The problem with using this approach is that anomalies could occur, which will make the figures incorrect. To avoid these kinds of oversights, descriptive statistics is looking at a wide variety of numbers. This allows researchers to corroborate the underlying trends with one another. (Descriptive Statistics 2006)
Inferential data is when you are trying to determine what the respondents of the sample are thinking by looking beyond the data. This is accomplished by using probability to make judgments about what the data means by: looking at the differences between the control group and the independent variable. Two types of tests that are appropriate include: the t test and analysis of variance. (Inferential Statistics 2006)
To achieve the various objectives of the survey, we include a timeline that will serve as guide in determining the length of the project. Below is a time line that will highlight the extent and scope of the research.
Ethics Approval: This will take approximately one week.
Project Group Meetings: The various group meetings will occur over the course of two weeks. The basic idea is to inform everyone about the project and ensure that they agree with how the research will be conducted.
Recruitment / Training of Researchers: The recruitment and training of researchers will take approximately two months. As, we will have to: use various mediums to reach the desired individuals and discuss possible candidates (within academic research departments of the university).
Steam One Data Collection: This part of the study will be based off of researchers contacting all participants that do not have access to a computer. The approximate time frame for completing this phase of the project is 60 days.
Stream Two Data Collection: This stage of the project will involve researchers sending out sample questionnaires to respondents in the form of an email. The time frame for completion is approximately two weeks
Stream Three Follow Up: During this stage you are corroborating the findings with the two different groups that were sampled. This will take about one month for research to finish.
Analysis: Analyzing the various findings will take place over the course of one week.
Meetings: The meetings between group members about: the findings and the underlying trends will occur over one week.
The Completion of the Final Report: This phase will take place in one week.
Main Ethical Considerations
The main ethical considerations are: that all participants will understand that any information they are providing is kept strictly confidential. Their responses will only be made available to researchers for identifying them as a part of the follow up phase of the project. If at any time they feel that they no longer want to participate, they have the option of dropping out of the program. No participants will be asked questions that are considered to be an invasion of their privacy. To ensure that everyone understands these different rights, we will have researchers read the ethics policy to them and sign the agreement prior to participating in the study.
The below table is providing the estimated costs for conducting the research project.
Estimated Costs for Conducting the Research Project
Delivering the Survey
Completing the Final Report
The estimated total costs for completing the project are $47,500. The largest part of these expenses was the researchers' salaries. The reason why they are so high is because, there will be tremendous amounts of time conducting: in person surveys and the analysis of the results. As, a large number of researchers will be required to: ensure that the survey is as accurate as possible (within the prescribed time frame).
Clearly, the research project is going to be able to identify specific factors that will highlight how the HIV / AIDS virus is spreading among African women. This will be accomplished by looking at factors that most researchers are overlooking to include: the impact of the sex industry in spreading the disease, social instability and economic mobility. Once this occurs, it will help to support or refute the hypothesis and theory that were presented.
To achieve these objectives researchers will use mixed methods. This is when you are taking qualitative and quantitative analysis to understand the overall trends. To accomplish this, we will sample African immigrants / migrants and individuals within various governments / nonprofit entities. About six months after the initial findings are completed we conduct a follow up survey on the same issues. The basic idea is to corroborate the previous findings with one another. Once this occurs, we can be able to accurately determine the validity of the theory and hypothesis.
Cross Sectional Study, 2011. Available from: [9 June 2011].
Descriptive Statistics, 2006, Knowledge Base. Available from: [9 June 2011].
HIV / AIDS, 2010, The Kaiser Foundation. Available from: [9 June 2011].
Inferential Statistics, 2006, Knowledge Base. Available from: [9 June 2011].
Internet Usage Statistics for Africa, 2011, Internet World Stats. Available from: [9 June 2011].
Mixed Methods, 2011.
Probability Proportional to Size Sampling, 2011, CDC. Available from: [9 June 2011].
Quantitative and Qualitative, 2011.
Bernard, H, 2000, Social Research Methods, Sage, Thousand Oaks.
Cresswell, J, 1994, Research Design, Sage, Thousand Oaks.
Essex, M, 2002, AIDS in Africa, Kluwer, New York.
Flcik, U, 2009, An Introduction to Qualitative Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks.
Goodwin, L, 1996, Understanding Qualitative and Quantitative Research, Teachers College Press, New York.
Hunter, S, 2003, Black Death, Palgrave, New York.
Meyer, S, 2011, Introduction to Qualitative Methodology, Flinders University.