Achievement Gap Essays (Examples)

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Gaps Between HRM Plans the

Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97676018

othwell stresses both internal and external information with regard to supply and demand of labor skill sets, making clear that the development of internal skills is more available to the H and line manager than external supply information. (p. 168) it is for this reason that internal information of labor supply, including all demographic and skill set information on each employee be an important and centralized system that is streamlined to some degree. This may be done by direct review of employee performance, i.e. By the line manager as well as by employee communication of skill set through reviews and written statements upon hire and later to ensure that such information is up-to-date and planning for future improvement is developed, including desire by employee to improve skill set and achieve educational goals, as well as streamlining of such information through planning and communication on the part of H and line…… [Read More]


Rothwell, S. (1995) "Human Resource Planning" in Human Resource Management: A Critical Text. London, UK: Routledge.
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Gap Analysis Riordan Manufacturing the

Words: 2866 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38128506

End-State Vision

The primary goal for the management team at iordan Manufacturing is to solve the existent problem, and through the strategies developed and implemented, ensure that it does not occur again in the future. In other words, they desire to increase employees' on the job satisfaction and reduce as such the turnover rates, which materialize in increased costs. The future goals of the plastics manufacturing company could be best described with the aid of a realistic vision statement. This could be formulated as follows:

iordan Manufacturing is committed to maintaining its leading position onto the plastics industry by presenting their customers with high quality products, delivered by highly specialized and trained employees. The organization is also determined to make a difference in the environment by using the latest technological appliances which preserve the health of the surrounding environment. We are also proud of the healthy and pleasant environment we…… [Read More]


2008, Gap Analysis, Marketing Teacher, Ast accessed on September 16, 2008

2008, Job Design, BNET Business Dictionary, accessed on September 16, 2008

2008, Human Resource Committed to Excellence, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, accessed on September 16, 2008

Beam, J., 2008, What is Employee Turnover?, Wise Geek, Ast accessed on September 16, 2008
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Math Achievement African-American vs White

Words: 6588 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67509072

In grade four white males performing "At or Above asic" math skills is stated at 90% while black males were performing at only 59% "At or Above asic" skill levels. White males in the "At or Above Proficient" skills level is stated at 49% with black males in this category stated at a mere 13%.

The following labeled Figure 2 shows the statistical report of NAEP (2005) in relation to achievement differences among African-American and White American males.

NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT: Minority Male Achievement Gaps Relative to White Males, Grade 4, 2005


y the time these students reach 8th grade white males "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" totals 76% while only 43% of the African-American males are "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" the negative value in the Achievement Gap of African-American Males as relative to White Males indicates that a lower percentage of…… [Read More]


Henry, Ardail Rashad (2005) Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in African-American Students with Learning Disabilities. July 2005 School or Education Curriculum and Instruction, Special Education, Williamsburg VA. Online available at

David, James Earl (2006) Early Schooling and Academic Achievement of African-American Males. Abstract. Sage Publications. Online available at

Babco, Eleanor (2004) Uphill Climb: the Status of African-Americans in Science and Engineering. Making Strides. Online available at .

McMillian, Monique M. (2003-2004) Is No Child Left Behind 'Wise Schooling' for African-American Male Students?" published in the High School Journal - Volume 87, Number 2 in December 2003-January 2004, and on pages 25-33.
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Racial Gap in City Schools

Words: 789 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62769497

Possible Explanations in Structural Issues within the Educational Experience

The similarity in aptitude early on and the increasing academic achievement gap between black and white students thereafter would seem to suggest that the causes are most likely to be social and institutional. Among the possible factors, black children are less likely to have the benefit of a two-parent home; they are more likely to live in poorer communities with lower quality educational institutions; and they are 30% less likely to change school by their parents' choice. Unfortunately, the types of educational initiatives designed to reduce the education gap have not proven successful and to the extent their data suggest otherwise, it may be by virtue of over-reliance on the issue of "passing" instead of high achievement.

For example, the NCLB approach emphasized reducing the educational achievement gap among races by focusing on achieving proficiency in academic skills considered to be…… [Read More]

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Racial Gap in Teachers' Perceptions of the

Words: 319 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86770228

Racial Gap in Teachers' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap," Jeffrey Uhlenberg and Kathleen M. Brown examine possible reasons for the disparity between Black and White student academic performance. In addition to examining prior research, the authors surveyed teachers to assess their perceptions and opinions about the achievement gap. The four main categories under investigation are the child; the parent(s) and home environment; the teachers; and the school system. The authors surveyed both Black and White teachers to determine whether there was any significant difference in their perceptions. While most of the results confirmed the authors' hypothesis that Black teachers would focus more on the teachers and school system than on the student or the home environment and that the reverse would be true for White teachers. However, the results of the survey show that all teachers, regardless of race, point to several factors that impact the disparity between minority and…… [Read More]

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Causes of Low Student Achievement

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20310551

Causes of Low Student Achievement

Does the grading system accurately measure how well a student is learning?

This question itself implies that the grading system used by many teachers cannot be fully accurate in assessing what a given student has learned. Psychology Professor James D. Allen (the School of Psychology at the College of Saint Rose in New York State) explains that while the grading system is supposed to "accurately" reflect a student's academic achievement, it is very likely that in most cases grades do not truly reflect progress in academics, i.e., learning (Allen, 2005, p. 218).

Moreover, Allen says that teachers are required to give grades that supposedly summarize the knowledge a student has obtained, and this is called a "summative evaluation" (219). The teacher should also provide "formative" assessments by directly giving the student feedback and training them to become "self-regulated learners" (219). The grade is supposed to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, J.D. (2005). Grades as Valid Measures of Academic Achievement of Classroom

Learning. The Clearing House, 78(5), 218-228.

Edutopia. (2008). How Should We Measure Student Learning? The Many Forms of Assessment.

The George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from .
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Educational Gap Between Whites and

Words: 3172 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22641131

They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?

Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…… [Read More]


Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from 

Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth

Cengage Learning.

Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from
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Economic Issues of Student Achievement in a Non-Profit School Environment

Words: 2879 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41984590

Economic Issues of Student Achievement in a Non-Profit School Environment

The objective of this work in writing is to examine the economic issues of student achievement in a non-profit school environment. Toward this end, this work will examine literature across many areas of study to produce a synthesis of the information and knowledge available on the economic impacts of achievement among students who attend a non-profit school. Examined will be issues relating to accountability of non-profits, the accountability levels required for producing higher achievement among students and the availability of resources for student learning that results in achievement. Many non-profit schools are reported as failing. For example, it was reported that a non-profit school district in New Orleans intends to focus on failing New Orleans public schools and specifically that "A ecovery School District official plans to launch a nonprofit charter-management organization aimed at taking over and turning around failing…… [Read More]


Brenner, Christine Thurlow, Sullivan, Gary L. And Dalton, Elizabeth (2002) Effective Best Practices for School Boards: Linking Local Governance with Student Achievement Success. IPED Technical Reports. Institute for Policy and Economic Development. 1 Jan 20-02. Retrieved from:

Charter School Facility Finance Landscape (2010) Educational Facilities Financing Center, 2010. June. Retrieved from:

Ebrahim, Alnoor (2010) The Many Faces of Nonprofit Accountability. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge. 11 Mar 2010. Retrieved from:

Evaluation of the Public Charter Schools Program -- Final Report (2004) Policy and Program Studies Services. Retrieved from:
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Low SES and Achievement- Revised

Words: 2739 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85364955

Congruence of Mother and Teacher Educational Expectations and Low-Income Youth's Academic Competence

By: Aprile D. Benner and Rashmita S. Mistry

The authors of this article want to examine the independent effects of teacher and mother expectations on the youth achievement outcomes, the relationship between adult expectation and child performance, and whether identical or different adult expectations impacts on youth performance. Specifically, the study, which examined over 745 families, showed that mother and teacher expectations had a direct effect on a student's educational expectations, competency beliefs and academic outcomes. Particularly noticeable was the impact that mother expectations had on a youth's educational expectations. The study also concluded that a congruence between adult expectations, with the mother and teacher, had an even more pronounced effect on student expectations and achievement. Finally, the study found that teacher expectations were consistently lowered when mother/parent expectations were also low.

This study used a comparatively higher…… [Read More]

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Gap Inc In 2010

Words: 4460 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81328357


Description of Industry

Gap, Inc. is one of the most leading American forte apparel retailers who foundation is centered in San Francisco, California. It trades things like the casual apparels, decorations, and other products that are personal for men, women and children. The merchandises of Gap, Inc. comprise of khakis, T-shirts, boxers, denim, casual wear, and others. The trade is done in the New York Stock Exchange which goes up under the symbol GPS. The brands that signified reasonable stylishness and just about everyone-from well-known celebrities to usual American families had a pair of Gap clothing somewhere in their closet. Many people had to have the latest pair of khakis or a cardigan from Gap. Gap, Inc. maintains an unusually large number of various brands, specifically Gap, Forth & Towne, Piperlime, Old Navy, banana republic, and others. All of these various businesses are purchased by a business in different…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Loham, Annette. "Gap Inc. 2010 Is the Turnaround Strategy Working." Long Beach: California State University, 2010.
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Gap Early Childhood Intervention and the Development

Words: 6336 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82658447

Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child

Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.

There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.

Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.

Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.

Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
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Gap Problem Purpose Rq's Method Design and

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87792108

gap, problem, purpose, Q's, method, design, and analysis?

According to Hickman (et al.) in the 2008 article "The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates" from the Journal of Educational esearch, the concern about the gap in achievement between high school graduates and non-graduates has long been a concern of educators and educational policy-makers alike. The peer-reviewed study posed two essential research questions to address the problem of low high school retention rates: first, do differences in the educational development of high school graduates and dropouts exist early on in their elementary school careers and secondly, if differences do exist, "where in time and across which variables do these differences occur" (Hickman et al. 2008: 2). The study attempts to address a 'research gap' in the existing literature regarding the focus on the secondary school careers of high school graduates. Focusing on the problems students encounter in high…… [Read More]


Hickman (et al. 2008). The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates. Journal of Educational Research

First Response:

Nachmias and Nachmias (2008) indicate that the quasi-experimental design allows researchers the opportunity to use intact comparison groups and "straight forward comparative statistical analyses" to explore variables and their correlations. In an effort to better understand the continuing and persistent social problem of high school dropouts, Hickman, Bartholomew, and Mathwig (2005) conducted a quasi-experiment contrast group design with purposive random sampling to explore the differential developmental pathways of high school graduates and those who drop out. Hickman, et al., (2008) focus their research on the development process over an extended period of time, attempting to locate "markedly different" patterns related to academic performance and experiences in the educational
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Words: 502 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81043117


Glenn Murphy is the current CEO of GAP and has been leading the company for almost seven years. Coming to the company in a time when it was starting to experience significant trouble, Murphy focused on concepts like expansion and reform. Considering that the company had traditionally directed its attention toward employing creative designs and making customers feel that it promotes originality in general, it appears that Murphy wanted to change its strategy in order to help it recover from the critical position it was in at the time when he became CEO. By taking on a directive leader behavior, he intended to turn around the company's position on the market.

While it might seem that Murphy's actions were especially risky given the situation, it would be safe to say that he was well-acquainted with the risks and with the fact that something urgent needed to be done in…… [Read More]

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Metacognition and Academic Achievement

Words: 3068 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76506495

Metacognition and Academic Achievement in College Students


Constituent Elements of Metacognition

Metacognitive Awareness Inventory

Gender differences in metacognitive skills

elationship to Other Concepts

Growth of Metacognition Over Time

The elationship between Metacognition and Academic Achievement in College Students

It is obvious today those college professors are being faced with classrooms that are full of students who are coming to them with different levels of knowledge in regards to the way they are learning. Some students are active, self-directed learners who know how they learn and are able to apply what they recognize to numerous learning circumstances. Also, others could possibly be average students that are actually working hard and who are able to know what their learning weaknesses and strengths, but who may not sufficiently control their learning. Still others possibly will be inert learners who have little consciousness of how they learn and…… [Read More]


Brown, A. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. Weinert, & R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 65-116). Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.

Ciascai, L., & Lavinia, H. (2011). Gender differences in metacognitive skills. A study of the 8th grade pupils in Romania. International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology - ICEEPSY 2011 Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 396 -- 401

Coutinho, S.A. (2007). The relationship between goals, metacognition, and academic success. Educate~, 7(1), 39-47.

