Activism Countering Hegemony Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

reactive activism as compared to proactive activism with reference to Chicano labor movements. It has sources.

Modern day society can no longer deny the fact that as groups, people today strongly oppose/support beliefs that are nearest to their ideology; every individual contribute to the social goals therefore they feel they are entitled to civil rights more than ever before. In the United States the social picture is a mosaic of cultural integration. This scenario has evolved over the past centuries as each community realized their ideologies through activism and transformed their beliefs to substantive meaning. The Chicano community has been among these groups of idealists that has followed their beliefs and realized their ideologies through extensive efforts, prominent of which had been the decade of 1960s. The attempt had been to transform the cultural anarchy to acceptance.

Purpose Statement

Activism can be reactive as well as proactive. Whereas sociologists usually take the stance for proactive actions, but it has been observed as in the case of the Chicano movement that both reactive and proactive go hand in hand. In the following discussion the author plans to outline the historical context of the Chicano movement for their social rights and argue that reactive activism is as effective as proactive activism.


The Chicano movement during the 1960s is perhaps the least studied among other social movements during the same decade but there is no doubt that it is also one of the social movements that have successfully achieved its goals. Although sociologists may view proactive activism is usually preferred where a movement of such an extensive nature and with diversified goals are concerned nevertheless the Chicano Movement proved this wrong. It is perhaps this very reactionary nature of Chicano activism which made it a success.

The initiation of the movement began when Chicanos coming to America in the hope to achieve their dreams began to work on farms at below minimal wage rates as much as $.90/hour. Despite the fact that the government has forbidden the hiring of illegal immigrants, and limited the number of foreigners working on the farms to 20% as opposed to the 80% of the whites, Chicanos nevertheless took the advantage of the demands for farm hands by the white farmers and agreed to exploitation. However, the level of the inhumane treatment of Chicanos at the hands of these farmers generated protests albeit on deaf ears. Unions formed to fight for the rights of the workers and later on organizations such as Sociedad Protecci6n Mutua de Trabajadores Unidos (SPMDTU); Union Liberal Humanidad; Western Federation of Miners and later on Mexican Mutual Aid Society formed to keep a check on white exploitations. But perhaps the most successful among these had been the one formalized by Chavez the National Farm Workers Association that at the time had around 10,000 supporters. These organizations have been the reason for the transformation of the people from social illiteracy to literacy (Meier and Rivera, 184).

Initially when the Chicano communities have been subjected to social discrimination, the first reaction had been to synchronize their efforts through the concept of "anarcho-syndicalism." During the 1930s Mexican-Americans continued the 1910 revolution through literacy endeavors. Renowned figures like Ricardo Flores Mogon as well as Bert Corona, Emma Tenayuca, Josefina Fierro and Luisa Moreno contributed to the beginning of a radical yet literary movement that would become the base for the success of the Chicano Movement's success during the 1960s [Mariscal, 2002].

Inspired by these figures, later activists took reactive measures of similar nature to counteract oppressions by the white Americans who controlled the businesses as well as the social institutions like justice department, welfare, worker's rights etc. The participation in fundraising organized by San Francisco by Camilo Cienfuegos as well as the Cuban Revolution in 1959 had been a turning point in the efforts for Chicano radicalism. Elizabeth "Betita" Martinez as well as Ernesto Che Guevara helped transform their beliefs into ideologies that promoted the rights of the Chicanos during the 1960s. The first on the agenda had been to revolutionize the education standards of the workers who were being oppressed. Creation of awareness through educational policies and literary campaigns help the Chicanos to win over the battle of the rich and powerful and those poor workers…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Activism Countering Hegemony" (2003, May 19) Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

"Activism Countering Hegemony" 19 May 2003. Web.27 October. 2016. <>

"Activism Countering Hegemony", 19 May 2003, Accessed.27 October. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs

    interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states' national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UN's Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian

  • Strategy and Policies of the

    This is important, because physics has allowed the combustible engine to provide the world with a cost effective solution for traveling long distance. Sadly, the electric car can only be used for short to medium distances. Then, there is another potential problem that could be developing with the lithium batteries that are used, where China control 95% to 100% the resources for these batteries (lithium). This is problematic because

  • Environment the 11th Hour Film Global Warning Climate

    Environment The 11th Hour (film): Global warning/climate change impacts all of humanity, and therefore it is not a local but a global concern that requires multidisciplinary intervention (general point made throughout film). Weather and climate issues have been in the mainstream media, and events are happening more frequently (beginning of film). Climate change can be framed as a matter of national security, and there may be "environmental refugees," (middle of film). The rate of decline

  • Chomsky s 911 Noam Chomsky s Book

    and, outlandish as it may seem to most Americans today, it is possible that... Chomsky's interpretation will be the standard among historians a hundred years from now. (November 20, 2001) Since the time of its initial, mainly negative reviews, Noam Chomsky's sharply critical appraisal of America's hegemonic military endeavors, in the form of what Chomsky calls terrorism, as much so as similar aggressive acts anywhere else, by anyone else, may

  • The Moral Landscape of Pre

    On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is this explicitly referential dialogic follow-up to Wright's Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is, indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a deeply

  • Terrorism Seems to Have Taken Over the

    Terrorism seems to have taken over the world. No matter how hard the industrialized countries try to find ways to achieve peace and stability in the world but somehow the opposite happens. Today's world is predominantly inhabited by hatred that is visible in the never-ending terror and fear produced by the attacks of September 11th and the military responses undertaken by Super powers. Wars apparently carried out in order to

  • Middle East Discuss the Difficulties

    By the middle of the nineteenth century, the balance of economic strength had shifted entirely to western Europe and especially to Britain and France, which were then passing into the second stage of the industrial revolution that Turkey had hardly begun. The European powers would use their political and economic power to force the empire to allow its economy to be incorporated into the nineteenth-century liberal capitalist system. Free

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved