nurture. This issue has been employed in questioning the role of genetics as well as environment in the analysis of behavior. Several researchers especially geneticists have attempted to interpret the behavior of a person on the basis of natural phenomena. The work of Strober et al. (1985,p.239) indicated that since the 19th century to date, researchers who are studying anorexia nervosa have explore several multiple causes of the illness. Through this work, Strober et al. (1985) that their scientific experiment would be crucial in suggesting that the main cause of anorexia nervosa is genetic disposition. Their study involved the directly interviewing of first degree as well as second degree relatives of several probands on various diagnoses of eating disorders as well as other forms of questions that relates to specific behaviors (p.239). The researchers chose to ask all of the relatives on issues pertaining eating habits, excessive rituals, ideal shape of body as well as patterns of weight gain and loss (p.240). The prognosis also involved noting the history of the probands as well as their relatives'.
Through the work of Hamovit Gershon et al. (1983) on anorexia and genetics, Strober et al. were able to compare their findings with the past findings. Strober at al (2000) concluded that a total of thirty five cases of eating disorders were effectively identified through relatives, and twenty one of which were among relatives of the rather anorexic probands. This indicated that anorexia nervosa is somehow familial (Strober et al.,2000).
All in all, the early symptoms of the AN were very consistent with genetic predisposition which was indicated by the study of the disorder through relatives. The female relatives of the individuals suffering from anorexia had a rather higher risk of developing various forms of eating disorder as compared to the males.
The findings of Gershon at al were almost similar with the ones of Strober et al. except in the case of statistical evidence.
On the basis of the experiments as well as results of the work of Gershon et al. (1983), the work of Strober et al. (2000) is noted as not the only commentary in the field of genetics. Because either the work of Strober et al., nor Gershon et al. (1983) provided any form of mechanisms that are responsible for the appropriate concordance that exists between the relatives of those suffering from eating disorders. The results are noted to be rather vague.
The work of Strober et al. (2000) indicated that the various familial variables are important in the development of anorexia. His colleagues however faulted this proposition.
Some of the most probable explanations for the familial anorexia are noted to include the role of the genetically transmitted defects that exists in the neurobiologic processes that control the feeding behavior. These processes are noted to be the ones that are active in the weight and eating regulation processes.
The exposure to the psychologically detrimental conditions and experiences as well as the co-transmission or the presence of certain personality traits is noted to be integral (Strober, 2000,p.245).
The work of Strober et al. (2000) on the illness shaving a genetic cause is considered one of the most recent studies in the scientific field.
The other possible cause that is closely associated with the cases of familial anorexia nervosa is perfectionism, a personality trait. IN the work of Strober et al. (2000), it was revealed that the subjects who were anorexic probands displayed ritual-like and controlling personality traits.
The traits that were exhibited had a very close resemblance with the ones identified by Halmi et al. (2000) in their psychiatry study on "the role of perfectionism as a phenotypic trait in anorexia nervosa" (Halmi et al.,2000,p.1179).
Halmi et al. (2000) discovered that the persons with anorexia nervosa exhibited levels of perfectionist personality traits that have caused the subjects to set rather high standards of individual performance.
The work of Halmi et al. And Strober et al. indicated a comparable level of personality trait for the anorexic probands. Additionally, both Halmi et al. And Strober et al. are involved in the study of anorexia nervosa in regards to genetics. They both used the family-based associations as well as linkage studies in the identification of possible genes of susceptibility that are active in the development of the condition, anorexia nervosa.
In Halmi et al. (2000) there is a proposition of that the trait of perfectionism is one of the many related phenotypic temperamental or the personality trait makers that express an element of genotypic form of vulnerability to the illness (anorexia nervosa).
The tests were given 322 women who had a long history of the illness. According to Halmi et al. (2000), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is a form of questionnaire that pertains to 6 perfectionism aspects which includes personal standards, concern over mistakes, parental criticism, organizations as well as doubts over actions. The Perfectionism subscale of Eating Disorder Inventory-2 uses two questionnaires as well.
Halmi et al. (2000) et al. concluded that individuals with the illness, anorexia nervosa, got higher scores for the two assessments.
The obtained results indicated that people who suffer from anorexia nervosa are more likely to control their lives as well as adhere to strict rituals.
Hewitt at. al (1995) in their study on the perfectionism trait as well as perfectionist self-presentation in the eating disorder characteristics, attitude as well as symptoms mentioned that they believe that the anorexic persons display an element of perfectionism in all aspects of things that they do including their eating behavior.
Perfectionist is noted to never fail in everything that involves them in. They are noted to be in a constant quest to perfect their notion of ideal weight. On the basis of other studies, the work of Halmi et al. (2000) employed the results of other physicians in the comparison as well as analysis of the overall statistics.
Via comparable data as well as a comprehendible analyses as well as the approachable hypothesis the article contained one of the most fathomable explanations of how the concept of perfectionism can be an important causative factor of anorexia.
Via the analysis of the behavior of anorexia nervosa patients in scientific terms, the work of Strober et al. (2000) and Halmi et al. (2000) introduced the notion that genetics indicates a very strong correlation between several relatives as well as formation of anorexia nervosa. However, in the work of Vander Ven (2003) analyzed the illness (Anorexia Nervosa) using a sociological viewpoint. In their work, which was based on the social science discipline they concentrated on the fields of anthropology and sociology in the study of anorexia nervosa. Their objectives was to concentrate on how "mother blame' rhetoric related to anorexia, waxes and wanes and changes in form in synchrony with beliefs about the proper role of women in social life"
Their work examined the a time span that stretched from the 1940s to the present since this period indicated an increase in the number of women who entered academics as well as mental health sciences. The initial periods that were explored by the researchers were between 1940s-1950s. According to Vander Ven (2003), the eating disorder that affects children started during their infancy. Girl children who never received adequate breast-feeding from their respective mothers were noted to develop anorexia and malnutrition. This finding correlated with the work of Strober et al. which proposed that a possible cause of anorexia nervosa is mother blame' rhetoric related to anorexia, waxes and wanes and changes in form in synchrony with beliefs about the proper role of women in social life" (2000,p.245). Strober et al. And Vander Ven's work indicated that several scholars believe that the feeding preference of a mother is important in determining if their child or children would eventually develop anorexia.
On a similar note, the work of Strober et al. (2000) indicated that female relatives had a higher level of susceptibility in the development of anorexia nervosa. This has a high level of association with the work of Vander Ven on their focus just on female's mothers as the causes of anorexia nervosa.
Vander Ven's research shows that in the 1960s and 1970s, mother's displayed symptoms of depression as a result of their career. Consequently, these depressions lead to the mothers neglecting their daughters and thus fueling secondary effects. Vander Ven strongly notes anorexia nervosa as one of these external effects and therefore promotes the idea of neglectful depression as a cause of anorexia nervosa. According to Vander Ven, one of the scholars whose work dominated this time period, the families of the anorexic girls tended to be oriented towards achievement (p.105).
The work of Brusch (1977) relates closely to the work of Halmi et al. who had a strong belief that perfectionism has a form of family-based association as well as linkages. These cause a high level of gene vulnerability for the anorexia in the children (Halmi ate al,2000,p.1800).