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Birth Order Essays (Examples)

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Birth Stages in the First
Words: 1812 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 9050375
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Mothers and newborns are often separated shortly after delivery, and preterm infants are isolated from their mothers even more than full-term mothers. Some physicians stress that during the period shortly after birth, the parents and newborn need to form an emotional attachment as a foundation for optimal development in years to come.

The extreme form of the bonding hypothesis-that the newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally-simply is not true. Nonetheless, the weakness of the bonding hypothesis should not be used as an excuse to keep motivated mothers from interacting with their newborns. Such contact brings pleasure to many mothers and in some mother-infant pairs-including pretem infants, adolescent mothers, and mothers from disadvantaged circumstances-early close contact may establish a climate for improved interaction after the mother and infant leave the hospital.


Birt is the complete expulsion or extraction…

Birth of Venus by Sandro
Words: 1945 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94445286
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Some have speculated that the work may have been commissioned by one of those families, and that the work was stored in a private residence, as opposed to being on display (the Birth, No date).

In its historical context, Birth of Venus is important because it gives us a glimpse into the Italian psychology at the time. The painting shows that even as the church tried to exert total influence in Italy, the people had not completely forgotten their old traditions and still thought fondly about the days of Rome. Because so many pagan-themed paintings were destroyed by the Catholic church, Birth of Venus also allows us to consider the other great works of pagan art from the 15th century that we will never get to see.


Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli is an important work in the study of art. This late-15th century painting reflects the struggle…

Works Cited

Art archive: Venus (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at

The Birth of Venus: Spring (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at .

Botticelli (2002). Retrieved March 28, 2007, at

Botticelli, Sandro, real name Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi (No date). Retrieved March 27, 2007, at .

Birth Control - A Parents'
Words: 337 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98335116
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Viewed from the perspective of the ideal, however, there appears to be an inherent contradiction in Sanger's view that a woman's eyes should be "more clearly upon what should be," and her argument that it is utopian to expect that birth control can equally be the concern of man. Sanger's observation that women are too inclined to follow in the footsteps of men and that they need to understand that their mission should really be to "create a human world by the infusion of the feminine element" is a valid one. Therefore, her conclusion that a good beginning would be for woman to assume the responsibility for birth control is rather surprising. for, surely insisting that a man assume equal responsibility for the decision to bring a child into the world would be the logical start to infusing a feminine spirit into a male dominated world?


Sanger, M.…


Sanger, M. (1920). Birth Control - a Parents' Problem or Woman's? Woman and the New

Race. New York: Brentano, p. 93-100.

Birth to Three Special Needs Brochure Early
Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89406617
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Birth to Three Special Needs Brochure

Early Intervention and Early Detection

Georgia's Babies Can't Wait Program

The Babies Can't Wait (BCW) program in the State of Georgia is the service delivery system for children between birth and three years of age who have developmental delays or a disability (GDPH, 2012). Once a child has been referred to the BCW program, either by a family member or physician, the parents are contacted within a few days to schedule an initial interview (GDH, 2005). During the interview parents are given information about BCW services, are asked to sign consent forms, and if the child is determined to be eligible an evaluation is scheduled. The evaluation is conducted by a team of at least two multidisciplinary professionals with training and experience in early childhood education, early childhood special education, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech-language pathology, nursing, and/or nutrition (GDH, 2005).

The Value of…


GDHR (Georgia Department of Human Resources). (2005). Frequently asked questions for physicians: Getting started with Babies Can't Wait. Health.State.GA.U.S.. Retrieved 23 Aug. 2013 from .

GDPH (Georgia Department of Public Health). (n.d.). Babies Can't Wait: Frequently asked questions. Health.State.GA.U.S.. Retrieved 23 Aug. 2013 from  

Birth of Christianity Institution of Learning Course
Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31025671
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Birth of Christianity

Institution of Learning

Course Code / Title

The inception of Christianity and its dominance in the west resulted from various actors within the oman Empire that helped attain its imperial position. The Constantinian Dynasty for instance is one prime moment that Christianity was born and nurtured within the oman Empire. When Constantine became the Emperor in 4th century he worked tirelessly to ensure that Christianity becomes a dominant religion. For instance, it is said that Christ appeared to Constantine and commanded him to place Christian signs on all weapons of his army (McKay et al., 2011). Accordingly, when his army used these weapons, he managed to defeat his enemies; he believed that he was armed with holy power. He eventually became the sole western Emperor.

Constantine was baptized and wholly supported Christianity with zeal. Furthermore he decreed that victories in the subsequent wars were owed to the…


Garfield, N. (2001). Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited.

McKay, J.P., Bennett DH, Buckler J., Beck, R.B., Ebrey, P.B., and Crowston, C.H. (2011). A History of World Societies, Volume 2: Since 1450. London: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Birth of Venus by Boticelli
Words: 3077 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87697021
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In his attempt to paint the goddess, the Renaissance painter inspired from the mythological legend of Venus's birth. The Roman Goddess of love apparently emerged out of the sea as a result of a foam formed around Uranus's genitals that had just been cut by his son, Cronus. Cronus apparently did so in order to get revenge, since his father treated him very cruelly (Deimling 52).

otticelli focused on emphasizing the painting's contours with a black stripe, making them contrast the rest of the picture. This concomitantly makes the painting clearer and gives it a detached character. The flowers falling from the sky were also taken from the legend, since flowers and spring are associated to Venus's birth (Deimling 52).

Whereas the painting's title refers to the actual birth of the goddess, the painting itself seems to represent something else. Instead of showing Venus as she comes into this world,…


Argan, Giulio Carlo, Botticelli: Biographical and Critical Study, trans. James Emmons (New York: Skira, 1957).

Bowman, David. "Birth of Venus and La Primavera Conjoined." Retrieved November 18, 2010, from the Aiwaz Website:

Deimling, Barbara. Sandro Botticelli, 1444/45-1510, (Taschen, 2000).

Singleton, Esther, Great Pictures as Seen and Described by Famous Writers, (BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008).

Self-Esteem in Relation to Sibling Order
Words: 1314 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28135860
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mental health is an ever-Expanding arena. The experts continue to debate many of the issues that impact self-esteem.

Self-esteem is something that can create a confident productive life, or it can be a destructive insidious problem that plagues adult life. One of the things that has been examined for many areas of mental health is the order in which one is born within his or her family. Sibling birth order has been credited for how one lives their childhood, how they develop as adults, how various things impact them including parental alcohol and drug abuse and how much money one will make in a lifetime.

This paper presents a research proposal about sibling birth order and how it impacts the development of self-esteem. The proposal explains the importance of understanding the issue, some of the literature that has already been published in the area and a suggested methodology for conduction…






Birth of a Republic 1763-89 The Chicago
Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18005323
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Birth of a Repulic 1763-89: The Chicago History of American Civilization (Revised Edition) y Edmund S. Morgan. The University of Chicago Press, 1977, 202 pp. Edited y: Daniel J. Boorstin.

The delayed results of the Presidential elections of 2000 also known as the "Florida Fiasco" raised several questions. Two among them: What were the differences etween a democracy and repulic? Which of the two (democracy or repulic) was the United States of America? Cries of "the will of the people" eing denied were heard loud and often. Some pundits suggested that since Mr. Gore had won the popular vote, the constitution might e amended to accommodate the "democratic aspect" of the government. Fortunately (and not for political reasons) the sanctity of the constitution was preserved.

Edmund Morgan, Professor Emeritus at Yale University, had already answered all the aove questions in his eminently readale "The Birth of a Repulic." The ook…

bibliography of sources used; and, all of them treat each chapter of the book in great detail. True. But then, Edmund Morgan also does his readers a disservice. He teases. He leaves the reader dangling. He challenges the reader to seek out his sources. If he were thus successful, the reader would be disappointed on finding the sources lacking Morgan's narrative brilliance. His enormous abilities could serve to provide a little bit more information to the reader.

Two examples are salient. These are instances that most people have heard of, and no doubt would like to learn more about. The famous Boston Tea Party incident merits only a, "The people of Boston and the surrounding towns took up the challenge and on the night of December 6, 1773, unloaded the tea themselves -- into the harbor." (p. 58). To be fair, Morgan does provide a background to events leading to this incident. But a detailed discussion would have been better. Similarly, consider one of the more famous (and significant) battles in the War of Independence -- the battle of Bunker Hill. Once again, all Morgan can offer is, "In the Battle of Bunker Hill, as it was called, the British showed a courage that wiped out the stain of their hurried retreat from Concorde two months ago." (p. 69) A few books have been written about these incidents. One would expect a little more detail from Morgan about these events in the grander scheme of the revolution.

To its intended audience, "The Birth of a Republic" is perhaps one of the best books available. It presents, a nutshell two American struggles: A struggle for freedom; and, the struggle to create a nation borne out of principles that would stand the test of time.

Birth 5 17 1972 4321 Main Street
Words: 322 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4865086
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No mention of long-lasting friendships or romantic/sexual relationships.

Economic Functioning (including housing, transportation): Currently lives with his mother in a rent-controlled apartment. Father's pension checks/mother's Social Security are the only sources of income. No vehicle. Situation demands immediate attention.

Strengths, Problem Solving Capacity: Completely competent for most entry-level positions; average intelligence and full physical functioning, as well as low familial demand, give him great potential.

Community Connection: Has lived in the same community most of his life (including his entire adult life) -- well-known, for better or for worse.

Worker Assessment Overall: Immediate placement in the service industry and training/education for a better position when available and advisable.

Recommendations: Placement with an outpatient addiction treatment program and attendance at least three times a week, if not daily for an initial period. Job placement assistance and weekly counseling to resolve anger and blame issues. Eventual contact with ex-wife to determine feasibility…

Birth and Life of Stars
Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97537449
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This mass floats through space "unseen and undetected through space. It takes a very long time for a white dwarf to cool enough to become a black dwarf, and many astronomers suspect the galaxy hasn't aged enough for any to have yet formed. If any have formed, it will not be easy to find them" (McGrath). hile space may look like it is not changing from Earth, we can know that it is - even in death. Red dwarf stars are the result of a dying star that is very small - anywhere from 65% to 3% of our Sun's size. Red dwarfs are cool and very faint; however, there are many of them sprinkled throughout the universe. Stars can also die and become brown dwarfs, which are actually pseudostars or "failed stars" (NASA) with not enough gas to fuel the "hydrogen-fusion reaction that powers true stars" (Heckert). Brown dwarfs…

Works Cited

Brown Dwarf Detectives. NASA Online. Site Accessed April 13, 2008. 

Dasch, Julius. "Stars." Earth Sciences for Students. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. Gale Science Resource Center Online. Site Accessed April 13, 2008. 

Hall, Jeffrey. "Star Formation." Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Detroit: Gale Group, 2008. Science Resource Center. Site Accessed April 13, 2008. .

Heckert, Paul a. And Gilman, Larry. "Brown dwarf." Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Detroit: Gale Group, 2008. Gale Science Resource Center. Site Accessed April 13, 2008.

Birth Places a Tremendous Emotional
Words: 3259 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9234396
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Breast pumping techniques.

Introduction to Internet and print resources for new mothers.

Introduction to social networking and support groups for new mothers in her area.

Teaching Strategies Used and ationale

The teacher and learner will have a high degree of privacy in the hospital room during the teaching project. Therefore, lessons on breastfeeding will be comfortable and cause little embarrassment for the learner. Having privacy will help the learner feel relaxed and willing to breastfeed in front of the teacher. Also, the private setting will help the learner express her emotions.

Having determined that the learner prefers to observe and then act, the teaching strategies used for the project will include demonstrations and imitation. The learner's positive attitude directly suggests her high level of motivation to learn. Also, her cultural background and tendency to be compliant with hospital standards and procedures imply that the learner is likely to be highly…


American Academy of Family Physicians (2008). Breastfeeding: How to pump and store your breast milk. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at 

American College of Healthcare Executives (nd). Using adult lifelong learning concepts. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at 

Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (2006). Postpartum exercise: Is your body ready? Retrieved July 14, 2008 at 

Beger, D. & Cook, S.A. (1998). Postpartum teaching priorities: the viewpoints of nurses and mothers. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. Mar-Apr;27(2):161-8. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at

Birth of Ford's Influences in
Words: 798 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8295266
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Ford's inventions did not only improve the economy of the United States because of the contributions that the Ford automobiles provided. Moreover, his inventions had presented new job opportunities to people, specifically in being involved in automobile industry. Ford's inventions also gave hope and new dreams to others who wish to become like Henry Ford someday.

Along with the machineries and technologies where Ford demonstrated his intellect, he also showed his skills in management. It was Ford who changed the traditional 48 hours of work a week into just 40 hours. Also, he was the one who started the "five-dollar" day where the wage of the laborers was twice the regular wage at that time. Despite of the success that the Ford automobile had achieved, the monotonous process of the assembly line came to alienate workers (Towards a Modern Day America) that even Ford agreed that no worker would feel…


Towards a Modern Day America (faxed).

