Anderson M Z Croteau J M Chung Y B & essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

Anderson, M.Z., Croteau, J.M., Chung, Y.B., & DiStefano, T.M. (2001). Developing an assessment of sexual identity management for lesbian and gay workers. Journal of Career Assessment, 9(1), 243 -- 260.

As a sexual orientation is complex and multi-dimensional, some academics and researchers specialized in these studies, claim that this is a social and historical construct. In 1976 the historian Michel Foucault argued that homosexuality is not intended as an identity existed in the eighteenth century, people then spoke of "sodomy," referring to the mere act of sex. Sodomy was a crime that was often ignored but sometimes severely punished. The term homosexual is often used by European and American cultures to envelop the entire social identity of a person, including themselves and their personality.

The above reading implies that sexual orientation is an integral part of one's personality and may vary from person to person. According to the article, sexual orientation of a person is highly influenced by social, cultural, historical and even genetical factors. In the earlier eras, human societies were much more conservative towards the idea of 'abnormal' sexual orientation and the only valid form of sexual orientation was attraction towards opposite sexes. In conservative societies, homosexuality was seen as a punishable crime and in turn it had negative implications on the personality grooming of a person. This was because a person with a sexual orientation towards same sex considered himself misfit for the society.

The author states that the word 'homosexual' was first coined by the western societies and with increased exposure of media and internet, homosexuality began to gain acceptance in liberal western societies. In contrast, the conservative school of thought has still not been able to consider homosexuality as a person's personality trait and social identity.

Britt, T.W., & Dickinson, J.M. (2006). Morale during military operations: A positive psychology approach. In A. Adler, T. Britt, & C. Castro (Eds.), Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat (Vol. 1, pp. 157 -- 184). Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

"Here author tells the social problems of People with a homosexual orientation who can express their sexuality in a variety of ways and may or may not express it in their behavior. Some have sexual relations with people of their own predominant gender identity. Research indicates that many lesbians and gay men want to have, or fail to have, committed and lasting relationships. For example, some surveys indicate that between 40 and 60% of gay men and between 45 and 80% of women are currently engaged in a lesbian relationship. These data also indicate that between 18 and 28% of gay couples and between '8 and 21% of the U.S. lesbian couples have lived together for ten years or more."

I feel from The above reading that same-sex and opposite sex are equivalent in measures of satisfaction and commitment in romantic relationships, and that age and gender of sexual orientation are more reliable in predict satisfaction and commitment in the relationship so that people who are heterosexual or homosexual share expectations and ideals against a romantic relationship.

The article also implies that many people homosexual men and women also simultaneously maintain a relationship with the opposite sex. In my opinion, there can be two possible explanations for this. One possibility is that a person is bisexual and therefore feels equally satisfied with both kinds of sexual orientations and therefore finds it difficult to choose either of the two. This is usually more common in case of lesbians rather than gays. Another possible explanation is that due to social pressures of conservative school of thought, despite of having a sexual orientation towards the same sex, they maintain a relationship with the person of an opposite sex in order to make oneself acceptable in the society at large. This perception is also shared and explained by Lyons, Brennor & Fassinger (2005).

Belkin, A. (2003, Summer). Don't Ask, Don't Tell: Is the gay ban based on military necessity? Parameters, pp. 108 -- 119.

"The writer has spoken of the homosexual orientation is usually intended to be intrinsically associated with the sex of the individual. For example, it was thought that a person with people attracted to the female body would have attributes and/or masculine characteristics, and vice versa. This view was widespread of homosexuality from the mid-nineteenth to the early of the twentieth century."

This perception is in many ways coherent with the observations stated by Britt & Dickinson (2006). According to various researches, psychologists and sociologists believe that a person's sexual orientation has little to do with the physical dynamic of one's body. As a matter of fact, a person's sexual orientation is greatly dependent on the attributes and characteristics of one's personality. For example a person with a masculine body, but with a mind that thinks and works in a feminine manner is more likely to be attracted towards same sex, which is a male.

This is not because a male body desires a male body or a female body desires a female body. In fact, it is about a feminine mind and a feminine personality that feels attracted towards a masculine personality. As asserted by Anderson et al. (2001), sexual orientation relies more on personality and psychology rather than dynamics of the physical body.

Lyons, H.Z., Brenner, B.R., & Fassinger, R.E. (2005). A multicultural test of the theory of work adjustment: Investigating the role of heterosexism and person-environment fit in the job satisfaction of lesbian, gay, and bisexual employees. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(4), 537-548.

"Many gay youngsters hide their true feelings and activities because of fear of disapproval and violence of others, are commonly referred to as repressed. The remarkably open about their orientation is defined as coming out (from "come out"). The attempts of emancipation of homosexuality, just as today they are recognized, began in the sixties of 1800, while in the twentieth century, the mid- fifties there was accelerated by increasing the visibility, acceptance and civil rights for lesbians, gays and bisexuals ."

I feel, the ' homophobia persist, particularly towards young people, resulting in a greater risk of difficulty in social interactions, with serious consequences including suicide. Studies have shown that under various circumstances, homosexuals have been exposed to some sort of violence, bullying or harassment at school and/or workplace by their 'normal' colleagues. This is because most people with a straight sexual orientation consider homosexuality as an abnormality and therefore find it difficult to accept homosexuals as a normal part of their society.

