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Nigeria is one of the largest economies in Africa, with a GDP of $414 billion, ranking it 31st in the world (CIA orld Factbook, 2012). Nigeria also has tremendous human capital with 170 million people, the 7th-highest in the world. Despite the wealth that comes to the country from its oil reserves, economic growth in Nigeria is hampered by both corruption and a dearth of infrastructure. There are many areas where the infrastructure can be improved. For a business investor, the areas that will make the best investment are those where a return on investment can be realized.
The first such investment would be in power grids. The country's production is 70th in the world, much lower than its GDP, indicating some level of underdevelopment. Adeninkinju (2005) notes that power outages cost Nigerian businesses in 1990 was 1 billion nairas. In addition, many businesses are forced in invest in generators…
Adenikinju, A. (2005). Analysis of the cost of infrastructure failures in a developing economy: The case of the electricity sector in Nigeria. AERC Research Paper No. 148.
Business Day. (2011) CBN, banks in $15bn transportation infrastructure plan. Frontier Market Intelligence. Retrieved March 18, 2012 from http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/news/187069.htm
CIA World Factbook. (2012). Nigeria. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 18, 2012 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html?countryName=Nigeria&countryCode=ni®ionCode=afr&rank=31#ni
Nigerian Ports Authority. (2008). Investment opportunities in the port sector. Nigerian Ports Authority. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from http://www.nigerianports.org/dynamicdata/uploads/Microsoft%20PowerPoint%20-%20CHINA%20FORUM.pdf
Nigeria Market Entry Strategy Somebody's Mother's Chocolate Sauce, LLC
Export opportunity for ginger and cocoa
Somebody's Mother's Chocolate Sauce, LLC is manufacturer and processor of cocoa located in Houston, TX with gross annual sales of approximately $700,000 per year (Manta, 2010). The fluctuating costs of cocoa and the introduction of a new ginger-based product have prompted the company to seek export opportunities in Nigeria to vertically integrate its sources of cocoa and for ginger to expansion of its chocolate sauce sales. The company also plans to sell some of the cocoa beans and ginger wholesale for a profit to other chocolate processors in its local and regional market. In the long-term the Company may explore producing its chocolate sauce in Nigeria for export to European markets.
B. Entry Mode
Somebody's Mother's Chocolate Sauce, LLC (the "Company") is new to the international market and believes the most successful avenue to begin…
Alibaba.com (2010). His Mercy Exporters & Investment. Retrieved December 03, 2010 from: http://www.alibaba.com/member/ng110369470.html
ICON Group International (2007, June). Executive Report on Strategies in Nigeria. Retrieved December 03, 2010 from: http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=603074
International Cocoa Organization (2010, December 3). ICOO Daily Prices of Cocoa Beans. Retrieved December 03, 2010 from: http://www.icco.org/statistics/daily_prices.aspx
Manta (2010, June 15). Somebody's Mother's Chocolate Sauces, LLC. Retrieved December 03, 2010 from: http://www.manta.com/c/mtvkdm3/somebody-s-mother-s-chocolate-sauce-llc
Yet, Kay eller speaks of geography as "concerned with spatial differentiation," which is to say that anyone who is going to understand the problem from a geographical perspective must look at Nigeria's human geography -- in other words, Nigeria's regions. eller goes on to state that "ethnic geography is important to an overall understanding of Nigerian human geography. One definition of an ethnic group is that of a group of people with a common language, common values and beliefs, and a common material culture." In Nigeria, "tremendous cultural and ethnic diversity" exists, which means that multiple languages, values and beliefs can be found within a small, relatively localized area. Hausaland, Yorubaland, and Igboland, for example, are home to Nigeria's three largest ethnic groups. Most smaller groups have similar core territories, which they claim as their home regions. As with all human geography, these ethnic regions are neither static nor fixed.…
"Collaborating with Corporations." Savage Minds -- Notes and Queries in Anthropology.
8 Oct 2006. Web. 26 Mar 2011.
"Deadly Collusion." New Internationalist, March 1999. Web. 26 Mar 2011.
Dowd, Robert; Hoffman, Michael. "Religion, Gender and Political Participation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda." Midwest Political Science Association: 67th Annual National Conference, the Palmer House Hilton. Chicago, IL: 2 Apr 2009. Web. 26 Mar 2011.
Few if any of the militant groups in Nigeria using the weapons have the means to obtain these weapons directly; instead, they are typically purchased by otherwise legitimate Nigerian businessmen from illicit manufacturers and distributors and traded for oil "bunkered" (stolen) by the groups themselves (Keili 2008). Nigeria and other countries in the region placed bans on the importing, exporting, or manufacturing of most small arms and weapons within their borders as far back as 1998, but Nigeria is known to have especially porous borders on both land and sea, and lax export controls in many weapons supplier countries have exacerbated the problems caused by Nigeria's sudden wealth but lack of security and infrastructure still further.
The issue is made still more complex by the political situation within Nigeria. Groups like the Movement for the Emancipation of the Nigerian Delta claim that their country -- or their specific region --…
BBC News. (2006). "Nigeria's shadowy oil rebels." April 2006. Accessed 14 May 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4732210.stm
Keili, F. (2008). "Small arms and light weapons transfer in West Africa:
A stock-taking." Disarmament forum. Accessed 14 May 2009. http://www.unidir.org/pdf/articles/pdf-art2832.pdf
Thachuk, K. (2007). Transnational Threats Smuggling and Trafficking in Arms, Drugs, and Human Life. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Nigeria faces a number of obstacles to becoming a modernized state. The country is currently ranked 32nd in the world in GDP, but 182nd in GDP per capita (CIA orld Factbook, 2011). These figures are inflated by oil revenues that most of the country's people never see, as 70% of the population lives below the poverty line and the country ranks 147th in gross fixed investment and 183rd in education expenditure as a percentage of GDP. The country has major issues in AIDS, corruption, political instability, socio-religious conflict and a lack of economic diversification. There is hope for Nigeria, however, as many Nigerians work and become educated overseas, bringing back money and ideas to the country, in addition to estern standards of ethics and governance. This may help Nigeria overcome some of its issues, but the socio-religious schism may ultimately prove the most challenging.
Nigeria is an artificial country, carved…
Alabi, A. (2010). Management of conflicts and crises in Nigeria: Educational planner's view. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 2 (6) 311-315.
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Nigeria. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html
Ngwane, M. (2010). The ethnicisation of the oil conflict in the Niger delta. Ngwane.com Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.gngwane.com/2010/05/the-ethnicisation-of-the-oil-conflict-in-the-niger-delta.html
Salawu, B. (2010). Ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria: Causal analysis and proposals for new management strategies. European Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 13 (3) 345-353.
" Also 48 winners of the Nobel Prize (in Europe and the est) urged that there be a new election because the evidence of fraud was so blatant. I know you are aware of the fact that the European Parliament passed a resolution that urged the European Union of nations to stop sending financial aid to Nigeria "...until fresh elections are held." One of our most prominent political scientists - Rotimi Suberu - who is living in the United States (and working as a fellow with the U.S. Institute of Peace) said, "...There is a sense of disenchantment." And Suberu also said that the major challenge now for you is to "...salvage the legitimacy of government," and yet people will be willing to accept you if you make major strides toward political reform. Like other scholars from Nigeria, Suberu is part of the brain drain; we must make the country…
Daily Independent. (2007). Editorial: Mr. President's Inaugural Speech. Retrieved August 22, 2007 at http://www.independentonline.com .
Edirin, Etaghene. (2007). Yar'Adua Presidency Not Legitimate - NBA. All Africa. Retrieved August 23, 2007, at http://allafrica.com .
Journalists Against AIDS Nigeria. (2007). Nigeria HIV / AIDS News. Retrieved August 23, 2007 from http://www.nigeria-aids.org/index.cfm .
Miller, Talea. (2007). Nigerian President Sworn in Following Controversial Election. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved August 22, 2007, at http://www.pbs.org .
Traditional social hierarchy, which was practiced in pre-colonial times, survived in the form of ethical norms. Nigerians are very respectful to the holders of traditional titles such as chief, emir, Oba or Eze; as in ancient times chiefs' role was semi-divine as they were considered to be appointed by supreme powers. Holders of these titles take high positions in modern community hierarchy, especially in rural areas. Inner tribe relations based on traditional hierarchy play a very important role in country's government activities and politics in general. It's very important to note that the title of chief for Nigerians is often of a higher merit than doctoral degree.
Because Nigeria is a patriarchal society, most of household work is done by women, which are helped either by relatives or by servants, depending upon their social status. Nigerian husbands in majority do not have household chores, which is influenced both by African…
Gugler, J., and W.G. Flanagan.. Urbanization and Social Change in West Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1978
Aronson, D.R.. The City is Our Farm. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman1980
Toying Falola History of Nigeria Greenwood Press, 1999
The Dreams, Vision and Myth of Nigerian Reality, Article available online:
Nigeria UK respect
Comparison Between ights and Employment in Nigeria and in the UK
The issue regarding employment is an important issue in all countries, no matter their level of civilization and development. Although rules and regulations regarding employment are being continuously improved, there are certain categories that are not satisfied with the progresses made by authorities in the rights of employment field. These categories, whether they belong to the public or to the private sector, feel disfavored by certain aspects stipulated in employment laws.
Each country establishes employment rules in accordance with the characteristics of the country in case and of its workforce. There are clear differences between employment laws in developed countries and those in developing regions, like Africa and Asia. However, there are several similarities between these countries and their approach to employment rights.
In Nigeria, the employment rights are established by the Labor Act in the…
1. Labor Act (1990). Nigeria Law. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.nigeria-law.org/LabourAct.htm .
2. Employment Terms and Conditions (2010). Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/Employees/index.htm .
3. Basic Rights at Work (2010). Citizens Advice Bureau. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.adviceguide.org.uk/index/life/employment/basic_rights_at_work.htm .
Nigeria and the impact of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and orld Bank, and the impacts of those institutions in the country. The IMF is "an organization of 188 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty" (IMF, 2013). The IMF works primarily with governments and financial institutions, including with central banks. The IMF has also become involved in cutting fuel subsidies, which then increases the price of fuel in the economy. This is intended as a measure to stop smuggling and bring market forces to bear but it also reduces the ability of many to get out of poverty as more of their budgets will be spent on fuel (Engdahl, 2012). The IMF has also become involved in guiding fiscal and monetary policy in many nations, Nigeria included. For example, it has recently warned…
Abiola, A. & Olofin, O. (2008). Foreign aid, food supply, and poverty reduction in Nigeria. MPRA Paper. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16263/
Canada. (2013). Nigeria. Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/Nigeria-e
Engdahl, W. (2012). Geopolitical stakes in Nigeria: Curious role of the IMF. RT.com Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://rt.com/news/
IMF (2013). About the IMF. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.imf.org/external/about.htm
Naegleria Fowleri in Florida: Pathways and Consequences
Effects on Humans
N. Fowleri in Florida
Naegleria fowleri in Florida: Pathways and Consequences
Complex Life Cycle
This section describes the life cycle of N. fowleri and describes the results of representative studies to date.
Fowler & Carter (1965);
Abraham & Lawande (1982);
de Jonckheere & Voorde (1977);
Jonckheere, Van Dijcka and van de Voorde (1975);
Ugonabo & Gugnani (1989); and,
This section describes the pathways by which humans can become infected by the N. fowleri amoeba.
Paracer & Ahmadjian (2000);
Fowler & Carter (1965); and,
Effects on Humans
A description of the N. fowleri's effect on humans is provided in this section.
Visvesvara, Moura and Schuster (2007);
Matthews, S., Ginzl, D., Walsh, D. et al. (2008);
3. Bakalar (2003);
N. Fowleri in Florida
Finally, a description…
Abraham, S.N. & Lawande, R.V. (1982, October). Incidence of free-living amoebae in the nasal passages of local population in Zaria, Nigeria. The Journal of Tropical Medicine And
Hygiene, 85(5), 217-222.
Bakalar, N. (2003). Where the germs are: A scientific safari. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Chang, S.L. (1978, February). Resistance of pathogenic Naegleria to some common physical and chemical agents. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 35(2), 368 -- 375.
Nigeria: A Country eport
As a federal republic in West Africa, the country of Nigeria, formerly a British dependency, became an independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations in 1960. In 1961, Nigeria became part of the British Cameroons, a trust territory of the United Nations. In 1963, Nigeria adopted a republican constitution, yet it retained its membership in the Commonwealth.
By far the most populous country in Africa, the population estimates for Nigeria vary greatly; however, due to its vast natural resources, the country has managed to support an ever-expanding population. One of the most important events in Nigeria which has highly influenced its current economic state was the discovery of oil in 1959. In addition, traditional agriculturists in all regions of Nigeria have learned to use and exploit the nature of various soils through plant selection and by allowing a good portion of the land to remain unfarmed.…
"A Country Study: Nigeria." (October 1, 2004). Internet. Country Studies. Library of Congress. Accessed April 23, 2005. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ngtoc.html .
Folayan, Adekunle. (1983). Agriculture and Economic Development in Nigeria. New York: Vantage Press.
Nelson, Harold D. (1982). Nigeria: A Country Study. 4th ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
"Nigeria." (February 10, 2005). Internet. CIA World Factbook. Accessed April 23, 2005. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ni.html .
Entrepreneurs in Nigeria
The ole of Entrepreneurs in Nigeria's Past and Continuing Development
The ole of Entrepreneurs in Nigeria's Past and Continuing Development
Entrepreneurship has long been regarded as a practice in which an owner or manager of a business enterprise makes money through taking risks and further taking initiative (Deakins and Freel, 2009, p.4). Traditionally, entrepreneurs have been seen as individuals who are willing to launch a new venture or enterprise and accept full responsibility for the outcome (Levesque and Minniti, 2010, p.305). Such business maneuvers and strategies employed by such entrepreneurs have the capacity to shape an area's entire economic standing. In terms of development, countries with strong entrepreneurial backgrounds have had the capacity to both develop quickly and maintain a significant economic standing in both the international and their respective domestic markets. The utilization of a true entrepreneurial spirit has long had the capacity to shape a…
Ahiauzu, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship and economic development in Nigeria: the way forward. Africa, 1.1: pp 278-296. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Bamkole, P. (2007 March 1). The entrepreneurship challenge in Nigeria. Web. Retrieved
from: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1675 , on 7 October 2011.
Bizcovering. (2008 May 24). The history of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Web. Retrieved
The motivation on the part of the exploited Nigerian nationals is simply to receive a few thousand (or even a few hundred) dollars, which represent much larger value in impoverished areas than those amounts of money do to the purchasers. On the part of the prospective purchasers, money is less often the issue because the main obstacle to receiving organs for transplant in more developed countries is the fundamental limitation on the source of such organs (Osita, 2003). Most developed countries have strict laws prohibiting the sale for profit of human organs and therefore, the main source of donor organs are cadavers who are typically accident victims.
While this explains the demand, the factors responsible for the ready supply of human organs in Nigeria (and other similar communities) is simply that public corruption has become epidemic and systemic within the local government and regulatory agencies responsible for enforcing human rights…
Osita, A. "Corruption and Human Trafficking: The Nigerian Case" West Africa Review,
Vol. 4, No. 1; (2003).
