African States Have Been Embroiled essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

Religious Conflict -- Nigeria has a variety of regionally oriented religions, often based on tribal structure and culture. However, the two largest religions are Islam at 50% to a 48% Christian semi-minority. The northern areas tend to be Muslim, a mix in the Middle political region, and Christian in the oil rich south. Religious conflicts come into play in that most of the Muslims are quite conservative but most of the monetary power lies in the Christian regions. The minority religions are tolerated, but have no real political or social power. It is when the religious conflict aligns with the tribal conflict that more serious issues occur. This is especially true in the Delta region -- already a hot bed of ethnic issues, but when those ethnic issues also include serious religious conflicts, even more conflict appears. We should note, though, that without the ethnic and minority disagreements, it would be unlikely that religious intolerance would result in violence (Falola, 2001).

Colonialism and Big Business -- it is not surprising then, that the major conflict in the Nigerian Delta is economic in nature, with religion and ethnicity simply used as an excuse to justify militarism and human-rights abuses. By the 1980s, Nigeria had become almost completely dependent on oil for its economic base, rising to over 40% by 2000. Oil money has created vast wealth for a few, mostly governmental officials, but economic benefits are quite slow to trickle down to the peasant population. Most of the peasants, however, have been forced to leave their agricultural pursuits to either work the oil rigs or make room for more drilling areas. This has had a devastating effect on more than just the local economy. For example, annual production of both and food crops dropped significantly in the latter 20th century; cocoa production dropped by 43% (Nigeria was the world's largest cocoa exporter in 1960), rubber dropped by 29%, cotton my 65%, and groundnuts by 64%" (Okonta and Douglas, 2003).

Tensions compound because this region also has a huge population growth -- over 30 million people regionally in 2005, almost 1/4 of the total Nigerian population. This population is expanding, yet poverty and urbanization issues -- combined with the fact that official corruption is a given, has resulted in a scenario in which there is great urban poverty and dissatisfaction which also results in destroying the ecosystem that the population needs to sustain itself ("Rivers and Blood," 2005).

Conclusions -- the resulting complexity of conflicts, point-of-view, and forces is overwhelming. There is a government contingent that continues to promise the oil companies safety and stability, yet the Islamic backed Mujahid Dokubo Asari declared an all-out war with the Nigerian State, Foreign Corporations, and foreign investors. They also threatened to disrupt oil production activities by disabling wells and pipelines, the treat taken seriously enough that Shell evacuated over 200 non-essential personnel from its two fields; cutting oil production by 30,000 barrels per day -- likely one of the consequences desired by the splinter group. Even in 2010, Shell is reporting attacks on its Nigerian stations, this time responsibility claimed by the People's Patriotic Revolutionary Force of the Joint Revolutionary Council, sounding clearly like a nationalist-Marxist group, muddying the mix even more (Gambrell, 2010). Attacks on the Niger Delta have helped increase oil prices worldwide, leading to a situation in which the United Nations, most developed countries, and over two dozen individual Nigerian groups all vying for power in a single area. The situation thus remains complex, untenable, and likely unsolvable in the short-term.


"2008 Human Rights Report: Nigeria." (February 25, 2009). United States Department of State.

Cited in:

Aminu, a. (April 13, 2008). "IMF Forecasts 9% Growth for Nigeria." AllAfrica.Com.

Cited in:

Dibua, J. (2006). Modernization and the Crisis of Development in Africa: The Nigerian

Experience. Ashgate Publishing.

Falola, T. (2001). Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious Politics and Secular Ideologies.

Gambrell, J. (March 3, 2010)."Shell Reports Attack on Nigeria Oil Flow Station." The Associate

Press. Cited in:

Okonta, I. And O. Douglas. (2003). Where Vultures Feast: Shell, Human Rights, and Oil.

Verso Publishers.

Omeje, K. (2006). High Stakes and Stakeholders: Oil Conflict and Security in Nigeria.

Ashgate Publishing.

"Rivers and Blood: Guns, Oil and Power in Nigeria's River State."( February 2005).

Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper. Cited in:

"The Price of Oil -- Corporate Responsibility and Human Rights Violations in Nigeria's

Oil Producing Communities." (1999). Human Rights Watch. Cited in:…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"African States Have Been Embroiled" (2010, March 05) Retrieved December 9, 2016, from

"African States Have Been Embroiled" 05 March 2010. Web.9 December. 2016. <>

"African States Have Been Embroiled", 05 March 2010, Accessed.9 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Civil War Most of Us

    In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals. White Supremacy Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners

  • United States Has Waged a War on

    United States has waged a "War on Drugs." Within this endeavor the nation has passed and implanted some extremely tough laws regarding drugs, on a local, state and national level. The laws are meant to act as a deterrent for those who abuse drugs by way of sales, manufacturing and use. The laws send people to prisons for a long time as well as create probation and parole status

  • Democratic Presidential Candidate Barack Obama s

    S. To become legal, U.S. citizens (Alba, online at ( pathway was created in 2001, under Section 245 of the Life Act Amnesty of 2000 (Porter, 16). If it fails, Obama can pass the buck to the Bush Administration for implementing the plan. It also leaves the door open for Obama to do a new amnesty program at some point during his administration, to make good on his campaign promise

  • How Did Kennedy and His Administration Effect the Civil Rights Movement...

    Kennedy and the Civil Rights Movement John Fitzgerald Kennedy, or JFK, served the President of the United States for less than a single full term in the early 1960s after serving in Congress for several terms before this. He was elected in 1960 and took office the following January, promising to explore new frontiers and bring the country to new heights. In late November of 1963, he was assassinated in Dallas,

  • Stereotypes Media the Media Has

    The Sopade (underground messages to the Social Democratic Party's headquarters in exile) confirmed that a plurality of attitudes towards Jews -- ranging from virulent hatred to apathy and indifference -- continued to exist during the Third Reich and that these attitudes were shaped as much by geographical, class, and religious affiliations as by propaganda (Brown, 2002)." An example of Christian in 2004, Director Mel Gibson became embroiled in controversy for

  • Water in the Middle East

    While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to

  • Affirmative Action Is an Issue

    This is a particular problem at the nation's colleges and universities. This has become so much of an issue that law suits and verdicts have been handed down in some states. One of the most famous cases to date involved the University of Michigan's undergraduate and law school policies. These cases are Gratz v. Bollinger and Grutter v. Bollinger. In 1997, Jennifer Gratz, a white woman, sued the University of

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved