Achieve the Strategic Objectives by 'Literature Review' chapter

  • Length: 8 pages
  • Sources: 40
  • Subject: Business - Management
  • Type: 'Literature Review' chapter
  • Paper: #68323327

Excerpt from 'Literature Review' chapter :

(Beasley, Branson, and Hancock, 2010, paraphrased)

Srimai, Radford and Wright (2010) report that management needs "arriving from the evolving business ecology and focused on creating and sustaining competitive advantage, drive the destiny of PM systems during their evolutionary progression." (p.662) Management tools that presently exist are reported to be reflective of the "result of prior choices in the search for distinct performance measurement capabilities. Their evolution embodies trends in the development and use of performance measurement systems over long periods, and also points the way for future performance measurement to develop and evolve." (Srimai, Radford and Wright, 2010, p.676)

Gordon, Loeb, and Tseng (2009) write that enterprise risk management (ERM) is a holistic approach to risk management and state that the "relation between ERM and firm performance is contingent upon the appropriate match between ERM and five factors which include those which affect a firm: (1) environmental uncertainty; (2) industry competition; (3) firm size; (4) firm complexity; and (5) monitoring by the board of directors. (p.301) Specific business risk considerations are reported in the work of Kendrick (2004) to include: (1) business risks or risks in the business environment that could place barriers in front of the objectives of the corporation; (2) financial risks or the risks to realization of profit; (3) project nd operational risks which means risks to implementation of corporate strategy; (4) reputation risks; and (5) compliance risks. (p.70) Cultural prototypes in the organization effect how risk is addressed and those prototypes are reported to include: (1) entrepreneur: the market rules; (2) egalitarian: cooperation and equality; (3) bureaucrat: reliant on rules and procedures; (4) atomized/stratified: a belief in hierarchy; and (5) autonomous individuals: risks are acceptable as long as they are not derived from coercion. (Aven and Kristensen, 2004, p. 5) Stated as important lessons are: (1) expected values cannot be the only basis of risk acceptance; (2) uncertainty is poorly assessed by people; (3) various factors serve to influence probability assignments; (4) various factors influence the "perception, acceptance and tolerability of risk"; (5) significant differences exist between individuals and groups in the perception and acceptance of risk; and (6) risk perception and acceptance of risk "are fundamentally related to social judgments of things such as responsibility, blame and trust in risk management and managers. (Aven and Kristensen, 2004, p.5)

Summary and Conclusion

It is clear that the benefits of the development of Key Risk Indicators (KRIs) in the organization are such that serve to benefit the organization and on many levels in avoiding future potential risks. It can be said that the foresight of KRIs are much better than the hindsight views of KPIs. It is not easy to ensure that risk, performance and other factors are aligned in the organization but the approach of the use of KRIs in the organization which are founded on principles that identify risk and ultimately the performance management of the organization is clearly a method that will serve to enable the organization in all aspects of the organizational performance and functioning. Key Risk Indicators (KRIs) serve to assist the organization in many areas of their functioning through pinpointing and predicting the possible problems that can arise in many areas of the organizational operations. This enables the organization in answering to its stakeholders on all levels of the organization.


A structured approach to Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) and the requirements of ISO 31000 (2010) AIRMIC, Alarm, IRM: 2010. Retrieved from:

Adsera, Alicia, et. al., 2003, "Are You Being Served? Political Accountability and Quality of Government," the Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization, Vol. 19, No. 2.

Afonso, Antonio, 2003, "Public Sector Efficiency: An International Comparison," (Working Paper No. 242), Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank.

Allen, Richard, et. al., 2004, "Assessing and Reforming Public Financial Management. A New Approach," Washington: The World Bank.

Appleby, Paul, 1992, "Government is Different," in Shafritz, Jay M. And Albert C. Hyde, eds., Classics of Public Sector Management, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Association of Public Service Financial Administrators, 2003, "Checks and Balances," Ottawa: APSFA.

Aven, T; and Kristen, V (2005) Perspectives on Risk: Review and Discussion of the Basis for Establishing a Unified and Holistic Approach. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 90 (2005) 1-14.

Barrett, Katherine and Richard Greene, 2005, "Grading the States '05," Governing, February issue.

Beasley, MS; Branson, BC, and Hancock, B. (2010) Developing Key Risk Indicators to Strengthen Enterprise Risk Management. Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

Bovaird, Tony and Elke Loffler, 2001, "Emerging Trends in Public Management and Governance," BBS Teaching and Research Review, Issue 5.

Bower, Joseph L., 1977, "Effective Public Management," Harvard Business Review, March April issue.

Bryson, J. (2004). Strategic Planning for Public and Non-profit Organizations.

Cabinet Office (United Kingdom), 2005, "Autumn Performance Report 2005," London: Cabinet Office.

City of Colorado Springs. (1999). Performance Measure Attribute Testing. City of Kansa City Missouri, City Auditor's Office. (2007).

Consulting and Audit Canada, 1997, "Survey of Best Practices of Comptrollership, Ottawa: CAC.

Forbes, Melissa and Laurence E. Lynn, Jr., 2004, "How Does Public Management Affect Government Performance? Findings from International Research," (Bush School Working Paper No. 420), College Station, TX: Bush School of Government and Public Service.

Gershon, Sir Peter, 2004, "Releasing resources to the front line. Independent Review of Public Sector Efficiency," London: HM Treasury.

Gill, Jeff and Kenneth J. Meier, 2001, "Ralph's Pretty Good Grocery vs. Ralph's Super Market: Separating Excellent Agencies from the Good Ones," Public Administration Review, Vol. 61, Issue 1.

Governing, 2005, "How We Grade," February issue.

Ingraham, Patricia W. And Amy E. Kneedler, 2000, "Dissecting the Black Box. Toward a Model and Measures of Government Management Performance," in Rutledge, Jeffrey L., et. al., eds., Advancing Public Management, Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Ingraham, Patricia W. And Amy Kneedler Donohue, 2000, "Dissecting the Black Box Revisited. Characterizing Government Management Capacity," in Heinrich, Carolyn J. And Laurence E. Lynn, Jr., eds., Governance and Performance, Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Institute for Citizen Centred Service and Institute of Public Administration of Canada, 2003, "Citizens First 3," Toronto: IPAC.

Kaufmann, D., et. al., 2005, Governance Matters IV, Washington: The World Bank.

Kelly, Michael and Cathy Green, 2003, "State of Management Practices in the Public Service of Canada," draft prepared for Treasury Board Secretariat, Comptrollership Modernization Secretariat.

Kendrick, T. (2004 ) Strategic Risk: Am I doing ok? Corporate Governance. Vol. 4 No. 4

La Porta, Rafael, et. al., 1999, "The Quality of Government," Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, Vol. 15, No. 1.

Laurent, Anne, 2002, "Management Counts," Government Executive, Vol. 34, No. 6.

Loffler, Elke, 2001, "Defining and Measuring Quality in Public Administration," BBS Teaching and Research Review, Issue 5.

Loffler, Elke, undated, "The Value of Public Management Evaluations from an International Perspective: Best Practice…

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