Cross, D.R. & Paris, S.G. (1988). Developmental and instructional analyses of children's metacognition and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 131-142.
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HSMS Gap analysis Hazard identification and Risk assessments

Words: 14774 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45172476

HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments

Description of APM Terminals

Legal Environment

Review of the Health and Safety Management System


Gap Analysis

Hazard Identification

Physical Hazards

Health and Welfare Hazards

Risk Assessment

Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding

Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise

Action Plans

Action Plan 1 - Management System

Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks

Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist

Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.

The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]

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Disproportionate Levels of Educational Achievement Among White

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27660007

disproportionate levels of educational achievement among hite and African-American students, titled "Powerful Pedagogy for African-American Students: A Case of Four Teachers," researcher Tyrone C. Howard examines the role of teacher effectiveness in terms of reaching this distinct student population. As Howard observes in the opening of his article, "effectively teaching African-American students continues to be one of the most pressing issues facing educators ... (and) despite the plethora of school restructuring and educational reforms, the disproportionate underachievement of African-American students is a consistent occurrence in U.S. schools" (179), and this alarming phenomenon provides the central premise of his subsequent investigation. Howard elects to focus his qualitative study on the diverse range of socioeconomic, cultural, and regional factors which are likely to exert an impact on the continued underachievement trend within African-American student groups. He is also concerned with assessing the role that teacher effectiveness plays in influencing the eventual achievement…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Howard, Tyrone C. "Powerful Pedagogy for African-American Students A Case of Four

Teachers." Urban education 36.2 (2001): 179-202.

Shujaa, Mwalimu J. "Education and Schooling: You Can Have One without the Other." Urban

Education 27.4 (1993): 328-351.
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Raising Student Achievement in a High Need

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88343360

Raising Student Achievement in a High Need School

To me, the major issue that people consistently fail to adequately address when discussing raising achievement in a high need school is the generational impact of educational disparity. For many people, providing equal educational facilities and equal quality of education is the only remedy to solving educational disparity. However, that ignores the critical role that parents play in a child's education. This role goes far beyond parents and the PTA; in fact, while those parents may help to contribute to the overall quality of a school, they do not necessarily impact individual student education in the necessary manner. Instead, I am talking about the critical role that parents play in education and learning-readiness, if only in an ancillary manner in their children's lives.

For example, I grew up with a father who had a graduate-school level professional education and a mother who…… [Read More]

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Academic Achievement and Racial Background Is There a Relationship

Words: 2817 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42726921

ace, Ethnicity, and Academic Achievement - Proposal of esearch Design

This research will study the relationship between race and ethnicity and academic achievement.

This study will look at whether students from five racial classifications - White, Asian, Black, Hispanic and Native American - show statistically significant differences in their scores in reading and math. Using disaggregated data, this study will also examine whether significant differences occur within these racial classifications. In addition, this paper will study whether socio-economic status and language proficiency have a significant effect on a child's reading and math skills.

Because of many socio-economic factors linked to the construction of race, this paper predicts that white and Asian students will show higher test scores in reading and math. However, because racial classifications can obscure the differences between ethnicities, this paper also predicts that there will be significant differences in test scores within the racial categories themselves. In…… [Read More]


Dozier, Arthur Lee and Michael James Barnes (1997). "Ethnicity, drug user status and academic performance." Adolescence. 32(128): 825-837.

Hale, Janice E. (2001). Learning While Black: Creating educational excellence for African-American children. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips (1998). The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Liu, Eric (1999). The Accidental Asian: Notes of a native speaker. New York: Random House.
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Academic Achievement of African-American Students

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73000802

Board of Education for African-American: "gains in educational attainment." (Guiffrida, 2006) it is pointed out in this work that the school counselor is in a particularly special or 'unique' position to offer assistance to both students and the families of students during the transition into college as well as in the provision of referrals to programs and counseling needs. African-American programs also exist that provide support for students. Guiffrida points out work conducted prior to the present research report in which it was concluded by Guiffrida (2005) "...that it was important for African-American students whose families provided emotional, academic, and financial supports, and who allowed and encouraged their children to make healthy separations" when the student made the transition to college to strengthen the capacity for the student to achieve academically.

he work edited by Denbo and Beaulier entitled: "Improving Schools for African-American Students" relates that institutional racism is a…… [Read More]

The work edited by Denbo and Beaulier entitled: "Improving Schools for African-American Students" relates that institutional racism is a discussion that may be tough for most individuals to handle and even highly "...stressful or shocking" to some individuals. (2002) Several issues are addressed in this work that: "...together form many of the components of institutional racism." (2002) Following this the issues that are "related to the effects of institutional racism are addressed." (2002) Also addressed are the factors related to special education and the underachievement of African-American students. Stated in this work is the fact that culture is an experience of a very "powerful" nature in the lives of both "individuals and groups of people." (Denbo and Beaulier, 2002) Denbo and Beaulier describe culture as: " ever-evolving constellation of influences...shapes the essence, experiences, and worldviews of individuals, groups, communities and institutions alike." (2002)

The work of Henry explores the academic achievement of African-American students and specifically those with Learning Disabilities. This is especially important in the light of the fact that African-Americans are represented: " special education classrooms..." (2005) Interventions this work notes to be successful in assisting academic achievement among these students includes: "...positive teacher feedback, active parental involvement, use of multiple intelligence theory, validation of cultural heritage, making instruction relevant to student lives, and increase choice and responsibility in learning." (Henry, 2005) Wimberly (2002) states findings that a gap exists between the expectations that African-American students hold for themselves and the actual participation in postsecondary education two years following graduation from high school. (Wimberly, paraphrased; 2002) the gap is identified as being evidenced in the fact that 88% of these students had expectations to earn an advanced degree or college degree but that the reality is that only 56% were actually moving in the direction that they had expected toward reaching that goal. (2002)

The work of Harriet Tyson entitled: "Overcoming Structural Barriers to Good Textbooks" states that a recent research study reports that:.." mathematic and science textbooks are just as splintered as the system itself..." additionally stating that this reported study: "...has been preceded by nearly three decades of research on textbooks, virtually all showing that textbooks flit from topic to topic covering only a few in the depth a beginner would need to understand, remember and integrate the knowledge." (nd) There has been adoption of certain elemental specifications by some U.S. states however research state that
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Technology to Support Academic Achievement

Words: 2982 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32219532

197). There have also been a number of software applications developed specifically for use in the classroom that can provide at-risk students with the opportunity to catch up with their peers, but here again it is important to recognize that at-risk students may lack the same level of computer expertise as their peers and steps must be taken to ensure that they have been provided with the initial training necessary to use these tools effectively.

One approach that has shown significant promise in teaching at-risk students how to use computer technology effectively and in improving their academic performance is the Constructionist Alternative Learning Laboratory in the Maine Youth Center, a state facility for at-risk students who have been court-ordered to attend the program. Some educators might shake their heads and suggest that there was little that could be done with young people who had reached the point in their academic…… [Read More]


Armijo, E.J., Stowitschek, J.J., Smith, A.J., Mckee, C.M., Solheim, K.J. & Phillips, R.D.

(1999). CARAS: A school-based, case management system for at-risk students THE

Journal, 21(11), 66-67.

Ballard, S., Carroll, E., & Stapleton, J. (2004). Students' perceptions of course Web sites used in face-to-face instruction. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 197.
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Staff Faculty Development for Raising Achievement

Words: 1608 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66056476

Peers and staff at major universities will review information collected in order to test for reliability and validity. Follow up studies will be necessary in order to determine the future efficacy of the theory proposed.


The researcher suggests that the results of the study will reveal the critical factors that are likely to impact student's success in the classroom with regard to multicultural education. From the results of the fieldwork the researcher proposes that several factors will need to be adopted by faculty and staff in order to improve student outcome in the classroom.


Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum and teaching. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Banks, JA, & Banks, C.A.M. (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education.

New York: Macmillan.

Benz, C.. & Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology:

Exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, p. 9.

Capella-Santana, N. (2003). "Voices…… [Read More]


Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum and teaching. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Banks, JA, & Banks, C.A.M. (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education.

New York: Macmillan.

Benz, C.R. & Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology:
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Correlation of Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

Words: 2988 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37054428

Correlation of Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

History of the Parents' Involvement

Growing Public Awareness

esearch Findings on Procedural Progress

The Ongoing Effect

Development of Academics under the Perspective of Parental Involvement

The Montessori System

The Philosophy behind the Educational System

Linking Educational Materials to Practical Life Tools

The Environment and Students' Achievements in Subjects

Factors Affecting Parental Involvement

Importance of Parental Involvement

Effects of Parental Involvement

Benefits of the Effects

As educationalists search for ways to improve the modern educational system and to eradicate the problems in it, it is indispensable for them to investigate the causality of these problems and system's shortcomings. It is apparent that the drawbacks do not come into being completely from academics. As a result, it is obvious that a dynamic involvement of parents in the education of their children is a requisite.

In order for student to achieve success academically, a relationship based…… [Read More]


Anderson, S. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement 37 (2). Retrieved April 8, 2002 from Wilson Select Database.

Becher, R. (1986). Eric clearinghouse on elementary and early childhood education. Parents and schools. Retrieved February 26, 2002 from Eric Digests database.

Brant, R.S. (Ed.).(1979). Partners: Parents and schools. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Chapter 1 in public schools: The chapter 1 implementation study final report. (1993). Cambridge, Mass: Policy Studies Associates.
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Organization of the Elementary Classroom Delivery Model and Its Effect on Student Achievement

Words: 2878 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4445555

Elementary Classroom Delivery Model and its

Effect on Student Achievement

Departmentalized Classrooms


Typically, a school is organized with either a departmentalized or a self-contained structure. (Self-contained classrooms will be discussed in the next section). A departmentalized class structure allows the student to learn from subject area experts who have specific knowledge in one subject area. The student is able study a subject in a more in depth manner, and learn new facets of that single subject. This specific design type is generally used in middle and high schools rather than middle schools. Students in these higher grades are generally given more leeway as to the specificity of subject matter as they prepare for a more imminent adulthood (Greenfield & Klemm, 2001).

"Departmentalized instruction is characterized by teachers with subject-matter rather than whole child orientation" (Parker, 2009). This may sound like a negative comment, and it can be construed as…… [Read More]


Chan, T.C., Terry, D., & Bessette, H. (2009). Fourth and fifth grade departmentalization: A transition to middle school. Journal for the Liberal Arts and Sciences, 13(2). 5-13.

Greenfield, T.A., & Klemm, E.B. (2001). When "good" school restructuring efforts still fail. American Secondary Education, 30(1). 2-11.

Hackman, D.G. (2004). Constructivism and block scheduling: Making the connection. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(9). 697-713.

Harlin, R.P. (2009). Research into practice: Innovations and international perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23(3). 393-401.
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Medical Robotics in Spite of Research Gaps

Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53091203

Medical Robotics

In spite of research gaps, medical robotics is a growing trend in the United States.

Advances in Medical Robotics (Diana, 2011)

Hybrid Assistive Limb 5 (HAL5) is an artificially powered ecoskeleton that helps double the amount of weight someone can carry unaided.

DaVinci Si HD Surgical System performs minimally invasive surgery through superior visualization and greater precision, with incisions of one to two centimeters causing less pain and speedier recovery. It reduces the hospital stay to one half and costs one third less.

Sofie incorporates force feedback allowing a surgeon to feel the pressure they apply making sutures and pushing tissue aside. Sofie is expected to develop in five years.

Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for treatment of cancerous and non-cancerous tumors.

Nursebot is designed to specifically help elderly deal with daily activities allowing them to live at home.

RIA is designed to…… [Read More]


Davies, B. (2006). Essay: Medical robotics -- a bright future. The Lancet, vol 368, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69929-7, S53-S54.

Diana, a. (2011, Jan 29). 12 Advances in Medical Robotics. Retrieved from InformationWeek Healthcare:

Huang, G.P. (2006). Robotics and clinical research: Collaborating to epand the evidence-based for rehabilitation. JRRD, 43(5), xiii-xvi.

Seaman, a. (2013, Jan 4). Racial gaps in access to robotic prostrate surgery. Retrieved from Yahoo Health:
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Equity Diversity and Accountability

Words: 373 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69813873

Racial and Ethnic Achievement Gap Trends: Reversing the Progress toward Equity? By Jaekyung Lee. This article discusses setbacks in the achievement of racial and ethnic minorities, and identifies some of the key factors affecting these setbacks. The author believes variations in the data are not fully discussed, and there are strong implications toward future setbacks.