The Ministry of Women Affairs had been present always; however it was a waning organization under the military rule. In some of the states the Ministry of women affairs was headed by men, but ever since the initiation of the democratic era, the Commissions are presently made responsible to the Ministry of Women Affairs since they are functioning collaboratively with civil society functionaries. (Nigerian women fairing well)
Nigeria authorized the conclusion of all four United Nations World Conferences on Women since 1975 inclusive of the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies - NFLS in 1985 and took part at the 1995 Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women and from then on dedicated herself to the encouragement of gender impartiality. A Women's Department in the Federal Capital Territory - FCT, Abuja was formed in the thirty-six States of the Federation for the intention of growing common grassroots' partaking in the execution of the…
Actual Women Situation in Nigeria. Retrieved at http://www.wildaf-ao.org/eng/article.php3?id_article=46Accessed on 21 March, 2005
AFROL Gender Profiles: Nigeria. Retrieved at http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/nigeria_women.htm. Accessed on 22 March, 2005
Thompson, Elsie. Women's Political Participation in Nigeria. 16 September, 1999. Retrieved at http://www.sdnp.undp.org/ww/women-power/msg00188.html. Accessed on 21 March, 2005
Imoukhuede, Nogi. Female Genital Mutilation - FGM. Workshop on FGM and Violence against women: Senate Committee on women affairs and youth. Benin City, Edo State. 19 July, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.rufarm.kabissa.org/articles/fgm.htm
Performance of Stated Owned Enterprise in Nigeria
A State-Owned enterprise is certainly one where government carries a share with controlling equity, as well as, has a great deal of influence in the day-to-day affairs of the enterprise. Numerous elements made up higher government involvement within the institution of businesses in Nigeria. During independence and also thereafter, the non-public sector had been extremely fragile to muster sufficient investment resources required for industrialization and also growth. Their State-Owned enterprises had been additionally required to offer social services as well as tools which had been designed to have external impact on all the other sectors involving the country's economy, as well as whose social level of profit surpassed the non-public level of eturn on investment. With all of these elements as well as the windfall of oil during 1970s, an extremely dominating State-Owned enterprises began appearing and also by 1980, they made up…
Akinlo, A.E., Nassar, M.L., 1999. An assessment of privatisation program in Nigeria. International Journal of Studies Humanities 1 & 2, 26 -- 37.
Beesley, Little-Child, 1983. Privatization; principles and priorities. Lloyds Bank Review 149, July.
Efange, P. 1987. "An overview of Public and Private Enterprises in Africa: Role, Status, Scope, Performance and Challenges for Implementing the Lagos Plan of Action" In Proceedings of the Africans Association of Public Administration and Management. Sixth Round Table Conference held in Blantyre, Public Enterprises Performance and the Privatization Debate: A Review of the option for Africa. India: Vikas Publishing House PVT LTD India.
Hayford, A., 1999. Usman cautions Nigerians on privatization. Nigerian Tribune, Monday, 6th December.
It was in this backdrop of economic instability that economic nationalism also reared its ugly head. International crooks and foreign multinational companies rushed in and used both legal and illegal methods to gain contracts for supplying all sorts of stuff like stock fish, frozen chicken and meat, cars, and custom-made wine. Outlandish contracts were even given for supplying water and firewood to military barracks and prisons. Foreign governments and countries in connivance with the corrupt Nigerian bourgeoisie simply exploited the gullible Nigerians. (Gearey, 41); (Ihonvbere, 33)
As Belgium's King Leopold had famously said, "I do not want to miss a good chance of getting us a slice of this magnificent African cake." (Ayyash; Hendershot) Mineral-rich Africa is viewed only as an object to be consumed by the resource-hungry developed nations of the world and not as a "subject of the future." This is all the more evident by the following…
Ayyash, Mark; Hendershot, Chris. Development and Security in Africa's 'American
Lake': The Political Economy of Oil and Exploitation. Violent Interventions: Selected Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the York Centre for International and Security Studies. York Centre for International and Security Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario. 2008.
Concannon, Tim. Shell Fights Fires over Niger Delta Oil Spill. Pambazuka News, vol.
It focuses on relationships as the basis for solving problems. As such, it can lead to the decrease in depressive symptoms according to local cultural practice. Interpersonal therapy has also proved to be effective in treating depressive symptoms of patients who are HIV-positive. This is considered quite important, considering the high prevalence of HIV incidence in Africa (ass).
With the findings of trials on the efficacy of psychotherapy as an approach to depression in Nigeria, researchers believe that membership of an interpersonal psychotherapy group proved more effective in controlling the disorder than not becoming a member. Interpersonal psychotherapy perceives depression as developing out of disturbed human relationships or triggered by stressful life events (ass). Considering the overall environment and situations in Nigeria, depression is not unlikely to occur and prevail. Interventions, such as psychotherapy, can reduce symptoms in disturbed personal relationships, although the political, cultural and economic aspects require other…
Acharya, Keya. Poverty and Mental Health in the Developing World. Contemporary Review: Contemporary Review Company Ltd., 2001
Bandru, F.A. Deconstructing Determinants and Patterns of Wife Battering in Lagos
State, Nigeria. Vol. 1 Issue 3. Sexuality in Africa: Africa Regional Sexuality
Resource Center, 2004
Performance of state owned enterprises in Nigeria reflects the necessity of studying this issue. It seems that in most countries, the performance in public management is more difficult to evaluate in comparison with the private sector. This is because in the case of private companies performance is reflected in their sales volume, in their incomes level, in their production ability, and other indicators. But public entities do not produce, sell, or commercialize products, making it difficult to evaluate their performance.
Therefore, the real question in such cases is how to measure performance in the public sector, and what does performance mean in the case of public management. Certain state owned enterprises can produce and sell certain goods. In such cases, their performance is measured by private sector standards. However, the implication of the state in the management of such enterprises makes it difficult to identify and to analyze their level…
1. Nigeria Economy (2010). Economy Watch. Retrieved June 4, 2013 from http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/nigeria/ .
2. Esu, B. & Inyang, B. (2009). A Case for Performance Management in the Public Sector in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
3. Omran, M. (2003). The Performance of State Owned Enterprises and Newly Privatized Firms: Empirical Evidence from Egypt. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
4. Adeyemo, D. (2008). A Review of Privatization and Public Enterprises Reform in Nigeria. Contemporary Management Research.
Military Cooperation between Nigeria and The Gambia: Strategic Factor for Regional Security
1. Geo-strategic importance of The Gambia
Gambia represents a region of geo-strategic importance for Nigeria in the fight against the Boko Haram (Touray, 2015) as well as in maintaining influence in West Africa. Nigerians currently represent the largest population of foreign nationals in Gambia (Punch, 2018) and to keep political peace in the region (Blomfield, 2017). The hesitation of Yahya Jammeh to hand over power to the duly elected Adama Barrow was a signal to the other West African states that Gambian politics might undermine the ECOWAS and create problems for them. Nigeria quickly pledged to send military forces to ensure that the democratically elected Barrow was inaugurated.
The Gambia is viewed as rich in mineral resources and as an important waterway, and Nigeria would like to strengthen trade relations with The Gambia for this reason. As The…
Aning, K. (2014). Transnational security threats and challenges to peacekeeping in Mali. conflict trends, 2014(2), 11-17.
Blomfield, A. (2017). West African states prepare to invade Gambia. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/16/west-african-states-prepare-invade-gambia-force-yahya-jammeh/
Cham, L. (2013). Nigeria clocks 53—Relations with Gambia grows. Retrieved from http://thepoint.gm/africa/gambia/article/nigeria-clocks-53-relations-with-gambia-grows
Dwyer, M. (2017). Fragmented forces: The development of the Gambian military. African Security Review, 26(4), 362-377.
