Achievement Gap Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Gaps Between HRM Plans the

Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97676018



othwell stresses both internal and external information with regard to supply and demand of labor skill sets, making clear that the development of internal skills is more available to the H and line manager than external supply information. (p. 168) it is for this reason that internal information of labor supply, including all demographic and skill set information on each employee be an important and centralized system that is streamlined to some degree. This may be done by direct review of employee performance, i.e. By the line manager as well as by employee communication of skill set through reviews and written statements upon hire and later to ensure that such information is up-to-date and planning for future improvement is developed, including desire by employee to improve skill set and achieve educational goals, as well as streamlining of such information through planning and communication on the part of H and line…… [Read More]

Resources

Rothwell, S. (1995) "Human Resource Planning" in Human Resource Management: A Critical Text. London, UK: Routledge.
View Full Essay

Gap Analysis Riordan Manufacturing the

Words: 2866 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38128506



End-State Vision

The primary goal for the management team at iordan Manufacturing is to solve the existent problem, and through the strategies developed and implemented, ensure that it does not occur again in the future. In other words, they desire to increase employees' on the job satisfaction and reduce as such the turnover rates, which materialize in increased costs. The future goals of the plastics manufacturing company could be best described with the aid of a realistic vision statement. This could be formulated as follows:

iordan Manufacturing is committed to maintaining its leading position onto the plastics industry by presenting their customers with high quality products, delivered by highly specialized and trained employees. The organization is also determined to make a difference in the environment by using the latest technological appliances which preserve the health of the surrounding environment. We are also proud of the healthy and pleasant environment we…… [Read More]

References

2008, Gap Analysis, Marketing Teacher, http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_gap_analysis.html. Ast accessed on September 16, 2008

2008, Job Design, BNET Business Dictionary, http://dictionary.bnet.com/definition/job+design.htmllast accessed on September 16, 2008

2008, Human Resource Committed to Excellence, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, http://hr.unl.edu/general/nuvaluesinfo/glossary.shtmllast accessed on September 16, 2008

Beam, J., 2008, What is Employee Turnover?, Wise Geek, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-employee-turnover.html. Ast accessed on September 16, 2008
View Full Essay

Math Achievement African-American vs White

Words: 6588 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67509072

In grade four white males performing "At or Above asic" math skills is stated at 90% while black males were performing at only 59% "At or Above asic" skill levels. White males in the "At or Above Proficient" skills level is stated at 49% with black males in this category stated at a mere 13%.

The following labeled Figure 2 shows the statistical report of NAEP (2005) in relation to achievement differences among African-American and White American males.

NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT: Minority Male Achievement Gaps Relative to White Males, Grade 4, 2005

Source: NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT (2005)

y the time these students reach 8th grade white males "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" totals 76% while only 43% of the African-American males are "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" the negative value in the Achievement Gap of African-American Males as relative to White Males indicates that a lower percentage of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Henry, Ardail Rashad (2005) Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in African-American Students with Learning Disabilities. July 2005 School or Education Curriculum and Instruction, Special Education, Williamsburg VA. Online available at http://www.wm.edu/education/599/05Projects/Henry_599.pdf

David, James Earl (2006) Early Schooling and Academic Achievement of African-American Males. Abstract. Sage Publications. Online available at http://uex.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/5/515

Babco, Eleanor (2004) Uphill Climb: the Status of African-Americans in Science and Engineering. Making Strides. Online available at  http://ehrweb.aaas.org/mge/Reports/Report1/Uphill.html .

McMillian, Monique M. (2003-2004) Is No Child Left Behind 'Wise Schooling' for African-American Male Students?" published in the High School Journal - Volume 87, Number 2 in December 2003-January 2004, and on pages 25-33.
View Full Essay

Racial Gap in City Schools

Words: 789 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62769497



Possible Explanations in Structural Issues within the Educational Experience

The similarity in aptitude early on and the increasing academic achievement gap between black and white students thereafter would seem to suggest that the causes are most likely to be social and institutional. Among the possible factors, black children are less likely to have the benefit of a two-parent home; they are more likely to live in poorer communities with lower quality educational institutions; and they are 30% less likely to change school by their parents' choice. Unfortunately, the types of educational initiatives designed to reduce the education gap have not proven successful and to the extent their data suggest otherwise, it may be by virtue of over-reliance on the issue of "passing" instead of high achievement.

For example, the NCLB approach emphasized reducing the educational achievement gap among races by focusing on achieving proficiency in academic skills considered to be…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Racial Gap in Teachers' Perceptions of the

Words: 319 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86770228

Racial Gap in Teachers' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap," Jeffrey Uhlenberg and Kathleen M. Brown examine possible reasons for the disparity between Black and White student academic performance. In addition to examining prior research, the authors surveyed teachers to assess their perceptions and opinions about the achievement gap. The four main categories under investigation are the child; the parent(s) and home environment; the teachers; and the school system. The authors surveyed both Black and White teachers to determine whether there was any significant difference in their perceptions. While most of the results confirmed the authors' hypothesis that Black teachers would focus more on the teachers and school system than on the student or the home environment and that the reverse would be true for White teachers. However, the results of the survey show that all teachers, regardless of race, point to several factors that impact the disparity between minority and…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Educational Gap Between Whites and

Words: 3172 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22641131

They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?

Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…… [Read More]

References

Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from  http://www.kccjky.org/summaries/full_achieve.htm 

Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth

Cengage Learning.

Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#axzz0wJNCuRjZ
View Full Essay

Low SES and Achievement- Revised

Words: 2739 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85364955



Congruence of Mother and Teacher Educational Expectations and Low-Income Youth's Academic Competence

By: Aprile D. Benner and Rashmita S. Mistry

The authors of this article want to examine the independent effects of teacher and mother expectations on the youth achievement outcomes, the relationship between adult expectation and child performance, and whether identical or different adult expectations impacts on youth performance. Specifically, the study, which examined over 745 families, showed that mother and teacher expectations had a direct effect on a student's educational expectations, competency beliefs and academic outcomes. Particularly noticeable was the impact that mother expectations had on a youth's educational expectations. The study also concluded that a congruence between adult expectations, with the mother and teacher, had an even more pronounced effect on student expectations and achievement. Finally, the study found that teacher expectations were consistently lowered when mother/parent expectations were also low.

This study used a comparatively higher…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Gap Inc In 2010

Words: 4460 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81328357

2010

Description of Industry

Gap, Inc. is one of the most leading American forte apparel retailers who foundation is centered in San Francisco, California. It trades things like the casual apparels, decorations, and other products that are personal for men, women and children. The merchandises of Gap, Inc. comprise of khakis, T-shirts, boxers, denim, casual wear, and others. The trade is done in the New York Stock Exchange which goes up under the symbol GPS. The brands that signified reasonable stylishness and just about everyone-from well-known celebrities to usual American families had a pair of Gap clothing somewhere in their closet. Many people had to have the latest pair of khakis or a cardigan from Gap. Gap, Inc. maintains an unusually large number of various brands, specifically Gap, Forth & Towne, Piperlime, Old Navy, banana republic, and others. All of these various businesses are purchased by a business in different…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Loham, Annette. "Gap Inc. 2010 Is the Turnaround Strategy Working." Long Beach: California State University, 2010.
View Full Essay

Gap Early Childhood Intervention and the Development

Words: 6336 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82658447

Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child

Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.

There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.

Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.

Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.

Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
View Full Essay

Gap Problem Purpose Rq's Method Design and

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87792108

gap, problem, purpose, Q's, method, design, and analysis?

According to Hickman (et al.) in the 2008 article "The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates" from the Journal of Educational esearch, the concern about the gap in achievement between high school graduates and non-graduates has long been a concern of educators and educational policy-makers alike. The peer-reviewed study posed two essential research questions to address the problem of low high school retention rates: first, do differences in the educational development of high school graduates and dropouts exist early on in their elementary school careers and secondly, if differences do exist, "where in time and across which variables do these differences occur" (Hickman et al. 2008: 2). The study attempts to address a 'research gap' in the existing literature regarding the focus on the secondary school careers of high school graduates. Focusing on the problems students encounter in high…… [Read More]

Reference

Hickman (et al. 2008). The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates. Journal of Educational Research

First Response:

Nachmias and Nachmias (2008) indicate that the quasi-experimental design allows researchers the opportunity to use intact comparison groups and "straight forward comparative statistical analyses" to explore variables and their correlations. In an effort to better understand the continuing and persistent social problem of high school dropouts, Hickman, Bartholomew, and Mathwig (2005) conducted a quasi-experiment contrast group design with purposive random sampling to explore the differential developmental pathways of high school graduates and those who drop out. Hickman, et al., (2008) focus their research on the development process over an extended period of time, attempting to locate "markedly different" patterns related to academic performance and experiences in the educational
View Full Essay

Gap CEO

Words: 502 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81043117

Leadership

Glenn Murphy is the current CEO of GAP and has been leading the company for almost seven years. Coming to the company in a time when it was starting to experience significant trouble, Murphy focused on concepts like expansion and reform. Considering that the company had traditionally directed its attention toward employing creative designs and making customers feel that it promotes originality in general, it appears that Murphy wanted to change its strategy in order to help it recover from the critical position it was in at the time when he became CEO. By taking on a directive leader behavior, he intended to turn around the company's position on the market.

While it might seem that Murphy's actions were especially risky given the situation, it would be safe to say that he was well-acquainted with the risks and with the fact that something urgent needed to be done in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

HSMS Gap analysis Hazard identification and Risk assessments

Words: 14774 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45172476

HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments

Description of APM Terminals

Legal Environment

Review of the Health and Safety Management System

Description

Gap Analysis

Hazard Identification

Physical Hazards

Health and Welfare Hazards

Risk Assessment

Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding

Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise

Action Plans

Action Plan 1 - Management System

Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks

Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist

Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.

The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Disproportionate Levels of Educational Achievement Among White

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27660007

disproportionate levels of educational achievement among hite and African-American students, titled "Powerful Pedagogy for African-American Students: A Case of Four Teachers," researcher Tyrone C. Howard examines the role of teacher effectiveness in terms of reaching this distinct student population. As Howard observes in the opening of his article, "effectively teaching African-American students continues to be one of the most pressing issues facing educators ... (and) despite the plethora of school restructuring and educational reforms, the disproportionate underachievement of African-American students is a consistent occurrence in U.S. schools" (179), and this alarming phenomenon provides the central premise of his subsequent investigation. Howard elects to focus his qualitative study on the diverse range of socioeconomic, cultural, and regional factors which are likely to exert an impact on the continued underachievement trend within African-American student groups. He is also concerned with assessing the role that teacher effectiveness plays in influencing the eventual achievement…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Howard, Tyrone C. "Powerful Pedagogy for African-American Students A Case of Four

Teachers." Urban education 36.2 (2001): 179-202.

Shujaa, Mwalimu J. "Education and Schooling: You Can Have One without the Other." Urban

Education 27.4 (1993): 328-351.
View Full Essay

Staff Faculty Development for Raising Achievement

Words: 1608 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66056476

Peers and staff at major universities will review information collected in order to test for reliability and validity. Follow up studies will be necessary in order to determine the future efficacy of the theory proposed.

esults

The researcher suggests that the results of the study will reveal the critical factors that are likely to impact student's success in the classroom with regard to multicultural education. From the results of the fieldwork the researcher proposes that several factors will need to be adopted by faculty and staff in order to improve student outcome in the classroom.

eferences

Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum and teaching. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Banks, JA, & Banks, C.A.M. (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education.

New York: Macmillan.

Benz, C.. & Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology:

Exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, p. 9.

Capella-Santana, N. (2003). "Voices…… [Read More]

References

Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum and teaching. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Banks, JA, & Banks, C.A.M. (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education.

New York: Macmillan.

Benz, C.R. & Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology:
View Full Essay

Medical Robotics in Spite of Research Gaps

Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53091203

Medical Robotics

In spite of research gaps, medical robotics is a growing trend in the United States.

Advances in Medical Robotics (Diana, 2011)

Hybrid Assistive Limb 5 (HAL5) is an artificially powered ecoskeleton that helps double the amount of weight someone can carry unaided.

DaVinci Si HD Surgical System performs minimally invasive surgery through superior visualization and greater precision, with incisions of one to two centimeters causing less pain and speedier recovery. It reduces the hospital stay to one half and costs one third less.

Sofie incorporates force feedback allowing a surgeon to feel the pressure they apply making sutures and pushing tissue aside. Sofie is expected to develop in five years.

Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for treatment of cancerous and non-cancerous tumors.

Nursebot is designed to specifically help elderly deal with daily activities allowing them to live at home.

RIA is designed to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davies, B. (2006). Essay: Medical robotics -- a bright future. The Lancet, vol 368, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69929-7, S53-S54.

Diana, a. (2011, Jan 29). 12 Advances in Medical Robotics. Retrieved from InformationWeek Healthcare: http://www.informationweek.com/healthcare/patient/12-advances-in-medical-robotics/229100383

Huang, G.P. (2006). Robotics and clinical research: Collaborating to epand the evidence-based for rehabilitation. JRRD, 43(5), xiii-xvi.

Seaman, a. (2013, Jan 4). Racial gaps in access to robotic prostrate surgery. Retrieved from Yahoo Health: http://health.yahoo.net/news/s/nm/racial-gaps-in-access-to-robotic-prostrate-surgery
View Full Essay

Equity Diversity and Accountability

Words: 373 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69813873

Racial and Ethnic Achievement Gap Trends: Reversing the Progress toward Equity? By Jaekyung Lee. This article discusses setbacks in the achievement of racial and ethnic minorities, and identifies some of the key factors affecting these setbacks. The author believes variations in the data are not fully discussed, and there are strong implications toward future setbacks.

Reflective Review

The United States has always been a melting pot, and this blending of cultures and ethnicities continues throughout the new millennium. The fight for Civil Rights in the 1950s and 60s brought new opportunities to minorities in our country, but many studies and data indicate these opportunities may in fact be decreasing. Minorities tend to achieve less in mathematics and reading testing, and while these gaps narrowed in the 70s and 80s, they appear to be widening again (Lee 3). The author notes there are a wide variety of social and economic trends…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lee, Jaekyung. " Racial and Ethnic Achievement Gap Trends: Reversing the Progress toward Equity." Educational Researcher, Vol. 31, No.1, Jan./Feb. 2002, pp. 3-11.
View Full Essay

Prediction African-American Parents' and Guardians'

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80096106

Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. he researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. he author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. hose competencies will carry over into middle and high school. herefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.

African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal…… [Read More]

Thompson's research is highly relevant to school administrators and counselors throughout the country. Most schools in the United States will have a substantial number of African-American students. Their needs and those of their parents are not being addressed well enough. Establishing solid ties between schools and their communities will help improve pubic relations and may also help raise the academic performance standards for African-American children. School administrators, teachers, and counselors should be able to satisfy the needs of all parents and children.

The researcher used a questionnaire to gather data about perceptions of public schools. All participants were self-described as African-Americans. A high number of participants were dissatisfied with their children's high school teachers: a greater number than those dissatisfied only with their children's elementary school teachers. Thompson (2003) also found that the participants' perceptions of elementary school teachers was positively correlated with perceptions of high school teachers. Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. The researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. The author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. Those competencies will carry over into middle and high school. Therefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.

African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal effort. Ohters noted that racism and race awareness might affect school performance. Regardless of perceived reasons for African-American student performance in school, the system must respond to the persistent achievement gap between black and white students. Thompson's (2003) research emphasizes the need to establish relationships with African-American parents early: before high school. Although the author does not offer any specific suggestions for policy change, some can be inferred. For example, African-American parents expressed a preference for educational materials that they deemed relevant and meaningful for their children (p. 10). Consulting with African-American parents when their children are still in elementary school might help those parents trust that the system is responsive to their needs and the needs of their children.
View Full Essay

Education and Equality of Opportunity

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73415797

Education and Equality of Opportunity

The issue of equality in access to education has been a long running argument and each time legislations are passed and initiatives invented towards trying to make education actually equal and accessible, there are gaping gaps that still make these efforts run short of their target goal. There are several terms that are used in the education department that need to be well understood since most have been misused and hence leading to either a stereotype view of education, or a skewed perspective that only helps to make the situation worse than it already is.

The achievement gap; this is often referred to as the disparity or difference in the performance of students in various groups. From the surface of it, it looks justifiable definition, however, these groupings that are use to measure the academic performance are quite stereotyped and the academic achievements have nothing…… [Read More]

References

Reardon S.F., (2011). The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from  http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/reardon%20whither%20opportunity%20-%20chapter%205.pdf 

Teachers College Columbia University, (2005). The Academic Achievement Gap: Facts and Figures. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from  http://www.tc.columbia.edu/news.htm?articleID=5183
View Full Essay

Response to Intervention Effectiveness

Words: 3002 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26765077

Intervention Effectiveness

esponse to instruction and intervention TI2 is reported as a general approach in education to closing the gap in achievement. TI2 methods are constructed upon the esponse to Intervention (TI) model that was an option for schools under the 'Building the Legacy, Idea 2004 reauthorization of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. (California Department of Education, 2011) TI and the expanded TI2 are reported as being based upon "17 years of practice that has refined continuous progress monitoring as a strategy for keeping students on a path toward success." (California Department of Education, 2011) TI is reported as a strategy that moves all students through the steps set out in the learning standards and is further more stated to be an approach that views both academic and behavioral achievement of students.