Reflective Review

The United States has always been a melting pot, and this blending of cultures and ethnicities continues throughout the new millennium. The fight for Civil Rights in the 1950s and 60s brought new opportunities to minorities in our country, but many studies and data indicate these opportunities may in fact be decreasing. Minorities tend to achieve less in mathematics and reading testing, and while these gaps narrowed in the 70s and 80s, they appear to be widening again (Lee 3). The author notes there are a wide variety of social and economic trends…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lee, Jaekyung. " Racial and Ethnic Achievement Gap Trends: Reversing the Progress toward Equity." Educational Researcher, Vol. 31, No.1, Jan./Feb. 2002, pp. 3-11.
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Prediction African-American Parents' and Guardians'

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80096106

Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. he researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. he author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. hose competencies will carry over into middle and high school. herefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.

African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal…… [Read More]

Thompson's research is highly relevant to school administrators and counselors throughout the country. Most schools in the United States will have a substantial number of African-American students. Their needs and those of their parents are not being addressed well enough. Establishing solid ties between schools and their communities will help improve pubic relations and may also help raise the academic performance standards for African-American children. School administrators, teachers, and counselors should be able to satisfy the needs of all parents and children.

The researcher used a questionnaire to gather data about perceptions of public schools. All participants were self-described as African-Americans. A high number of participants were dissatisfied with their children's high school teachers: a greater number than those dissatisfied only with their children's elementary school teachers. Thompson (2003) also found that the participants' perceptions of elementary school teachers was positively correlated with perceptions of high school teachers. Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. The researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. The author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. Those competencies will carry over into middle and high school. Therefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.

African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal effort. Ohters noted that racism and race awareness might affect school performance. Regardless of perceived reasons for African-American student performance in school, the system must respond to the persistent achievement gap between black and white students. Thompson's (2003) research emphasizes the need to establish relationships with African-American parents early: before high school. Although the author does not offer any specific suggestions for policy change, some can be inferred. For example, African-American parents expressed a preference for educational materials that they deemed relevant and meaningful for their children (p. 10). Consulting with African-American parents when their children are still in elementary school might help those parents trust that the system is responsive to their needs and the needs of their children.
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School Improvement One of the

Words: 2044 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14917216

More so, they will be able to apply the skills they learned in the classroom into the real-world environment of the community, which will only increase their understanding of the classroom objectives and lessons. Finally, by having students become involved in the community, the community will see first-hand the results of their taxes that go to support the school and the students learning experience.

Likewise, the staff must also become involved in the community, particularly the professional teaching community, in order to ensure that their teaching methods do not become stagnate, or out of date. The teacher has a lifelong obligation to continue to learn. As learning needs and methods rapidly evolve, the teacher's college education quickly becomes outdated. Therefore, a quality professional development program and other professional organizations must be made available to all the school's teachers. However, these professional organizations and seminars must be made relevant to the…… [Read More]


Noguera, Pedro a. And Jean Yonemura Wing. (2006): Unfinished Business: Closing the Racial Achievement Gap in Our Schools. New York: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated.

Perry, Theresa, Hilliard, Asa G., and Claude Steele. (2004): Young, Gifted and Black: Promoting High Achievement Among African-American Students. New York: Beacon Press.
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Education and Equality of Opportunity

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73415797

Education and Equality of Opportunity

The issue of equality in access to education has been a long running argument and each time legislations are passed and initiatives invented towards trying to make education actually equal and accessible, there are gaping gaps that still make these efforts run short of their target goal. There are several terms that are used in the education department that need to be well understood since most have been misused and hence leading to either a stereotype view of education, or a skewed perspective that only helps to make the situation worse than it already is.

The achievement gap; this is often referred to as the disparity or difference in the performance of students in various groups. From the surface of it, it looks justifiable definition, however, these groupings that are use to measure the academic performance are quite stereotyped and the academic achievements have nothing…… [Read More]


Reardon S.F., (2011). The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from 

Teachers College Columbia University, (2005). The Academic Achievement Gap: Facts and Figures. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from
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Response to Intervention Effectiveness

Words: 3002 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26765077

Intervention Effectiveness

esponse to instruction and intervention TI2 is reported as a general approach in education to closing the gap in achievement. TI2 methods are constructed upon the esponse to Intervention (TI) model that was an option for schools under the 'Building the Legacy, Idea 2004 reauthorization of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. (California Department of Education, 2011) TI and the expanded TI2 are reported as being based upon "17 years of practice that has refined continuous progress monitoring as a strategy for keeping students on a path toward success." (California Department of Education, 2011) TI is reported as a strategy that moves all students through the steps set out in the learning standards and is further more stated to be an approach that views both academic and behavioral achievement of students.

Tier 1-3

Tier 1 included the 'Universal Interventions' which include "preventive, proactive, universal intervention in all…… [Read More]


Benchmark interventions -- reinforcement (2011) Department of Education. Retrieved from: 

Case Study: El Rancho Unified School District in Pico Rivera, California (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from:

Case Study: Pella Community School District, Iowa (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from:

Implications for Reading Teachers in Response To Intervention (RTI) (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from:
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At Risk Students and Disappearing Fathers

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37052843

Students, Prejudice and isk

Students learn to be prejudiced through experience with other persons; prejudice by others can lead to prejudice in students, especially if they feel that representatives of a group, such as teachers or persons of authority speak for the whole and express basically biased views. In this way students can become prejudiced against certain groups; or news reports in the media, for example, of the way that police officers are portrayed, can lead to prejudice in students. Peers and family members can also pass on prejudice to students, so it is something that can be handed down by background and culture, too (Koonce, 2016).

Approaches that might help develop appropriate tolerance and acceptance in students could be for schools to adopt a Zero Tolerance policy, in which no form of prejudice or bias is accepted and if it is displayed by students they are immediately disciplined without…… [Read More]


Barton, P., & Coley, R. (July, 2010). The Black-White Achievement Gap. ETS Policy

Information Report, 2-40.