Military Orders That May Be Unethical Utilitarianism
Words: 2131 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78928233
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Military Orders that May be Unethical

Utilitarianism is a philosophical theory states that ethics are determined by the social group in which the moral determination is made. It has been described by various philosophers as the great happiness principle or pleasure principle. In essence, what is ethical or moral is determined by what makes a person or a group of persons the happiest. If a course of action brings the majority of people happiness, then it is ethical. On the contrary, if a certain set of actions brings the majority unhappiness, then it is unethical. Utility is thus the ultimate form of happiness and the best way by which to achieve happiness both for the individual and for the majority of the population within a given society. This seems logical but can become complicated when applying the concept of utilitarianism to a larger group, such as a government. hether the…

Works Cited

Bayles, M.D. (1968). Contemporary Utilitarianism. Anchor Books.

Mill, J.S. (2002). Utilitarianism. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.

Popkin, R. (1950). A note on the 'proof' of utility in J.S. Mill. Ethics. 61(1).

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge.

Allergy Disease and Birth Date
Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51122213
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Fletcher, V. (2006). How your birthday can cause allergies. UK News: Northern and Shell Media Publications. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from

Jedrychowski W. et al. (2003). Prenatal lead exposure heightens childhood allergies.

Environmental Health News: Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on June 5,

2011 from

Schonberger et al. (2005). Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum

IgE at birth in high-risk children. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology: PubMed.

Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from

Lin L. et al. (2010). Prenatal allergen & diesel exhaust. Allergy, Asthma, & Clinical

Immunology: Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from

Matthias, W. et al. (2005). Latitude, birth date and allergy. PLosMedicine: Public

Library of Science. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from

Pyrhonen, K. et al. (2010). Season of the first semester of pregnancy predicts sensitization to food allergens in childhood: a…


Adams, S. (2011). Autumn babies "more likely to have food allergies. The Telegraph:

Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved on June 4, 2011 from , html

Aichbhaumik N. et al. (2008). Prenatal exposure to household pets influences fetal immunoglobulin E. production. Clinical & Experimental Allergy: PubMed. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from 

Campbell, D. (2010). Chance of developing allergies linked to moth of conception.

Teen Birth Control Birth Control
Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8049859
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Religious communities in schools encourage various programs with the intention of having teenagers ready to go through diverse social difficulties. However, they constantly tend to go over the topic of contraception, as religion does not support it.

Even after seeing the effect that unwanted births have on teenagers, religious communities are not supportive towards birth control. Irresponsible adults condemn birth control, claiming that the government should finance proper education, instead of investing into something that they believe is not a true necessity.

Even with the fact that religious communities do not support birth control programs, Americans generally appear to be encouraging teenagers to use contraception. A large percentage from the general public believes that birth control should be covered by health insurances. Also, they believe that sex education should involve issues concerning contraception through abstinence. There are a number of educational institutions supporting the concept of teaching teenagers that they…

Works cited:

1. Barth Richard P., Painter John S., Sangalang Bernadette B. "First-Birth Outcomes and Timing of Second Births: A Statewide Case Management Program for Adolescent Mothers." Health and Social Work, Vol. 31, 2006.

2. Sawhill, Isabel V. "What Can Be Done to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Out-of-Wedlock Births?." Retrieved November 28, 2009, from the Brookings Web site: 

3. Schwartz, Michael. "Sex as Apple Pie." National Review, Vol. 40, June 10, 1988.

4. Wetzstein, Cheryl. "Poll Finds Majority Back Birth Control; Access Sought without 'Delay'." The Washington Times, June 8, 2007.

Botticelli's Birth of Venus and Duccio's Maesta
Words: 1811 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68586410
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Botticelli's Birth Of Venus And Duccio's Maesta

The representation of women in estern art has changed throughout history, and for much of estern history this representation was oriented around the dominant female figure in contemporary society; that is, Mary, mother of Jesus. However, the gradual shift away from a dominantly monotheistic cultural hegemony seen in the Renaissance and eventually the Enlightenment brought with it new (and the case of this study, old) means of representing women beyond the confinements and discourse of the Madonna and Child. By comparing and contrasting Duccio di Buoninsegna's Virgin and Child Enthroned Amidst Angels and Saints (which is the main altarpiece of the artist's Maesta) with Sandro Botticelli's The Birth of Venus, one is able to see how the changing cultural standards which came about during the shift from the conservative, Eastern-influenced Late Gothic art of Duccio to the freer, more naturalistic art of Botticelli's…

Works Cited

Botticelli, Sandro. "The Birth of Venus." Google Art Project, c. 1486. Web. 12

Jun 2011. .

Duccio. "Maesta." N.p., 1308-1311. Web. 12 Jun 2011.

Michael Foucault's Birth of a Clinic
Words: 2784 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4829969
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Foucault's Birth of the Clinic

Initially, in order to provide a stable framework on this study, we would try to clearly define, identify and learn both the visible and literary meaning on the work of Michel Foucault's work, The Birth of the Clinic. We will intend to scrutinize each of the underlying detail of this literary masterpiece and retrieve its modern influences in the field of medical and health studies.

In the modern era of rational thinking and ideas, the concept of which Michel Foucault is trying to convey in his literary work, The Birth of the Clinic is the postmodern influence of medical attribute to the social and political structure of our society. The concept of which Foucault considers as a myth of which he notes:

"...the first task of the doctor is ... political: the struggle against disease must begin with a war against bad government." Man will…


Shawver, L. (1998). Notes on reading the Birth of the Clinic. Retrieved 10/03/05 from the World Wide Web: 

SHU, United Kingdom (2005), Birth of the Clinic, commentary (2000)

Retrieved 10/02/05 from World Wide Web:

Southern Charm The Birth of
Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28942297
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The Birth of a Nation is a bit more explicit in its message but it rings to the same tune -- southern whites are victims of the civil war, not perpetrators.

Neither is an accurate portrayal of historical events but rather a symbolic representation of feelings and emotions held by whites in the pre-world war two United States. Historical evidence proves that neither Griffith nor O'Selznick were accurate in their depiction of the civil war but they do capture the fear and xenophobia riddled throughout each decade. While Griffith took inspiration from the Clansmen, O'Selznick, a Jewish New Yorker, along with his mostly Jewish writing team, likely were not trying to rewrite history but instead speaking to their audience, understanding what they were looking for.

The Birth of a Nation and Gone with the Wind speak to an audience who's way of life had been taken away by force. Though…

Rogin, Michael. "The Sword Became a Flashing Vision" D.W. Griffith's the Birth of a Nation." Representations 9.Special Issue (Winter 1985): 150-95. JSTOR. University of California Press. Web. 11 Dec. 2010. .