Hadebe, S. (2017). The Gambia and the geopolitics of West Africa. Retrieved from https://shadebe.wordpress.com/2017/01/22/the-gambia-and-the-geopolitics-of-west-africa/
Hartmann, C. (2017). ECOWAS and the Restoration of Democracy in The Gambia. Africa Spectrum, 52(1), 85-99.
Independent. (2018). Nigeria, Gambia sign MoU. Retrieved from https://independent.ng/nigeria-gambia-sign-mou-to-promote-facilitate-trade-cooperation/
Iyanda, R. O., & Osundina, K. C. (2014). Youth unemployment and human trafficking in Nigeria/Gambia: the role of human security provisioning. Global Journal of Political Science and Administration, 2(3), 11-22.
public policy fo epoductive health in Nigeia should not be without fist ecognizing the global issues that bea upon the county's public health system and the state of its people. Today the county continues to enew its effot in sustaining public health with vigoous plans and new pogams that will be eviewed in this study. But any new poposal must also undestand the depth of the county's poblems and some of the easons fo it. This would help in the fomulation of a poposal fo public policy fo epoductive health.
Nigeia eflects the devastation of health of the people of Sub-Sahaa Afica. It is a eflection shaed by the stuggling health systems of most of the counties of that ealm. Acoss the egion these county's have povety levels that esult in some of the wold's lowest life expectancy ates along with the wold's highest matenal and child moality ates. Nigeia…
references for benefit packages for community-based health insurance: An exploratory study in Nigeria. BMC Health Services Research, 10(162). Accessed at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/10/162/
Onwujekw, O., et al. 2010b. Willingness to pay for community-based health insurance in Nigeria: do economic status and place of residence matter? Health Policy and Planning, 25(2), pp. 155-161.
O'Neil, Jr. E. 2009. Poverty, structural violence, and racism in a world out of balance. Race/Ethnicty: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, 3(1), pp. 114-138
Scott-Emuakpor, A. 2010. The evolution of health care systems in Nigeria: Which waiy forward in the 21st Century. Nigeria Medical Journal, 51(2), pp. 53-65.
The World Health Organization. 2002. WHO country cooperation strategy: Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2001-2007. Brazzavelle: WHO Regional Office for Africa.
Efficiency of Medical Laboratories in Nigeria
Recent examinations of laboratory equipment in Nigeria show clear inefficiencies that are causing Nigerians to seek medical treatment elsewhere (Petti et al., 2006). he general goal of this current research is thus to better understand the medical environment in Nigeria in order to pinpoint the clear factors that are failing to serve the medical needs of the people. A lot of it could be based inefficiencies in the operation of medical laboratories in the country. Exploring these inefficiencies will then lead to potential recommendations that could improve the situation in Nigeria and increase the quality of care for the nation's citizens, while also boosting the industry's revenues by keeping Nigerians from leaving the country to find better medical treatment. Any potential findings could help lead an example for other global populations experiencing public health management problems from a medical laboratories perspective.
Specific Objectives of…
This study will incorporate a number of professionals actually working in the field in Nigeria. The sample frame includes 130 professional medical laboratory scientists at the University College Hospital in Ibadan in Oyo State, Nigeria. Using the sample size determination formula with a confidence level of 95% and a confidence interval of 4, the appropriate sample size would then be a total of 107 participants. Thus, it is from this sample size that data tables will be calculated and later analyzed by the study's chosen methodology.
The data could then be compiled and analyzed through descriptive statistics. This would be exploring not only the median, but the mode, meaning the amount of frequency of certain responses. This current research will use of the Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) which is provided by the World Health Organization. According to WHO, "The SARA survey is designed to generate a set of core indicators on key inputs and outputs of the health system, which can be used to measure progress in health systems strengthening over time" (WHO, 2014). Here, data from a sample can be analyzed based on the mean ranks of the participants' responses in order to help uncover potential problems in the health care system as it is running in medical laboratories. Again, the
Customers' Satisfaction in Nigerian Telecommunication Industry
Nigerian telecommunication industry has developed to become increasingly competitive since various companies have enhanced their strategies and focus on gaining more subscribers. The various telecommunication companies have not only created new products and services for customers but also adopted aggressive marketing strategies that are largely centered on the needs, wants, and preferences of customers. Therefore, one of the major factors for the growth and success of telecommunication companies in Nigeria is customers' satisfaction. Customers' satisfaction in this industry is strongly linked to meeting their needs, wants, and preferences. In light of the competitiveness of Nigerian telecommunication industry, this research proposal is for examining customers' satisfaction based on the case of MTN and Etisalat Nigeria.
Background of the esearch Issue
As previously mentioned the Nigerian telecommunication industry has become more competitive as companies develop new products and services and adopt aggressive marketing strategies (Egena, 2013,…
Abdul, FA, Salman, A & Olota, OO 2014, 'Impact of Customer Satisfaction on Mobile Telecommunication Service Provider', Journal of Research in National Development, vol. 12, no. 2, pp.139-152.
Egena, O 2013, 'Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telephony: An Analysis of Major Telecommunication Service Providers in Nigeria', Asian Journal of Management Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp.1-11.
Oghojafor, BEA, Ladipo, KAP, Ighomereho, OS & Odunewu, AV 2014, 'Determinants of Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Nigerian Telecommunications Industry', British Journal of Marketing Studies, vol. 2, no. 5, pp.67-83.
Ojo, O 2010, 'The Relationship Between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in the Telecommunication Industry: Evidence From Nigeria', Broad Research in Accounting, Negotiation, and Distribution, vol. 1, no. 1, pp.88-100.
1 EFFECTSOF DEFENCE FUNDING AND OPERATIONAL READINESS OF THE NIGERIAN ARMY
21. Defence funding is a unique challenge for the Nigerian Army (NA). Identifying a fair and efficient manner for how funds are budgeted and allocated is the main problem. The following paragraphs discuss these issues. NATIONAL DEFENCE POLICY
22. Nations typically allocate funds for defence in an annual budget. Nigeria’s national budgetary framework provides funding according to the needs evinced by the country’s various economic sectors. Defence has only received a bare minimum of funding for this reason. As Annex D indicates, less than 1% of GDP goes to defence, which is well under the NDP’s recommendation of 1.5% to 3%.[endnoteRef:2] As a result, the NA is underfunded. [2: . Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Defence Policy, p.59.]
23. The NDP guides the NA in practical aspects. The problem is that the NDP is so little consulted when the…
Proposal to Build Cinemas on the University of Lagos Campus
To the University of Lagos,
EbonyLife is at the cusp of a groundbreaking new era of entertainment in Nigeria. It offers a rich, diverse, engaging and award-winning array of fine films, comedies, dramas, talk shows and much more for today’s Nigerian audiences. EbonyLife has partnered with numerous entities over the years to bring culture, enlightenment and entertainment to people in a number of venues. Today, we at EbonyLife want to grow our cinematic presence and partner with the University of Lagos in the development of a 3-screened cinema of 500 sq. meters on the University’s campus.
The purpose of this project is to provide students and employees at the University with the opportunity to be part of the next stage of evolution that is happening at EbonyLife and throughout all Nigeria in the arts and entertainment industry. Being at the…
It is an unfortunate truth that much of what puts Lagos and the wider country of Nigeria in the spotlight is commonly negative and skewed against both geographical areas. However, the emergence of the movie “The Royal Hibiscus Hotel at the Toronto International Film Festival is going to change that for the better. Indeed, that title is the only Nigerian film that will be shown at the festival. Even with that movie only being one of many that will be shown at the same, it is still a ripe and perfect opportunity to show the progress that Lagos has made. It can be said that much of what has happened in the past of Lagos is not positive. However, there is a litany of stories that show a number of important facts about Lagos and Nigeria that people should know.
First, Lagos and the wider country of Nigeria is the…
Agbiboa, D.E. (2013a). Peace at Daggers Drawn? Boko Haram and the State of Emergency in Nigeria. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37(1): 41-67.