Koonce, G. (Ed.), (2016) Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues expanded

(18 Ed.). Mcgraw Hill Publishers.
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Teachers Expectation

Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57878651

Teachers' Expectations


This research study will examine the impact of teachers' expectation on students' overall academic achievement. The research will be conducted at Huntington Park High School, located in the city of Huntington Park. It is one of the largest high schools in Los Angeles Unified School District and has an enrollment of over 5000 students with 3-track calendar. The ethnic backgrounds of the students consist of 98.6% Latino, 0.6% black and 0.3% white. The students of Huntington Park High School (HPHS) have not been challenged to perform to their best abilities. One of the reasons may be that the teachers perceive them as incapable and lacking motivation, and so they feel it is unfair or hopeless to expect more from the students. The subtle messages received from their teachers may make the students feel incapable of handling demanding work. This could also be a factor in the students'…… [Read More]


1.Brehm, S. & Kassin, S. (1996). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Muffin.

2.Rosenthal, R. & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. Retrieved September 9, 2003 at

3.Tauber, R. (1998). Good or bad, what teachers expect from students they generally get. Retrieved September18, 2003 at

4.Thomas, W.(1928). First impressions are lasting impressions. Retrieved September18, 2003 at
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School Climate Student Morale Technology

Words: 1632 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23147789

It is our belief that such integration will provide reciprocal benefits. Learners will more fully understand information technologies in the process of applying them across the curriculum and their understanding of other curriculum areas will be similarly enriched as they work to apply it skills in those contexts. Furthermore, there is a need to ensure that people understand the connections between information technologies and the other skills they attain in school, skills they use in work, and in everyday life.

Findings of the Initial Literature eview Phase of the esearch

There exists a lack of technological integration which is noted at all levels of the educational forum as being one that is detrimental to the future of the student if not adequately addressed. The smaller schools appear to be providing better instruction and 'care' of their students as well as better technological instruction and overall better outcomes in terms of…… [Read More]


Digital Transformation: A Framework for ICT Literacy: A Report of the International ICT Literacy Panel educational testing service. Online available at

Berkowitz, Bob (2001) Research Study: The Big6 ™ and Student Achievement - Report of an Action Research Study. Online available at

The Importance of Contemporary Literacy in the Digital Age: A Response to Digital Transformation: A Framework for Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy

Cotton, Kathleen (1996) School Size, School Climate and Student Performance
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idiocracy idiocy and a nation full of idiots

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99884381

.....citizenship is essential to a democracy. Good citizenship entails active engagement in political issues, which creates an educated and informed voter empowered to make decisions based on fact and reason rather than on emotion and opinion. Good citizenship also entails active participation in the political process, including voting, political activism, and ongoing political education. The opposite of good citizenship is idiocy: self-centeredness and short sightedness that can damage and destroy a democracy. When citizens are idiots, they hijack the democracy by voting according to narrow and selfish concerns rather than by making concerns for the good of the polis. Idiots "place personal concerns (their own and their families' needs and wants) far out in front of community concerns and, in this lethal act of imbalance, threatened the freedoms and rights they were so eager to enjoy," (Parker, n.d., p. 71). Idiots do not understand or appreciate the privileges or responsibilities…… [Read More]

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Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task

Words: 13216 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93148396

" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)

The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…… [Read More]


Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at

ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at

Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.

Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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No Child Left Behind and Black Males

Words: 772 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33091354

No Child Left Behind and Black Males

No child left behind

No Child Left Behind: Cause and Effect Essay

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was passed in 2001 in order to improve overall students' performance and to decrease the performance gap between minority and mainstream students. However other effects have emerged since its implementation. Through this cause and effect essay, author sheds light on effects of the NCLB. It has been discussed, how the NCLB has helped to improve education levels as well as how school administrators are facing challenges to meet the standards of this act.

The Influence of No Child Left Behind on Black Male Graduate ate

The Influence of No Child Left Behind on Black Male Graduate ate


NCLB is an educational policy that emphasizes accountability by imposing constraints on school systems. According to Gay (2007),

"The achievement gaps persist among different ethnic group,…… [Read More]


Allensworth, E.M., & Easton, J.Q., (2007). What matters for staying on-track and graduating in Chicago public highs schools: A close look at course grades, failures, and attendance in the freshman year (Research Report). Retrieved from University of Chicago, Consortium on Chicago School Research website:

Balfanz, R., & Legters, N., (2008). NCLB and reforming the nation's lowest- performing high schools: Help hindrance, or unrealized potential? In G. Sunderman (Ed.), Holding NCLB accountable: Achieving accountability, equity, & school reform, 191-222. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Gay, G. (2007). The Rhetoric and Reality of NCLB. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 10(3): 279-293.
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Round School vs A Regular

Words: 10557 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76655571

Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.

esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.

Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…… [Read More]

References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at 

Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at

Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.

Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.

Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
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Reforming Education Again

Words: 738 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42828239

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law by President Bush in 2002 as a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) that was enacted in 1965 and re-enacted in 1994. The Elementary and Secondary Act also encompasses Title I, which is significant as it provides additional support for students who are disadvantaged, a factor that is often prominent in discussion of overall student performance in the United States. The nation has given considerable attention to ESEA as it has established more stringent and ambitious standards on public school, professional educators, and the students who attend public schools in the United States. Moreover, the role of the government has been expended through the act to ensure that underprivileged children receive equitable educational opportunities.

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was intended to improve student achievement and applied a four-pronged approach to the ensuring educational progress…… [Read More]


____. (2004, March). NCLB / Proven Methods: New No Child Left Behind Flexibility: Highly Qualified Teachers. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

Ballard, K. & Bates, A. (2008, December). Making a Connection between Student Achievement, Teacher Accountability, and Quality Classroom Instruction. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 560-580. Retrieved from

Linn, R.L., Baker, E.L., & Betebenner, D.W. (2002, August-September). Accountability systems: Implications of requirements of the No Child Left behind Act of 2001. Educational Researcher, 31(6), 3 -- 16. doi:10.3102/0013189x031006003.

Hanushek, E.A. & Rivkin, S.G. (2010, Summer). The quality and distribution of teachers under the No Child Left Behind Act. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 133 -- 150. Retrieved from
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Teaching What Are Three Rewards and Three

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29624581


What are three rewards and three challenges that you will face as a teacher?