Change, Robert S. "Dreaming in Black and White: Racial-Sexual Policing in the Birth of a Nation, the Cheat, and Who Killed Vincent Chin?" Asian Law Journal 5.41 (1998): 41-60. Print.

Harris, Warren G. Clark Gable: A Biography, Harmony, (2002), page 211

Low Birth Weight Babies and
Words: 1313 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19178451
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Since 61% of the total had complete medical records, an estimate of that number would be important. The reader would also benefit by a split-out of the mothers less than 18 and the asthma rates of their babies, in order to establish if low birth weights were more common in such populations, and other confounding variables were different.

How was the sample selection done and what was the final sample size on which the data was analyzed? was there a control group?

The final sample size appeared to be 2,032 or 1,845, depending on the variables analyzed. That is because the patients in the 1,845 group had complete medical data available on all study variables, while the 2,032 included all those with some medical data. This means that there were 187 subjects for whom not all data was available. A subtraction of multiple-birth events brings us to 1,803 in the…


Gordon, L. (2004). Epidemiology. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders.

Nepomnyaschy, L. a. (2006). Low Birthweight and Asthma Among Young Urban Children. Am J. Pub Health, 1604-1610. (Nepomnyaschy, 2006)

Low Birth Weight Babies and Asthma

Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age
Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54633210
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Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status? Research Proposal

Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic status are more likely than children from higher socio-economic status to develop childhood obesity, which makes these children more likely to develop health problems later in life. For this reason, childhood obesity is a significant problem. The research proposed in this study is one that recommends that this issue be examined in a research study.

The Prevalence of Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status?

Research Proposal


There is a great dearth of research that indicates that children from lower socio-economic households have a greater risk of developing obesity during their childhood than children from middle and upper socio-economic…

Works Cited

Cecil, JE, et al. (2005) Childhood Obesity and Socioeconomic Status: A Novel Role for Height Growth Limitation. International Journal of Obesity. 29. Retrieved from: 

Gearhart, R., Gruber, DM, and Vanata, DF (2008) Obesity in the Lower Socio-Economic Status Segments of American Society. Forum on Public Policy. Retrieved from: 

Gibbs, BG and Forste, R (2013) Socioeconomic Status, Infant Feeding Practices, and Early Childhood Obesity. Princeton University. Educational Papers 130233. Retrieved from: 

Ogden, CL, et al. (2009) Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:

Mary Shelly and the Birth
Words: 935 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 14925376
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This would serve as a basic blue print for future science fiction author Ivan Asimov. The article was useful because it highlights a change that is taking place. Where, the world of literature is changing and evolving from the traditional writings of the past to embrace new a genre. In many ways, Frankenstein serves a bridge between the literature of the past and science fiction.

Glausiusz, Josie. "The Spark of Frankenstein." Discover 23.8 (2002): Print. 20 Mar. 2010.

In the article the Spark of Frankenstein, it talks about how the lab scene was influenced by Mary Shelly's husband (Percy Shelly), who was working under Dr. James Lind. They were conducting experiments showing how electricity can cause a dead frog's leg to twitch. Then in 1816, after visiting Lord yron's villa near Geneva, she had the background for her masterpiece. This is useful; because it highlights what factors helped Shelly, determine…


Badalamenti, Anthony. "Why Did Mary Shelly Write Frankenstein." Journal of Religion and Health 45.3 (2006): 419 -- 439. Print.

Duncker, Particia. "Marry Shelly's After Lives: Biography and Invention." Women a Cultural Review 15.2 (2004): 230 -- 249. Web. 20 Mar. 2010.

Freedman, Carl. "Hail Mary: On the Author of Frankenstein and the Origins of Science Fiction." Science Fiction Studies 29.2 (2002): 253 -- 264. Print.

Glausiusz, Josie. "The Spark of Frankenstein." Discover 23.8 (2002): Print. 20 Mar. 2010.

Infant Birth-12 Months Old The Observation Is
Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71868106
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infant (birth-12 months old).

The observation is of Julie, the child of a friend who is 6 months old. Her parents are Jewish, the father is a Rabbi in the local Temple, the mother works as a physical therapist. The parents combine American and Jewish values in raising the child, and in comparison to any particular American child of her age, I do not expect to see nor do not see any particular cultural differences emerge as yet.

The family may be described as lower to middle class; it is difficult to make distinctions. They do have a large family -- ten children, with both parents involved in parenting and maintenance of the household. It is a warm, cohesive family with both sets of grandparents living close by and with close family and communal ties.

The observation was conducted last week and occurred during the duration of one and a…

Paul's Early Life Birth Upbringing and Early
Words: 1854 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94746152
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Paul's Early Life (birth, Upbringing, And Early Education)

Paul's early life can be dated back from 1-33 A.D. His upbringing comprised of being born in Tarsus of Cilicia, where he was raised under another name, Saul. He was raised in a Jewish, strict household. Because Paul was Jewish, he received abbinic training in Jerusalem from abbi Gamaliel. As he received his training, he also learned the traditions of the Pharisees. Later on in this period, Paul worked with the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem as well as adopting the Sanhedrin policies. The Sanhedrin were in opposition of the church and so was Paul. Including Jewish culture, Paul received immersion into Hellenistic culture of the era, which meant he went to the gymnasium, attended Greek dramas at the Amphitheatre, and was knowledge on the various schools of Greek Philosophy. Gamaliel taught Paul the Scriptures including the traditional lessons of the Pharisees. This meant…


GCU Media,. (2014). Paul Timeline. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from 

Greg, P. (2014). Paul through Mediterranean eyes: cultural studies in 1 Corinthians. International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 38(3), 163-164.

Parable,. (2014). Life Application Study Bible. Retrieved 15 December 2014, from

Polhill, J. (1999). Paul and his letters. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman.

Second Order Change in Adolescent
Words: 1374 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27598273
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Esperanza took the paperwork home and met with her mother, who obtained the appropriate records for her and went through the class schedule with her, as Esperanza translated the information. Esperanza chose a class schedule that was inclusive of her mother's desire for her to take a part time job, and included all the basic education classes that she would need to move forward as a Junior the following year. Esperanza also signed up for a Spanish class and an ESL program, at the urging of the Latino Club advisor. The Latino Club activities included a small grant to pay ESL students to tutor students of Spanish that were in need of extra help. Though the tutoring paid only minimum wage, it allowed Esperanza to fulfill her mother's desire for her to take a part time job and it would not interfere with school work and did not require her…


Fall, K.A., Holder, J.M., & Marquis, a. (2003). Theoretical Models of Counseling and Psychotherapy. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Petrocelli, J.V. (2002). Processes and Stages of Change: Counseling with the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1), 22.