Tier 1-3

Tier 1 included the 'Universal Interventions' which include "preventive, proactive, universal intervention in all…… [Read More]

References

Benchmark interventions -- reinforcement (2011) Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://pubs.cde.ca.gov/tcsii/ch2/bnchmrkrnfrcmnt.aspx 

Case Study: El Rancho Unified School District in Pico Rivera, California (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from: http://www.reading.org/downloads/resources/rti0707_implications.pdf

Case Study: Pella Community School District, Iowa (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from: http://www.reading.org/downloads/resources/rti0707_implications.pdf

Implications for Reading Teachers in Response To Intervention (RTI) (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from: http://www.reading.org/downloads/resources/rti0707_implications.pdf
View Full Essay

At Risk Students and Disappearing Fathers

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37052843

Students, Prejudice and isk

Students learn to be prejudiced through experience with other persons; prejudice by others can lead to prejudice in students, especially if they feel that representatives of a group, such as teachers or persons of authority speak for the whole and express basically biased views. In this way students can become prejudiced against certain groups; or news reports in the media, for example, of the way that police officers are portrayed, can lead to prejudice in students. Peers and family members can also pass on prejudice to students, so it is something that can be handed down by background and culture, too (Koonce, 2016).

Approaches that might help develop appropriate tolerance and acceptance in students could be for schools to adopt a Zero Tolerance policy, in which no form of prejudice or bias is accepted and if it is displayed by students they are immediately disciplined without…… [Read More]

References

Barton, P., & Coley, R. (July, 2010). The Black-White Achievement Gap. ETS Policy

Information Report, 2-40.

Koonce, G. (Ed.), (2016) Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues expanded

(18 Ed.). Mcgraw Hill Publishers.
View Full Essay

Teachers Expectation

Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57878651

Teachers' Expectations

Prospectus:

This research study will examine the impact of teachers' expectation on students' overall academic achievement. The research will be conducted at Huntington Park High School, located in the city of Huntington Park. It is one of the largest high schools in Los Angeles Unified School District and has an enrollment of over 5000 students with 3-track calendar. The ethnic backgrounds of the students consist of 98.6% Latino, 0.6% black and 0.3% white. The students of Huntington Park High School (HPHS) have not been challenged to perform to their best abilities. One of the reasons may be that the teachers perceive them as incapable and lacking motivation, and so they feel it is unfair or hopeless to expect more from the students. The subtle messages received from their teachers may make the students feel incapable of handling demanding work. This could also be a factor in the students'…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1.Brehm, S. & Kassin, S. (1996). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Muffin.

2.Rosenthal, R. & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. Retrieved September 9, 2003 at http://fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/-daniel_schugurensky/assignment1/11968rosenjacob.html

3.Tauber, R. (1998). Good or bad, what teachers expect from students they generally get. Retrieved September18, 2003 at http://www.ericfacility.net/databases

4.Thomas, W.(1928). First impressions are lasting impressions. Retrieved September18, 2003 at http://www.ericfacility.net/databases
View Full Essay

School Climate Student Morale Technology

Words: 1632 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23147789

It is our belief that such integration will provide reciprocal benefits. Learners will more fully understand information technologies in the process of applying them across the curriculum and their understanding of other curriculum areas will be similarly enriched as they work to apply it skills in those contexts. Furthermore, there is a need to ensure that people understand the connections between information technologies and the other skills they attain in school, skills they use in work, and in everyday life.

Findings of the Initial Literature eview Phase of the esearch

There exists a lack of technological integration which is noted at all levels of the educational forum as being one that is detrimental to the future of the student if not adequately addressed. The smaller schools appear to be providing better instruction and 'care' of their students as well as better technological instruction and overall better outcomes in terms of…… [Read More]

References

Digital Transformation: A Framework for ICT Literacy: A Report of the International ICT Literacy Panel educational testing service. Online available at http://www.ets.org/research/ictliteracy/ictreport.pdf

Berkowitz, Bob (2001) Research Study: The Big6 ™ and Student Achievement - Report of an Action Research Study. Online available at http://www.big6.com/showarticle.php?id=11&page=2.

The Importance of Contemporary Literacy in the Digital Age: A Response to Digital Transformation: A Framework for Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy http://www.big6.com/showarticle.php?id=157

Cotton, Kathleen (1996) School Size, School Climate and Student Performance
View Full Essay

idiocracy idiocy and a nation full of idiots

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99884381

.....citizenship is essential to a democracy. Good citizenship entails active engagement in political issues, which creates an educated and informed voter empowered to make decisions based on fact and reason rather than on emotion and opinion. Good citizenship also entails active participation in the political process, including voting, political activism, and ongoing political education. The opposite of good citizenship is idiocy: self-centeredness and short sightedness that can damage and destroy a democracy. When citizens are idiots, they hijack the democracy by voting according to narrow and selfish concerns rather than by making concerns for the good of the polis. Idiots "place personal concerns (their own and their families' needs and wants) far out in front of community concerns and, in this lethal act of imbalance, threatened the freedoms and rights they were so eager to enjoy," (Parker, n.d., p. 71). Idiots do not understand or appreciate the privileges or responsibilities…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task

Words: 13216 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93148396

" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)

The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf

ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm

Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.

Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
View Full Essay

No Child Left Behind and Black Males

Words: 772 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33091354

No Child Left Behind and Black Males

No child left behind

No Child Left Behind: Cause and Effect Essay

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was passed in 2001 in order to improve overall students' performance and to decrease the performance gap between minority and mainstream students. However other effects have emerged since its implementation. Through this cause and effect essay, author sheds light on effects of the NCLB. It has been discussed, how the NCLB has helped to improve education levels as well as how school administrators are facing challenges to meet the standards of this act.