One of the leading analysts on Boko Haram here provides a detailed overview of the group, discussing how Boko Haram emerged out of the chaotic instability in northern Nigeria, what specific demands and issues the group has presented and how those demands have changed, how they recruit, and also the methods Boko Haram uses to facilitate and carry out its operations. According to Abgiboa (2013a), "more than 3,500 people have died in Nigeria since 2009," (p. 41). Negotiations with the group have failed, due in part to "distrust on both sides" as well as Boko Haram's factionalization (p. 41). The factions emerging in Boko Haram may offer clues as to how to destabilize the group from the inside.
Agbiboa, D.E. (2013b). Why Boko Haram Exists:…
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
United States from Nigeria in order to add to my life and career experience. I began my venture by joining the United States Navy. My main motivation for this was to raise the necessary funds to enroll in a college. After one year I was honorably discharged as a result of glaucoma, and I could not raise the funds that I needed. This however did not deter me from my plans and I enrolled in a local community college instead. Here I made the Dean's list after one semester, and received a scholarship. It is also here that I continued to develop my interest in finance and banking.
One of the reasons I want to continue with graduate work in this field then is the fact that my work and studies so far have unlocked the world of finance for me, and I find the pursuit of the field extremely…
Ending Terrorism in Africa: Diverging Approaches for Fighting Boko Haram Insurgency
Boko Haram insurgency has been a plague to peace and prosperity in Nigeria. In recent years, the organization has become increasingly more violent and connected with transnational terrorist organizations. Boko Haram threatens to destabilize Nigeria, as the group has carried out attacks on Nigerian infrastructure in addition to high-profile events like the abduction of school children in 2014 (Blanchard, 2014). Although the roots of Boko Haram can be traced to global Islamic fundamentalism, in Nigeria there are a host of more salient political, social, and economic problems that have made it possible for Boko Haram to become increasingly powerful and relevant. The responses to Boko Haram have failed to address these underlying causes, instead relying on reactionary tactics including violence or simply remaining indifferent to the situation Anyadike (2013). A sensible and workable strategy is needed to eliminate Boko…
Dynamic Capabilities at NLNG
Nigeria LNG is an extraction and shipping company focused on capitalizing on the natural gas resources located in the country of Nigeria, which are considerable. Founded in 1989 and truly beginning operations in 1995 after a diversity of investors provided the necessary capital, the company is still growing, becoming ever more successful and efficient at tapping the large amount of reserves and resource potential that the natural gas deposits of the country represent (NLNG 2011). The company has largely devoted itself to diversifying its product offerings through enhanced extraction and refining techniques, as well as improving the delivery methods for its products through its control of the outgoing supply chain and its use of both gaseous and liquid-form natural gas, which also increases the number of transportation options and the efficiency of shipping (NLNG 2011). These innovations have been a major factor in the success and…
Other researchers have found that in what are termed "high velocity" industries, focusing on things like product differentiation, meeting challenges in a proactive manner, and reconfiguring operations (Wirtz et al. 2007). Again, it is through a focus on these internal elements rather than explicitly and directly engaging in external competition that companies achieve success, according to this framework (Wirtz et al. 2007). Leadership at Nigeria LNG has been dedicated to developing innovative and company-specific solutions to the challenges that arise, and has diversified as rapidly as possible to capitalize proactively and efficiently, matching this framework quite closely (NLNG 2011).
Another interesting trend in competition and the achieving of a competitive advantage that has been identified in the current era is the seeming eradication of sustainable advantages in many industries, and the need for firms to capitalize on more temporary advantages in a flexible and adaptable manner in order to remain truly effective and profitable (D'aveni et al. 2010). This is not something that appears to be directly related to Nigeria LNG's situation, as the worldwide demand for natural gas products exceeds current global supply -- partially due to supply control by various organizations, several of which count Nigeria as a member -- but there is some evidence that the company subscribes to this theory, at least in part. By maintaining direct control of the supply chain and diversifying transportation methods and product offerings, the company s enabling greater flexibility that can respond to changing demands and changing capabilities quite quickly (NLNG 2011).
This refocusing on the internal aspects of a company as a means of generating increased market share, profitability, and overall competitiveness is largely a response to the increasing pace of technology that has been witnessed in recent decades (Bettis & Hitt 1995). As technology continues to zoom forward, it is likely that Nigeria LNG will have to continue to diversify and expand its efforts in order to keep pace with the industry and to remain a viable and profitable company in its own right. So far, the company's track record definitely seems to suggest that it is up to the task, and it will be interesting to see how it meets future challenges.
In spite of Nigerian society's patriarchal nature, the nation's females are actively involved, and have central roles to play, in cultural developmental activities. The main occupations women are employed in are farming, mat making and small trading, with only some employed at schools and in offices. The chief responsibilities of women lie in the areas of childbearing and raising, societal transformation, production, and community management. Reproducing, bringing children up and assuming domestic responsibilities are regarded as natural tasks for females. Even in instances where the patriarch is negligent, the wife in a Nigerian household will continue bearing child-raising responsibilities as they feel this is both their natural and cultural obligation (Chigbu, 2015).
Nigerian females of the period before colonialism played a role in kin group sustenance. Subsistence level economy was maintained in the nation before the colonialists invaded the region, and females effectively took part in economic activities. Besides assuming…
against Shell in Nigeria regarding human rights. The writer explores the issue and the details why Shell should not be held responsible for the human right violations in that situation. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
SHELL HAD A IGHT TO POTECT ITS INVESTMENT AND EMPLOYEES
It is generally believed that large corporations have a duty to use their power and abilities to promote human rights and not be a part of violating them. In a case that shocked the world last decade, Shell Oil in Nigeria faced a lawsuit alleging that the arms it funded into that country caused the abuse and execution of many innocent victims. It also alleged that the consequential trial and execution of eight human rights activists was caused by the actions of Shell Oil. While Shell admits to funding and importing arms, it maintains it had nothing to do with the…
Lawerence, T. Ann. Shell Oil In Nigeria. Case Research Journal 17 No. 4 (Fall Winter, 1997).
McGregor, Karen (2000). Shell to face U.S. lawsuit for Saro-Wiwa execution., Independent, 09-19-2000, pp 13.
Shell Oil disregards human rights in Nigeria by David A. Love (accessed 11-26-2002)
There is a multitude of stakeholders in the case study of Boko Haram in the counterterrorism in Africa movement. The main stakeholder is the Christian government in Nigeria that is systematically losing territory to this terrorist organization. Another prominent stakeholder is the lawful citizens of that government. These citizens are routinely losing family members to instances of kidnapping at the hands of this organization (Burke, 2016). They are also being injured and murdered by the terrorist efforts of this organization (Urmacher and Sheridan, 2016). Finally, Boko Haram itself is a stakeholder in this case study. Its very livelihood depends on engaging in the very acts of terror that this case study is seeking to counteract and ultimately, undermine.
ROLES IN THE EVALUATION PROCESS
The roles in the evaluation process of the Nigerian government is pivotal to the success of this case study. It must comply with the needs of…
If there are no significant differences in student counselor perceptions of marriage, then student counselors can be trained in pre-marital and marital therapies without reference to the counselor demographic. The goals of the treatment remain the same.
3. How can it be applied to marriage and couple counseling?
As the authors suggest, the findings can be applied to help counselors and especially student counselors because the results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other contexts. The findings show that while age, gender, and marital status might not bias the counselor when treating clients, those factors cannot be ignored. The findins can be applied to a cross-cultural counseling setting. Moreover, the findings suggest that counselors could become more aware of the needs of couples, when couples are experiencing trouble or when individuals come to counselors with complaints that can be traced to the relationship. Moreover individual counseling issues can be located within…
Stephens, O.A. (2012). Student Counsellors' Perceived Causes of Divorce among Couples in Lagos Metropolis. Ife PsychologIA, 20(2), September 2012
Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria
Shi'ism in the World
History, Objectives & General Outlook
Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).
The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…
Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.
Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/
Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html
Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/
Japanese political history from the Meiji Restoration to Following the ousting of the Tokugawa shogun, the emperor embarked on his role as the "enlightened ruler" of Japan. From this point, known as the "Meiji Restoration," Japan began a transformation from an agriculturally based, feudalistic society to a nation that, by the 1912 death of the emperor, had a centralized government, developed infrastructure, well-educated general population, fast growing industrial sector, as well as a very powerful military.
Of course, one of the most striking developments of the period was Japan's "shaking off" of foreign influence in its trade and legal affairs, leading it to a full and independent standing in the world community. Arguably this transformation was only possible due to the nation's ability to transform itself from a fragmented nation, ruled by class distinction and feudalistic division, to a unified state -- represented by one national army and economic authority…
Theen, Rolf. Wilson, Frank. "Comparative Politics: An Introduction to Seven Countries." Fourth edition, Prentice Hall. 2000
Non-Governmental Organization Placement: Examination of the Experience of Students In NGO Placement
The objective of this work is to examine the experience of students on the NGO placement in Nigeria. The NGO at focus is that of St. Joseph Orphanage and Women Development Center. The writer of this work was provided with an excellent opportunity to exam the organization chart and policy of the non-governmental and non-profit organization. In addition, the writer of this work was provided with insight on how the organization raises money to finance and sustain its diverse projects in Nigeria. During the course of job placement of this researcher with this NGO organization, and specifically St. Joseph Women Development and orphanage center it was amazing to realize that Media and Communication organizations play a significant role in the promotion and creation of community awareness and awareness on the national level. Consideration of the barriers…
Anderson, P., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R., & Hubbard, A. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 457-469.
Artz, L. (2001). Critical ethnography for communication studies: Dialogue and social justice. The Southern Communication Journal, 66(3), 239-250.
Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory of higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(4), 297-308.
Backhouse, Judy Pamela (2009) Doctoral Education in South Africa: Models, Pedagogies and Stucent Experiences. February 2009.
Nigeria Election and Media Coverage
The Nigerian elections committee has postponed the national election until March 28, 2015. The election was scheduled to take place on February 14, but growing concerns about violence and security issues have triggered this cautionary response. Yet, there are some who believe that postponement will not substantially result in improved security, and instead will worsen conditions. Nigeria's security chiefs are not confident that they can keep voters in the northeastern region of the country safe from the extremist militant group Boko Haram. Hundreds of schoolgirls were abducted in the northeast Nigeria last spring, and Boko Haram fighters attacked a village in neighboring Chad in February.
President Goodluck Johnathan's decision to postpone the election until security improves does not align with his position for most of 2014 in which he attempted to diminish the militant threat. As Boko Haram's attacks have become more blatantly daring, the…
____. (2015, February 16). The Editorial Board. Nigeria's miserable choices. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/opinion/nigerias-miserable-choices.html?_r=0
____. (2015, February 19). Nigeria Ambassador Adefuye refutes New York Times editorial on election postponement. Sahara Reporters. Retrieved from http://saharareporters.com/2015/02/19/nigeria-ambassador-adefuye-refutes-new-york-times-editorial-election-postponement
____. (2015, February 8). Muhammadu Buhari: Nigeria "reduced to a failed state." Al Jazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/talktojazeera/2015/02/muhammadu-buhari-nigeria-reduced-failed-state-150208121316691.html
11 million. He was asking the court to order the Nigerian government to return the total amount of money that was sent to them during this time. The reason why, is because there was a number of government institutions that were utilized as a part of the fraud. The court sided with Adler, based upon the fact that officials did not act in good faith. However, Adler was forbidden from receiving the money because he has dirty hands from activities such as: paying bribes and large kickbacks. ("Adler vs. Federal Republic of Nigeria," n.d.)
Do you agree with the decision of the court? Why or why not?
I agree with the decision of the court. The reason why, is because anyone who is engaged in illegal activities cannot come back to the courts and demand that they need compensation when they have been wronged. As, they knowingly broke the law…
Adler vs. Federal Republic of Nigeria. (n.d.).
Anyanwu and Obire (2009) note that oil spills like those seen in the Niger Delta leave soil barren for years, devastating not only the resources that were present at the time of the spill, but eliminating any resources that could be reaped from the area in future years (Anyanwu and Obire 211). This notion was mirrored by a 2009 agricultural study conducted in the area of the Niger Delta, which found that the negative impact of the oil spills on agricultural production was found to, reduce crop yield, pollute the rivers for fishing, and reduce land productivity and farm income, along with the standard of living of the Nigerian people (Aviomoh, Okoh and Ojogwu 62).
The future state of the affected area continues to look bleak, especially from the outside world who is largely incapable of understanding Nigerian motivations to continue serving the oil industry in a manner that sacrifices…
Akpomuie, Orhioghene. "Tragedy of Commons: Analysis of Oil Spillage in the Niger Delta." Journal of Sustainable Development, 4.2. (2011): 200-211. Web.
Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Anyanwu, E.C. And Obire, O. "Impact of Various Concentrations of Crude Oil on Soil."
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6.2. (2011) 211-221. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
H3: Credit historical data is prevalent in the available IB systems for SMEs.
Additionally, we find that the primary concern for banks is the trend of SME's short-term lines of credit.
H4: Among the SME credit history, the usage level of their short-term lines of credit represents their main determinant.
The financial structure as well as its effects is never the only determinants of the default probability as measured by rating systems. The profitability performances plays a relevant role in the credit evaluation process of a given (Edmister, 1972, Pagliacci,2006). This statement is then verified by the 5th hypothesis:
H5: An increase in profitability of an SME improves its rating.
The variables that plays a role in the failure prediction
The failure prediction models are based on a standard set of variables/indicators. Extant literature indicates that these variables can be divided into there main categories (Altman,1968; Caouette et al., 1998;…
Altman, E.I. (1968). Financial ratios, discriminant analysis and the prediction of corporate bankruptcy. Journal of Finance 23, 589-609.
Berger, a.N., & Udell, G.F. (1995). Relationship lending and lines of credit in small firm finance. Journal of Business 68, 351-382.
Beaver, W.H. (1967). Financial ratios as predictors of failure. Empirical research in accounting: Selected studies. Supplement to Journal of Accounting Research 4, 71-111.
Berry, a., & Robertson, J. (2006). Overseas bankers in the UK and their use of information for making lending decisions: Changes from 1985. The British Accounting Review 38, 175-191.
Africa in general, and igeria specifically, are both going through turmoil and change on a daily basis. Companies and firms and even government entities are being forced to make changes in the way the govern and are governed. Current literature is ripe with examples such as the review that determined that "though high dispersed, both within and between firms, corporate in the selected countries are relatively not independent" (Kyerboah-Coleman, 2007, p. 350). Failures abound in many industries and corporate governance affects almost every area of business. There have even been "major failures in corporate governance at banks" (ew African, 2010, p. 63). Along with corporate governance, other factors are present such as the lack of technology. Once recent study determined that "except for the introduction of online registration by the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) in igeria, no serious integrative reform has been undertaken" (Bolodeoku, 2007, p. 107). Of course problems…
New African (2010) Banking revolution continues, Issue 494, pp. 62 -- 64
Ntim, C.G.; (2013) Corporate governance, affirmative action and firm value in post-apartheid South Africa: A simultaneous equation approach, African Development Review, Vol. 25, Issue 2, pp. 148-172
Soderbaum, F.; (2004) Modes of regional governance in Africa: Neoliberalism, sovereignty boosting and shadow networks, Global Governance, Vol. 10, Issue 4, pp. 419 -- 436
Candix represents a company that came into existence after extinction for various economical and organizational issues. In order to revive the organization, the transaction system in 2000 was mainly on the provision of procurement services to the oil and gas market and industry in Nigeria. To supplement this development, the company also executes engineering projects to oil and gas industry and the government of Nigeria. The company operates on the organization of six members constituting the board of directors. The business transactions have not been notable for the company hence realization of numerous challenges. The task is to enable the company develop effective and efficient transaction system to meet the needs and satisfaction of clients or consumers in the market. The company operates on three main activities or categories in order to enhance the total revenue hence expansion of production levels. The three activities are procurement of goods…
Teplicka, K, & ulkova, K 2011, 'Kaizen and Its Applying during Cost Decreasing In Process Of
Production Firm Maintenance', Annals of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara
International Journal of Engineering, 9, 3, pp. 315-318, Academic Search Complete,
EBSCOhost, viewed 26 July 2012.