This theory stated in this article reasserts the idea Anderson et al. (2001) and Britt and Dickinson (2006) who stated that many homosexuals also maintain straight relationships simultaneously. As stated earlier, a possible reason behind maintaining bisexual orientations can be gaining acceptance in the society.

Ragins, B.R., Cornwell, J.M.,&Miller, J.S. (2003). Heterosexism in the workplace: Do race and gender matter? Group & Organization Management, 28, 45 -- 74.

"Within present literature, sexual course revelation is considered to promote optimistic personal and job-related results, whereas sexual direction concealment and sexual orientation -- based harassment are thought to be stressors that can have harmful personal and job-related results it has very important significance regarding military."

A progression in the ideas put forward by researchers and theorists discussed earlier, this article reasserts the idea that sexual orientation is directly linked to personality development and not the physical identification. Since the personality attributes of homosexuals are 'abnormal' by standards of the 'normal' society, the psychological upsets that the homosexual goes through due to discrimination faced in the society is implicated on one's work efficiency and productivity.

Social acceptance is a very important part employee motivation according various management theorists. Therefore, anyone who feels unaccepted or discriminated in one's work environment would not be able to utilize his or her full productivity. In case of homosexuals this is further intensified, as not only these people face discrimination but also are harassed in many cases. The same theory is further explained by Smith and Ingram (2004).

Smith, N.G., & Ingram, K.M. (2004). Workplace heterosexism and adjustment among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: The role of unsupportive social interactions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(1), 57-67.

"A number of prior studies have focused on sexual important on workplace. Workplace sexual orientation -- based harassment has been shown to be related to physical and psychological symptomatology in young military peoples. In addition to its link with health indicators, perceived workplace sexual orientation -- based harassment has been linked with lower job satisfaction and greater turnover intentions."

Consistent with the theory put forward by Raggins, Cornwell & Miller (2003), this article again reasserts the idea that the discrimination faced in the workplace results in lower job satisfaction. However, Smith and Ingram (2004) have set their theory in context of military organization.

It must be noted that military oriented occupations are perceived to be taken up by people who are physically and mentally strong and fit. Homosexuals, on grounds of being physically and psychologically 'abnormal' have to face…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Anderson M Z Croteau J M Chung Y B & " (2011, October 04) Retrieved December 5, 2016, from

"Anderson M Z Croteau J M Chung Y B & " 04 October 2011. Web.5 December. 2016. <>

"Anderson M Z Croteau J M Chung Y B & ", 04 October 2011, Accessed.5 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Anderson s Determination to Forge a Company That

    Anderson's determination to forge a company that is profitable and environmentally- sustainable is admirable, and no doubt an example to other companies in his industry. A common sentiment is that it is impossible to be ethical in an environmental manner and still make a profit, particularly in industries that are not image-driven. The Body Shop and Starbucks cater to environmentally-concerned consumer demographics who may buy small luxury products based

  • Investigations Workplace Violence

    Workplace Violence Everyday in the United States millions of Americans leave their homes and enter the places of their employment. Captain Among these millions, most report to work unaware of the prevalence of workplace violence or fully understand the gamut of actions that represent such violence. It is typical of the media to only report high profile cases including a former employee or a worker losing control - the most

  • The Philosophy of Neo Confucianism

    Neo-Confucianism is a philosophy which was born from the need to explain the existence of man and the universe in a manner which was just as complex as the Buddhist one. The philosophers which belong to this school of thought took the core of the Confucian philosophy and enriched it with contributions from other philosophies. It can also be stated that neo-Confucianism is a reaction to various provocations of philosophical

  • M a s h the TV Series M a s h Holds a

    M*a*S*H The TV series M*A*S*H holds a special place in the history of American popular culture. M*A*S*H ran for eleven seasons beginning in the autumn of 1972 with a total of two hundred and fifty-one episodes, and the series finale of M*A*S*H in 1981 remains the most watched series television episode of all time. Yet from the standpoint of critical analysis, there are a number of curious issues about the show

  • M Commerce Is it the Way of the Future

    M-Commerce: The Way of the Future The idea of m-commerce, which is short for 'mobile commerce,' is one whose time has truly come. Because there have been so many recent advances in wireless technology the number of individuals who use mobile devices has increased rapidly. E-commerce is often conducted on these devices and this is also moving at a rapid pace. There are several new types of e-commerce transactions and many

  • Z Score Fill in the

    9. The null hypothesis is not rejected, but continues to be valid. 10. The null hypothesis is not rejected, but continues to be valid. Which child or children, if any, appeared to come from a significantly different population than the one used in the null hypothesis? No children appeared to be from a significantly different population from the child used to derive the null hypothesis. PROBLEM #4 Problem 4: µ = 100; =40 Child Concentration Z P Hypothesis Error Child 1 75 z= p= Decision

  • Z Scores of Three Individuals Person

    This would suggest that Person a was slightly above average, with an IQ 111-119, Person B. was average with an IQ 91-110 upon average, and Person C. below average with an IQ of 89-90 (Jara, 2009). An approximate percentile scores "indicates a student's relative position in a group in terms of the percentage of students scoring lower. It is calculated by taking the number of students scoring lower divided

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved