Asian Monetary Fund - What Term Paper
- Length: 10 pages
- Subject: History - Asian
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #77266012
Excerpt from Term Paper :
The contributions of U.S. In these cases were only U.S.$5 billion to South Korea, U.S.$3 billion to Indonesia and zero to Thailand. (Examining the case for an Asian Monetary Fund)
Alternatively, the East Asian economies like Japan and Singapore entailed bilateral assistance to the crisis hit regional economies in some other forms. Secondly, the East Asian crisis appeared to have accorded due emphasis on prevalence of 'demand' by dominating regional members for some form of regional cooperative alliance, while the actual prospective 'supply' of such a regional arrangement appears in little doubt. Thirdly, there were prevailing channels and organizations in East Asia and others which promote regional economic cooperation in other arenas with the monetary facility being an inherent amplification of such measures. Fourthly, the necessity for some sort of geographically concentrated arrangement is felt that would enable the regional economies to work collaboratively to have a larger opinion in international monetary affairs as has been effectively attained in the global arena. (Examining the case for an Asian Monetary Fund)
Taking into account the prevailing conditions Rowley pointed out during 1999 that no ASEAN country other than Indonesia has been included in the G-20 finance ministers forum for restructuring the international financial architecture as they were considered 'systematically unimportant countries'. Fifthly, the absence of a strong regional hegemony and a regional monetary institution is felt among the Asian nations particularly in view of U.S. dominance and attainment of successful monetary integration in Europe. Finally, it is felt that the economic policy slippages in any one economy can do echoed rapidly into other economies in the region in terms of contagious currency crises with hazardous influences on the real economies. The establishment of a sort of regional facility to address and deal with these contagious effects effectively is felt extensively on a larger scale.
The prospective role of an AMF is conceived not in terms of crisis management as that of the IMF but envisages a comparative advantage of preventing a crisis. The AMF will come to the rescue of regional currencies that may be vulnerable to the speculative pressures. So as to become an efficient barrier against such attacks the monetary facility must be enormously huge with adequate contributions from member economies. The AMF is required to stipulate necessary conditionality to the member economies with regard to maintaining some pre-determined standards of macro economic and financial stability. The AMF should also make the member economies forced to subject themselves to regional peer influences to bring about the required policy adjustments. As Bagehot opines the lending must be automatic, fulfilling and expensive and comparatively short-term so as to infuse subtle but a critical equilibrium between instituting market confidence at the same time deterring excessive moral hazard from developing on the other. (Examining the case for an Asian Monetary Fund)
How does it affect International Trade?
The constitution of a regional financial agency like Asian Monetary fund has been criticized on the ground that such an organization will undermine the prevailing global institutions and prompt a 'beggar thy neighbor' strategy to international trade and capital movements concerns. However, such criticisms are considered baseless and without proper justification. It is significant to consider that in all the deliberations with regard to the reform of the international financial system it is customary to take the hypothesis that the reform must be initiated at the global level. However, the reform at the regional level is equally compelling and considered easier to attain for a promising group of economies. It definitely entails to be the right of the member nations to take measures to safeguard themselves against financial destabilization without necessitating for global permission to do so. (The Case for an Asian Monetary Fund)
The AMF is considered to extend protection regarded to be superior to one that is presently provided by the IMF. The origin of AMF is thought of as a precaution against the suffering of Asian nations from a kind of retaliatory measure by other nations or regions. However, the creation of the EMU in Europe and the introduction of Euro in 1999 have significantly undermined the possibility of such retaliatory action. Even the U.S. state Department has favored the formation of EMU and the introduction of Euro on consideration of the fact that a progressing Europe which has stability is beneficial for America. Since it is considered non-threatening for Europe to institute a large regional market and regional financial institutions like single currency and a unified central bank it is also imperative for the Asian nations to take resort to the similar course and generate regional financial institutions, with similar advantages for the international community. Another critique to the idea of an AMF is the threat that it may give rise to a road towards regional financial groupings such as one founded on Europe, one on North America, and one on Asia.
However, regional blocs of such type are not regarded as an impediment to the free movement of capital. In addition it seems to enable the flows by eliminating the prevailing hurdles like wild fluctuations in the values of the currency and credit ratings. In the first case a group of nations are in agreement to lower or eliminate trade barriers among themselves without imposing further trade barriers against outsiders. This is the objective for attainment by both the APEC and NAFTA. Moreover, in another case a group of nations lower or eliminate trade barriers among themselves and simultaneously impose trade barriers against the outside world as has been followed by the European Community over the last half a century. The first case encourages free movement of goods internationally while in case of the second it is adverse, as it has been a continual obstacle to global negotiations over free trade as they are advantageous to one group against the rest of the world. (The Case for an Asian Monetary Fund)
Alternatively, the creation of a regional monetary fund encourages financial stability in one region actually without producing any costs on other parts of the world. It exerts influence in three ways. Firstly, it exerts its capability to interfere in markets and rectify the market distortions which are caused by speculative action and volatile flow of capital. This is regarded as its preventive aspect. Secondly, it encourages financial stability by means of its capability to mobilize creditors in a prospective debt default condition and to structure an agreed debt rescheduling- a 'workout' instead of a 'bailout'. Thirdly, the AMF can exert the role of lender of the last resort, when the economy is actually hemorrhaging, providing stand-by credits or actual loans if necessary. This is regarded as its curative role. In such respects an AMF would entail benefits to the Asian countries without adversely affecting the rest of the world. The European nations and North American nations also benefit from the fact that the economic functioning in Asia progresses without any cyclical financial hazards. Moreover, the AMF would strive to maintain calm financial markets in Asia in this manner contributing to calming financial markets in toto. (The Case for an Asian Monetary Fund)
What effect does it have on the U.S. economy?
A negative attitude towards the Asian Monetary Fund is evident from the U.S. And EU. They were antagonistic towards the East Asian Economic Caucus -- EAEC idea presented in 1990 condemning it on the ground that its purpose was to group against the Western World when they introduced the North American Free Trade Agreement -- NAFTA and EU single market in 1990s. The trend continued to denounce the Asian Monetary Fund -- AMF idea in 1997. The inherent threat to U.S. And EU are thought of in terms of the fact of being removed from the efforts of Asian nations to develop regional grouping. The population of the East Asian people numbering to 2 billion is about one third of the global population. However, the combined Gross Domestic Product of these countries accounts for about $6.3 trillion, accounting for the 20% of the total world GDP. This appears to have little impact on the economy of U.S. And EU, however, the huge economic potential of the Asia has enough reason for the U.S. And EU to be afraid of such regional grouping. (Asia's Monetary Regionalism -In the Post Crisis)
The Asian effort of creation of AMF is considered by many to be very positive in the sense that it strives to work to break the U.S. dominated global fascism that is relying upon its owning the world's reserve asset, the dollar, which contrarily exerts its control of world finance by means of the ancillary institutions like IMF and the World Bank. It has been indicative that the globalization is about to come a cropper. The steel tariffs along with U.S. aggression and the competitive currency devaluation with which the Asian nations are always involved are thought to be the considerable indicators that the globalists have surpassed all the limits. On the eve of the…