Anderson, M.Z., Croteau, J.M., Chung, Y.B., & DiStefano, T.M. (2001). Developing an assessment of sexual identity management for lesbian and gay workers. Journal of Career Assessment, 9(1), 243 -- 260.
As a sexual orientation is complex and multi-dimensional, some academics and researchers specialized in these studies, claim that this is a social and historical construct. In 1976 the historian Michel Foucault argued that homosexuality is not intended as an identity existed in the eighteenth century, people then spoke of "sodomy," referring to the mere act of sex. Sodomy was a crime that was often ignored but sometimes severely punished. The term homosexual is often used by European and American cultures to envelop the entire social identity of a person, including themselves and their personality.
The above reading implies that sexual orientation is an integral part of one's personality and may vary from person to person. According to the article, sexual orientation of a person is highly influenced by social, cultural, historical and even genetical factors. In the earlier eras, human societies were much more conservative towards the idea of 'abnormal' sexual orientation and the only valid form of sexual orientation was attraction towards opposite sexes. In conservative societies, homosexuality was seen as a punishable crime and in turn it had negative implications on the personality grooming of a person. This was because a person with a sexual orientation towards same sex considered himself misfit for the society.
The author states that the word 'homosexual' was first coined by the western societies and with increased exposure of media and internet, homosexuality began to gain acceptance in liberal western societies. In contrast, the conservative school of thought has still not been able to consider homosexuality as a person's personality trait and social identity.
Britt, T.W., & Dickinson, J.M. (2006). Morale during military operations: A positive psychology approach. In A. Adler, T. Britt, & C. Castro (Eds.), Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat (Vol. 1, pp. 157 -- 184). Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
"Here author tells the social problems of People with a homosexual orientation who can express their sexuality in a variety of ways and may or may not express it in their behavior. Some have sexual relations with people of their own predominant gender identity. Research indicates that many lesbians and gay men want to have, or fail to have, committed and lasting relationships. For example, some surveys indicate that between 40 and 60% of gay men and between 45 and 80% of women are currently engaged in a lesbian relationship. These data also indicate that between 18 and 28% of gay couples and between '8 and 21% of the U.S. lesbian couples have lived together for ten years or more."
I feel from The above reading that same-sex and opposite sex are equivalent in measures of satisfaction and commitment in romantic relationships, and that age and gender of sexual orientation are more reliable in predict satisfaction and commitment in the relationship so that people who are heterosexual or homosexual share expectations and ideals against a romantic relationship.
The article also implies that many people homosexual men and women also simultaneously maintain a relationship with the opposite sex. In my opinion, there can be two possible explanations for this. One possibility is that a person is bisexual and therefore feels equally satisfied with both kinds of sexual orientations and therefore finds it difficult to choose either of the two. This is usually more common in case of lesbians rather than gays. Another possible explanation is that due to social pressures of conservative school of thought, despite of having a sexual orientation towards the same sex, they maintain a relationship with the person of an opposite sex in order to make oneself acceptable in the society at large. This perception is also shared and explained by Lyons, Brennor & Fassinger (2005).
Belkin, A. (2003, Summer). Don't Ask, Don't Tell: Is the gay ban based on military necessity? Parameters, pp. 108 -- 119.
"The writer has spoken of the homosexual orientation is usually intended to be intrinsically associated with the sex of the individual. For example, it was thought that a person with people attracted to the female body would have attributes and/or masculine characteristics, and vice versa. This view was widespread of homosexuality from the mid-nineteenth to the early of the twentieth century."
This perception is in many ways coherent with the observations stated by Britt & Dickinson (2006). According to various researches, psychologists and sociologists believe that a person's sexual orientation has little to do with the physical dynamic of one's body. As a matter of fact, a person's sexual orientation is greatly dependent on the attributes and characteristics of one's personality. For example a person with a masculine body, but with a mind that thinks and works in a feminine manner is more likely to be attracted towards same sex, which is a male.
This is not because a male body desires a male body or a female body desires a female body. In fact, it is about a feminine mind and a feminine personality that feels attracted towards a masculine personality. As asserted by Anderson et al. (2001), sexual orientation relies more on personality and psychology rather than dynamics of the physical body.
Lyons, H.Z., Brenner, B.R., & Fassinger, R.E. (2005). A multicultural test of the theory of work adjustment: Investigating the role of heterosexism and person-environment fit in the job satisfaction of lesbian, gay, and bisexual employees. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(4), 537-548.
"Many gay youngsters hide their true feelings and activities because of fear of disapproval and violence of others, are commonly referred to as repressed. The remarkably open about their orientation is defined as coming out (from "come out"). The attempts of emancipation of homosexuality, just as today they are recognized, began in the sixties of 1800, while in the twentieth century, the mid- fifties there was accelerated by increasing the visibility, acceptance and civil rights for lesbians, gays and bisexuals ."
I feel, the ' homophobia persist, particularly towards young people, resulting in a greater risk of difficulty in social interactions, with serious consequences including suicide. Studies have shown that under various circumstances, homosexuals have been exposed to some sort of violence, bullying or harassment at school and/or workplace by their 'normal' colleagues. This is because most people with a straight sexual orientation consider homosexuality as an abnormality and therefore find it difficult to accept homosexuals as a normal part of their society.
This theory stated in this article reasserts the idea Anderson et al. (2001) and Britt and Dickinson (2006) who stated that many homosexuals also maintain straight relationships simultaneously. As stated earlier, a possible reason behind maintaining bisexual orientations can be gaining acceptance in the society.
Ragins, B.R., Cornwell, J.M.,&Miller, J.S. (2003). Heterosexism in the workplace: Do race and gender matter? Group & Organization Management, 28, 45 -- 74.
"Within present literature, sexual course revelation is considered to promote optimistic personal and job-related results, whereas sexual direction concealment and sexual orientation -- based harassment are thought to be stressors that can have harmful personal and job-related results it has very important significance regarding military."
A progression in the ideas put forward by researchers and theorists discussed earlier, this article reasserts the idea that sexual orientation is directly linked to personality development and not the physical identification. Since the personality attributes of homosexuals are 'abnormal' by standards of the 'normal' society, the psychological upsets that the homosexual goes through due to discrimination faced in the society is implicated on one's work efficiency and productivity.
Social acceptance is a very important part employee motivation according various management theorists. Therefore, anyone who feels unaccepted or discriminated in one's work environment would not be able to utilize his or her full productivity. In case of homosexuals this is further intensified, as not only these people face discrimination but also are harassed in many cases. The same theory is further explained by Smith and Ingram (2004).
Smith, N.G., & Ingram, K.M. (2004). Workplace heterosexism and adjustment among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: The role of unsupportive social interactions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(1), 57-67.
"A number of prior studies have focused on sexual important on workplace. Workplace sexual orientation -- based harassment has been shown to be related to physical and psychological symptomatology in young military peoples. In addition to its link with health indicators, perceived workplace sexual orientation -- based harassment has been linked with lower job satisfaction and greater turnover intentions."
Consistent with the theory put forward by Raggins, Cornwell & Miller (2003), this article again reasserts the idea that the discrimination faced in the workplace results in lower job satisfaction. However, Smith and Ingram (2004) have set their theory in context of military organization.
It must be noted that military oriented occupations are perceived to be taken up by people who are physically and mentally strong and fit. Homosexuals, on grounds of being physically and psychologically 'abnormal' have to face…