Business in Order to Assess
Words: 2834 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52371845
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In order to achieve this target, the personnel operating in a foreign subsidiary should take part in trainings regarding the locals' customs, traditions, way of thinking, language etc. Additionally, studies should be carried out for concluding if the company's products or services are adequate to a certain foreign market. For instance, a company wishing to sell beef on the Indian market where the cow is considered to be a sacred animal or an organization which designs white packages for its products sold in Japan where this color represents mourning will surely lead to collapse. Let's take, for example, the McDonald's case which has developed a successful transnational strategy. The king of fast-food chains has tailored its menus according to the gastronomic habits of the foreign markets it has entered. Just imagine the disastrous outcome of a hamburger with pork sold in an Arab country. In conclusion, molding over the foreign…


Chella, G. (2006). Differentiation - the only path to managing expectations. On the Internet at: Retrieved March 3.

Crow, K. (2000). Achieving Target Cost / Design-to-Cost Objectives. On the Internet at: Retrieved March 3.

Johanssen, M. (2007). Five Phases of the Organizational Life Cycle. On the Internet at March 3, 2007.

Peterson, W., Gallen, V., Eponou, T., Wuyts-Fivawo, a., Wilks, M.(2002). Methods for Planning Effective Linkages. On the Internet at: Retrieved March 3.

Students' Access to Birth Control
Words: 3923 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24777458
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In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.

An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…

Works Cited

Bakalar, Nicholas. "Adolescence: Abstinence-Only Programs Not found to Prevent HIV." The New York Times 14 August 2007: Retrieved Dec. 3, 2007, at .

Garrett, Robert T. "Texas teens lead nation in birth rate." The Dallas Morning News 5 November 2007: Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007, at .

Green, Tanya L. "Parents Have the Right to Know when their Children Receive Family

Planning Services at School." Opposing Viewpoints: Students' rights. Greenhaven Press,

Reasoning Behind the Birth of the First French Republic
Words: 1906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81587245
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irth of the First French Republic

The first French Republic was established in 1792 in the aftermath of the 1789 Revolution and abolishment of the monarchy. The National Convention held a meeting in September 1792 that culminated with a vote to put an end to the monarchy and establish the first French Republic. The 1789 Revolution that acted as a catalyst for the abolishment of the monarchy and eventual establishment of the first French Republic gave the people the unprecedented opportunity to confront King Louis XIV who had dominated their lives. As the National Convention voted for the establishment of the first French Republic through abolishing the monarchy, it also tried Louis XVI for treason. The king was found guilty of treason and executed at the beginning of 1793. Given its role in the establishment of the first French Republic, the 1789 Revolution was a complex event with significant impacts…


McPhee, Peter. Living the French Revolution, 1789-99. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan,


Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

Publishers, Inc., 2008.

Renaissance Art Reflection the Birth and Evolution
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62607978
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enaissance Art eflection

The Birth and Evolution of Beauty

Perspectives on form and beauty have changed over the span of hundreds of years, from unrealistic expectations in anatomy to that of more lifelike depictions. Of course, no story on beauty can ever be told without the use of Venus and the changes she undergoes throughout the years during the enaissance. Botticelli gave Venus life, Bronzino beatified her to a goddess-like pedestal, and Cambiaso shadowed her in humanity. It is through these artists' eyes that one can see the progression of beauty throughout the enaissance years.

Earlier enaissance artists sought to epitomize and define beauty as "an order or arrangement such that nothing can be altered except for the worse" (Haughton, N.). While the movement brought along by the enaissance certainly aimed to focus toward a realistic depiction of beauty, this was not always so defined during Botticelli's time. If one…


Haughton, N. (2004). Perceptions of beauty in Renaissance art. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 3(4), 229-233. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2130.2004.00142.x

Hughes, R. (2001). WHEN BEAUTY WAS VIRTUE. Time, 158(27), 91. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Lakeside Publishing Group, L. (2009). Italian Renaissance Art. Style of Italian Art in the Renaissance, 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Venice During Renaissence Renaissance Literally Meaning Re-Birth
Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87490483
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Venice During Renaissence

Renaissance literally meaning re-birth was a cultural movement that started at the end of middle Ages from 14th to 17th century. The movement started from Italy and spread into whole of the Europe. The age of renaissance is attributed to a heightened sense of toleration and reasoning in every aspect of life. Arts, craft, literature, politics, and science, all were re-shaped in the renaissance era. hile the birth of renaissance is widely attributed to Florence, Venice was another city of Italy that presented an interesting but challenging outlook to a historian. Venice during the renaissance era was an oligarchy but was called Republic of Venice. ith hardly any resemblance with modern day democracy, Venice enjoyed affluence and abundance due being the gateway of trade activities in Europe.

The republic also enjoyed a relatively stable political environment and trade activities thrived in the era. Glassworkers, woodworkers, artisans, and…

Works Cited

Bouwsma, William J. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty: Renaissance Values in the Age of the Counter Reformation. University of California Press, 1984.

Manchester, William. A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance-Portrait of an Age. Little, Brown, 1992.

Mason, Antony. Everyday Life in Renaissance Times. Creative Company, 2005.

McGough, Laura J. "Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 80.2 (2006): 219-246.

Lilian Baylis Birth of the
Words: 1841 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33744264
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Denis and Michael enthall used the space for productions and actor training. From 1963 -- 76 it was the temporary home of the National Theatre of Great ritain (see Royal National Theatre). riefly closed due to funding cuts, it reopened in 1983. Again threatened by lack of funds, it was purchased and preserved by a charitable trust in 1998. In 2003 Sir Elton John became the theater's president, a restoration drive was organized, and the formation a new Old Vic company was announced. Directed by the American actor Kevin Spacey, the group is intended showcase new theatrical talent (Old Vic, 2003).


During the 1920s and '30s Lilian aylis put on all of Shakespeare's plays, opera, and ballet. She and her troop did it all on a shoe string: ginger beer crates made up the scenery, and the casts were so poorly paid that Lilian often made dinner for them…


Coloson, P. (2006). Georgian Portraits. Read Books.

Lilian Baylis. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from absolute astronomy: 

Old Vic. (2003, March 16). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Everything2: 

Thorndike, S. & . (1990). Lilian Baylis. Taylor & Francis.

Gnosticism in Order to Understand
Words: 1701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52494685
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The Genesis Factor. April 6, 2008.

Pleroma. April 6, 2008.

