However, conventional beliefs that there is low rate for African-American involvement in suicidal activities, there exists minimal focus on learning the possible suicide patterns among African-Americans. Social workers are not aware of the risks and protectiveness among African-Americans. This gives room for misinterpretation of facts concerning self-destructive activities of African-Americans. The research further stresses the importance of social workers to the study of suicide among African-Americans. They also have the capacity for influencing national policies and strategies for the mitigation of suicidal cases. Through the research, it was evident that there exists extremely little information about the empirical knowledge of social workers practicing in this sector with regard to the works featured by the social work researchers.
With the evidently increasing need for social workers, it is necessary to study the capacities of knowledge of social workers regarding issued of suicide. This is relevant to the increase of social workers in the clinical sector within mental institutions. There is reliance on professional literature and practice knowledge, but there is dire need for unique perspectives and concepts to build scientific clinical knowledge applicable to the social practice related to African-American suicide.
The period of his research is not adequate for gathering ample information regarding suicide. The seven years studied cannot give a clear picture about the developments of suicide studies conducted by social workers. Basing the research on studying peer-reviewed journals for the access of knowledge possessed by social workers only provided resources relevant for making assumptions about the issue. The methodology left out the possibility of using a different approach for engaging social workers into contributing to the research objectives, and possibly getting relevant practical information absent in the reviewed literature.
Because of the evidence presented in the research showing growing cases of suicide among youths, clinicians deserve accurate information to help them in designing preventive measures for suicidal cases. This is only possible through an understanding of the trends and patterns of suicide. The success of such input is only possible through the involvement of social workers in research to have their input and opinions given consideration when making any conclusions and recommendations. These can help clinicians in finding ways for reducing mental disorders, hopelessness, childhood trauma, physical violence and other risk factors. The sample of the study was not adequate and even the reviewed articles contained limited in formation about suicide. It limited the study of existing variables among groups of segregated races.
Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment
In this study, there is the analysis of the cultural behaviors of different communities pertaining to suicide. There is a difference in how different ethnic groups react to suicide cases as reported in this article. There are different risk factors and protective capabilities presented by different ethnic groups. There are discussion of cross cutting factors for suicide prevention and the roles of religion and spirituality in the mitigation of suicide within different communities. There is a role of family participation in reduction or the mitigation and reduction of suicide cases among African-Americans. Also reported is the need for cultural sensitivity and community based interventions as well as provision of opportunities for preventing suicide and helping in development after grief. The article discussed how cultural beliefs affect adolescents' proneness to suicide. These are such as acculturative stress, collectivism, cultural sensitivity of families, religion and spirituality. There also comes out that cultural mistrust, on seeking help and utilizing of resources for helping suicidal cases aggravates the situation. The limitation in this research is its focus on various aspects leaving the findings inconclusive because of the lack of adequate saturation of available information on the phenomenal subject.
Parent-Offspring Conflict and Cost-Benefit Analysis in Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Effects of Birth Order and Dissatisfaction with Mother on Attempt Incidence and Severity. Human Nature
According to Andrews (2006), his quantitative research was on the parent-offspring conflict and the cost benefit analysis of suicidal behavior among adolescents. There was the exploration of birth order effects in relation with mothers who have suffered from the effects of suicide attempts from male children. There was evident presence of adolescent parent conflict in relationships with significant dissatisfaction of adolescents with their mothers. The dissatisfied adolescents had higher percentages of attempting suicide. The prevalence was higher in middle children who made up 23% of suicide attempts as compared to their counterpart first and lastborns. However, they had higher odds for receiving treatment as compared to first and lastborns. This ranked 8.5 times higher chances for treatment making it a necessity to invest in their treatment. This proved adolescents to control the finances of their parents and conforms to the hypothesis made by Andrews (2006) regarding the effects of adolescent suicide attempts.
The use of the quantitative research method is insufficient in getting to understand the implications of adolescent suicide on their parents. There may be evidence of dissatisfaction among the adolescents, but the research method cannot sufficiently exploit the causal factors of the dissatisfaction. The limitation of the approach gives facts regarding the means through, which adolescents manipulate their parents financial status but does not exhaust the extent to, which they attain their demands. Following the effects of suicide attempts on parents, adolescents manage to find what they need financially from their parents because the parents would not want to compromise their situation into driving the adolescents into resorting to suicide. It is also manipulative to the extent that parents have to spend so much money treating their adolescent children, in order to prevent them from any future attempts. That also gives the adolescents the chance of healing from the effects of initial suicide attempts.
However, by using the longitudinal approach in studying the adolescents, it came out that there is eminent feeling of un-wontedness among most adolescents. That is the main point of suicidal triggers especially when they feel that their siblings receive more love than what their parents offer them. Since report by Andrews (2006), states that family disorders, the hypothesis of the research should not depend solely on the results of past researches, but needs focus on a broad range of hypotheses. One other limitation of the study is that there are reports of parents becoming sympathetic towards their children who have attempted suicide. The use of quantitative method of research does not provide adequate room for the evaluation of the extent of psychological influence, which provokes sympathy leading to financial support of the suicidal children (Creswell, 2009).
The present biases in the report exist due to the limitation of veracity and memory of participants who gave retrospective reports used in the research data. There was also the possibility of identification of those who drop out of the first wave because of succeeding in their suicide attempts. It is also possible that out of the 1,601 participants of the research were siblings and given no scale for identification of siblings, identifying birth disorder effects existing within families became hard. This may have been a minimal effect, but would still have a significant effect on the estimates due to dependency of some of the research variables. The methodology used for this research was also not efficient in the development of any measure of suicide associated death risks.
The reports depended on socio-demographic and treatment factors. There was no possibility of determining how any interventions from parents can reduce the risk of suicide. The result of the research shows that there is no ample evidence on the degree at, which adolescents can manipulate their parents with suicide attempt for financial gain. However, the results also showed that some parents to solicit financial gain from some social partners just as adolescents could use suicide attempts as negotiation measure for the deteriorating relationships; (Watson & Andrews, 2002) could also use the vulnerability of adolescents to suicide.
Explaining Suicide Among Blacks and Whites: How Socioeconomic Factors and Gun Availability Affect Race Specific Suicide Rates
This research uses data from the military death records in its study of gun availability and social-economic factors influencing racial suicide statistics. There is focus on suicide motivators and possible opportunities for shaping the rates for black and white males. The findings state that race is a predictor in suicide with blacks being more prone than whites are. With increase to firearms access, black males making it clear that there exists a relationship between city structural composition, suicide and availability of guns.
The methodology of the paper is limiting in its comparison of white and black men. That is because there is no homogeneity between the two groups and their comparison leads to a lack of express consideration of motivators and disadvantages. The possibility of desegregation of masculine social categories in quantitative research is limiting. The research cannot effectively the knowledge of suicidal intensity in younger males as compared to older males. There are also inputs stating that suicidal thoughts in bisexuals and gays are higher…