Competitiveness of Sustenance Lithographic Printing Industry with the Digital Printing Industry: A Case Study of the Lithographic Printing Industry in Nigeria
Major Constraints Affecting the Lithographic Printing Industry
The Effect of the Total Quality Management System on Lithographic
Industry and Compliance with a Changing World
Comparison of Lithographic Printing and Digital Printing to Develop
Avenues to Increase the Sale of Lithography
Stakeholder Opinions of the Proficiency of the Lithographic Printing
Although facing obsolescence from innovations in digital printing technologies, the lithographic industry is faced with several constraints to its competitiveness that form the focus of this study. The overarching aim of this study is to investigate and explore the future of the lithographic printing industry and develop ways on how lithographic printing can be sustained in the changing world of emerging technologies in the printing industry today. In support of this main aim, the study's objectives were to: provide…
Avery, C and Zabel, D 1997, The Quality Management Sourcebook: An International Guide to Materials and Resources. London: Routledge.
Beaujon, J 1936, Graphic Arts. Garden City, NJ: Garden City Publishing.
Cohen, P 2007, 'Deming's Fourteen Points,' Deming Articles. [online]. available: http://www.
Wicked Problem: oyal Dutch Shell and Its esponse to the Nigerian Oil Spill
Major oil companies such as oyal Dutch Shell are responsible for hundreds of oil spills every year that cumulatively involve millions of barrels of oil. The harmful effects of such oil spills on the environment is well documented of course, but less well documented are the different types and levels of responses that are used in response to oil spills in developing nations and those used in affluent nations. While oil spills such as British Petroleum's recent rupture of its Macondo well offshore United States are the focus of a massive and expensive coordinated response, far less attention is paid to oil spills that affect emerging nations such as Nigeria. This is not to say, of course, that all major oil companies -- including oyal Dutch Shell -- are completely abrogating their corporate responsibilities for oil spill…
Cocks, T. (2011, December 27). 'Shell says Nigeria oil spill contained.' Thomson Reuters.
[online] available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/27/us-shell-nigeria-spill -
Duncan, H. & Duke, S. (2010, October 13). 'Royal Dutch Shell Wades in with Attack on BP
Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)
Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…
Nigeria's air traffic grows by 31% during 2008; defies global slump (2009) TradeInvest Nigeria Thu, 05 Mar 2009. Online available at: http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/news/957188.htm
Lawal, Lateef (2009)FG Invests Over N7b In Air Navigation, Safety, Search & Rescue - Nigeria Masterweb Daily News. Online available at: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/
More Frequencies to Foreign Airlines Put Nigerian Carriers at Risk (2009) The Guardian -- Travels 17 Jul 2009. Online available at: http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/travels/article01//indexn2_html?pdate=170709&ptitle=More%20frequencies%20to%20foreign%20airlines%20put%20Nigerian%20carriers%20at%20risk
Dunn, Graham (2009) Arik Air: Pressing Ahead with International Plans. 3 June 2009. Airline Business. Online available at: http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/03/06/323508/arik-air-pressing-ahead-with-international-plans.html
Criteria of buyer/investor on project type and location
A huge variety of CDM project locations, types and sizes exists and these are open to potential CDM investors. The national investment climate plus factors at the national level influence decisions on where, what type of projects to undertake as well as whether they ought to be developed as CDM projects. The investor's role in CDM project influences the physical spread of the CDM market. For instance, a technology provider who is offered payment partly via CE revenues may have a broad list of options of potential areas where to locate the project but a smaller choice of project type to engage in. Some funds set aside and intended for CDM funding have been decided upon as intended for specific project types and specific geographical areas. For example, the Spanish Carbon Fund directs its energies towards establishment of CDM projects in North…
Austin, D. And Faeth, P (2000). Financing Sustainable Development with the Clean
Development Mechanism. World Resource Institute, Washington, D.C.
Banuri, T., Gupta, S., (2000). The Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable
Development: An Economic Analysis. Asian Development Bank, Manila.
International Human Resources
Culture, Political, Economic and ocial Contexts of Nigeria Under the ubject of International Human Resource Management.
This paper is solely related to the International human resources practices, the uses of international human resources aspects as well as implementation within Nigeria. The paper has been explored several positive and negative aspects of Nigeria related to IHRM and whether it is feasible for global companies to operate and use the labor of Nigeria for making higher profits over there.
International HRM growth and significance
After attaining global scale, any company may be bound to utilize numerous resources and opportunities like global scale, scope, local differences adaptation and tap into best resources and locations associated with global presence in Nigeria and other countries. These are important opportunities in Nigeria because after exploiting such opportunities, the global image can be transformed into top global image (Hollinshead 2010, pp.233-262).
The opportunities can…
Schuler, R., Dowling, P., & De Cieri, H. 1993, 'An integrative framework of strategic international human resource management', deciding An IHRM Approach 449 International Journal of Human Resourc Management, Vol.1, pp.717 -- 764.
Taylor, S., Beechler, S., & Napier, N. 1996, 'Toward an integrative model of strategic international human resource management', Academy of Management Review,, vol21, pp. 959 -- 985.
Tomkins, R. Battered 1997, PepsiCo licks its wounds. The Financial Times, vol.26.
The organization needs legitimate allies in the process and building such networks are essential to the development of goals. Some of those networks can possibly be better served with a more centralized location in New York City.
Nigeria has an incredibly diverse and rich culture, that is unfortunately fragmented by historical and cultural strife. Making people more aware of the cultural situation within Nigeria, including but not limited to the cultural secondary status of women in culture and education is essential to a broader global understanding of Nigeria's needs and current state. People who have emigrated from Nigeria to places such as New York, where there is an overall greater population of peoples from all over Africa frequently do so because of lack of opportunity and in many cases, lack of opportunity for women and girls. If Nigerian New Yorkers are made more aware of the particular needs of Nigerian…
Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, Sam E.O. "Assessment of the Provision of Educational Services under the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme in Southern Nigeria." Education 127.2 (2006): 176.
MNIA Website at http://www.missnigeriainamerica.org/v2/index.php
The services will take the form of "recreational experiences and hospitality." They will be generally focused on providing customers with the highest standards of accommodation and meal preparation and serving, but will also include other additional services. The services will be structured onto two categories: activities within the hotel and activities outside the hotel. The first category will include dinner parties and movie projections.
The second category of additional services will be structured based on customer needs and preferences. For instance, for those consumers who prefer to relax in the sun, the hotel will prepare beach activities. On the other hand, for the quests who prefer an active vacation, the hotels will prepare trips to natural reservations, parks and hiking in the mountains, accompanied by a local guide. And for the customers who prefer the cultural side of Nigeria, the hotels will organize excursions to cultural destinations.