As a rabid student of popular culture, I have been interested in the so-called "achievement gap" in education, popularized in the media, the political spectrum, and even within contemporary business culture. There is clearly a demonstrable gap in educational relevancy; second, there are basic skills that are absolutely vital in order to participate in the modern global village that are not universal with the U.. educational environment. cholarship also points out that the earlier the attention to this "gap," the earlier the attention to potential reading disabilities, and the earlier the intervention towards socialization issues, the higher rate of success and inclusion. This, too, engenders challenges within the profession. For instance, today's classrooms are more diverse than ever, they are multi-dimensional as well. To help fill the gap, teachers need to be able to jump…… [Read More]


Kauchak, D. And Eggen, P. (2011). Introduction to Teaching, Becoming a Professional,

4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
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Unfunded Mandate of NCLB and Title I

Words: 972 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69849543

Unfunded Mandate of NCL and Title I

The federal government contributes only a "relatively small share of school and district revenues" and in fact less than 10%, however, federal regulations that detail how funds are to be spent by the schools "exert a tremendous impact on school district management behavior and operations." (Center for American Progress, 2011)

The Federal government contributes only a very small portion of funding for state schools however, the federal government places a great deal of pressure on schools because of this funding and as such impacts the countries schools methods of management and makes stringent requirements on student achievement.

Title I Funding

The intentions of Title I funding is to provide "additional educational services to the neediest students in an LEA." (Center for American Progress, 2011) When Title I funding first began the manner in which the LEA spent the Title I funding was left…… [Read More]


Fullerton, John (2011) Title I Fiscal Requirements and School District Management: The Consequences of Intergovernmental Distrust. Center for American Progress. 11 Mar 2011. Retrieved from:

No Child Left Behind Funding (2012) Background and Analysis. Federal Education Budget Project. New America Foundation. Retrieved from:

School Funding (2011) Online Backgrounders. Online Newshour. Retrieved from:

Stillwell-Parvensky, M. (2011) Reforming Title I: Closing the Academic Achievement Gap for Disadvantaged Students. Harvard Kennedy School Policy Analysis Exercise. Retrieved from:
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theory of motivation and maslows hierarchy of needs

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94663143

Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…… [Read More]

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Affirmative Action the Impact of

Words: 4251 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83831345

In addition to changes in admission policies at universities, new workshops in education are beginning to address this issue head on, with teaching participants being taught that American history and education are both "written from the perspective of whites and that laws and policies benefit whites while putting minorities at an immediate disadvantage." (Fernandez, 1) This has helped to redirect the perspective on Affirmative Action within the profession, where institutions are beginning to espouse it as a legitimate means to balancing merit and racial fairness in both the admission of students and the courtship and hiring of teachers. A recent Supreme Court decision on student admission to the University of Michigan reflected this stance, offering real and applicable precedent that today reverberates in the collective movement to improve conditions for an ethnically diverse range of Americans.

In 2000, Gratz v Bollinger began the long process of defending the Constitutionality of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alon, S. (2009). The Evolution of Class Inequality in Higher Education: Competition, Exclusion, and Adaptation. American Sociological Review, 74(5), 731.

Austin, a. (2008). Reversal of Fortune. Washington DC: Economic Policy Institute, pp. 1.

Brunner, B. (2004). Timeline of Affirmative Action Milestones. Black History

Month. Online at
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No Child Left Behind NCLB

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10901653

he belief that the achievement of students in the United States schools was falling behind other countries led politicians in the 1970s to instigate a minimum competency testing movement to reform our schools. States began to rely on tests of basic skills to ensure, in theory, that all students would learn at least the minimum needed to be a productive citizen (Amrein & Berliner).

In 1983, the National Commission of Education released a Nation at Risk, the most influential report on education in the past several decades. A Nation at Risk called for an end to the minimum. he competency testing movement and the beginning of the high-stakes testing movement that would raise the nation's standards of achievement drastically. his was a direct result of the perception that America was falling behind other nations in the education of their youth.

In discussing current high-stakes testing practices, test scores were often…… [Read More]

The researcher suggests a three-pronged attack on the problem. First, the researcher thinks that one needs to learn more about the viscera of standardized achievement tests. Second, one needs to carry out an effective educational campaign so that educational colleagues, parents of children in school, and educational policymakers understand what the evaluative shortcomings of standardized achievement tests really are. Finally, the researcher states that one needs to arrange a more appropriate form of assessment-based evidence.

Lombardi and Burke (1999) conducted a study on whether or not to test students. This study examines the use of standardized achievement testing in West Virginia. Participants were students and teachers in Mineral County. The researches results revealed that, in general, all grades improved when the scores of students with individualized educational programs (IEPs) were eliminated. For the most part, general educators felt that too much emphasis was being put on one type of assessment, were very concerned about the inclusion of special education students' scores in aggregate test results, and were concerned that they had not received adequate support to effectively teach special education students in their general classes. Special education teachers indicated that they were under pressure from general educators to exclude standardized testing on students' IEPs.

Gibson (1997) conducted a comparative study of achievement on ninth-grade students who passed and failed sections of the Ohio Ninth Grade Proficiency Test. This study sought to find out if the previous classroom grades were just as useful a tool in identifying those students likely to have trouble passing the Ohio Ninth
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Equity Problems in Education Learning

Words: 1097 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46227780

Curriculum guides what is taught while differentiation guides how it is taught. Differentiation can be used to teach the same standard to a range of learners by using diverse teaching and learning modes. Curriculum doesn't have to be narrow to increase chances of success on standardized tests. Rather, differentiation means that teachers can make math accessible, equitable, and exciting to all students by "providing materials and tasks on the standard at varied levels of difficulty, with varying degrees of scaffolding, through multiple instructional groups, and with time variations" (Tomlinson, 2000).

Admittedly, standards-driven curriculum is far behind its goals for ensuring that "no child will be left behind."

ut, while African-American and Hispanic students lag whites in achievement as measured by standardized tests, every racial/ethnic subgroup has made gains in achievement during the past few decades (it takes more than testing (closing the achievement gap, 2001). The gap has not narrowed…… [Read More]


Closing the achievement gap. 

English, F.W. (2000). Deciding what to teach and test: Developing, aligning and auditing the curriculum. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.

Fiske, E.B. (1998, February 9). Opponents want more freedom for schools to set own agendas: quest for standards splits U.S. educators. International Herald Tribune.

Holladay, J. (2007, February). How stereotypes undermine test scores.
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NCLB the Impact of No

Words: 2942 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17425547

Impact on Equity

One major point regarding equity as applied to performance-based assessment is made by Yale Professor Emeritus Edmund Gordon (Dietel, Herman and Knuth, 1991). "We begin with the conviction that it is desirable that attention be given to questions of equity early in the development of an assessment process rather than as an add-on near the end of such work....The task then is to find assessment probes (test items) which measure the same criterion from contexts and perspectives which reflect the life space and values of the learner."

According to obert Linn (Dietel, Herman and Knuth, 1991), "The criterion of equity needs to be applied to any assessment. It is a mistake to assume that shifting from standardized tests to performance-based assessments will eliminate concerns about biases against racial/ethnic minorities or that such a shift will necessarily lead to equality of performance. Although many at-risk students come to…… [Read More]


American School Board Journal. (February, 2006). Questions About NCLB's Effectiveness. Education Vital Signs. American School Board Journal.

Dale Holt, Mary Rice and Christine Armatas. (2003). The emergence of an online learning community in first year tertiary studies in psychology. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 19(2), 161-175.

Heath, Suzanne. (2002). No Child Left Behind Act. Wrightslaw.

Kandlbinder, P. (2003). Evaluating Assessment Performance. A Paper presented at Learning for an unknown future: 2003 Annual International Conference of HERDSA, July 6-9, Christchurch, New Zealand.
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No Child Left Behind -

Words: 5384 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87005254

For Bush, the "formation and refining of policy proposals" (Kingdon's second process stream in policymaking) came to fruition when he got elected, and began talking to legislators about making educators and schools accountable. Bush gave a little, and pushed a little, and the Congress make its own changes and revisions, and the policy began to take shape. The third part of Kingdon's process stream for Bush (politics) was getting the necessary votes; Bush had his handlers buttonhole certain conservative politicians, and united them with Democrats, to get enough votes to pass the NCLB.

Meantime, it was truly "organized anarchy" as the debate in the House and Senate lasted seven weeks, and some members of Congress rejected the idea of having the NAEP double check state statistics that show whether test scores have gone up or not. Civil rights groups attacked the bill, saying it would be unfair to minorities.

There…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Federation of Teachers. "NCLB - Let's Get it Right." Retrieved 7 Dec. 2007 at

American Teacher. "Harvard study cites NCLB implementation flaws." (April 2004) Retrieved Dec. 2007 through

Nation at Risk. "An Open Letter to the American People: The Imperative for Educational

Reform." April 1983. Department of Education. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 at /pubs/natAtRisk/findings.html.
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IQ Testing

Words: 2095 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20141061

Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

An effort to improve the quality of education for all students and to ensure that no child is left behind, Massachusetts advocates, parents and educators of the Coalition for Authentic eform in Education (CAE) have proposed, House Bill 3660 for the reform of the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAST) test.

The high rate of high school dropouts and gaps in achievement among cultures and economic levels has suggested an evaluation of Massachusetts current testing system. Massachusetts has experienced a drop-out rate of approximately 10,000 students per year over the last decade with the highest numbers among the Hispanic, African-American, low-income families, students with learning disabilities and language barriers.

This paper will illustrate the effect of high-stake test and student achievement. It will look at the current MCAST, the need for reform and the underlining challenges to provide equal and quality education to for children.

Advocates claim…… [Read More]


Cantave, Alix Ph.D.; Holmes, Cheryl Ph.D.; and Lewis, Barbara Ph.D., "The Race Gap:

Education of Black Youth in Boston" (2007).

Trotter Institute Publications. Paper 1. Retrieved February 8, 2011, from

Briefing: The End of MCAS (May 24, 2010).WBJournal. Retrieved February 9, 2011,
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Validity of Data America Considers

Words: 15529 Length: 56 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27742090

Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).

That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.

But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.


History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…… [Read More]

Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)

Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)

Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
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Race Schools Queens New York Is

Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68375028

If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.

The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…… [Read More]


Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)

Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from

Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)

all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
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Curriculum the Principals Role in

Words: 9119 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69665171

Human relations are vital. Teachers must trust each other, there must be norms that support productive criticism, and there must be techniques in place for combining and resolving disputes. Arrangements need to be in place that generates discussion for problem identification and decision making. These arrangements could be things such as normal team meetings amid teachers at the same grade level or department meetings within high schools and middle schools. Frequently useful are school connections to inside and outside sources of knowledge and scrutiny coupled to a readiness to learn from such sources. Also, schools must work to secure the power to proceed with actions that might go against existing policies and practices. By doing this they master the micro-politics of their districts and their communities.

In schools where circumstances to maintain collaborative problem solving are not in place, leaders must expertly manage two plans at the same time. They…… [Read More]


Adkins, D. (1990). The Relationship between visionary Leadership and instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals: regression analysis and hermeneutic

Balsamo, M. (2004). Assessing principal practices in a standards-based environment and examining the association between principal practices and student achievement.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: language, literacy and cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Static Learning in the 21st

Words: 12488 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64826198

Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.

Significance of the Study to Leadership

A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.

ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…… [Read More]


Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at: 

Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.

de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.

Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
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Sociology of the Family

Words: 2425 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20637534

divorce rate in the United States is rising at an alarming rate. Just after the Civil War, approximately 5% of marriages in the United States ended in divorce. The divorce rate increased to approximately 10% by the 1920s and approximately 35% by the mid-1960's. y 1990, the divorce rate in the United States had risen to 50%. In a span of 125 years, the divorce rate in the United States increased by 900%. These rising divorce rates have undoubtedly had a profound effect on children. In 1988, 15% of all chil-dren lived with a divorced or separated parent. Presently, more than one mil-lion children per year experience a parental divorce. In the 1960's, almost 90% of children lived in homes with two biological parents. y 1995, approximately 18.9 million children under the age of 18 lived with one. With the rising divorce rate it is important to look at how…… [Read More]


Ham, B. (2003). The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 38(3/4), 167-185.

Jeynes, W.H. (1999). The Effects of Children of Divorce Living with Neither Parent on the Academic Acheivement of Those Children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 30(3/4), 103-120.

Jeynes, W.H. (2002a). Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents? Journal of ivorce and Remarriage, 37(1/2), 101-115.

Jeynes, W.H. (2002b). Examining the Effects of Parental Absence on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents: The Challenge of Controlling for Family Income. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23(2), 189-210.