Robinson James M. (Ed) (1981)

The Nag Hammadi Library

New York: Harper & Row.

The Battle for the Spiritual. April 6, 2008.


The Gnostic Account of the Fall and the Creation of the Material orld. April 6,

Pleroma in Greek means "fullness." In Gnostic cosmology, "....the Pleroma is the dwelling place of spirit, the non-material reality that permeates all existence. In some models, the Pleroma is made up of the thirty highest

Aeons, attributes of the ineffable Divine that exist beyond the physical world... (Pleroma).

This area for this are not made clear in the Gnostic scriptures

It should also be noted that the myth of Adam and Eve and even are seen by many commentators as symbolic and abstract references for the male and female parts of the human psyche - "Adam and Eve…

Works Cited

Apocryphon of John, from the Nag Hammadi Library, James M. Robinson, Ed,


The Nag Hammadi Library. New York: Harper & Row., pp.103-4.

Barbelo - Ennoia. April 6, 2008.

Race Gender Since My Birth in
Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76175241
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The system creates and engenders inequity by denying women of color entry.

Even though I have lived in many different states and communities, race and sex continue to be visible barriers to success. My most recent setback proves that women of color are viewed as threats and may be silenced when they speak out and appear strong. I recently found work as a bookkeeper. Although not my dream job, I worked hard and gave it my all. In my spare time I cultivated a strong desire to become an entrepreneur and help people like me achieve success in a supportive environment. My performance on the job remained stellar, but when my employers discovered my budding business they let me go. Lacking the means to pursue a lawsuit, I poured my efforts into my home-based business and now I help other Latinos within the local community to prepare their tax documents…

Message Board for Order Number
Words: 2505 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 11562331
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The same argument could reasonably be made for the United States' even more egregious subsequent invasion of Iraq in 2003; the pubic, altruistic reason given was that weapons of mass destruction must be eradicated from this potentially dangerous rogue state. The terrorist attacks on the orld Trade Center in 2001 surely gave the U.S. more fodder for its defensive justification for invading. Iraq is, perhaps coincidentally, perhaps not, an oil-rich nation and curiously, to date, no weapons of mass destruction have ever been located within its borders.

One could argue that this unilateral action by the United States to protect its resource is no different that the colonial imperialistic power games of decades past. Kuniholm goes so far as to call this the "Great Game," and avers it is no different from that played by imperial powers in the past (546).

The preceding figure and facts make clear which states…

Works Cited

Energy. Who Consumes the Most Oil? Web. 23 July 2010.

Bartra, Valentin. "An Institutional Framework for a More Efficient Use of Natural Resources."

Minerals &; Energy - Raw Materials Report 22.1 (2007): 1-12 Print.

BPa. BP PIPELINES: An energy lifeline. UK: BP Publishing, 2009. Print.

Identification Information Greg Smith Date of Birth
Words: 1226 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66280828
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Identification Information

Greg Smith

Date of Birth: May 1, 2003

Elmer Elementary

121 Lincoln Street

Boston, Massachusetts

eporter: Name

Chronological Age: 9 years 10 months

eferring District: Elmer Public Schools

Greg, age 9, lives in Boston with his mother Eileen, his father visits a few times a year and he has no other siblings. Greg has lived with Eileen since birth and only lived with his father until after the divorce when he was 7. Mother has recently remarried. Currently he attends an integrated-preschool classroom at the Briarcliff School in the Elmer Public School district.

Descriptions of Problem Behavior Operationally Defined

This functional behavior assessment is being completed at the request of the Elmer Public Schools Special Education department in response to Mrs. Smith's request for recommendations to assess Greg's behavior regarding sensory integration and behavior disorder.

Measure the Problem: Exhibits lack of desire to socialize with peers along with…


Barnhill, G.P. (2005). Functional behavioral assessment in schools. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(3), 131-143.

Fox, J.J., & Conroy, M.A. (2000). FBA for children and youth with emotional-behavioral disorders: Where we should go in the twenty-first century. Preventing School Failure, 44(4), 140-142.

Neff, N.A., & Iwata, B.A. (1994). Current research on functional analysis methodologies: An introduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 211-214.

Risley, T. (2005). Montrose M. Wolf (1935-2004). Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 38(2), 279-287.

Mary Ainsworth Had Her Birth
Words: 2660 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11868597
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In order to quantify the security of a relationship, Ainsworth and her colleagues designed this system of 'Strange situation' for evaluating individual differences in children with particular emphasis on responses to several series of separations and further reunions with their mothers. The formation of this procedure has sparkled with plenty of literature subsequently, analyzing the progress of mother child attachments, the influence of attachments to other caregivers, and the correlates and effects of secure and insecure attachments. It has become recognized as the most widely accepted procedures in the research of child development. (Arcus, Doreen: Ainsworth, Mary (1913- ))

There was no prior knowledge to Ainsworth that an individual could introspectively explain the way one behaved and felt instead of concentrating on the way the external forces mould the behavior. The concept of 'Strange situation' considered family as the secure base from which a developing individual can move out to…


"Ainsworth, Mary Dinsmore Salter (1913-1999)" Retrieved from Accessed 25 October, 2005

Arcus, Doreen. Ainsworth, Mary (1913- )" Retrieved from 

Accessed 26 October, 2005

'Biography: Mary D. Salter Ainsworth" Retrieved from

Timeline From Abraham to Birth of Christ
Words: 490 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24545816
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Abraham to Jesus with other Major Historical Events

2100 BC: Abraham moves to Canaan under a direct order from God. Canaan later becomes Israel.

2000 BC: Jacob, grandson of Abraham, is born in Canaan. Jacob is later renamed Israel. His 12 sons become the heads of the 12 Tribes of Israel.

Hammurabi builds up Babylon in the Fertile Crescent.

The Minoan Bronze Age in Crete.

1900 BC: One of Jacob's sons (Joseph) is sold into slavery. Joseph rises to power in Egypt.

1500 BC: The Indian Hindu Scriptures the Rig-Veda are completed.

1400 BC: The Israelites (after being enslaved for four centuries by Pharaoh) are led by Moses out of Egypt. Joshua takes the lead after Moses dies. It is to Moses that the first five books of the Old Testament are attributed.

1200 BC: The Trojan War.

1000 BC: Saul becomes king of the Israelites. David is anointed. David…

Virtue Be Taught In Order
Words: 1671 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50298883
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It has been characterized as a movement that rivals consequentialism and deontology as it focused on the central role of concepts like character and virtue in moral philosophy. Then later versions developed fuller accounts of virtue ethics theories. Most of these are inspired by Aristotle, although some others are from Plato, Aquinas, and similar philosophers.

More modern philosophers such as Elisabeth Anscombe, Bernard illiams and Alistair MacIntyre have all raised objections to the virtue ethics theory. These three writers have all, in their own way, argued for a radical change in the way we think about morality.

hether they call for a change of emphasis from obligation, a return to a broad understanding of ethics, or a unifying tradition of practices that generate virtues, their dissatisfaction with the state of modern moral philosophy lay the foundation for change.

Virtue ethics is concerned with the good life and what kinds of…

Works Cited

Dimas, Panos, (2002) Happiness in the Euthydemus, Phronesis, Vol. 47, Issue 1, pp 1-27

Meno: Socrates (2006), , Accessed February 9, 2007

Plato, (1983) Five Dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo, tr. By G.M.A. Grube

White, James B., (2006) Plato and Socrates: Can Virtue Be Taught?, , Accessed February 9, 2007

African-American Suicide Extra Pages African-American
Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 40372363
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If someone returns a questionnaire with identifying personal information, then it will not be used in the study and will be destroyed. The questionnaires will also be constructed so that there will be no questions that could potentially violate the participants privacy in any way. For instance, there will be no questions asked about the particulars of the child's suicide, where the mother works, what particular community she's from and what church she is a member of, etc. Questions such as these could deter the target audience from responding because of fear that their privacy could be jeopardized.

The introductory letter sent with the questionnaire plays an important role in weeding out any ethical issues that may arise. The letter will clearly define the survey and discuss why the prospective participants were chosen. They will know that none of their personal information was used in order to send them the…

Critical Thinking Forces of Influence
Words: 1798 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59682929
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Critical Thinking Styles and Forces of Influence

Any choice or decision that a manager makes influences the organization's performance. It is one of an employee's job responsibilities to make decisions that are in favor of the organization. If the decision taken serves any personal interest of one person or a few people then it is bound to prove harmful for the organization. Therefore such decisions can bring devastating results for the entire company. However it cannot be ignored that any decision made by an employee is influenced by a number of factors since decisions are not made in a vacuum. These factors include the different thinking patterns that are employed by a person in making a choice and the various forces of influences that act upon him and determine the choice he is going to make.

Critical Thinking Patterns

One of the most important factor that determines the choice or…


McAulay, Laurie, Russell, Graeme and Sims, Julian. How Do Financial Directors Make Decisions? Management Accounting (British), (1997): Vol. 75.

McCall, Morgan, Jr. And Robert E. Kaplan. Whatever it Takes. The Realities of Decision Making. Prentice Hall 1990.

Waldersee, Robert and Sheather, Simon. The Effects Of Strategy Type On Strategy Implementation Actions. Human Relations, (1996): Vol. 49, No. 1.

UK Welfare the Following Review of Current
Words: 5011 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 7004083
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UK elfare

The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.

The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…

Works Cited

Arai, L.; (2003) British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 89 -- 102

Bingley, P.J., Douek, I.F., Rogers, C.A. And Gale, E.A.M. (2000) Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of Type 1 Diabetes in childhood: Prospective population-based family study, British Medical Journal, Vol. 321, pp 420 -- 424.

Brewer, M.; Ratcliffe, A.; dSmith, S.; (2011) Does welfare reform affect fertility: Evidence from the UK, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 245 -- 266

Doling, J. & Ford, J.; (2007) A union of homeowners? European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, pp. 113 -- 127.

Communicate to the Reader Summarize
Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 93732838
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How is the reading related to other theories, concepts, themes, and topics covered in HSBE (503/505)?

The reading relates to all the different psychological theories that are available for one to study. For example, a person can learn about Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg and Abraham Maslow. This helps someone to understand that these are crucial times in children's lives as they grow up and become adults. They need to know that they are nurtured and loved in order to make a difference in society when each of them becomes older (Hartshorne, 2010). Furthermore, the birth order of those that are the first born are considered independent and over protective of their siblings; whereas, the middle child is considered the person who is creative (Kluger, The power of birth order, 2007). The baby is the one who gets anything and everything he or she wants because of becoming the last…


Child Development Info. (2010). Birth Order. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from Child Development Institute: .

Hartshorne, J.K. (2010). How birth order affects your personalitly. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from Scientific American: .

Kluger, J. (2006, July). The New Science of Siblings. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from Pleasanton:

Kluger, J. (2007). The power of birth order. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from Time:,9171,1673284,00.html .

Friends & Companions in Children
Words: 1614 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73954507
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leason, Sebanc, and Hartrup review the findings of previous studies, including that more than half of all imaginary friends have no identifiable trigger. Additionally, children are usually not able to explain the physical appearance of their imaginary companions. Some parents have reported that children base their imaginary friends on real people or characters from movies and stories. Imaginary companions most often appear human, but can also include animals or fantastical beings such as aliens or monsters. There is not conclusive evidence as to whether it is more common for imaginary friends to appear singly or in groups, but both are common.

Bouldin and Pratt (1999) conducted a study that took this age factor into account and examined the characteristics of preschool and school-age children with imaginary companions. They distributed questionnaires to the parents of 900 children in preschools and elementary schools and obtained a sample that included participants from 2-…

Gleason, Sebanc, and Hartup (2000) discussed the lack of conclusive evidence linking social structure to imaginary friend creation in children. The results of studies attempting to explain why some children have imaginary companions while others do not are inconsistent, which is the reason more research such as the present study are vital to the developmental and psychoanalytic understanding of children.

Many studies have combined the categories of role-playing (children taking on a different persona than their own or impersonating characters), personified objects, and invisible imaginary companions, making distinguishing factors difficult to identify. The present study will be conducted only in regards to invisible imaginary friends to help solidify the conclusiveness of the data, rather than ignoring the important distinctions between these related phenomena. Gleason, Sebanc, and Hartrup review the findings of previous studies, including that more than half of all imaginary friends have no identifiable trigger. Additionally, children are usually not able to explain the physical appearance of their imaginary companions. Some parents have reported that children base their imaginary friends on real people or characters from movies and stories. Imaginary companions most often appear human, but can also include animals or fantastical beings such as aliens or monsters. There is not conclusive evidence as to whether it is more common for imaginary friends to appear singly or in groups, but both are common.

Bouldin and Pratt (1999) conducted a study that took this age factor into account and examined the characteristics of preschool and school-age children with imaginary companions. They distributed questionnaires to the parents of 900 children in preschools and elementary schools and obtained a sample that included participants from 2- to 9- years of age. The study revealed significant differences between children with imaginary companions (ICs) and children without imaginary companions (NICs) regarding their birth order, level of imaginativeness, and predisposition to engage in fantasy. A significantly larger percentage (29%) of ICs than NICs (14%) were reported to be firstborn children (Bouldin, 1999). There was also a significant difference between the two groups regarding how often and how well ICs and NICs played with other children. In the NIC group, 91% of the children were reported to play often and well with other children, compared with 82% of the children in the IC group (Bouldin, 1999). Bouldin and Pratt concluded that the significant difference in the number of reported firstborns in the IC and NIC groups substantiates the view that one function of the imaginary companion may be to subdue the loneliness of a child who does not have any siblings close in age. This conclusion, however, is merely an interpretation of the data collected regarding the number of siblings and friendships children have. No questions were asked in this study that directly address the issue of why imaginary companions were created.

Child Outcomes Based on Family Composition
Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80008094
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child can be influenced by many factors. Some of these include: race, social class and family composition. Each of these factors can directly affect how the child will grow into society and fill their role. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate how these factors may affect a child. Although race and social class are highly important factors, this review will focus on the outcome of a child based on family composition.

Family composition includes many factors in it of itself. The number of children in a family, the birth order of the child in question, and the range of ages of the children in the family are all variables to be taken into consideration. Jung was one of the first to study birth order and its effects on a child. According to Adler, "Carl Jung, was one of the first theorists to suggest that birth order influences personality. He…

Autistic Children and the Effect
Words: 2503 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 36537320
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1) Connor (2002) states that studies report findings that mothers of children with Autism "who showed greater satisfaction" in life were those "who made the clearest redefinitions and who were most willing to follow alternative ways of gaining self-fulfillment." (p. 1)


In the work entitled: 'Autism and the Family" reported is a study conducted in a 12th grade classroom at 'Our Lady of Loures High School through survey instruments completed by the children of mothers with autistic children in the age range of 4 to 36 years of age. This study reports that family outings "can be quite an ordeal for these families." (Hart, nd, p.1) for instance, when these families go on an outing, in families where it is possible two cars travel to the outing in case the child needs to be suddenly removed from the public setting due…


Greenspan, Stanley I. (2008) Understanding Autism. Parent & Child. 2008. Online available at:

Parents of Autistic Children Twice as Likely to be Mentally Ill (2008) Fox News 5 May 2008. Online available at:,2933,354192,00.html?sPage=fnc/health/mentalhealth 

Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Best Practice Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Assessment (2002) California Department of Developmental Services: 2002. Online available at: 

Gold N. 1993 Depression and social adjustment in siblings of boys with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23 147-163

Parent Trap 1 And 2
Words: 4825 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55523589
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Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment.

Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…


Family Systems institute Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique

Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy

Nabokov's Colorful Life Story Takes
Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30494498
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Although his brother features prominently in the narrative, Nabokov cannot know, as most people cannot know, what it is like to be one of a set of triplets. The mental energy and power that comes from being one of a set is in part related to the practical issues related to our upbringing, such as the need to formulate a unique identity in spite of being treated and viewed as equals. We competed for our parents' attention, unlike typical siblings whose birth order defines much of who they are in the family.

When Nabokov's family is in exile, and they live as immigrants, the comparisons between his story and my own become even more salient. The comparison raises the question: to what degree does our environment shape our identity? Is it possible to separate the self from one's culture, class, and creed?

Like Nabokov, I had a privileged childhood with…

Female Smokers in High School
Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35438712
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05 confidence level with respect to socio-economic class.

No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to parents who currently smoke.

No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to grade point average.

No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to involved sports activity.

No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to birth order.

No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist between high school female smokers and college female smokers at the.05 confidence level with respect to college major.

No statistically significant relationship or correlation will exist…

Gather Numeric Measurement Data From
Words: 464 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61867614
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In order to gather the necessary measurement data the following questionnaire will be administered to the selected samples.

The sample of 50 for each group was chosen as correlation studies with a sample of 50 correspond to correlations of 0.90 or higher. For multiple regression analysis the 50 sample size is sufficient to deal with multiple predictors.


Dear Participant: Thank you for agreeing to participate in this study in an attempt to determine whether there is a positive or negative relationship between female high school smokers and female college smokers. Please answer all questions fairly and honestly. Please do not place any personal identification information on the questionnaire.

1. Age:

2. Birth Order: First____ Middle____ Last

3. Length of time you have smoked:

4. Does your father smoke? Yes____ No_

5. Does your mother smoke? Yes____ No_

6. Do you participate in sports' activities? Yes____ No_

7. What is…

Roots in Husserl's Philosophy of
Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 68570417
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Does the research refine or add to a new theory?

The research adds to the quantitative material on the subject by adopting a qualitative, phenomenological approach. Suicide has increased alarmingly amongst African-American males (Thomas, 2009). The maternal voice is rarely, if ever, heard; Granting mothers of suicide victims this opportunity can help both practical and theoretical applied research in that social workers and counseling programs can be better structured to help families cope with the loss, as well as other programs aimed to alleviate the problem. The study may throw new light on suicide from a spiritual aspect, or from some other aspect, perhaps because it is considered taboo that has hitherto been overlooked. By describing the real experiences of African-American mothers who have lost a male child to suicide, underlying cultural and spiritual elements that render the subject taboo may emerge that will help us understand the phenomenon better.…


Calhoun, L.S., Selby, J., Faulstich, M.E. (1980). Reactions to the parents of the child suicide: A study of social impressions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 535-536.

Campbell, B. (n.d.) Phenomenology as research method. Victoria Univ. 

Crotty, M. (1998) The foundations of social research. Allen & Unwin.

Brian Cane Has Various Challenges
Words: 1346 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45013322
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Possible one-on-one interventions may include the following retention of pharmacology

Introduction of cognitive behavioral therapy where Brian is shown how to deal with and manage his thoughts as well as how to be responsible for his own behavior rather than attempting to control that of others. This is particularly helpful with Brian's self-imposed isolation

Eclectic Rogerain counseling where counselor practices empathy, non-judgmental tolerance towards client, active listening, and encouraging client to formulate his own solutions

Insight into the conduct and feelings of Brian's mother as well as specific suggestion for how to deal with the mother's seeming apathy to Brian. Understanding can revolve around previous marital concerns, as well as her present medical concerns

Insight into the behavior of his biological father and strategies that may be effective in dealing with his father's abusive behavior and/or keeping away form his father.

Strategies for dealing with his disease and insight into…

Means-Burleson, a.M. (2002). Aggression: Family and sibling correlates. Dissertation Abstracts International, 68(6B), 3015. (UMI

No. 3058213)

Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.