The Influence of No Child Left Behind on Black Male Graduate ate

The Influence of No Child Left Behind on Black Male Graduate ate

Essay

NCLB is an educational policy that emphasizes accountability by imposing constraints on school systems. According to Gay (2007),

"The achievement gaps persist among different ethnic group,…… [Read More]

References

Allensworth, E.M., & Easton, J.Q., (2007). What matters for staying on-track and graduating in Chicago public highs schools: A close look at course grades, failures, and attendance in the freshman year (Research Report). Retrieved from University of Chicago, Consortium on Chicago School Research website: http://ccsr.uchicago.edu/content/publications.php?pub_id=116.

Balfanz, R., & Legters, N., (2008). NCLB and reforming the nation's lowest- performing high schools: Help hindrance, or unrealized potential? In G. Sunderman (Ed.), Holding NCLB accountable: Achieving accountability, equity, & school reform, 191-222. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Gay, G. (2007). The Rhetoric and Reality of NCLB. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 10(3): 279-293.
View Full Essay

Round School vs A Regular

Words: 10557 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76655571

Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.

esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.

Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…… [Read More]

References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at  http://www.ericdigests.org 

Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org

Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.

Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.

Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
View Full Essay

Reforming Education Again

Words: 738 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42828239

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law by President Bush in 2002 as a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) that was enacted in 1965 and re-enacted in 1994. The Elementary and Secondary Act also encompasses Title I, which is significant as it provides additional support for students who are disadvantaged, a factor that is often prominent in discussion of overall student performance in the United States. The nation has given considerable attention to ESEA as it has established more stringent and ambitious standards on public school, professional educators, and the students who attend public schools in the United States. Moreover, the role of the government has been expended through the act to ensure that underprivileged children receive equitable educational opportunities.

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was intended to improve student achievement and applied a four-pronged approach to the ensuring educational progress…… [Read More]

Resources

____. (2004, March). NCLB / Proven Methods: New No Child Left Behind Flexibility: Highly Qualified Teachers. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/nclb/methods/teachers/hqtflexibility.html

Ballard, K. & Bates, A. (2008, December). Making a Connection between Student Achievement, Teacher Accountability, and Quality Classroom Instruction. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 560-580. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-4/ballard.pdf

Linn, R.L., Baker, E.L., & Betebenner, D.W. (2002, August-September). Accountability systems: Implications of requirements of the No Child Left behind Act of 2001. Educational Researcher, 31(6), 3 -- 16. doi:10.3102/0013189x031006003.

Hanushek, E.A. & Rivkin, S.G. (2010, Summer). The quality and distribution of teachers under the No Child Left Behind Act. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 133 -- 150. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/20799159?sid=21106017561773&uid=4&uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=3739920
View Full Essay

Teaching What Are Three Rewards and Three

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29624581

Teaching

What are three rewards and three challenges that you will face as a teacher?

As a rabid student of popular culture, I have been interested in the so-called "achievement gap" in education, popularized in the media, the political spectrum, and even within contemporary business culture. There is clearly a demonstrable gap in educational relevancy; second, there are basic skills that are absolutely vital in order to participate in the modern global village that are not universal with the U.. educational environment. cholarship also points out that the earlier the attention to this "gap," the earlier the attention to potential reading disabilities, and the earlier the intervention towards socialization issues, the higher rate of success and inclusion. This, too, engenders challenges within the profession. For instance, today's classrooms are more diverse than ever, they are multi-dimensional as well. To help fill the gap, teachers need to be able to jump…… [Read More]

Source:

Kauchak, D. And Eggen, P. (2011). Introduction to Teaching, Becoming a Professional,

4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
View Full Essay

Unfunded Mandate of NCLB and Title I

Words: 972 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69849543

Unfunded Mandate of NCL and Title I

The federal government contributes only a "relatively small share of school and district revenues" and in fact less than 10%, however, federal regulations that detail how funds are to be spent by the schools "exert a tremendous impact on school district management behavior and operations." (Center for American Progress, 2011)

The Federal government contributes only a very small portion of funding for state schools however, the federal government places a great deal of pressure on schools because of this funding and as such impacts the countries schools methods of management and makes stringent requirements on student achievement.

Title I Funding

The intentions of Title I funding is to provide "additional educational services to the neediest students in an LEA." (Center for American Progress, 2011) When Title I funding first began the manner in which the LEA spent the Title I funding was left…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fullerton, John (2011) Title I Fiscal Requirements and School District Management: The Consequences of Intergovernmental Distrust. Center for American Progress. 11 Mar 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/events/2011/03/av/intergovernmental.pdf

No Child Left Behind Funding (2012) Background and Analysis. Federal Education Budget Project. New America Foundation. Retrieved from: http://febp.newamerica.net/background-analysis/no-child-left-behind-funding

School Funding (2011) Online Backgrounders. Online Newshour. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/backgrounders/school_funding.html

Stillwell-Parvensky, M. (2011) Reforming Title I: Closing the Academic Achievement Gap for Disadvantaged Students. Harvard Kennedy School Policy Analysis Exercise. Retrieved from: http://www.ash.harvard.edu/extension/ash/docs/reforming.pdf
View Full Essay

theory of motivation and maslows hierarchy of needs

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94663143

Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Affirmative Action the Impact of

Words: 4251 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83831345

In addition to changes in admission policies at universities, new workshops in education are beginning to address this issue head on, with teaching participants being taught that American history and education are both "written from the perspective of whites and that laws and policies benefit whites while putting minorities at an immediate disadvantage." (Fernandez, 1) This has helped to redirect the perspective on Affirmative Action within the profession, where institutions are beginning to espouse it as a legitimate means to balancing merit and racial fairness in both the admission of students and the courtship and hiring of teachers. A recent Supreme Court decision on student admission to the University of Michigan reflected this stance, offering real and applicable precedent that today reverberates in the collective movement to improve conditions for an ethnically diverse range of Americans.

In 2000, Gratz v Bollinger began the long process of defending the Constitutionality of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alon, S. (2009). The Evolution of Class Inequality in Higher Education: Competition, Exclusion, and Adaptation. American Sociological Review, 74(5), 731.

Austin, a. (2008). Reversal of Fortune. Washington DC: Economic Policy Institute, pp. 1.

Brunner, B. (2004). Timeline of Affirmative Action Milestones. Black History

Month. Online at  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/affirmativetimeline1.html
View Full Essay

No Child Left Behind NCLB

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10901653



he belief that the achievement of students in the United States schools was falling behind other countries led politicians in the 1970s to instigate a minimum competency testing movement to reform our schools. States began to rely on tests of basic skills to ensure, in theory, that all students would learn at least the minimum needed to be a productive citizen (Amrein & Berliner).

In 1983, the National Commission of Education released a Nation at Risk, the most influential report on education in the past several decades. A Nation at Risk called for an end to the minimum. he competency testing movement and the beginning of the high-stakes testing movement that would raise the nation's standards of achievement drastically. his was a direct result of the perception that America was falling behind other nations in the education of their youth.

In discussing current high-stakes testing practices, test scores were often…… [Read More]

The researcher suggests a three-pronged attack on the problem. First, the researcher thinks that one needs to learn more about the viscera of standardized achievement tests. Second, one needs to carry out an effective educational campaign so that educational colleagues, parents of children in school, and educational policymakers understand what the evaluative shortcomings of standardized achievement tests really are. Finally, the researcher states that one needs to arrange a more appropriate form of assessment-based evidence.

Lombardi and Burke (1999) conducted a study on whether or not to test students. This study examines the use of standardized achievement testing in West Virginia. Participants were students and teachers in Mineral County. The researches results revealed that, in general, all grades improved when the scores of students with individualized educational programs (IEPs) were eliminated. For the most part, general educators felt that too much emphasis was being put on one type of assessment, were very concerned about the inclusion of special education students' scores in aggregate test results, and were concerned that they had not received adequate support to effectively teach special education students in their general classes. Special education teachers indicated that they were under pressure from general educators to exclude standardized testing on students' IEPs.

Gibson (1997) conducted a comparative study of achievement on ninth-grade students who passed and failed sections of the Ohio Ninth Grade Proficiency Test. This study sought to find out if the previous classroom grades were just as useful a tool in identifying those students likely to have trouble passing the Ohio Ninth
View Full Essay

Equity Problems in Education Learning

Words: 1097 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46227780

Curriculum guides what is taught while differentiation guides how it is taught. Differentiation can be used to teach the same standard to a range of learners by using diverse teaching and learning modes. Curriculum doesn't have to be narrow to increase chances of success on standardized tests. Rather, differentiation means that teachers can make math accessible, equitable, and exciting to all students by "providing materials and tasks on the standard at varied levels of difficulty, with varying degrees of scaffolding, through multiple instructional groups, and with time variations" (Tomlinson, 2000).

Admittedly, standards-driven curriculum is far behind its goals for ensuring that "no child will be left behind."

ut, while African-American and Hispanic students lag whites in achievement as measured by standardized tests, every racial/ethnic subgroup has made gains in achievement during the past few decades (it takes more than testing (closing the achievement gap, 2001). The gap has not narrowed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Closing the achievement gap.  http://www.subnet.nga.org/educlear/achievement/ 

English, F.W. (2000). Deciding what to teach and test: Developing, aligning and auditing the curriculum. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.

Fiske, E.B. (1998, February 9). Opponents want more freedom for schools to set own agendas: quest for standards splits U.S. educators. International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/1998/02/09/sover.t.php

Holladay, J. (2007, February). How stereotypes undermine test scores. http://www.tolerance.org/teach/activities/activity.jsp?cid=811
View Full Essay

Intervention for Improving Grades

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48262037

The achievement gap is a problem for many younger learners that appears to be impacted by racial and socio-economic factors (Harackiewicz, Canning, Tibbetts, Priniski & Hyde, 2016). However, social psychology interventions can be applied to help reverse the negative impacts of these factors and instill confidence in young students on the wrong end of the achievement gap (Spitzer & Aronson, 2015; Yeager & Walton, 2011). This paper will describe an intervention to address the problem of the achievement gap so as to assist in closing it.
The problem of the achievement gap is one that impacts all of society: educational disparities cause disruptions in the balance of economic opportunities for people around the whole country. As one group excels, another falls behind, which means there are fewer opportunities for the latter to succeed. Closing the achievement gap can help to create more equitability in education and allow for more even…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

No Child Left Behind -

Words: 5384 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87005254



For Bush, the "formation and refining of policy proposals" (Kingdon's second process stream in policymaking) came to fruition when he got elected, and began talking to legislators about making educators and schools accountable. Bush gave a little, and pushed a little, and the Congress make its own changes and revisions, and the policy began to take shape. The third part of Kingdon's process stream for Bush (politics) was getting the necessary votes; Bush had his handlers buttonhole certain conservative politicians, and united them with Democrats, to get enough votes to pass the NCLB.

Meantime, it was truly "organized anarchy" as the debate in the House and Senate lasted seven weeks, and some members of Congress rejected the idea of having the NAEP double check state statistics that show whether test scores have gone up or not. Civil rights groups attacked the bill, saying it would be unfair to minorities.

There…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Federation of Teachers. "NCLB - Let's Get it Right." Retrieved 7 Dec. 2007 at http://www.aft.org/topics/nclb/index.htm.

American Teacher. "Harvard study cites NCLB implementation flaws." (April 2004) Retrieved Dec. 2007 through http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_teacher/apr04/nclb.html.

Nation at Risk. "An Open Letter to the American People: The Imperative for Educational

Reform." April 1983. Department of Education. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 at  http://www.ed.gov /pubs/natAtRisk/findings.html.
View Full Essay

NCLB the Impact of No

Words: 2942 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17425547



Impact on Equity

One major point regarding equity as applied to performance-based assessment is made by Yale Professor Emeritus Edmund Gordon (Dietel, Herman and Knuth, 1991). "We begin with the conviction that it is desirable that attention be given to questions of equity early in the development of an assessment process rather than as an add-on near the end of such work....The task then is to find assessment probes (test items) which measure the same criterion from contexts and perspectives which reflect the life space and values of the learner."

According to obert Linn (Dietel, Herman and Knuth, 1991), "The criterion of equity needs to be applied to any assessment. It is a mistake to assume that shifting from standardized tests to performance-based assessments will eliminate concerns about biases against racial/ethnic minorities or that such a shift will necessarily lead to equality of performance. Although many at-risk students come to…… [Read More]

References

American School Board Journal. (February, 2006). Questions About NCLB's Effectiveness. Education Vital Signs. American School Board Journal.

Dale Holt, Mary Rice and Christine Armatas. (2003). The emergence of an online learning community in first year tertiary studies in psychology. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 19(2), 161-175.

Heath, Suzanne. (2002). No Child Left Behind Act. Wrightslaw.

Kandlbinder, P. (2003). Evaluating Assessment Performance. A Paper presented at Learning for an unknown future: 2003 Annual International Conference of HERDSA, July 6-9, Christchurch, New Zealand.
View Full Essay

IQ Testing

Words: 2095 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20141061

Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

An effort to improve the quality of education for all students and to ensure that no child is left behind, Massachusetts advocates, parents and educators of the Coalition for Authentic eform in Education (CAE) have proposed, House Bill 3660 for the reform of the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAST) test.

The high rate of high school dropouts and gaps in achievement among cultures and economic levels has suggested an evaluation of Massachusetts current testing system. Massachusetts has experienced a drop-out rate of approximately 10,000 students per year over the last decade with the highest numbers among the Hispanic, African-American, low-income families, students with learning disabilities and language barriers.

This paper will illustrate the effect of high-stake test and student achievement. It will look at the current MCAST, the need for reform and the underlining challenges to provide equal and quality education to for children.

Advocates claim…… [Read More]

References

Cantave, Alix Ph.D.; Holmes, Cheryl Ph.D.; and Lewis, Barbara Ph.D., "The Race Gap:

Education of Black Youth in Boston" (2007).

Trotter Institute Publications. Paper 1. Retrieved February 8, 2011, from http://scholarworks.umb.edu/trotter_pubs/1

Briefing: The End of MCAS (May 24, 2010).WBJournal. Retrieved February 9, 2011,
View Full Essay

Validity of Data America Considers

Words: 15529 Length: 56 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27742090

Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).

That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.

But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE

History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…… [Read More]

Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)

Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)

Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
View Full Essay

Race Schools Queens New York Is

Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68375028

If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.

The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…… [Read More]

References

Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)

Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from http://dropoutnation.net/2011/03/07/condemnation-black-children/

Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)

all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
View Full Essay

Curriculum the Principals Role in

Words: 9119 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69665171

Human relations are vital. Teachers must trust each other, there must be norms that support productive criticism, and there must be techniques in place for combining and resolving disputes. Arrangements need to be in place that generates discussion for problem identification and decision making. These arrangements could be things such as normal team meetings amid teachers at the same grade level or department meetings within high schools and middle schools. Frequently useful are school connections to inside and outside sources of knowledge and scrutiny coupled to a readiness to learn from such sources. Also, schools must work to secure the power to proceed with actions that might go against existing policies and practices. By doing this they master the micro-politics of their districts and their communities.

In schools where circumstances to maintain collaborative problem solving are not in place, leaders must expertly manage two plans at the same time. They…… [Read More]

References

Adkins, D. (1990). The Relationship between visionary Leadership and instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals: regression analysis and hermeneutic

Balsamo, M. (2004). Assessing principal practices in a standards-based environment and examining the association between principal practices and student achievement.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: language, literacy and cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
View Full Essay

Static Learning in the 21st

Words: 12488 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64826198

Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.

Significance of the Study to Leadership

A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.

ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at:  http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf 

Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.

de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.

Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
View Full Essay

Sociology of the Family

Words: 2425 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20637534

divorce rate in the United States is rising at an alarming rate. Just after the Civil War, approximately 5% of marriages in the United States ended in divorce. The divorce rate increased to approximately 10% by the 1920s and approximately 35% by the mid-1960's. y 1990, the divorce rate in the United States had risen to 50%. In a span of 125 years, the divorce rate in the United States increased by 900%. These rising divorce rates have undoubtedly had a profound effect on children. In 1988, 15% of all chil-dren lived with a divorced or separated parent. Presently, more than one mil-lion children per year experience a parental divorce. In the 1960's, almost 90% of children lived in homes with two biological parents. y 1995, approximately 18.9 million children under the age of 18 lived with one. With the rising divorce rate it is important to look at how…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ham, B. (2003). The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 38(3/4), 167-185.

Jeynes, W.H. (1999). The Effects of Children of Divorce Living with Neither Parent on the Academic Acheivement of Those Children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 30(3/4), 103-120.

Jeynes, W.H. (2002a). Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents? Journal of ivorce and Remarriage, 37(1/2), 101-115.

Jeynes, W.H. (2002b). Examining the Effects of Parental Absence on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents: The Challenge of Controlling for Family Income. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23(2), 189-210.
View Full Essay

Thinking Maps to Increase Comprehension for ESL's

Words: 3036 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42502222

Maps to increase comprehension for ESL's

English as a Second Language Learner

The academic achievement gap between linguistic minority groups and other students is a persistent problem for the American public school system (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 2003). The pattern of underachievement and a high school dropout rate for Hispanic/Latino students among immigrant groups is particularly pronounced (Wong Fillmore & Meyer, 1992) Of the school-aged English Language Learner (ELL) population, 73% come from Spanish language backgrounds (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), and their test results in reading are of particular concern as literacy skills are the building blocks for academic achievement. The gap between the test scores of Hispanic/Latino students and white students is a well documented phenomenon, existing throughout grades K-12 in both reading and mathematics (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003). According to the NCES (2000), 44% of foreign-born Hispanics fail to complete high school. A much lower percentage…… [Read More]

References

Alper, L. & Hyerle, D (2006). Thinking Maps: A language for leadership. Cary, NC: Thinking Maps.Inc.