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Why Nigerian tourism should get on the web, ODILI Net, October 14, 2007, http://odili.net/news/source/2007/oct/14/206.html , last accessed on October 17, 2007
Mahoney, E., Warnell, G., Tourism Marketing, Michigan State University, 1987, http://web1.msue.msu.edu/imp/modtd/33700082.html, last accessed on October 17, 2007
eligious Conflict -- Nigeria has a variety of regionally oriented religions, often based on tribal structure and culture. However, the two largest religions are Islam at 50% to a 48% Christian semi-minority. The northern areas tend to be Muslim, a mix in the Middle political region, and Christian in the oil rich south. eligious conflicts come into play in that most of the Muslims are quite conservative but most of the monetary power lies in the Christian regions. The minority religions are tolerated, but have no real political or social power. It is when the religious conflict aligns with the tribal conflict that more serious issues occur. This is especially true in the Delta region -- already a hot bed of ethnic issues, but when those ethnic issues also include serious religious conflicts, even more conflict appears. We should note, though, that without the ethnic and minority disagreements, it would…
"2008 Human Rights Report: Nigeria." (February 25, 2009). United States Department of State.
Cited in: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/af/119018.htm
Aminu, a. (April 13, 2008). "IMF Forecasts 9% Growth for Nigeria." AllAfrica.Com.
Cited in: http://allafrica.com /stories/200804140655.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
privatization of the telecommunication industry in Nigeria
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN AND SCALE MEASUREMENT
There is much controversy with regard to the contemporary privatized telecommunication companies. In order to gain a more complex understanding of the topic, one would have to interact with people and observe how they feel with regard to the fact that telecommunication companies are being privatized. By addressing senior managers, government officials, consultants, and academia, the research methodology process aims at providing accurate information regarding the way that specific communities feel toward the fact that capitalism is slowly but surely taking over the telecommunication industry in the country.
Measurement is one of the most important steps in this process, taking into account that, in order for it to be reliable and valid, the researcher needs to have a very good understanding of the concepts he or she is measuring.
In order to achieve best results with the questionnaire…
China, India, and Nigeria have all had difficult relations with the est. But the examples of Bank of America and al-Mart show that a nation can put the past behind, if there are sufficient economic incentives to do so, and if the existing organization capitalizes on local strengths, such as a need for jobs, profitable wages for both the local population and the outside organization, and the desire for foreign capital. In the case of India, India has benefited from the influx of foreign money and technical knowledge, while the foreign company benefited from local technological know-how, a common language, and new technology to make outsourcing of it jobs profitable. China created cheaper goods for American consumers and generated a new base of consumers in China. But Halliburton failed to show respect for Nigerian environmental regulations, and paid the price in profits.
Agencies. (23 Nov 2004) "al-Mart concedes…
Agencies. (23 Nov 2004) "Wal-Mart concedes China can make unions. China Daily. Retrieved 19 May 2005. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-11/23/content_394129.htm
Bank of America earmarks $175M for operations in India." (10 May 2005) Sacramento Business Journal. Retrieved 19 May 2005 at http://sacramento.bizjournals.com/sacramento/stories/2005/05/09/daily12.html
Halliburton hit with Nigeria ban."(20 September 2004) BBC World News. Retrieved 19 May 2005 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3674370.stm
Jingjing, Jian. (29 Nov 2004) "Wal-Mart's China inventory to hit U.S.$18b this year." China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-11/29/content_395728.htm
The differences in the level of development in the world regions emanates from the regional disparities in the individual country economies. This result in regional inequality within that country; therefore, regional inequality with respect to a country is the eminent disparity between the living standards that apply in that country. It is a hard task to quantify the level of development, prosperity or poverty in a country or region. However, some indicators show the level of development. Across the world, every nation has a challenge in achieving regional development equality, the difference coming in through the degrees of underdevelopment. The most affected nations by the inequality balance rank are the developing third world nations, Nigeria being among them. Nigeria has a rich endowment of natural resources, minerals and able population. However, the country faces a challenge in establishing itself as an economic superpower in Africa and the world…
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
Nigeria has defined its policy by a 'concentric circle' model. The core is "the economic viability and full mobilization of the resources of the country [of Nigeria], in which the internal security forms the foundation for a realistic diplomacy" (Agreen 2010).When the core is taken care of, then Nigeria can take into consideration the economic viability of its people. "The second circle takes into consideration the strategic interest of the states in the West African sub-region. The third circle involves Nigeria's foreign policy involvement in the African continent" (Agreen 2010). However, one of the problems with such an approach is that it can be difficult to create a coherent national policy when Nigeria's personal interests clash with those of another African state's or when two states have competing interests and Nigeria must 'take sides.'
Q3. A failed state in Africa
The term 'failed state' is not a generic one, but…
Agreen, John. "The problematic of redefining Nigeria's national interest in the context of global diplomacy." Point Blank News. 2010.
[May 12, 2011] http://www.pointblanknews.com/Articles/artopn2675.html
Burns, Alex. "The evolution of strategic culture in counterterrorism studies." 2010. [May 12,
African estaurant evival
New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, ussian bakeries in Brooklyn, and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere throughout the five boroughs. For being a cosmopolitan city with such cosmopolitan tastes, surprisingly little attention is paid to the diversity of African food. The continent of Africa is rich in food tradition and, increasingly, we are seeing these traditions manifest throughout New York. This trend is occurring in many places, in particular Manhattan and Brooklyn. In fact, several openings over the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene, and this development is very much worthy of coverage. This citywide exposure to the African food trend makes it an excellent topic heading into the summer eating season.
Kugel, S. (2007, March 18). Sampling a Continent at Home. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/travel/18weekend.1.html?_r=0
Laing, N. (2013, October). New York's First African Restaurant Week Offers New Flavors and a Dash of Culture. Retrieved from fo2w.org: http://fi2w.org/2013/10/14/new-yorks-first-african-restaurant-week-offers-new-flavors-and-a-dash-of-culture/
Pearlman, E. (2014). Ponty Bistro. Retrieved from blacboardeats.com: http://www.blackboardeats.com/sp/ponty-bistro-gramercy-new-york-3
Spiropoulos, R. (2014, June 28). Dining African: 3 Restaurant Biz Success Stories Savor N.Y. African Restaurant Week. Retrieved from blackenterprise.com: http://www.blackenterprise.com/lifestyle/new-york-african-restaurant-week-wraps-in-style/
NYC African Restaurants
African Restaurants in NYC
The restaurant's soft industrial lighting makes the chrome gleam. A soft and expansive backdrop of blue gives the space a cool and slightly futuristic industrial like a hip loft in the future. Exposed brick walls are tinged in a blue sheen and the distressed wood chairs and tables have been stained steel gray and have marble table tops. In three weeks, Cisse Elhadji, the owner of Ponty Bistro in Midtown, will open his new restaurant La Terengea. Located at 144 West 139th St., the restaurant us nestled in between the Hudson and Harlem rivers a few blocks west of the City College of New York. The location of the restaurant is quite lucrative given its relative proximity to both Central Park as well as Yankee Stadium.
Though Elhadji has succeeded once with an African restaurant, La Teregenga is still a gamble.…
Mitigating Lawless African Acts
Problem Definition and Intervention Description
Boko Haram is a militant Islamist organization that it terrorizing large portions of Nigeria, since at least 2011 (Uhrmacher and Sheridan, 2106). Their methods are fairly typical of terrorists. These include suicide bombings, kidnappings, and attacks on everyday civilians. The crux of their methodology is that they are targeting civilians since they do not have the means to battle the largely Christian government via conventional warfare. Therefore, they have resorted to terrorist attacks to cause residents to flee and to attempt to gain territory in such a manner.
The principle means of intervening in this activity is to aid the Christian government of Nigeria with forces that are opposed to terrorism. This aid will include those marshaled and containing troops from the United States, Western Europe, and the United Nations in general. It is critical to supply the Nigerian government with…
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
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Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27