fact that James Watson and Francis Crick were able to discover the structure of DNA is, in retrospect, somewhat shocking. By the early 1950s, it had become clear that the riddle of DNA's structure would be solved through X-ray crystallography, while Watson admits in the fourth chapter of The Double Helix that "I knew nothing about the X-ray diffraction techniques that dominated structural analysis" (Watson 31). Moreover, some of the best scientists who did have a knowledge of X-ray crystallography -- like Linus Pauling in America and Rosalind Franklin in the UK -- were consciously working on the structure of DNA at the same time that Watson and Crick got involved. Additionally, Watson was extraordinarily young at the time of the discovery. Although Crick was "thirty-five, yet almost totally unknown" at the time of their collaboration (Watson 7) but Watson was born in 1928 and in his early twenties while working on the structure of DNA. Watson was thus eight years younger than Rosalind Franklin, twelve years younger than Crick or Maurice Wilkins, and almost thirty years younger than Linus Pauling. Finally, Watson's scientific background before his arrival in England had been in zoology rather than…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Smith, Hal. Lecture Notes, Humanities 4317. University of Houston-Victoria, 2014.

Watson, James D. The Double Helix. New York: Scribner Classics, 1998. Print.