Anderson, S., Yilmaz, D., & Washburn-Moses, L. (2004). Middle and high school students with learning disabilities: Practical academic interventions for general education teachers -- A review of the literature. American Secondary Education, 32(2), 19-38.

Ausubel, D.P. (1960). The use of advances organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272

Bahr, G.S. & Dansereau, D.F (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps as a presentation format: Delayed recall and training effects. Journal of Experimental Education 73(2), 101-118
View Full Essay

R-Questions to Build the Literature

Words: 9245 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46920430



Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aaron, P. (1997). The Impending Demise of the Discrepancy Formula. Review of Educational Research, 461-502.

Abedi, J. (2008). Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility. Teachers College Record, 2282-2303.

Ang, S., Van Dynne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templar, K., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.

August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 50-57.
View Full Essay

Education for Hispanic Students in

Words: 1774 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66130596

colostate.edu/guides/research/casestudy/pop2a.cfm.

3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:

4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.

5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.

6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.

7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.

8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.

9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…… [Read More]

11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://64.233.161.104/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6

12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp

Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
View Full Essay

School-Based Mental Health Program on

Words: 8166 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67429057

This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)

An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…… [Read More]

Bibliography.aspx www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308

Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622

Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228

Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383

Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
View Full Essay

No Child Left Behind NCLB

Words: 4495 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52605949

e. ELL students in public schools. Data provided in the literature demonstrates that by 2030, more than half of all students in American public schools will speak a language other than English (Devoe, 35). In some schools the total number of students whose first language is not English is much higher. Specifically, Devoe reports that in Lawrence, Massachusetts more than 90% of all children enrolled in public schools are ELLs. Devoe argues that in these districts, a catch-22 has developed which makes it difficult for schools to provide educational services to ELLs. Specifically, ELL students that do not pass reading and math competence tests are labeled as "in need of improvement." Although efforts have been made to improve outcomes for these students, basic English competency remains a significant challenge limiting the progress of the students and the school on standardized tests. As ELL students fail to meet standards, schools that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2006-07 APR glossary." California Department of Education. [2007]. Accessed November 19, 2007 at  http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/ac/ap/glossary07e.asp#gg1 .

Agazie, Maxine. "Makeover needed for No Child Left Behind." Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 23(24), (2007): 39.

Devoe, Jeanne. "ELL testing: A state of flux." District Administration, 43(10), (2007): 35-40.

Facts and terms every parent should know about NCLB." U.S. Department of Education. [2005]. Accessed November 19, 2007 at  http://www.ed.gov /nclb/overview/intro/parents/parentfacts.html.
View Full Essay

Education Theories Knowledge of Learning

Words: 3781 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93366223



Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."

As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.

This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).

Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.

Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.

Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
View Full Essay

Decoding Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for

Words: 5032 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64881066

Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to ead

Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range of developmental needs. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate in the economic and political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in the educational achievement of children is likely to further widen the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn to read without an understanding of phonics.

The National Association for the Education of Young Children (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, A.W., Anderson, H.G., Heilman, P.C., Voeller, K.K.S., & Torgesen, J.K. (1991). Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 193-206.

Carver, R.P. (1990). Reading rate: A review of research and theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Cooper, N. (1999). Literacy today: Phonics fun. Retrieved March 17, 2004, from Literacy Trust Website: http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/Pubs/wirth.html.

Dias, K. & Juniper, L. (2002). Phono-Graphix - who needs additional literacy support? An outline of research in Bristol schools. Support for learning, 17(1).
View Full Essay

School Funding in Illinois and DC

Words: 1964 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76260758

Abstract
This paper compares and contrasts the school funding approaches of the state of Illinois and the District of Columbia. It shows that in Illinois there is a far greater problem of how to achieve a more equitable distribution of funds, though the state is currently setting a course to try to make this happen with its evidence-based model funding formula recently passed this year. In DC on the other hand, a foundation formula is used to disperse funds equitably throughout the District and private investment is obtained to help develop programs that can assist in closing the achievement gap. DC is thus better structured and its school funding approach better supported to achieve success over the long run.
Keywords: school funding, dc, Illinois, education
School Funding Investigation:
Comparing and Contrasting Illinois and Washington, D.C.
Introduction
Funding for schools is a controversial topic for many mainly because of the lack…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Differentiated Instruction in General Terms

Words: 1681 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74226384

How can the use of differentiated instruction decrease the achievement gap for culturally, linguistically, ethnically, and economically diverse groups?

b. What are the benefits of using differentiated instruction?

c. What researches have been conducted on differentiated instruction?

Overview of Methodology

a. Practitioner inquiry

b. Interviews

elevance of the Study

Ways structure lessons differentiated by readiness, interest, and learning profile.

a. Differentiating content of lessons, process used in learning, and products of learning

b. Ways to manage choice in the differentiated classroom

Implication of esearch

Articulate techniques for differentiating content, process, and product based on student readiness, interest, and learning profile.

a. Implement key instructional strategies and explore effective classroom management.

b. Understand the rationale and essential principles of differentiation and utilize strategies that help insure student access to the curriculum.

eferences

Aronson, J., & Good, C. (2002). educing the effects of stereotype threat on African-American college students by shaping theoties…… [Read More]

References

Aronson, J., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African-American college students by shaping theoties of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psycho fogy 38, 113-125.

Bravmann, S. (2004). Two, Four, Six, Eight, Let's All Differentiate Differential Education: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

Gregory, G., & Chapman, C. (2002). Differentiated instructional strategies: One size doesn't fit all. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Forsten, C., Grant, J., & Hollas, B. (2002). Differentiated Instruction: Different Stategies for different learners. Peterborough, NH: Crystal Springs Books.